WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Water resources sustainability [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Written by a team of leading experts, this resource provides the latest information and thinking on the globally-critical subject of water sustainability and management. The author includes methods for analyzing water resource needs, modeling, supply reliability, irrigation, and optimization.

2

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic information resources (EIR) including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and t...

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-01-01

3

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-12-01

4

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

5

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

6

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

7

Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

Whitfield, Sharon

2011-01-01

8

Human saliva proteome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva contains proteins that can be informative for disease detection and surveillance of oral health. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the proteomic content in human whole and ductal saliva is a necessary first step toward the discovery of saliva protein markers for human disease detection. The article will review the recent advances in human saliva proteome analysis, including the efforts of the UCLA saliva proteome consortium funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). We aim to summarize the proteomics technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to discovery of disease biomarkers, in particular for oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives for this emerging field. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomics technologies. PMID:17435138

Hu, Shen; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

2007-03-01

9

ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on a theoretical definition of two concepts, namely global Enterprise Resource Planning solutions and electronic commerce. Enterprise Resource Planning solutions and electronic commerce nowadays represent some of the most important advantages for a company, as they are time-saving and minimize operating costs. When a company introduces new solutions, it is vital that it chooses the right global solution, considering its needs and ensure the solutions provi...

Brac?ko, Lidija

2010-01-01

10

Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

11

Collection Management and Scholarly Electronic Publishing Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

Last updated April 21st, this Webliography by C.J. Armstrong features linked listings of hundreds of resources on scholarly electronic publishing. The bibliography is divided into five separate sections, covering scholarly electronic publishing in general, licenses and copyrights, authority and digital signatures, preservation and legal deposit, and practical e-publishing. The site is maintained by Information Automation Limited, "a specialist consultancy and research company, operating in the areas of information creation, use and management."

12

Herding Cats: Options for Organizing Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines strengths and weaknesses of organizational systems developed to organize and access electronic resources available via the Internet. Highlights include library online catalogs; cataloging rules and MARC records; text encoding initiative (TEI) headers; the Internet union catalog; browsing lists; robot-generated indexes; a core data set of…

Vellucci, Sherry L.

1996-01-01

13

Saliva and dental erosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-10-01

14

Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

2012-10-01

15

Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

16

[Thyrotropin and thyroid hormones in human saliva before and after the taking of food].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva of parotid or submaxillary and sublingual glands and venous blood were collected using the Leshly-Krasnogorski?'s capsules in young men volunteers on an empty stomach immediately and in 30 minutes after meal. Contents of thyrothropin (I), 3-iodinethyronin (II) and thyroxin (III) were analyzed In saliva and serum. Saliva secretion was stimulated by spilled drops of 3% citric acid solution on tongue. It was shown that I, II and III were habitual in saliva and their concentration in saliva were increased after meal. More significant postprandial increasing of hormones were seen in saliva of parotid gland than in mixed saliva of submaxillary and sublingual glands. As can be justified by quick effect of meal secretion of hormones in saliva has reflex nature. The mechanisms of secretion and resources of hormones in saliva are discussed. PMID:9157713

Korot'ko, G F; Kadirov, Sh

1996-01-01

17

Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach  

CERN Document Server

To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

Anderson, Elsa K

2014-01-01

18

Saliva and wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration. PMID:24862594

Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I

2014-01-01

19

Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on “Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake info...

Ghosh, T. B.

2003-01-01

20

Oestrogens in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matched plasma and saliva samples were obtained from a non-pregnant and pregnant group (last trimester) of female caucasians. Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay, 17?-oestradiol was measured, and the gingival index system of Loe (1967) was used to assess the gingival condition of each patient. The results showed that 17?-oestradiol could be measured in saliva but that the levels were extremely low and a very sensitive immunoassay was necessary. In the pregnant group, saliva represented 3 per cent of the plasma level. This was not the case in the non-pregnant group, probably because of the constantly changing free: bound plasma ratio. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that oestrogens are known to bind to the oral epithelium

 
 
 
 
21

Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva...

Smith Barry; David Wong T; Ai Jiye

2010-01-01

22

Saliva and dental erosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the re...

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-01-01

23

What Faculty Think: A Survey on Electronic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In the fall of 2007, ebrary surveyed 906 faculty from around the world, asking them how they used electronic resources. This article, focusing on the responses of faculty to a few survey questions, finds some expected and surprising attitudes that faculty have about electronic resources for their own and students' research. (Contains 2 notes.)

Jackson, Millie

2008-01-01

24

The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

Pomerantz, Sarah B.

2010-01-01

25

Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

2012-01-01

26

Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

27

BBC news style guide [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representing some of BBC's accumulated wisdom surrounding the use of English in written and spoken communications, this guide was written for BBC journalists but is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to write well.

28

Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thyroxine (T4) in saliva has been described. Fifty euthyroid control subjects, 14 euthyroid pregnant women, 23 thyreotoxic and 10 hypothyroid patients were examined. Serum T3, T4, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and TSH were measured simultaneously. The mean level of T4 in saliva in controls was 1.10 +- 0.07 nmol/l. There was a good correlation between the saliva and serum T4 concentrations (r = 0.74) and between saliva T4 values and the T4/TBG ratio (r = 0.83). The saliva T4 levels, like serum free T4, were not dependent on fluctuations of serum TBG concentrations. In euthyroid pregnant women, saliva T4 levels were within the normal range while the serum T4 and TBG were increased. There was a good agreement of saliva T4 values with the functional state of the thyroid. Thus, the RIA of saliva T4 could replace the laborious determination of serum free T4. It can especially be useful in instances with abnormal values of TBG, as it is in pregnancy, in congenital deficiency of serum TBG or in subjects with hereditary elevated TBG levels. (author)

29

Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

Doži? Ivan

2005-01-01

30

Using Zapier with Trello for Electronic Resources Troubleshooting Workflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Troubleshooting access problems is an important part of the electronic resources management workflow. This article discusses an opportunity to streamline and track troubleshooting using two web-based services: Trello and Zapier.

Meghan Finch

2014-10-01

31

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

32

Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

33

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

34

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

35

[Diagnostic value of saliva].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sialometry and sialochemistry can be valuable tests in clinical circumstances. The application in the dental office, however, is limited. There is good sensitivity in differentiation from normal function. The specificity may be regarded as low related to classical nosology, because many diseases have a number of fundamental processes in common. Comparison of values from the right to the left side is reliable. The tests are valuable tools in monitoring in particular during and after irradiation. The laboratory evaluation of the glandular function requires simultaneous blood-chemistry. This noninvasive technique of investigation is indicated in salivary disorders as well as in pathology of the oral mucosa and the periodontium. Both sialometry and sialochemistry are a must in complaints of xerostomia, sialorrhea and the burning mouth syndrome. It is of special interest with respect to circulatory disorders of the glands and the use of medicaments. A special salt retaining disorder of the glands, the non-sal-saliva syndrome is described. PMID:11819986

Michels, L F

1992-03-01

36

Human saliva proteome: an overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2014-06-01

37

Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

38

IBEX Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This material is a comprehensive educational resource for informal educators highlighting the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. New for 2012, this material also includes a comprehensive overview of all of the science results released through mid-2011 and information about the IBEX satellite's orbital change in June 2011. All of this material can be modified to use with informal education audiences, including museum and planetarium visitors, afterâschool clubs, and others. It is available as PDF .zip file and as a PowerPoint .zip file. The PowerPoint .zip file contains the newlyârevised PowerPoint resource and its associated movie clips. The PDF .zip file contains a PDF version of the newly-revised PowerPoint resource, a PDF version of the Notes section for each of the slides, and the movie clips. Because movie clips cannot be embedded into the PDF slides, each movie clip file name contains its associated slide number so users can play the movie clip alongside the slide.

39

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

2010-02-01

40

E-print network [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides access to scholarly and professional works electronically produced and shared by researchers with the intent of communicating research findings to colleagues. Contains e-prints in basic and applied sciences, primarily in physics but also including subject areas such as chemistry, biology and life sciences, materials science, nuclear sciences and engineering, energy research, computer and information technologies, and other disciplines of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy.

 
 
 
 
41

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

42

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

43

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

44

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

45

Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

2004-01-01

46

Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiologic system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly, saliva can reflect the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations and acts as a source for the monitoring of oral and also systemic health. This review presents an update on the status of saliva diagnostics and delves into their applications to the discovery of biomarkers for cancer detection and therapeutic applications. Translating scientific findings of nucleic acids, proteins and metabolites in body fluids to clinical applications is a cumbersome and challenging journey. Our research group is pursuing the biology of salivary analytes and the development of technologies for detection of distinct biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The avenue of saliva diagnostics incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings will enable us to connect salivary molecular analytes to monitor therapies, therapeutic outcomes, and finally disease progression in cancer. PMID:21122035

Spielmann, N; Wong, D T

2011-05-01

47

Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO2 and Cr2O3 forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restofor crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

48

ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

Hoffman, Marci.; Watson, Jill M.

2003-01-01

49

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

50

E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

2009-01-01

51

The proteome of human saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

52

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

53

Measurement and comparison of the residual saliva on various oral mucosal and dentition surfaces in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a paper-strip absorption method, the amounts of residual saliva on 20 soft-tissue sites in different regions of the mouths of 20 individuals were surveyed once in the morning after a 12-h fast and again approx. 1-2 h after lunch. After swallowing, saliva at each site was immediately collected on filter-paper strips in a dipstick fashion for 5 s and the volumes were measured electronically with a Periotron micro-moisture meter. A clear pattern of wetness was evident and was almost identical for fasting and postprandial determinations. The hard palate and labial mucosa were covered with the least residual saliva; the floor of the mouth and back of the tongue were the wettest. In the same 20 participants, the amounts of residual saliva on various dentition sites were next measured and, as expected, much higher residual amounts were found in approximal embrasures and occlusal fossae than on adjacent facial or lingual smooth areas. Molars gave higher values than premolar and incisor embrasures. To relate residual saliva dipstick volumes to saliva thickness values, filter-paper strips were applied flat against the same mucosal or dentition surfaces in 10 of the participants, and the volume of the saliva absorbed was measured electronically as before. As the areas of the strips used were known, saliva thicknesses could be calculated. These ranged from 0.01 mm on the hard palate to 0.07 mm on the posterior of the dorsum of the tongue. For the incisor teeth, the calculated residual saliva thickness determined in the same way was about 0.01-0.02 mm. Blotting values plotted against dipstick values for oral sites where blotting could be readily performed showed a linear relation, which could be used as a standard curve to enable the easily done dipstick measurements in microlitres to be converted to saliva thicknesses in millimeters. As blotting could not be done in embrasures and occlusal fossae, this paper-strip absorption method was unsuitable for similar quantification of residual saliva in these sites but was done in another way described elsewhere. Overall, the results indicated that variations in dental morphology, and in the saliva secreted and available to the different oral regions, are the basic factors responsible for the wide variations in residual amounts of saliva seen on the diverse hard- and soft-tissue surfaces of human mouths. Also, finding that the hard palate and inner lips are covered by very thin films of residual saliva suggested that only a small reduction in their quantity would be needed to trigger the dry mouth sensation in hyposalivators. PMID:9015566

DiSabato-Mordarski, T; Kleinberg, I

1996-07-01

54

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic...

P?nar Al; Umut Al

2003-01-01

55

Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

Lakatos-Varsányi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I

1997-01-01

56

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

57

Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... For the initial phase of the trial, the saliva samples were stored in solution; for the second phase, ... samples were found to test positive for the saliva PCR samples but not for the saliva rapid culture. Follow- ...

58

Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

2012-01-01

59

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

60

Cost-benefit analysis of electronic information resources: an evaluation on Middle East Technical University Library.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years there has been a rapid transition from print to electronic resources. Significant amount of library budgets are allocated for licensing electronic resources. Identifying and analyzing the benefits and costs of this new trend is therefore important for academic libraries. In this presentation experiences of METU (Middle East Technical University) Library on licensing and usage of electronic resources is evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage ...

Bati, Hacer

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

62

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - resources Cleft palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - ...

63

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

64

"Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days  

Science.gov (United States)

Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

Pan, Denise

2009-01-01

65

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

66

Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

2011-01-01

67

Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model  

CERN Document Server

A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

Elguindi, Anne

2012-01-01

68

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

69

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

70

Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1 the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2 the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO. Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb.ucla.edu/SALO/ as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics domain and to saliva-related diagnostics following the principles of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. Conclusions The Saliva Ontology is an ongoing exploratory initiative. The ontology will be used to facilitate salivaomics data retrieval and integration across multiple fields of research together with data analysis and data mining. The ontology will be tested through its ability to serve the annotation ('tagging' of a representative corpus of salivaomics research literature that is to be incorporated into the SKB.

Smith Barry

2010-06-01

71

????????????????????--?????????????? | Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

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?????????????????????88???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????www???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The Project of Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan was subsidized by Ministry of Education and carried out by National Taichung Library. The Project started in January of 1999. Its purposes are to establish an electronic database system through WWW for all the public libraries in Taiwan to provide the public to use, and to form a public library cooperation mechanism to foster resource sharing among the libraries.

This paper introduces the brief history, current status, and achievement o

??? Li-Hsiang Lai

2001-04-01

72

Saliva as an alternative source of high yield canine genomic DNA for genotyping studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic dog presents an attractive model system for the study of the genetic basis of disease. The development of resources such as the canine genome sequence and SNP genotyping platforms has allowed for the implementation of canine genetic studies. Successful implementation of such studies depends not only on the quality of individual DNA samples, but also on the number of samples obtained. The latter can be maximized using a non-invasive DNA collection method that can increase study participation. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained from blood and buccal swabs to those obtained using a non-invasive saliva collection kit (Oragene ®•ANIMAL kit. We also assessed the success rate of PCR amplification and genotyping accuracy of DNA isolated using these collection methods. Findings Comparison of DNA yields from matched saliva, blood and buccal swab samples showed that yields from saliva were significantly higher than those from blood (p = 0.0198 or buccal swabs (p = 0.0008. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that blood and saliva produced higher quality DNA than buccal swabs. In addition, a 1.1-kb PCR fragment was successfully amplified using the paired DNA samples and genotyping by PCR-RFLP yielded identical results. Conclusion We demonstrate that DNA yields from canine saliva are higher than those from blood or buccal swabs. The quality of DNA extracted from saliva is sufficient for successful amplification of a 1.1-kb fragment and for accurate SNP genotyping by PCR-RFLP. We conclude that saliva presents a non-invasive alternative source of high quantities of canine genomic DNA suitable for genotyping studies.

Faulhaber Erica A

2009-10-01

73

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek® was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97% for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

Abraham Jean E

2012-05-01

74

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate in Human Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

The equilibrium constant between iron(III) ion and thiocyanate ion to form a thiocyanatoiron(III) ion can be conveniently measured with visible spectrophotometry because the FeSCN+2 solutions are deep blood-red. Hence this reaction is often used when teaching chemical equilibrium to students of general chemistry. The same reaction can be exploited in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCN- ions in solution. The experiment can be easily made more attractive to students when the thiocyanate ion concentration measured is from human saliva. Here is described how qualitative and quantitative analysis of human saliva thiocyanate ion can be performed as a part of the laboratory exercise for the determination of chemical equilibrium between Fe+3 and SCN- ions. For qualitative analysis a few drops of saliva (each student is using his or her own saliva) is treated with a drop of acidic Fe(NO3)3 solution. The deep blood-red color of FeSCN+2 complex is clearly demonstrated. Then each student measures his or her saliva thiocyanate ion concentration with visible spectrophotometry.

Lahti*, Markku; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari

1999-09-01

75

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

76

Evaluating Electronic Resources: Personal Development Planning Resources at the Open University, a Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the evaluation of Web-based tools to support Personal Development Planning (PDP) in order to illustrate issues associated with the introduction and assessment of the effectiveness of online resources. The aims of the evaluation were based on concerns about the very complex situation that offering online resources including PDP…

Jelfs, Anne; Kelly, Patrick

2007-01-01

77

Improving Electronic Resources Management (ERM): Critical Work Flow and Operations Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organization of electronic resources work flow and operations are critical in the increasingly complex world of library management. The way in which this management process is structured differs according to the type of library and organizational structure within. A common goal, though, is strategically sustaining access and availability to electronic resources over time and the effective management of the library staff that maintains them. In this joint session, librarians from George Mason ...

Appleton, Betsy; Regan, Shannon; England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2012-01-01

78

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu

2008-03-01

79

Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis

80

Effects of radiotherapy on human parotid saliva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in parotide salivary function, as determined by flow rate and protein secretion, were measured in 31 cancer patients given radiotherapy to the head and neck. After the first week of treatment, a 50% decrease in salivary flow rate and a 60% decrease in protein secretion rate were observed. Salivary function remained at or below these levels during the next 3 week of treatment. Proteins in saliva were affected unequally, with the family of glycoproteins exhibiting greater sensitivity than amylase. Chromatography or irradiated (60 Gy) and unirradiated whole parotid saliva suggests that the observed alterations in salivary protein may be due to radiation effects on protein synthesis rather than on the proteins themselves.

Mossman, K.L.; Shatzman, A.R.; Chencharick, J.D.

1981-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

82

The ?-test: rapid cell-free CD4 enumeration using whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need for affordable CD4 enumeration to monitor HIV disease. CD4 enumeration is out of reach in resource-limited regions due to the time and temperature restrictions, technical sophistication, and cost of reagents, in particular monoclonal antibodies to measure CD4 on blood cells, the only currently acceptable method. A commonly used cost-saving and time-saving laboratory strategy is to calculate, rather than measure certain blood values. For example, LDL levels are calculated using the measured levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Thus, identification of cell-free correlates that directly regulate the number of CD4(+) T cells could provide an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts due to the physiological relevance of the correlates. The number of stem cells that enter blood and are destined to become circulating CD4(+) T cells is determined by the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 due to their influence on locomotion. The process of stem cell locomotion into blood is additionally regulated by cell surface human leukocyte elastase (HLE(CS)) and the HLE(CS)-reactive active ?(1)proteinase inhibitor (?(1)PI, ?(1)antitrypsin, SerpinA1). In HIV-1 disease, ?(1)PI is inactivated due to disease processes. In the early asymptomatic categories of HIV-1 disease, active ?(1)PI was found to be below normal in 100% of untreated HIV-1 patients (median=12 ?M, and to achieve normal levels during the symptomatic categories. This pattern has been attributed to immune inactivation, not to insufficient synthesis, proteolytic inactivation, or oxygenation. We observed that in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/?l, CD4 counts were correlated with serum levels of active ?(1)PI (r(2)=0.93, pHIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects resulted in dramatic increases in CD4 counts suggesting ?(1)PI participates in regulating the number of CD4(+) T cells in blood. With stimulation, whole saliva contains sufficient serous exudate (plasma containing proteinaceous material that passes through blood vessel walls into saliva) to allow measurement of active ?(1)PI and the correlation of this measurement is evidence that it is an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts. Briefly, sialogogues such as chewing gum or citric acid stimulate the exudation of serum into whole mouth saliva. After stimulating serum exudation, the activity of serum ?(1)PI in saliva is measured by its capacity to inhibit elastase activity. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is a readily available inexpensive source of elastase. PPE binds to ?(1)PI forming a one-to-one complex that prevents PPE from cleaving its specific substrates, one of which is the colorimetric peptide, succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Ala-p-nitroanilide (SA(3)NA). Incubating saliva with a saturating concentration of PPE for 10 min at room temperature allows the binding of PPE to all the active ?(1)PI in saliva. The resulting inhibition of PPE by active ?(1)PI can be measured by adding the PPE substrate SA(3)NA. (Figure 1). Although CD4 counts are measured in terms of blood volume (CD4 cells/?l), the concentration of ?(1)PI in saliva is related to the concentration of serum in saliva, not to volume of saliva since volume can vary considerably during the day and person to person. However, virtually all the protein in saliva is due to serum content, and the protein content of saliva is measurable. Thus, active ?(1)PI in saliva is calculated as a ratio to saliva protein content and is termed the ?(1)PI Index. Results presented herein demonstrate that the ?(1)PI Index provides an accurate and precise physiologic method for calculating CD4 counts. PMID:22644001

Bristow, Cynthia L; Babayeva, Mariya A; Modarresi, Rozbeh; McArthur, Carole P; Kumar, Santosh; Awasom, Charles; Ayuk, Leo; Njinda, Annette; Achu, Paul; Winston, Ronald

2012-01-01

83

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

84

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

85

The role of the university library for an efficient use of the electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By means of the topic approached in the present paper we would like to highlight the crucial role of the university library for a better access to the electronic resources, from the perspective of the new information and communication technologies. In this context, we shall try to identify the factors leading to the need to use electronic resources, we shall analyze the role played by the university library in increasing the efficiency of the access to this type of resources (implicitly, instructing the users, we shall suggest ways of collaboration between academics and librarians etc. From a managerial perspective, we shall analyze a few important aspects that one needs to consider when making the decision of buying or not an electronic resource: selection, type of acquisition, legality, monitoring the usefulness etc.

Agnes Erich

2013-01-01

86

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

87

Developmental validation of RSID-saliva: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current methods for forensic identification of saliva generally assay for the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase, an enzyme long associated with human saliva. Here, we describe the Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID-Saliva), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antisalivary amylase monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of salivary amylase, rather than the activity of the enzyme. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive for human saliva; RSID-Saliva detects less than 1 microL of saliva. The sensitivity of RSID-Saliva allows investigators to sample a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority for DNA-STR analysis. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva identifies saliva from a variety of materials (e.g., cans, bottles, envelopes, and cigarette-butts) and it does not cross-react with blood, semen, urine, or vaginal fluid. RSID-Saliva is a useful forensic test for determining which evidentiary items contain saliva and thus may yield a DNA profile. PMID:19486436

Old, Jennifer B; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Reich, Karl A

2009-07-01

88

Electronic information resource use: implications for teaching and library staff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within institutions of higher education, teaching staff and library-based information specialists have tended to occupy separate worlds. Although there has been some contact, in the main this has been partial and intermittent. For first-year students, one consequence of this state of affairs has been the absence of a systematic and co-ordinated strategy for enabling them to acquire, practise and develop information-gathering skills. Teaching staff have seen their role in this respect mainly in terms of issuing students with reading lists containing a mix of books and journal articles, and underlying this approach is the expectation that information specialists will be on hand to provide whatever additional help is needed to access these resources, for example through the provision of introductory talks and one-to-one support sessions. Relatively few teaching staff have incorporated library exercises into their teaching and assessment, or adopted a more creative approach to information gathering by students, such as helping them use bibliographic and other aids to prepare personalized reading lists. Consequently, when students have been required to do this at later stages of their studies, especially in the context of preparing a dissertation, they have not been adequately prepared, and often find it extremely difficult to access and evaluate information resources effectively.

Roger Ottewill

1997-12-01

89

We're All in This Together: Library Faculty and Staff and Their Reporting of Electronic Resource Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Libraries continue to shift budgets toward obtaining more electronic resources. Electronic resources can develop problems at any time when a library offers access. Staff collaboration is vital in ensuring availability to those resources. Partnering with areas in the library that work most closely with patrons can help share the load of the…

Foster, Anita; Williams, Sarah C.

2010-01-01

90

MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

Aaron August Lupton

2012-01-01

91

Human saliva proteome analysis and disease biomarker discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is an attractive body fluid for disease diagnosis and prognosis because saliva testing is simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the proteomic content in human whole and ductal saliva will not only contribute to the understanding of oral health and disease pathogenesis, but also form a foundation for the discovery of saliva protein biomarkers for human disease detection. In this article, we have summarized the proteomic technologies for comprehensive identification of proteins in human whole and ductal saliva. We have also discussed potential quantitative proteomic approaches to the discovery of saliva protein biomarkers for human oral and systemic diseases. With the fast development of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies, we are enthusiastic that saliva protein biomarkers will be developed for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases in the future. PMID:17705710

Hu, Shen; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

2007-08-01

92

Strategic pricing, resource allocation and infrastructure in electronic commerce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we identify and obtain structural results for two different problems that are motivated by electronic commerce infrastructure and bundling of information goods. Strategic implications of implementing a priority pricing scheme in an ATM-like network owned by a single firm is the subject of the first study. Network structure consists of a single link modeled as an Mx/D/1 queue with non-preemptive head-of-the-line priority service. The network manager's motive is to maximize th...

Tomak, Kerem

1999-01-01

93

IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, a professional group on nuclear science within the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, formed in 1949. The NPSS is composed of nine technical committees with a common interest in advancing nuclear and plasma sciences and engineering, including instrumentation, detection and measurement, particle accelerators, reactor systems, effects of radiation on materials and components, and applications. Its website provides information on the history of the society, lists its meetings and conferences, links to NPSS and IEEE publications and newsletters.

94

The course Electronic resources in libraries: Paris, 13–30 November 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The course Electronic resources in libraries carried out by the Bibliothque nationale de France and Biblioth?que publique d’information within the scope of the programme Courants du monde in November 2006 is presented in the article. The course programme was composed in such a way as to enable the participants to become familiar with all the aspects of selection, digitization, use and preservation of electronic resources in libraries. It was conducted in the form of lectures, the most interesting of which are presented in the article, and visits connected with the lecture topics. The participants were systematically familiarized with electronic resources and were able to compare the circumstances prevailing at their home institutions among themselves.

Mojca Kotar

2007-01-01

95

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

Aarnio Matti

2006-05-01

96

Proteomics of human teeth and saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teeth have been a focus of interest for many centuries--due to medical problems with them. They are the hardest part of the human body and are composed of three mineralized parts--enamel, dentin and cementum, together with the soft pulp. However, saliva also has a significant impact on tooth quality. Proteomic research of human teeth is now accelerating, and it includes all parts of the tooth. Some methodological problems still need to be overcome in this research field--mainly connected with calcified tissues. This review will provide an overview of the current state of research with focus on the individual parts of the tooth and pellicle layer as well as saliva. These proteomic results can help not only stomatology in terms of early diagnosis, identifying risk factors, and systematic control. PMID:24564654

Jágr, M; Eckhardt, A; Pataridis, S; Broukal, Z; Dušková, J; Mikšík, I

2014-01-01

97

Saliva aldosterone concentration in healthy infants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aldosterone and glucocorticoid (cortisol + cortisone) concentrations were measured in 106 saliva samples from healthy infants. Most aldosterone values fell within the adult range (0-0.15 nmol/l (0-5.4 micrograms/100 ml)), but 10 were greater than 0.2 nmol/l (7.2 micrograms/100 ml). Aldosterone concentration was not related to sex, ethnic origin, time of collection, distress, or cortisol concentration but decreased with age.

Few, J. D.; Mangat, T. K.; Oppe, T. E.; James, V. H.

1986-01-01

98

Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

99

Micromachined sensor for lactate monitoring in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

A miniaturised sensor for continuous lactate measurement in saliva was developed and tested. The sensor was built using silicon microfabrication technologies. The size of the chip is 5.5 mmx6.4 mmx0.7 mm and features a working, a counter and an Iridium reference electrode. The chip has a cavity whose floor is perforated by fine pores. The cavity contains the enzyme lactate oxidase (LOD), which is immobilised in an agarose gel. Prior to the amperometric detection of the reaction product hydrogen peroxide at the working electrode, the analyte lactate has to pass the pores to reach the cavity with the lactate oxidase by diffusion. To test the silicon sensor, capillary blood and saliva samples were obtained during standardised ergometer tests. Salivary lactate concentrations were determined with the sensor and compared to photometrically derived data from a lab-automate. In addition the saliva data were compared to standard capillary blood lactate concentrations measured with a pocket photometer. Lactate concentration versus load graphs were plotted and compared visually showing very similar progressions. The novel approach enables a location independent, permanent real-time measurement of the lactate concentration during exercise. PMID:16289607

Schabmueller, C G J; Loppow, D; Piechotta, G; Schütze, B; Albers, J; Hintsche, R

2006-03-15

100

Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

Rusbridge, Chris

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva. [Tritium tracer techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-..mu..l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone.

Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

1978-09-01

102

Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

2014-01-01

103

A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project" universities…

Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

2011-01-01

104

Selection and Presentation of Commercially Available Electronic Resources: Issues and Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report focuses on practices related to the selection and presentation of commercially available electronic resources. As part of the Digital Library Federation's Collection Practices Initiative, the report also shares the goal of identifying and propagating practices that support the growth of sustainable and scalable collections. It looks in…

Jewell, Timothy D.

105

Specific Features of Development of Electronic Information and Education Resources for the Distant Learning Systems ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is analyzed the features of distance learning and forms of its realization, is devoted to research existing technologies and tools of distance learning, as well as their possible applications in modern education system. Presents the potential for electronic information-educational resources for distance education systems.? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????- ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.

Sergienko Yelena A.

2012-07-01

106

Demographic Variables of University Teachers and Usage of Electronic Information Resources: A Case in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR.The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 75 usable responses were obtained usingstratified random sampling technique. The t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the meannumber of usage of electronic information resources and gender (t = 5.099, p < 0.05 with the highest meanvalue of male university teachers. According to the f-test, there are significant mean differences among agegroup, teaching language and experiences of teachers on the usage of electronic information resources, whereasmean usage of electronic information resources do not differ significantly among five different faculties (F =2.075, p > 0.05. This study would hopefully benefit to the academicians, researchers, policy makers, andpractitioners of Sri Lanka as well as other countries. 

Nadarajah Sivathaasan

2013-09-01

107

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro

2005-03-01

108

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva / Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería ú [...] til para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with [...] oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I., Gutiérrez De Ferro; R.E., Ruiz De Valladares; I.L., Benito De Cárdenas.

109

Characterization of the differentiated antioxidant profile of human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is armed with various defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and enzymatic defense systems. In addition, saliva has the ability to protect the mucosa against mechanical insults and to promote its healing via the activity of epidermal growth factor. However, another defense mechanism, the antioxidant system, exists in saliva and seems to be of paramount importance. The most interesting finding of the present study was the demonstration of the existence of much higher concentrations of the various salivary molecular and enzymatic antioxidant parameters in the parotid saliva compared with the submandibular/sublingual saliva. For example, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and total antioxidant status were higher in resting parotid saliva compared with resting submandibular/sublingual saliva by 2405, 235, 245, and 147%, respectively. Another important finding was the distinction between the salivary antioxidant system and the immunological and enzymatic protective systems, as represented by the salivary concentrations of secretory IgA and lysozyme, respectively. These findings suggest that the profound antioxidant capacity of saliva secreted from parotid glands is related either to the different physiological demands related to eating (parotid predominance), to oral integrity maintenance (submandibular/sublingual predominance), or to the high content of deleterious redox-active transitional metal ions present in parotid saliva. This also may signify that our oral cavity environment is only partially protected against oxidative stress during most of the day and night. PMID:11827752

Nagler, Rafael M; Klein, Ifat; Zarzhevsky, Nataly; Drigues, Noam; Reznick, Abraham Z

2002-02-01

110

Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research.

Renwick, Shamin

2005-01-01

111

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and ...

Pinzon, Lilliam M.; Oguri, Makoto; O’keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

2010-01-01

112

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

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OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four i...

Mônica Pereira Saporeti; Enio Tonani Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco Sales

2012-01-01

113

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años, provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL. Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva.Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is implement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL. In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Luis A Salazar

2008-12-01

114

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva / Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de [...] este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años), provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL). Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is im [...] plement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd) from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile) participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL). In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Luis A, Salazar; Claudio, Vásquez; Alejandro, Almuna; Gonzalo, Oporto; Roberto, Santana; Christian L, Herrera; Antonio, Sanhueza.

115

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva / Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de [...] este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años), provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL). Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is im [...] plement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd) from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile) participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL). In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Luis A, Salazar; Claudio, Vásquez; Alejandro, Almuna; Gonzalo, Oporto; Roberto, Santana; Christian L, Herrera; Antonio, Sanhueza.

2008-12-01

116

Some Cataloging Or Real Cataloging !? Cataloging Remotely Accessed Electronic Resources : A viewpoint for Discussion  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a viewpoint about cataloging Remotely Accessed Electronic Resources , Starting with revealing a professional personal experience , then it deals briefly with the field scene discussing some of its solutions , suggestions , and sub-issues of the main issue . The paper critically treats AACR2 and its adaptation for cataloging those resources , especially 2002 Revision . Ending with presenting a new vision about the adaptations needed to solve the issue , exploring types of adaptations and its areas , it proposes a dichotomy for the code . Finally it presents a preliminary frame to implement such a vision .

Hesham Tolaib

2004-06-01

117

Saliva: a potential media for disease diagnostics and monitoring.  

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Within the past 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic tool has gained considerable attention and become a well-accepted method. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers superiority over serum due to both a noninvasive collection method by specially trained persons and a cost-effective approach for screening of large populations. Collection of saliva offers a reduced risk of infection compared to the collection of serum. Moreover, obtaining saliva samples from infant, disabled or anxious patients, is much easier than obtaining other samples. There is a lot of useful components-changing information in saliva when a person is in sick. Therefore, we define these changing components as "biomarkers". The utilization of biomarkers as early predictors for clinical disease not only contributes to the effective prevention and treatment of diseases, but also enhances the assessment of potential health risks. In this article, we have reviewed the properties of saliva, the salivary analysis method for biomarker discovery, and the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers in monitoring and detecting periodontal disease, Oral and Breast cancers, and Sjögren's syndrome. We also discussed some barriers of applications of saliva as a diagnostic media as well as recent improvements. We also prospected the future processing directions of using biomarkers in disease diagnosis and draw a conclusion that saliva is indeed an effective media in various disease monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:22349278

Liu, Jingyi; Duan, Yixiang

2012-07-01

118

Molecular expression of adiponectin in human saliva.  

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Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-specific secretory protein that is highly and specifically expressed in adipose tissue. Serum APN consists of trimers, hexamers, and larger high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimers, and these HMW multimers appear to be of more bioactive forms. Evidence indicates that APN is produced by salivary gland epithelial cells, might be implicated in the regulation of local immune responses. Salivary APN was investigated in 52 healthy individuals. Western blotting under non-reducing conditions revealed that salivary APN consisted predominantly of a super HMW (SHMW) form of APN. In Western blotting, no significant differences were observed in SHMW APN levels in saliva samples with or without occult blood contamination, but non-SHMW APN levels were elevated in the samples with occult blood contamination. In the saliva samples without occult blood contamination, APN levels were significantly elevated in females than in males, in agreement with the results of previous reports for serum samples. In summary, salivary SHMW APN is suggesting a possible promising oral biomarker. PMID:24500503

Lin, Hsiaoyun; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Shimomura, Iichiro; Ito, Toshinori

2014-03-01

119

Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care. PMID:20737986

Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W

2010-07-01

120

Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection  

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Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Simple direct assays for measuring oestradiol and progesterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and rapid assays for measuring progesterone and oestradiol in saliva are reported. These assays utilize 125I-labelled hormones and appear to be of adequate specificity and reproducibility for use in clinical practice. Assays may be performed directly on samples of saliva. Oestradiol levels were around 3, 13 and 7 pmol/L in the follicular phase, periovulatory period and mid-luteal phase, respectively. Progesterone concentrations were around 110 pmol/L in the periovulatory period and 440 pmol/L in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent numerical correlation between concentrations of steroid in serum and saliva but changes in saliva concentration reflected those seen in plasma or serum. Oestradiol levels in saliva appeared to be related to the dialysable ('free') levels in serum. (author)

122

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Deutschland - Stand und Entwicklung  

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Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) ist seit ein paar Jahren ein neuer Trend im Personalmanagement. Viele Unternehmen sind auf dem Weg, ihre Personalarbeit zu ?elektronisieren?. Dabei geht es allerdings nicht nur um die Veränderung der eingesetzten Medien, es geht vielmehr um die Verbesserung und Beschleunigung der Personalprozesse. Da zum E-HRM (synonym werden häufig die Begriffe ?E-HR? beziehungsweise ?elektronische Personalarbeit? verwendet) bislang keine einheitliche Defi...

Hils, Matthias; Bahner, Jens

2005-01-01

123

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

124

Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

125

Transmisión del hiv por la saliva: ¿mito o realidad? / Hiv transmission through saliva: myth or reality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El impacto causado por el SIDA en los profesionales de salud y la presencia del HIV en diversos fluidos corporales ha estado generando una discusión sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus a través de la saliva. El manejo frecuente del cirujano dentista frente a la secreción salivar exige de e [...] ste profesional el conocimiento necesario respecto a esta posible vía de transmisión. Al revisar la literatura, describiendo los puntos clave en lo tocante al asunto, se concluye que, probablemente, la baja concentración del virus en la saliva y la presencia de componentes salivares anti-HIV serían factores responsables por un reducido riesgo de transmisión oral del HIV. Pero, la existencia de soluciones de continuidad en la mucosa oral crea una vía de contaminación no debiendo, por lo tanto, esta posibilidad ser descuidada. Abstract in english The AIDS impact over healthcare professionals and the presence of HIV in body fluids has generated a concern about the possibility of transmission of the virus through the saliva. Frequent handling of the dental surgeon on salivary secretion demands from this professional the necessary knowledge in [...] relation to this possible way of transmission. This review of the literature describes key points regarding this subject, and some conclusions could be drawn: probably, the low concentration of HIV in saliva and the presence of anti-HIV salivary components would be responsible factors for a reduced risk of oral HIV transmission. However, the existence of a portal of entry on oral mucosa creates a possibility of contamination, which should not be neglected.

Fábio, Barbosa de Souza; Candice, Ramos Marques; Jair, Carneiro Leão.

2006-08-01

126

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127

Radioimmunoassay for 'free' testosterone in human saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, specific and accurate direct radioimmunoassay of testosterone in human saliva, without chromatography, is described. Ether extraction was employed before immunoassay which was performed by using rapid double antibody method. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible; the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variation were 4.8 and 9.7% respectively. The mean recovery of labelled [1,2-3H)-testosterone, obtained from 90 samples, was 85.6 +- 11.3%. Good correlation was found between the results determined on 26 pairs of samples with and without the use of chromatographic partition (r = 0.9559). Results in men and women under normal and pathological conditions are reported. (U.K.)

128

The use of saliva markers in psychobiology: mechanisms and methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the social sciences, the use of saliva parameters has greatly expanded in recent years from the measurement of steroid hormones, like cortisol, and now includes a wide range of biochemical parameters. These salivary constituents can be broadly classified into two groups: (1) constituents that enter saliva from plasma (e.g. hormones, inflammatory markers, drug chemicals) and (2) constituents that are produced locally by the saliva glands (e.g. ?-amylase, secretory IgA). Reliable measurement of blood-borne constituents assumes a constant saliva/plasma ratio (SPR), which implies that the concentration in saliva truthfully follows intra- and interindividual variations in plasma. The first part of this review discusses the main determinants of the SPR: the mechanism by which plasma constituents enter saliva (i.e. passive diffusion, active transport, ultrafiltration, leakage) and associated physiochemical factors. The second part of this review provides an overview of central and peripheral neural mechanisms that regulate saliva gland function and the release of glandular proteins. This section provides a neurobiological underpinning for a section, which addresses methodological implications for the assessment of glandular secretions. Salivary psychophysiology is a fast-growing field and the time seems ripe for more rigorous methodological studies that may help this discipline to reach its full potential. PMID:24862598

Bosch, Jos A

2014-01-01

129

Biochemical markers in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus  

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Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome characterized by disorder in metabolism of carbon hydrates, lipids and proteins. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by measuring the blood glucose level using standardized methods. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose level could be inconvenient for patients because of possible pain during blood sample taking. In the last few years biological materials with non invasive sampling, like saliva, have been analyzed. Research has confirmed that some organic and inorganic components of saliva are modified in diabetic patients (glucose, lipid and protein components, oxidative stress markers, electrolytes. Beside other markers, the analysis of glucose in saliva is an attempt to find a non-invasive and painless way for frequent monitoring of glucose concentration in diabetic patients. Collecting saliva is simple and economical, it neither requires expensive equipment nor specially trained staff. Saliva can be taken many times and in unlimited quantity. In regards to the data about the possibilities for using saliva as biological sample in monitoring diabetes mellitus, which could be alternative to blood serum or plasma, the conclusion is that saliva becomes more important in this context.

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana

2012-01-01

130

Use of isosorbide dinitrate saliva concentrations for biopharmaceutical investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of isosorbide dinitrate in paired samples of plasma and mixed saliva was monitored for up to 24 hr after oral administration of 60 mg of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate to eight healthy volunteers. Measured isosorbide dinitrate plasma concentrations were mainly in the range of 0.1-10 ng/ml. Isosorbide dinitrate was excreted into saliva resulting in a mean (+/- SD) saliva-plasma concentration ratio of 0.68 +/- 0.37. A significant correlation between concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate in saliva and plasma was found (p less than 0.01). The sustained-release properties of the administered formulation were confirmed from the concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate found in both saliva and plasma. Saliva-plasma ratios were independent of the absolute concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate but showed a slight tendency to decrease with time. The principal factor relating saliva and plasma isosorbide dinitrate concentrations appeared to be the degree of plasma protein binding of the drug. PMID:6864494

Laufen, H; Schmid, M; Leitold, M

1983-05-01

131

Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. Materials and methods. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Results. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ?4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. Conclusions. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor. PMID:25115949

Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

2014-11-01

132

Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. Method Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. Conclusions Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells.

Gabrielsson Susanne

2011-01-01

133

Saliva metabolomics opens door to biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints of low molecular weight endogenous metabolites or metabolite profiles in a biological sample. Metabolites that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease and help to understand its occurrence and progression. Analysis of these key biomarkers has become an important role to monitor the state of biological organisms and is a widely used diagnostic tool for disease. Metabolomic analyses are propelling the field of medical diagnostics forward at unprecedented rates because of its ability to reliably identify metabolites that are at the metabolic level in concentration. These advancements have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. Saliva contains a large array of metabolites, many of which can be informative for the detection of diseases. Salivary diagnostics offer an easy, inexpensive, safe, and noninvasive approach for disease detection. Discovery of salivary biomarkers that could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance has addressed its diagnostic value for clinical applications. Availability of emerging metabolomic techniques gives optimism that saliva can eventually be placed as a biomedium for clinical diagnostics. Comprehensive salivary metabolome will be an important resource for researchers who are studying metabolite chemistry, especially in the fields of salivary diagnostics, and will be helpful for analyzing and hence identifying corresponding disease-related salivary biomarkers. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. In particular, proof of principle has been demonstrated for salivary biomarker research. PMID:22971835

Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

2012-11-01

134

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

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Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

Claudio Maranhão Pereira

2004-12-01

135

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

136

[Use of saliva substitutes in patients with xerostomia].  

Science.gov (United States)

For alleviation of the distressing symptoms of xerostomia various saliva substitutes are commercially available. The dental literature provides scanty information concerning the subjective relief of oral dryness obtained from the use of these products. Additionally, the rheological properties of the containing polymers, e.g. the viscosity and the lubrication, seem to influence the clinical acceptance of the artificial salivas. Moreover, a demineralizing effect on the dental hard tissues could be observed for some of these products in vitro. A saliva substitute having a remineralizing effect on dentin and enamel, showing preferable rheological properties as well as a long lasting relieve of oral symptoms of mouth dryness seems to be preferable. PMID:12442709

Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Kielbassa, Andrej M

2002-01-01

137

Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

138

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

139

Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

2012-01-01

140

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

 
 
 
 
141

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

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The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Kinani, Latifa; Najih, Rachida; Chtaini, Abdelilah

2008-01-01

142

Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.)

143

About a synthetic saliva for in vitro studies.  

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Numerous artificial salivas have been used during studies in odontology. These salivas have compositions, which are more or less the same as that of natural saliva. In this article, we are presenting a discussion about the various media described in the related literature. A review of nearly 60 artificial salivas was carried out to clarify the role of some of the compounds most frequently met in the proposed formulae. The study focused on the buffer effect, the role played by CO(2) gas and the presence of calcium ions, hydrogenocarbonates, hydrogenophosphates and thiocyanates. The SAGF medium, which we proposed some years ago, was used as a reference and some in vitro behavioral tests of dental biomaterials were studied in a comparative way. Using the SAGF medium allowed us to specify the mode of fluoride ions release from glass ionomer cements and the corrosion behavior of the dental amalgams. PMID:18968202

Gal, J Y; Fovet, Y; Adib-Yadzi, M

2001-03-16

144

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

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The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Kinani, Latifa; Chtaini, Abdelilah

2007-01-01

145

Saliva metabolomics by NMR for the evaluation of sport performance.  

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The paper reports preliminary results of a study in order to verify that saliva is a bio-fluid sensitive to metabolite variations due to stress and fatigue in soccer athletes, and possibly, to identify potential markers of test of performance. Saliva samples of fourteen professional soccer players were collected before and after the stressful physical activity of the level 1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and, also, physiological parameters were evaluated. The NMR spectra of saliva offer a metabolites profiling which was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis as a blind test. The results of NMR pre and post test shows that it was possible to cluster the best and the worst performing athletes and that the role of the actual player may be diagnosed by a different cluster of metabolites profile. Thus saliva can be considered a biofluid metabolically sensitive to the induced physical stress and, in the future, deeper investigated to monitor the performances in athletes. PMID:24176749

Santone, C; Dinallo, V; Paci, M; D'Ottavio, S; Barbato, G; Bernardini, S

2014-01-01

146

HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days. Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS, right eye (OD, and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198 and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396. The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers?±?the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773?±?2019 and 2294?±?869 for tears (no statistical difference. Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits.

Hill James M

2012-09-01

147

Saliva and plasma concentrations of isoniazid and acetylisoniazid in man.  

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1. The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid and acetylisoniazid in plasma and saliva were compared following administration of oral and intravenous doses (200 mg) to healthy volunteers and patients. 2. In the 22 subjects studied after oral administration and the six subjects studied after intravenous administration there was complete phenotypic agreement for both slow (t1/2 greater than 130 min) and fast (t1/2 less than 130 min) acetylators using either saliva or plasma. 3. Acetylator phenotyping ba...

Hutchings, A. D.; Monie, R. D.; Spragg, B. P.; Routledge, P. A.

1988-01-01

148

Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases  

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The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different dise...

Lee, Yu-hsiang; Wong, David T.

2009-01-01

149

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

Richards Julie

2009-10-01

150

Saliva promotes Candida albicans adherence to human epithelial cells.  

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Adhesion of Candida cells to oral surfaces is an initial event in pathogenesis. Since specific immobilized salivary components mediate the binding of Candida albicans to hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that saliva may also promote adherence to oral epithelia via a similar mechanism. In an in vitro model, C. albicans ATCC 10261 yeast cells adhered in a saturable manner to monolayers of three cultured human epithelial cell lines (A549, HEp-2, and HET-1A). The addition of whole saliva to the assay promoted the binding of C. albicans to all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, but pre-incubation of the epithelial cells with pooled whole saliva had no effect on subsequent adherence. Pre-incubation of the yeast cells with pooled whole saliva, however, significantly enhanced (by up to 120%, P < 0.05) binding to epithelial cell monolayers, and pooled saliva that had been pre-incubated with C. albicans yeast cells was defective in promoting yeast adherence. There was a negative correlation (r = 0.68, P < 0.005) between specific IgA titers against whole cells of C. albicans and adherence-promoting activities for individual saliva samples. The adhesion-inhibitory effect of specific anti-C. albicans IgA was reversed by depletion of IgA from saliva by affinity chromatography. Factors in whole saliva, therefore, bound to the yeast cells, counter the C. albicans-specific salivary IgA inhibitory effect on adhesion and promote the adherence of C. albicans yeast cells to cultured epithelial cells. PMID:11824413

Holmes, A R; Bandara, B M K; Cannon, R D

2002-01-01

151

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

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Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

152

Effect of saliva processing on bacterial DNA extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 700 bacterial species inhabit oral cavity of humans. Various oral diseases are related to changes in the structure of this complex community. Their pathogenesis can, thus, be better understood by study of oral microbial flora. As many bacteria are refractory to cultivation, molecular approaches based on PCR followed by downstream analysis are more suitable for community analysis than culture dependent methods. Effective DNA extraction from the sample matrix is a fundamental part of the pre-analytical phase but it can be influenced by processing of the starting material. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of saliva processing on DNA extraction using several non-commercial isolation procedures. Bacterial chromosomal DNA was extracted from three different sample matrices: fresh saliva, diluted saliva and pelleted saliva using four different extraction methods: phenol chloroform protocol, benzyl-chloride protocol, extraction with Chelex-100 and extraction with Triton X. Extraction from different saliva samples and the use of different extraction methods significantly affected the effectiveness of DNA extraction. The most suitable material for bacterial DNA extraction for molecular analysis is a fresh saliva sample. The most effective methods for isolating salivary DNA are the benzyl-chloride protocol and Chelex-100 extraction. Our results have implications for studies concentrating on salivary microbiome and its role in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. PMID:21213596

Polgárová, Kamila; Behuliak, Michal; Celec, Peter

2010-10-01

153

Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.  

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Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Al Khatib, Philipp; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

2014-01-01

154

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive clinical examination to identify potential female carriers of HED. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

155

Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates  

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Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

1982-01-01

156

Serum markers of chronic dehydration are associated with saliva spinability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings of a relationship between saliva and dehydration have been observed, but the precise nature of these relationships is unclear and no evidence of a direct link has been found. In particular, no study reports a relationship between chronic dehydration and saliva conditions in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to identify whether salivary conditions are sensitive to body hydration markers in an elderly population. A total of 403 subjects aged 76 years participated in the study. Stimulated saliva flow rate and spinability of saliva were measured. In addition, determinations of serum levels of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium and potassium were made. Dehydration was defined as uric acid >/= 7 mg dL(-1) according to the standard value. The salivary spinability were significantly associated with the concentration of uric acid (OR=2.06, P=0.044) according to multiple logistic regression analysis. In addition, after adjusting for gender, the uric acid concentration and the salivary spinability was significantly associated with BUN, potassium and creatinine levels. The subjects with high uric acid levels (>/= 7 mg dL(-1)) had the most elastic saliva. Both BUN and serum creatinine are the most commonly used indicators of renal function. Therefore, our findings might demonstrate that older adults who are dehydrated showed highly elastic saliva, which was associated with renal function. In conclusion, this study suggests that there is a significant relationship between chronic dehydration status and salivary spinability level. PMID:17824885

Yoshihara, A; Hirotomi, T; Takano, N; Kondo, T; Hanada, N; Miyazaki, H

2007-10-01

157

Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

158

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

2012-12-01

159

Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva as a vehicle for horizontal transmission of HBV among children.

Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette

2010-01-01

160

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

Wajeeh M. Daher

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

On the new secretor status recognized by saliva specific ABH antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present authors have reported that each of ABH antigens of saliva consisted of saliva specific antigen and common antigen between saliva and red cells. Using saliva specific anti-A and B, 77 samples of A,B and AB groups could be determined as strong secretor (Se) or weak secretor (se). Frequency of Se was 62% for A group saliva, 45% for B, and 76% for A antigen and 75% for B antigen of AB group saliva, respectively. The secretor status of twenty-four O salivas could not be determined by saliva specific anti-H. Compared with the ordinary secretor system, some subjects belonging to Se in the ordinary system were typed as se in the new system, whereas all se saliva (three cases) in the ordinary system were typed as se in the new system. PMID:6484974

Sagisaka, K; Iwasa, M; Yokoi, T

1984-07-01

162

Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L; Cargile, Benjamin J; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Lee, Cheng S; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L; Sevinsky, Joel R; States, David; Stephenson, James L; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

2009-01-01

163

Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

2009-05-01

164

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

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Full Text Available

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

???89-93

Nerisa Kamar

2008-04-01

165

Proteomics and its applications for biomarker discovery in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is a biological fluid with enormous diagnostic potential. Because saliva can be non-invasively collected, it provides an attractive alternative for blood, serum or plasma. It has been postulated that the blood concentrations of many components are reflected in saliva. Saliva harbors a wide array of proteins, which can be informative for the detection of diseases. Profiling the proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers indicative of different stages of diseases, which may be useful in medical diagnostics. With advanced instrumentation and developed refined analytical techniques, proteomics is widely envisioned as a useful and powerful approach for salivary proteomic biomarker discovery. As proteomic technologies continue to mature, salivary proteomics have great potential for biomarker research and clinical applications. The progress and current status of salivary proteomics and its application in the biomarker discovery of oral and systematic diseases will be reviewed. The scientific and clinical challenges underlying this approach will also be discussed. PMID:21364838

Xiao, Hua; Wong, David T

2010-01-01

166

Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. PMID:19824562

Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

2009-08-01

167

Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

1996-01-01

168

The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

Abbott, Michael B.

169

The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

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Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers’ satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

Ojokuku, R. M.

2012-08-01

170

Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

171

Determination of adenine nucleotides and their metabolites in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The profile and normal concentrations of nucleotide metabolites in human saliva and reproducibility of these determinations were analyzed. Samples of human saliva collected from healthy individuals at weekly intervals, were deproteinized and analysed for the content of adenine nucleotides and their metabolites by reversed-phase HPLC. Initial ATP, hypoxanthine and uric acid concentrations were 0.52 +/- 0.15 microM, 1.91 +/- 0.37 microM and 184 +/- 22 microM respectively. A substantial individual variation persisted within 3 weeks of sampling excepted hypoxanthine which showed some unrelated variations. Determination of nucleotides and their catabolites in saliva due to its simplicity and reproducibility, may be of clinical value in diagnosis of local or systemic disorders. PMID:11310987

Kocha?ska, B; Smole?ski, R T; Knap, N

2000-01-01

172

Detection of human papillomavirus in the saliva of women with concurrent human papillomavirus related genital lesions.  

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The high risk HPV 16 is the most common simultaneous HPV subtype in the saliva and cervix of the cases. Identifying the HPV subtypes in saliva may facilitate recognizing persistent genital infections.

Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

2011-02-01

173

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is...

DANIEL MARECI; CATALIN BOCANU; GHEORHE NEMTOI; DELIA AELENEI

2005-01-01

174

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers.

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

175

Estimation of stress in horses through the saliva cortisol concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lungeing on the concentration of saliva stress hormone cortisol in the Icelandic horses. The experiment was carried out in March and April 2011 on a family farm Hetja located in Spodnji Gasteraj. The study comprised four horses of the Icelandic breed (2 mares, 2 castrates). Lungeing which consisted of stroke, trot and canter and lasted for 30 minutes. Saliva samples of each horse were taken 3 to 4 times during the experiment in the s...

Takac?, Anita

2013-01-01

176

An improved measurement of progesterone in saliva and clinical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement of progesterone in saliva offers several advantages when compared to assays of serum progesterone, especially when ovarian activity is being assessed. Most published methods for the determination of progesterone in saliva are based on assays developed in research centers, which employ "in-house" reagents that are critically dependent on supplies of highly selected antisera. In this report, the adaptation of a readily available commercial progesterone "kit", the Pantex Immunodirect Progesterone (125I) is described for the measurement of salivary progesterone. A single extraction step was added, however, to improve assay performance and to ensure that total salivary progesterone was measured. PMID:3087267

Weidenheim, K M; Anderson, C J; Sgoutas, D S; Mitchell, D E

1986-01-01

177

Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

2003-01-01

178

Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level  

Science.gov (United States)

The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

2014-08-01

179

True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library  

Science.gov (United States)

A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

2011-01-01

180

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110 from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110, and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

SJ Aledavood

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de saúde  

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Full Text Available Introdução: O estado de portador de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é apontado como preditor de infecçãoe fator para a disseminação ambiental e de pessoa a pessoa, incluindo trabalhadores de serviço de saúde. Estes quandocolonizados são freqüentemente associados a surtos.Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de hospital universitário.Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico longitudinal realizado em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, com 486 trabalhadores noperíodo de abril de 2006 a junho de 2008 compreendeu a coleta de três amostras de saliva e aplicação de instrumento de coletade dados. Staphylococcus aureus foram isolados dos espécimes clínicos e caracterizados fenotipicamente. Os dados foramorganizados e processados no Programa EPI-Info e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva.Resultados: Entre os trabalhadores investigados, 60,9% estavam colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na saliva,sendo 67.9% carreadores transitórios e 32.1% carreadores persistentes; a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistenteà meticilina (MRSA entre os isolados foi de 15.7%. A prevalência média de MRSA foi de 12.7% sendo maior entre técnicosem enfermagem (21.4% e auxiliares de limpeza (20.6% e menor entre enfermeiros (4.5% e médicos (5.9%.Conclusões: Os trabalhadores apresentaram alta prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, indicando a boca comoimportante sítio corporal para a investigação da colonização por MRSA e potencial fonte para sua disseminação.

Elucir Gir

2011-07-01

182

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (Pzoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

183

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Latifa KINANI

2007-08-01

184

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Latifa KINANI

2008-06-01

185

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

186

Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

2012-01-01

187

Total reactive antioxidant potential in human saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uric acid is the most important non-enzymatic antioxidant present in human saliva. There is a great variability among individuals, both in salivary uric acid content and saliva total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP). The uric acid present in saliva correlates with plasma uric acid, suggesting that the former is imported from plasma. There are not statistical differences between uric acid or TRAP values in saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Also, smoking a cigarette does not modify the levels of antioxidants present in saliva. PMID:10410236

Kondakova, I; Lissi, E A; Pizarro, M

1999-06-01

188

Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

2014-01-01

189

INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.  

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Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

Maya Rashkova

2012-03-01

190

Condiciones optimas de manipulación para la cuantificación de fibronectina en saliva / Optimal assay conditions for quantifying fibronectin in saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La fibronectina (Fn) es una glucoproteína presente en múltiples fluidos y tejidos orgánicos, tanto en condiciones fisiológicas como patológicas. También en la saliva puede detectarse aunque en muy pequeñas cantidades y frecuentemente en cadenas fragmentadas, induce agregación bacterian [...] a y sus niveles se reducen cuando aumentan los niveles de bacterias cariogénicas o periodontopatógenas. La capacidad infectiva de la saliva de los pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodificiencia humana (VIH) se ha relacionado con los niveles de esta proteína. En algunas enfermedades crónicas de la mucosa oral como es el liquen plano, la concentración de Fn salivar se encuentra reducida. También su cuantificación varía en presencia de algunos tumores como el carcinoma oral de células escamosas, aunque no puede considerarse un factor específico. Objetivo: Debido a la baja concentración de Fn en la saliva y a su labilidad en la forma soluble, las condiciones de recogida y conservación de las muestras son extremadamente importantes, por ello nos proponemos en el presente trabajo estandarizar dichas condiciones con el fin de poder cuantificarla de manera óptima. Material y método: Se determinó la concentración de Fn en saliva humana de 20 personas sanas de edades comprendidas entre 28 y 54 años mediante técnica de ELISA, comparando la concentración de la proteína en muestras frescas, conservadas 24 h a 4ºC, o congeladas a - 40ºC durante diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados y conclusiones: Tras comparar diferentes formas de conservación de las muestras de saliva, observamos que las condiciones óptimas son: recoger las muestras en tubos de vidrio, cuantificarlas inmediatamente tras su recogida o como máximo 24 horas después, conservándolas a 4ºC. La congelación y posterior descongelación para su cuantificación induce pérdidas de hasta el 60 % de la proteína. Abstract in english Introduction: Fibronectin (Fn) is a glycoprotein that is present in many body fluids and tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. It can also be detected in the saliva, although only in very small quantities and frequently in broken chains. It induces bacterial aggregation and its [...] levels fall when those of cariogenic or periodontal pathogenic bacteria rise. The infective capacity of the saliva of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been linked to the levels of this protein. In some chronic conditions of the oral mucosa, such as oral lichen planus, the concentration of salivary fibro-nectin is lower than usual. Fibronectin quantity also varies in the presence of some tumours, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, although it cannot be considered a specific factor. Aims: Due to the low Fn concentration in saliva and its lability in the soluble form, sample collection and conservation conditions are extremely important. The aim of this study is therefore to standardise these conditions so that the Fn can be quantified in an optimum manner. Materials and methods: The Fn concentration in human saliva was determined in 20 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 54 by means of the ELISA technique and the concentration of the protein in fresh samples kept at 4ºC for 24 hours was compared with that of frozen samples kept at -40ºC for different periods of time. Results and Conclusions: After comparing different ways of conserving the saliva samples, we found that the optimum conditions were to collect the samples in glass tubes and to quantify them immediately after collection or conserve them at 4ºC and quantify them within a maximum of 24 hours. Freezing and later thawing for quantification induced losses of up to 60% of the protein.

Mª Carmen, Llena Puy; Consuelo, Montañana Llorens; Leopoldo, Forner Navarro.

2004-07-01

191

Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

2014-01-01

192

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

193

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

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This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

194

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

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In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

195

Solubility of Three Luting Cements in Dynamic Artificial Saliva  

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Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the solubility of three luting cements in artificial saliva.Materials and Methods: Twenty disks (10×4 mm of polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements were prepared according to manufactures’ instructions. After setting, they were desiccated and each ten specimens were immersed in artificial saliva with special pH (3 or 5, circulated with magnetic field for 10 days. Then disks were again desiccated and weighed. Solubility values were deduced from these different measures.Results: For the two pH, solubility were significantly lower in glass ionomer luting ce-ment, and polycarboxylate showed the most weight loss of all the materials tested (P<0.05. The solubility values were more in acidic environment (P<0.05.Conclusion: The pH of the environment strongly affected the solubility of the materials. Cement type also has significant effects on solubility values.

S. Nikzad

2008-09-01

196

Excretion of Levofloxacin into Saliva in Renal Failure Rat Model  

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Full Text Available To clarify effects of renal failure on salivary distribution of Levofloxacin (LOFLX, a quinolone antibiotics, blood and saliva were collected from the double-step 5/6th-nephrectomized and sham-operated (control rats after bolus i.v., administration of Levofloxacin (10 mg kg-1. The concentrations of Levofloxacin in these samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Renal failure induced by the partial nephrectomy significantly elevated plasma levels and cumulative salivary excretion of Levofloxacin when compared to control rats. Total body clearance was significantly decreased by the renal failure, although salivary clearance of the partially nephrectomized rats was larger than that of the control. The saliva/plasma concentration ratios in the rats with renal failure were significantly greater than those in the control rats. The results of this study suggest that the salivary excretion of Levofloxacin is significantly increased by renal failure.

A. Choudhury

2010-01-01

197

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

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In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

198

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

199

[Postprandial transformations of enzymatic and hormonal properties of saliva and blood].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 14 volunteers, saliva from both parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands were collected by capsules under stimulation of sialosis with citric acid or alimentary trial breakfast. It was taken immediately and on the 1st and 3rd hours of postprandial response. In saliva and the blood serum, alpha-amylases, trypsin, common protein, thyrotropin, thyroxine, triiodthyronin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, progesterone, oestradiol and hydrocortisone were assessed by means of immuno-assay technique. All but oestradiol hormones had a lower concentration in the saliva than in the blood serum. The concentration and deficits of hormones and trypsin in saliva of submandibular and sublingual glands is higher, than in saliva of parotid glands, the latter having a higher alpha-amylolytic activity. The share of p-amylase in comparison with s-amylase in saliva of parotid glands is lesser than in saliva of submandibular and sublingual glands. In alimentary stimulation of sialosis, the saliva with higher amylolytic and tryptic activity, higher concentration of thyrotropin and thyroxine was found than under a non-alimentary stimulation. After the 1st and the 3rd hours following a trial breakfast, in response to a non-alimentary stimulation of sialosis the saliva was found to preserve properties of a postprandial saliva. PMID:12013735

Korot'ko, G F; Gotovtseva, L P; Bulgakova, V A

2002-03-01

200

PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based  

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Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

M.G. Nada

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes  

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The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential t...

Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel

2009-01-01

202

Excretion of Levofloxacin into Saliva in Renal Failure Rat Model  

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To clarify effects of renal failure on salivary distribution of Levofloxacin (LOFLX), a quinolone antibiotics, blood and saliva were collected from the double-step 5/6th-nephrectomized and sham-operated (control) rats after bolus i.v., administration of Levofloxacin (10 mg kg-1). The concentrations of Levofloxacin in these samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Renal failure induced by the partial nephrectomy significantly elevated plasma levels and cumu...

Choudhury, A.; Chitra, V.; Tripathi, A. S.; Sheikh, N. W.; Dewani, S. P.

2010-01-01

203

Effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate on saliva cortisol concentrations.  

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Serial saliva cortisol measurements were used to assess pituitary-adrenal function in a group of asthmatic children treated with beclomethasone dipropionate (400 micrograms daily). Asthmatic children who were not being treated with steroids and normal children were also studied for comparison. A diurnal cortisol rhythm was observed in all three groups. Early morning cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the group treated with beclomethasone dipropionate than in the normal child...

Williams, H.; Read, G. F.; Verrier-jones, E. R.; Hughes, I. A.

1984-01-01

204

Molecular sabotage of plant defense by aphid saliva  

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Aphids, which constitute one of the most important groups of agricultural pests, ingest nutrients from sieve tubes, the photoassimilate transport conduits in plants. Aphids are able to successfully puncture sieve tubes with their piercing mouthparts (stylets) and ingest phloem sap without eliciting the sieve tubes' normal occlusion response to injury. Occlusion mechanisms are calcium-triggered and may be prevented by chemical constituents in aphid saliva injected into sieve tubes before and d...

Will, T.; Tjallingii, W. F.; Tho?nnessen, A.; Bel, A. J. E.

2007-01-01

205

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

Science.gov (United States)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

2014-01-01

206

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Luciana Borges Retamoso

2009-06-01

207

Diagnóstico da raiva canina: I. comparação entre amostras de saliva e de encéfalo Diagnosis of canine rabies: I. comparison of saliva and encephalon samples  

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Full Text Available Foram examinadas mediante as técnicas de inoculação em camundongos e de imunofluorescência, 30 amostras de saliva e 30 amostras de encéfalo, colhidas de 30 cães raivosos. Todas as amostras, tanto de saliva como de encéfalo, apresentaram resultados positivos frente às duas técnicas usadas, demonstrando uma perfeita correlação entre os métodos e os espécimens utilizados. Foi ressaltada a importância da saliva para o estabelecimento de um diagnóstico mais precoce da raiva.Thirty saliva samples and 30 encephalon samples, collected from an equal number of rabid dogs, were examined by both the mouse inoculation and immunoflluorescent techniques. The results for each sample were positive with both techniques, showing perfect correlation in the methods and specimens used. The importance of saliva for early diagnosis was stressed.

Valdson de Angelis Côrtes

1979-12-01

208

Identification of transgenic mice by PCR analysis of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an alternative to surgically obtaining samples (e.g., tail or tissue biopsy, toe dock, or blood sampling) from weanling mice to screen for transgene integration or other genetic monitoring procedures, we offer a simpler, nonsurgical method. A small amount of saliva, obtained from weanling mice by oral wash using a plastic pipet tip, contains enough oral epithelial cells and lymphocytes to yield sufficient DNA for nested primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The procedure can be repeated many times with minimal stress to the animal, in contrast to tissue biopsy procedures such as tail cutting. Sample analysis is rapid and straightforward; saliva is applied to sample collection paper and then purified using a solid phase DNA purification system. The paper, containing purified DNA, is added directly to PCR cocktail for the first round of amplification. For weanling mice, in the second round of amplification, a small amount of product from the first round is removed and added to PCR cocktail containing the second set of primers. With adult mice, an adequate volume of saliva may be obtained (dependent upon the sensitivity of the particular reaction) to eliminate the need for second-round amplification with nested primers. This technique is reliable, does not require organic solvents, and is more humane than protocols currently in use. Furthermore, this technique could replace hundreds of thousands of surgical biopsies on rodents annually, which are performed for both transgene determination and genetic monitoring procedures. PMID:9631068

Irwin, M H; Moffatt, R J; Pinkert, C A

1996-09-01

209

Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. PMID:24443935

Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

2014-03-01

210

[Effects of saliva substitutes and mouthwash solutions on dentin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva substitutes are used by patients suffering from hyposalivation to alleviate the symptoms of severe xerostomia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various saliva substitutes (Artisial; Glandosane; Oralube; Saliva medac; Oralbalance) on the lesion depth and the mineral content in sound bovine dentin in vitro. 96 dentine specimens were prepared from 24 freshly extracted bovine incisors and exposed for seven days to the various solutions. A carbonate-reduced mineral water (Hirschquelle) as well as the mouthwash solutions Meridol and biotène served as controls. After storage in the solutions, the specimens were cut perpendicularly to their surfaces, polished up to 4000 grit and mounted on plexiglass microscope slides. The slabs were ground to a uniform thickness of 110 mu m. Lesion depths and mineral content were evaluated from microradiographs of the prepared specimens by a dedicated software (TMR 1.24) After storage in Glandosane and biotène results indicated a significant mineral loss and increase in lesion depth (p<0.01; Kruskal-Wallis). All other solutions used did not have any effect on the integrity of the dentin samples. Thus, the use of both Glandosane as well as biotène cannot be recommended in dentate patients with severe xerostomia. PMID:11713736

Kielbassa, A M; Meyer-Lueckel, H

2001-01-01

211

Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

2003-01-01

212

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on cytokine production and surface molecule expression of LPS-stimulated human monocytes uninfected or infected with L. braziliensis. Results Pre-treatment of non-infected human monocytes with L. intermedia SGS followed by LPS-stimulation led to a significant decrease in IL-10 production accompanied by a significant increase in CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR expression. Pre-treatment with SGS followed by LPS stimulation and L. braziliensis infection led to a significant increase in TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-8 production without significant alterations in co-stimulatory molecule expression. However, pre-treatment with L. intermedia SGS did not result in significant changes in the infection rate of human monocytes. Conclusion Our data indicate that L. intermedia saliva is able to modulate monocyte response, and, although this modulation is dissociated from enhanced infection with L. braziliensis, it may be associated with successful parasitism.

Barral Aldina

2008-04-01

213

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Antonio Valadão, Cardoso; Marcos Horácio, Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de, Araújo.

2007-03-01

214

Saliva diagnostics: utilizing oral fluids to determine health status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imagine a time where your health status could be available to you without the pain, discomfort and inconvenience of a physical examination. Distant vision of an inconceivable future or impending reality with potentially immeasurable impact? Recent advancements in the field of molecular diagnostics indicate this is not only possible, but closer than we think. Novel discoveries and substantial advancements have revealed that saliva may contain real-time information describing our overall physiological condition. Researchers are now reporting that, like blood and tissue biopsies, oral fluids could be a source of biochemical data capable of detecting certain diseases. What is even more intriguing is that this phenomenon not only applies to local disorders like oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome, but distant pathologies like autoimmune, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as viral/bacterial infections and even some cancers. These revelations have provided a foundation for the burgeoning field of salivary diagnostics and hence spurred the onset of investigations poised at deciphering the salivary milieu. This paper overviews salivary diagnostics from biomarker development to the multitude of techniques utilized in identifying saliva-based molecular indicators of disease. In doing so, we present oral fluids as an easily accessible noninvasive alternative to traditional diagnostic avenues and not just an essential component of the digestive process. Determining saliva as a credible means of evaluating health status represents a considerable leap forward in health care, one that could lead to enormous translational advantages and significant clinical opportunities. PMID:24862597

Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Yakob, Maha; Lima, Patricia; Camargo, Paulo; Wong, David T W

2014-01-01

215

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood and the other that does not present aggregation (bovine blood. One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Antonio Valadão Cardoso

2007-03-01

216

Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de saúde / Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of healthcare workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O estado de portador de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é apontado como preditor de infecção e fator para a disseminação ambiental e de pessoa a pessoa, incluindo trabalhadores de serviço de saúde. Estes quando colonizados são freqüentemente associados a surtos. Objetivo: A [...] nalisar a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de hospital universitário. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico longitudinal realizado em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, com 486 trabalhadores no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2008 compreendeu a coleta de três amostras de saliva e aplicação de instrumento de coleta de dados. Staphylococcus aureus foram isolados dos espécimes clínicos e caracterizados fenotipicamente. Os dados foram organizados e processados no Programa EPI-Info e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados:Entre os trabalhadores investigados, 60,9% estavam colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, sendo 67.9% carreadores transitórios e 32.1% carreadores persistentes; a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) entre os isolados foi de 15.7%. A prevalência média de MRSA foi de 12.7% sendo maior entre técnicos em enfermagem (21.4%) e auxiliares de limpeza (20.6%) e menor entre enfermeiros (4.5%) e médicos (5.9%). Conclusões: Os trabalhadores apresentaram alta prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, indicando a boca como importante sítio corporal para a investigação da colonização por MRSA e potencial fonte para sua disseminação. Abstract in english Background: The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as an infection predictor and a factor for environmental and person-to-person dissemination, including health service workers. These, when colonized are commonly associated to outbreaks. Objective: Analyze the pr [...] evalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers at a university hospital. Methodology: Epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008. Three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes. The data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed via descriptive statistics. Results: Among the healthcare workers studied, 60.9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva; of those, 67.9% were transitory carriers and 32.1% were persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the isolated cases was 15.7%. The average prevalence of MRSA was 12.7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21.4%) and cleaning aides (20.6%) and lower among nurses (4.5%) and doctors (5.9%). Conclusions: Healthcare workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating the mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by MRSA and a potential source to its dissemination.

Elaine Drehmer, De Almeida Cruz; Fabiana Cristina, Pimenta; Izabel Cristina, Vanzato Palazzo; Ana Lúcia, da Costa Darini; Elucir, Gir.

2011-06-01

217

Biological microdevice with fluidic acoustic streaming for measuring uric acid in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The healthcare system requires new devices for a rapid monitoring of a patient in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Accordingly, new biomedical devices are being developed. In this paper, a fully-integrated biological microdevice for uric acid analysis in human saliva is presented. It is based on optical spectrophotometric measurements and incorporates a mixture system based on acoustic streaming, that enhances the fluids reaction due to both heating and agitation generated by this effect. Acoustic streaming is provided by a piezoelectric beta-PVDF film deposited underneath the microfluidic die of the device. Further, it incorporates the electronics for the detection, readout, data processing and signal actuation. Experimental results proved that acoustic streaming based on this piezoelectric polymer is advantageous and reduces in 55% the time required to obtain the analysis results. PMID:19964879

Cardoso, V F; Catarino, S O; Martins, P; Rebouta, L; Lanceros-Mendéz, S; Minas, G

2009-01-01

218

Corrosion behaviour of FePt-based bulk magnets in artificial saliva solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bulk hard magnetic FePt-based alloys are proposed as new materials for dental applications. In this study the corrosion behaviour of bulk Fe50Pt50, Fe35Pt35P30 and Fe53Pt44C3 magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering of mechanically milled powders is evaluated in artificial saliva solution at 37 oC in dependence on their exposure time and in comparison to that of other relevant dental alloys by means of electrochemical polarisation measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The alloys exhibit in this environment a platinum-like behaviour and thus, they are highly stable also during long-term exposure. Enhanced corrosion activity does not occur when coupling these alloys with commercial dental alloys of Fe- and CoCr-based. A particular low-corroding state is attained in combination with the dental spring steel Fe-18Cr-18Mn-2Mo-1N

219

Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from saliva of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method for cultivating and isolating Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the saliva of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis (formerly known as Ixodes dammini), is described. Saliva was collected from partially engorged ticks after application of pilocarpine to induce salivation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from 8 of 14 (57%) of the saliva samples derived from ticks infected with the bacteria, as determined by direct immunofluorescent-antibody assay of tick hemolymph. A compariso...

Ewing, C.; Scorpio, A.; Nelson, D. R.; Mather, T. N.

1994-01-01

220

Xerostomia. Development, properties and application of a mucin-containing saliva substitute  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physiological importance of saliva in human becomes obvious when saliva is secreted to a too large(hypersalivation) or a too small(hyposalivation) extent. The reduced salivary secretion results in a wide scale of complaints such as a dry and burning sensation of the mouth, and difficulties in chewing, swallowing, speaking and sleeping. To combat these complaints, the lack of saliva has to be compensated. ... Zie: Summary

Vissink, Arjan

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

HPV and methylation indicators in paired tumor and saliva in HNSCC  

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Full Text Available Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16 is a causative agent for some head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC  and an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal SCC. The goal of this study was to examine HPV16 associated gene methylation in paired saliva and tumor DNA with assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive value for saliva HPV as a test for HNSCC. HPV16 status was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR in 35 primary HNSCC paired tumor and saliva specimens. Tumor cut points >=0.03 and >=0.1 and saliva cut points >0 and ?0.001 were used to classify results as HPV positive or negative. Aberrant methylation was determined by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA assay. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation in tumor samples was 66% (23/35 versus 17% (6/35 in saliva. Two of 35 paired tumor and saliva samples had commonly methylated genes. HPV and methylation were correlated for IGSF4 (p=0.01 in tumor samples (cut point ?0.03 and for ESR1 in saliva samples (cut point >0. Although the sensitivity of HPV detection in saliva was significantly reduced when saliva cut points were increased from >0 to >=0.001, the specificity and positive predictive values were 100% at saliva cut point of >=0.001, regardless of tumor cut points. Within clearly defined parameters, HPV detection in saliva DNA shows promise as a non invasive approach for tumor HPV status. Methylated genes detected in saliva may be useful in early detection and as potential predictive markers of HNSCC. Further confirmation and validation in larger cohorts is required.

Josena K. Stephen

2013-07-01

222

Concentrations of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Saliva: Implications for Preexposure Prophylaxis of Oral HIV Acquisition?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To prevent acquisition of HIV through oral sex, drugs used for preexposure prophylaxis (Prep) need to diffuse in saliva. We measured tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) concentrations simultaneously in the plasma and saliva of 41 HIV-infected patients under stable antiretroviral treatment. Mean ratios of saliva/plasma concentration were 3% (±4%) and 86.9% (±124%) for TFV and FTC, respectively. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) should be used in combination with FTC to prevent oral acq...

Lastours, Victoire; Fonsart, Julien; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Gourmel, Bernard; Molina, Jean-michel

2011-01-01

223

The effect of saliva composition on texture perception of semi-solids  

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Saliva is expected to be of significance for the perception of food stimuli in the mouth. Mixing the food with saliva, including breakdown and dilution, is considered to be of large importance for semi-solids as these products are masticated without chewing. It is known that there are large variations in composition of saliva originating from different glands and different subjects. In this study we investigated how variations in salivary characteristics affect sensory perception. Eighteen tr...

Engelen, L.; Keybus, P. A. M.; Wijk, R. A.; Veerman, E. C. I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. V.; Bosman, F.; Prinz, J. F.; Bilt, A.

2007-01-01

224

A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author)

225

A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author).

Davies, A.N.; Singer, J. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom). South East London Radiotherapy Dept.)

1994-08-01

226

Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?

Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V

2013-01-01

227

Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Enhanced by Vector Saliva through Immunosuppressant Mechanisms Mediated by Lysophosphatidylcholine?  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by bug feces deposited on human skin during a blood meal. However, parasite infection occurs through the wound produced by insect mouthparts. Saliva of the Triatominae bug Rhodnius prolixus is a source of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Here, we tested the role of both triatomine saliva and LPC on parasite transmission. We show that vector saliva is a powerful inducer of cell chemotaxis. A massive number of inflammatory cells were found at the sites where LPC or saliva was inoculated into the skin of mice. LPC is a known chemoattractant for monocytes, but neutrophil recruitment induced by saliva is LPC independent. The preincubation of peritoneal macrophages with saliva or LPC increased fivefold the association of T. cruzi with these cells. Moreover, saliva and LPC block nitric oxide production by T. cruzi-exposed macrophages. The injection of saliva or LPC into mouse skin in the presence of the parasite induces an up-to-sixfold increase in blood parasitemia. Together, our data suggest that saliva of the Triatominae enhances T. cruzi transmission and that some of its biological effects are attributed to LPC. This is a demonstration that a vector-derived lysophospholipid may act as an enhancing factor of Chagas disease. PMID:18794282

Mesquita, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Bafica, Andre; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Takiya, Christina M.; Souto-Padron, Thais; Vieira, Danielle P.; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Almeida, Igor C.; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Porto, Barbara N.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Graca-Souza, Aurelio V.; Lopes, Angela H. C. S.; Atella, Georgia C.; Silva-Neto, Mario A. C.

2008-01-01

228

Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

2010-02-24

229

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

2007-09-01

230

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

231

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquímica. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz

2007-09-01

232

Mycobacterium leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin smears of leprosy patients / Mycobacterium leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de sujeitos com hanseníase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: verificar através da baciloscopia e da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) a presença do M. leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de pacientes com hanseníase. METODOLOGIA: Realizou-se um estudo transversal do tipo detecção de casos numa instituição referência de hanseníase [...] no Amazonas. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 48 pacientes, sendo 15 multibacilares (MB) e 33 paucibacilares (PB). Os pacientes MB tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado pela baciloscopia e PCR dos raspados intradérmicos, enquanto que 16 (48,5%) dos PB foram positivos apenas na PCR. Quatro pacientes PB negativos na PCR de raspados intradérmicos foram positivos no periodonto e na saliva, 1 positivo na saliva e 2 no periodonto. Nenhuma amostra do periodonto e da saliva foi positiva na baciloscopia. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre a doença periodontal e a presença do M. leprae; a baciloscopia não mostrou ser uma técnica eficiente para análise da saliva e periodonto; a técnica de PCR de raspado dérmico mostrou ser um método mais eficaz no diagnóstico dos PB do que a baciloscopia; a positividade da PCR para detecção do M. leprae nos PB pode ser aumentada coletando raspado intradérmico, periodonto e saliva. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the presence of M. leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin slit smears of leprosy patients. To correlate bacteriological and molecular findings with clinical data and compare laboratory techniques. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to use bacteriological (bacilosco [...] py) and molecular (PCR) parameters to detect M. leprae in exudates of the gingival sulcus/periodontium pocket, saliva and skin slit smears from multiple clinical forms of leprosy patients without previous treatment. RESULTS: The study included 48 leprosy patients with 15 multibacillary (MB) cases and 33 paucibacillary (PB) cases. The diagnosis of MB was confirmed through bacteriological examination and PCR results from skin slit smears. A total of 16 (48.5%) PB patients were PCR positive only. Four PB patients with negative PCR skin smears were PCR positive for the periodontium and saliva, with 2 cases and 1 case, respectively. No periodontium or saliva samples had positive bacteriological results. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between periodontal disease and the presence of M. leprae. Bacteriological examination did not prove to be an efficient technique for the analysis of saliva and periodontium samples. PCR analysis of skin smears was more efficient at diagnosing PB patients than bacteriological examination. PCR positive results for the detection of M. leprae in PB patients can be increased by collecting slit skin smears, periodontium and saliva samples.

Ligia Fernandes, Abdalla; João Hugo Abdalla, Santos; Carolina Souza Cunha, Collado; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

233

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

2011-01-01

234

Comparison of the antioxidant potential in urine, saliva and skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Free radicals, oxidative stress and their possible consequences for health are becoming increasingly important in modern medicine. Reactive species influence the organism, potentially causing oxidative cell damage. They can be produced by exogenous sources, or be a product of a variety of not only physiological metabolic processes, such as immune response, but also pathological processes. The antioxidant protection system protects the organism from oxidative damage caused by reactions producing an excess of free radicals. The analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP is therefore becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis of individual vitality. Method: The photochemoluminescence method was used to measure the AOP in urine and saliva, spectrometry was employed to measure the ?-carotene content of the skin. In addition, it was investigated whether the AOPsaliva correlated with the AOPUurine (uric-acid independent AOP as well as the ?-carotene content of the skin. Results: The AOP was significantly higher in urine than in saliva, and both values were significantly positively correlated with each other. However, there was no significant correlation to the ?-carotene content of the skin. Discussion: The components of the AOPUurine are accumulated over time (night, whereas AOP measurement in saliva is like a snapshot, which explains why AOPUurine was significantly higher than AOPsaliva, although the two parameters are correlated with each other. ?-carotene is a fat-soluble antioxidant, whereas in our study, only water-soluble antioxidants were determined in the urine. This explains why there is no positive correlation between ?-carotene of the skin and AOP. Conclusion: For the characterization of the AOP in epidemiological studies, we recommend determining the AOPUurine and parallel to this, the ?-carotene content of the skin.

Benkhai, Hicham

2011-01-01

235

Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

236

mediante LC-MS en plasma y saliva.  

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Full Text Available La Fluoxetina es uno de los representantes de los Inhibidores Selectivos de la Recaptación de Serotonina (ISRS, fármacos de primera elección en la terapia antidepresiva moderna. A pesar de la mayor seguridad con respecto a los antidepresivos clásicos, muchos autores defienden la necesidad de monitorizar sus niveles plasmáticos en determinadas circunstancias, dado la gran variabilidad interindividual en la de sus efectos. Se ha desarrollado un método rápido y sensible aplicando la tecnología LCMS que permite la determinación de Fluoxetina y su principal metabolito activo Norfluoxetina, tanto en plasma como en saliva, en 10 minutos, tras llevar a cabo una sencilla extracción líquido-líquido

A. de Castro

2005-01-01

237

Comparison of plasma and saliva levels of diazepam.  

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1. Salivary, unbound and total plasma levels of diazepam have been compared in nineteen subjects. 2. Salivary diazepam levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than, but closely related to the corresponding unbound levels (r = 0.97) at 2.5-3 h after administration of the drug. 3. The results presented suggest that saliva levels can be used to predict the corresponding plasma levels at a given time, but there is no 1:1 relation between the unbound diazepam concentration in plasma and the s...

Gier, J. J.; T Hart, B. J.; Wilderink, P. F.; Nelemans, F. A.

1980-01-01

238

Bioavailability study of paracetamol tablets in saliva and urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bioavailability study of two lots of paracetamol tablets was carried out in 5 healthy volunteers, using a crossover aleatory design, and drug monitoring in urine and saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were correlated with those obtained in an in vitro dissolution study. Statistical evaluation of bioavailability parameters indicates that the two formulations may be considered bioequivalent, in spite of differences found during early stages of the absorption process, which were preventable according to an in vitro dissolution study. PMID:9074893

Retaco, P; González, M; Pizzorno, M T; Volonté, M G

1996-01-01

239

Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.  

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A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

1993-01-01

240

Efecto de Chicles con Xilitol sobre Placa Bacteriana, Flujo Salival y Capacidad Buffer de la Saliva en Adolescentes Chilenos / Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum on Dental Plaque, Saliva Flow and Saliva Buffer Capacity in Chilean Youngsters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prevención es el área de la odontología a la que se le debe dar más énfasis para disminuir posteriores consecuencias sobre la cavidad oral. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del uso de chicles con xilitol sobre placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva en jóv [...] enes. Participaron 15 alumnos de quinto año, se asignaron al azar en un grupo de estudio y un grupo control, consumiendo chicles con xilitol y un placebo respectivamente, 4 veces al día por 21 días. Se midió placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva al día 0, 7, 14 y 21. La placa bacteriana se redujo en ambos grupos tras 21 días de tratamiento sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Asimismo el flujo salival aumentó tanto en el grupo de estudio como en el grupo de control, pero sin encontrar resultados significativos (p>0,05). El pH salival aumentó en ambos grupos, sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Los resultados sugieren quemasticar chicles con xilitol disminuye la placa bacteriana, aumenta el flujo salival y la capacidad buffer de la saliva, pero estudios con un mayor número de pacientes deberían realizarse para obtener valores significativos. Abstract in english Prevention is the area of dentistry that should be given more emphasis to reduce further consequences on the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to assess the use of xylitol chewing gum on dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva buffer capacity in youngster. Fifteen dental students were randomly as [...] signed to a study and control group, the first received a xylitol chewing gum while the second a placebo chewing gum, provided 4 times per day for 21 days. Dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva ph were measures at day 0, 7, 14 and 21st. Dental plaque concentration decreased in both groups (p >0,05), saliva flow increased (p>0,05) and saliva ph was incremented but no significant differences were found among groups (p>0,05). The use of xylitol chewing gum helps to reduce dental plaque, increase saliva flow and ph, like the placebo chewing gum, but a larger study is needed to properly assess if xylitol has an additional benefit on the studied variables.

Manuel Felipe, Velásquez Castilla; Carmen Gloria, Narváez Carrasco.

 
 
 
 
241

Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program  

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A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program

242

Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work  

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Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

2012-01-01

243

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

2012-09-01

244

Brief Functional Analysis and Intervention Evaluation for Treatment of Saliva-Play  

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We conducted a brief (8 days) functional analysis to identify sources of control over persistent saliva-play displayed by a 6-year old child with autism in a school setting. The functional analysis suggested that saliva-play was maintained by automatic reinforcement, leading to an intervention evaluation (3 days) that compared two methods of…

Luiselli, James K.; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Schmidt, Sarah; Tarr, Melissa

2004-01-01

245

Free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva: advantages or disadvantages.  

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This study determines the mean concentrations of free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults. Standardised salivary amino acids as a substitute for their counterpart in blood, searched for the source of free amino acids in saliva, the probable correlation between particular amino acids with caries experience. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva were collected by the draining method in 31 dental students. Saliva was purified, and amino acids were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. DMFT scores were recorded, and the relation of amino acids to caries experience was explored by generalised linear model. Almost all amino acids had higher concentration in unstimulated whole saliva than in stimulated saliva. The normal range of amino acids (95% CI) and their natural logarithm were defined. There was a significant relationship between caries experience and threonine (P < 0·008), citrulline (P < 0·023) and ornithine (P < 0·001) as a detrimental factor, whereas serin (P < 0·026), glutamine (P < 0·015) and phenylalanine (P < 0·014) had an inhibiting effect on caries. However, in comparison, salivary flow rate (P < 0·013) was a more preventive factor than amino acids. Amino acids in saliva contribute as a marker, instead of their counterpart in blood. Unstimulated saliva had higher concentration of amino acids. Amino acids have different impact on caries and may be one of underlying risk factors for caries experience. PMID:24931136

Masoudi Rad, H; Rabiei, M; Sobhani, A; Sadegh Khanjani, M; Rahbar Taramsar, M; Kazemnezhad Leili, E

2014-10-01

246

Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

A Abarghooyi

2012-10-01

247

Saliva cortisol in school children after acute physical exercise.  

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We investigated if 12 min of high-intensity exercise performed within a regular school break lead to an increase in cortisol levels in primary school students. 53 students of a 4th grade (9-10 years of age) were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG) and a control group (CG). Saliva collection took place after a normal school lesson (pre-test) and after 12 min of intensive exercise in a defined heart rate (HR) interval (EG, n=32) and control condition (movie watching) (CG, n=21), respectively (post-test). Saliva was analyzed for cortisol. We observed a significant group by test interaction indicating a different pre-to-post-test development for EG as compared to CG. The interaction effect, however, was caused by an attenuated cortisol concentration in the control group. We argue that the control condition, in which the students watched a joyful movie, acted as a distractor, which led to a reduction of general school stress. PMID:20654695

Budde, Henning; Windisch, Claudia; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

2010-10-01

248

Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not pr [...] omote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corrosion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

N.A., Mariano; R.G., Oliveira; M.A., Fernandes; E.C.S., Rigo.

2009-08-01

249

Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia  

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Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring the time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentrati...

Cássio de Barros Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli Polizello; Augusto César Cropanese Spadaro

2004-01-01

250

A comparison of leptin and ghrelin levels in plasma and saliva of young healthy subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 10 years, saliva has been increasingly used as a diagnostic fluid and in predictions of disease progression. Leptin and ghrelin are synthesized in several tissues including the salivary glands. The action of ghrelin is antagonistic to that of leptin. This study was undertaken to measure and compare the saliva ghrelin-leptin and plasma ghrelin-leptin levels in healthy young subjects. In 30 healthy subjects, after an overnight fast, saliva and plasma leptin levels were measured using the ELISA method while saliva and plasma immunoreactive ghrelin levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA). The latter uses 125I-labeled bioactive ghrelin as a tracer and a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against full-length octanoylated human ghrelin (Phoenix, Europe, Karlsruhe, Germany). The results of this investigation revealed that saliva leptin levels (6.19+/-2.10 microg/l) were lower than plasma levels (7.39+/-3.23 microg/l) while saliva ghrelin levels (188.5+/-84.7 pg/ml) were higher than plasma levels (126.4+/-38.5 pg/ml), when male and female subjects were considered together. Saliva leptin levels (5.93+/-1.94 microg/l) were lower than plasma levels (6.22+/-2.92 pg/ml) while saliva ghrelin levels (190.3+/-80.2 pg/ml) were higher than plasma levels (120.4+/-35.7 pg/ml) in young males. Saliva leptin levels (6.47+/-2.29 microg/l) were lower than plasma levels (8.73+/-3.14 microg/l) while saliva ghrelin levels (183.2+/-90.2 pg/ml) were higher than plasma levels (129.3+/-42.8 pg/ml) in young females, and both saliva and plasma leptin levels were slightly lower in male subjects in comparison with female subjects. Also, Immunohistochemistry study indicated that ghrelin positivity was found in ductus epithelium of salivary gland. We have demonstrated for the first time that saliva ghrelin levels were higher than in plasma while saliva leptin levels were almost the same as in plasma. Measurements of ghrelin and leptin in saliva is non-invasive, simple, and generally much preferred by patients and thus may be an acceptable alternative to plasma sampling. PMID:15752580

Aydin, Suleyman; Halifeoglu, Ihsan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Erman, Fazilet; Kilic, Nermin; Aydin, Suna; Ilhan, Nevin; Ilhan, Necip; Ozkan, Yusuf; Akpolat, Nusret; Sert, Levent; Caylak, Emrah

2005-04-01

251

A comparison of the effects of added saliva, alpha-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids  

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The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip¿tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject received his/her own saliva. Sixteen subjects from a trained panel assessed 17 flavour and texture attributes of soy- and milk-based custard desserts. Immediately prior to administration, two different ...

Engelen, L.; Wijk, R. A.; Prinz, J. F.; Janssen, A. M.; Bilt, A.; Weenen, H.

2003-01-01

252

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-12-01

253

Science and technology of polymers and advanced materials [electronic resource] : emerging technologies and business opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discusses composites and blends; high performance materials; materials for electronics and photonics; biomaterial and biotechnology; degradation, stabilization and recycling of materials, and environmentally friendly processing; sol-gel processed materials; advanced materials from natural and petroleum products; materials for separation technology; educational needs and trends; and business opportunities.

254

Saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nasopharyngeal cancer detection  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for non-invasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection was present in this paper. In this method, cellulose acetate membrane was used to obtain purified whole proteins from human saliva while removing other native saliva constituents and exogenous substances. The purified proteins were mixed with silver nanoparticle for SERS analysis. A diagnostic accuracy of 90.2% can be achieved by principal components analysis combined with linear discriminate analysis, for saliva samples obtained from patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (n = 62) and healthy volunteers (n = 30). This exploratory study demonstrated the potential for developing non-invasive, rapid saliva SERS analysis for nasopharyngeal cancer detection.

Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Duo; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Shaohua; Zhao, Jianhua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

2014-02-01

255

Quantitative detection of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria patients in the Philippines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a global health priority with a heavy burden of fatality and morbidity. Improvements in field diagnostics are needed to support the agenda for malaria elimination. Saliva has shown significant potential for use in non-invasive diagnostics, but the development of off-the-shelf saliva diagnostic kits requires best practices for sample preparation and quantitative insight on the availability of biomarkers and the dynamics of immunoassay in saliva. This pilot study measured the levels of the PfHRP2 in patient saliva to inform the development of salivary diagnostic tests for malaria. Methods Matched samples of blood and saliva were collected between January and May, 2011 from eight patients at Palawan Baptist Hospital in Roxas, Palawan, Philippines. Parasite density was determined from thick-film blood smears. Concentrations of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria-positive patients were measured using a custom chemiluminescent ELISA in microtitre plates. Sixteen negative-control patients were enrolled at UCLA. A substantive difference between this protocol and previous related studies was that saliva samples were stabilized with protease inhibitors. Results Of the eight patients with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria, seven tested positive for PfHRP2 in the blood using rapid diagnostic test kits, and all tested positive for PfHRP2 in saliva. All negative-control samples tested negative for salivary PfHRP2. On a binary-decision basis, the ELISA agreed with microscopy with 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. Salivary levels of PfHRP2 ranged from 17 to 1,167 pg/mL in the malaria-positive group. Conclusion Saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid for malaria when protein degradation and matrix effects are mitigated. Systematic quantitation of other malaria biomarkers in saliva would identify those with the best clinical relevance and suitability for off-the-shelf diagnostic kits.

Fung Andrew O

2012-05-01

256

Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2, a sports drink (pH 3.5, and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8. Distilled water adjusted to the pH of each saliva sample was used as a control. In the second experiment, the suppressive ability of saliva against enamel demineralization was quantitatively analyzed using quantitative light- induced fluorescence (QLF. Aliquots of stimulated saliva obtained from a subject were mixed with 15 ml of 100% orange juice in saliva:orange juice ratios of 1/30, 1/15, 1/10 and 1/5, and bovine teeth were soaked for 24 hours in the solutions. The ?Q of the QLF analyses of the enamel was then measured. The lowest titrant volume which reduced the pH of the initial saliva (7.7 on average to pH 5.4 was that of the orange juice. No relationship was found between the buffer capacity and the pH of the acid beverages. From the QLF measurement, the saliva-orange juice group showed a significantly decreased amount of enamel demineralization (p < 0.01 at 20% level compared with the distilled water-orange juice group. In conclusion, saliva acts as a buffer to suppress enamel demineralization caused by low-pH beverages.

Shoji Takahashi

2011-12-01

257

Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

2014-01-01

258

Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples / Detecção de anticorpos anti-VHA em amostras de saliva utilizando teste imuno-enzimático  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A possibilidade de identificar infecções presentes ou passadas utilizando fluidos corpóreos que seriam mais facilmente coletados do que o sangue, principalmente em crianças, facilitaria grandemente a investigação e o acompanhamento de surtos de hepatite A, que ocorrem com muita freqüência em nosso m [...] eio. Nosso estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de avaliar a detecção dos anticorpos anti-VHA, da classe IgA, IgM, e anticorpos totais em amostras de saliva, usando amostras de soro como padrão. Foram estudadas 43 amostras pareadas de saliva e de soro, colhidas de 24 crianças e de um adulto durante um surto de hepatite A, e de 18 funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Empregando saliva como amostra clínica, a sensibilidade para a detecção de anti-VHA IgM foi de 100,0%, de anti-VHA IgA foi de 80,8% e de anti-VHA total foi de 82,1%. Não houve nenhum resultado falso-positivo, sendo a especificidade de 100%. A concordância foi alta entre os resultados das amostras de saliva e soro na detecção dos anticorpos, indicando que amostras de saliva podem ser utilizadas no diagnóstico de infecção aguda pelo VHA e na seleção de indivíduos para vacinação contra o VHA, para conter surtos. Abstract in english The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and tota [...] l antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

Isabel Takano, OBA; Angela Maria Miranda, SPINA; Cláudia Patara, SARACENI; Marcílio Figueiredo, LEMOS; Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade, SENHORAS; Regina Célia, MOREIRA; Celso Francisco Hernandes, GRANATO.

2000-08-01

259

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ e ácido valproico (VPA em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (idades 1-14 anos em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado.

C. Maldonado

2008-06-01

260

Corrosion of gold alloys and titanium in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of gold alloys and one type of pure titanium have been submitted to corrosion in artificial saliva for periods of up to about 2 months. The release of copper, gold and silver from the gold alloys as well as titanium from the titanium matrix was measured with nuclear tracer technique. The physical/chemical state of the corrosion products of gold alloys referring to the ionic state or presence in particulate form has been examined retaining the particulate matter on a glass filter. Copper was observed to be mainly present in the ionic state. Considerable amounts of gold were observed to be retained on the glass filter explained by the presence of gold in particulate form or as a compentent of a dispersed collloidal phase. The estimation of the release of titanium was registered by the tracer nuclide 46Sc assuming particulate matter to be deteriorated from the titanium surface. (author)

 
 
 
 
261

Sealant Microleakage After Using Nano-Filled Bonding Agents on Saliva-Contaminated Enamel  

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Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of correctly applied fissure sealants has been revealed in the prevention of caries. Saliva and moisture contamination of the etched enamel surface before sealant placement can decrease the bonding strength of the sealant to the enamel. The aim of this study was to test the new bonding agents containing nano-fillers in order to reduce the negative effect of saliva contamination on the sealant micro leakage.Materials and Methods: Seventy five sound human premolars were randomly assigned to five equal groups as follows: Group A: etching, sealant; Group B: etching, saliva contamination, sealant; Group C: etching, saliva contamination, Single bond, sealant; Group D: etching, saliva contamination, Adper Single bond 2, sealant; Group E: etching, saliva contamination, N Bond, sealant. The samples were thermo-cycled and immersed in basic fuchsine 0.5% by weight. Then, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and parallel to the long axis into two segments. Finally, the length of dye penetration at the sealant-tooth interface was scored according to a four-point scale.Results: Micro-leakage was higher in group B compared to the other groups, while there were no differences among the evaluated dentin adhesives.Conclusion: The use of nano-filled bonding agents as an intermediate layer between the etched enamel and the sealant can reduce sealant micro-leakage after saliva contamination at the level of the uncontaminated enamel.

Mehrsa Paryab

2013-01-01

262

Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

263

Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study  

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Full Text Available Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva volumes (2.9 ml, 1.5 ml, and 0.8 ml were tested on cotton rolls and two (0.03 ml, and 0.015 ml on cotton pellets. The sample sAA activity was determined from the hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside. In comparison with the original drooling sample, no sAA loss was observed in 1.5 ml samples tested with Salivette, while a significant decrease of activity was recorded with smaller volumes. VSM collected samples showed a non-volume dependent decrease of sAA activity of about 25%. Salivette requires large saliva volumes to allow an accurate sAA estimation. With cases of limited saliva access, VSM may be a suitable sampling device.

Aristidis Arhakis

2011-08-01

264

Decrease in the total antioxidant activity of saliva in patients with periodontal diseases.  

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This study examined the role of free radical-induced tissue damage and the antioxidant defense mechanism of saliva in periodontal disease. Antioxidant activity of saliva was compared in 20 healthy individuals and 17 patients with periodontal diseases. We measured the scavenging capacity of saliva against free radicals generated in vitro by electrolysis, xanthine-xanthine oxidase, or stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Total protein content and total antioxidant activity of saliva were also determined. The results indicate that stimulated saliva of healthy individuals is significantly more effective (40-50%) than that of patients with periodontal diseases in scavenging a wide variety of free radicals generated in vitro. Under these conditions it appears that the total antioxidant activity of saliva is significantly decreased in these patients despite the fact that the levels of the three main antioxidants (uric acid, ascorbic acid, and albumin) are not significantly affected. We conclude that periodontal diseases are associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former due to both an increase in free radical production and a defect in the total antioxidant activity of saliva. PMID:12743837

Diab-Ladki, Randa; Pellat, Bernard; Chahine, Ramez

2003-06-01

265

Thiocyanate levels in human saliva: quantitation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

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A new quantitative method, based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was developed to evaluate the thiocyanate concentration in human saliva. Saliva samples were collected following a typical protocol and infrared spectra obtained from very small volumes (5 microl) deposited on a barium fluoride substrate. Exogenous potassium thiocyanate was used for calibration of the endogenous thiocyanate. This methodology does not require separation or extraction procedures. Human saliva spectra contain a characteristic marker band, due to thiocyanate, at 2058 cm-1. The integrated area of this band can be used for linear regression analysis and provides a good correlation between band area and thiocyanate concentration. Recovery of thiocyanate added to saliva was 100%. Centrifugation and dialysis experiments demonstrated that thiocyanate in saliva exists as a free or loosely bound ion. Saliva collected in the afternoon from 25 different subjects had a thiocyanate concentration of 0.83 +/- 0.42 (mean +/- SD) mmol/liter. In 4 subjects whose circadian pattern was investigated there was evidence of a higher thiocyanate concentration in saliva samples collected in the morning hours. PMID:8811872

Schultz, C P; Ahmed, M K; Dawes, C; Mantsch, H H

1996-08-15

266

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

267

Genotyping performance between saliva and blood-derived genomic DNAs on the DMET array: a comparison.  

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The Affymetrix Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) microarray is the first assay to offer a large representation of SNPs conferring genetic diversity across known pharmacokinetic markers. As a convenient and painless alternative to blood, saliva samples have been reported to work well for genotyping on the high density SNP arrays, but no reports to date have examined this application for saliva-derived DNA on the DMET platform. Genomic DNA extractions from saliva samples produced an ample quantity of genomic DNA for DMET arrays, however when human amplifiable DNA was measured, it was determined that a large percentage of this DNA was from bacteria or fungi. A mean of 37.3% human amplifiable DNA was determined for saliva-derived DNAs, which results in a significant decrease in the genotyping call rate (88.8%) when compared with blood-derived DNAs (99.1%). More interestingly, the percentage of human amplifiable DNA correlated with a higher genotyping call rate, and almost all samples with more than 31.3% human DNA produced a genotyping call rate of at least 96%. SNP genotyping results for saliva derived DNA (n?=?39) illustrated a 98.7% concordance when compared with blood DNA. In conclusion, when compared with blood DNA and tested on the DMET array, saliva-derived DNA provided adequate genotyping quality with a significant lower number of SNP calls. Saliva-derived DNA does perform very well if it contains greater than 31.3% human amplifiable DNA. PMID:22448283

Hu, Yueshan; Ehli, Erik A; Nelson, Kelly; Bohlen, Krista; Lynch, Christophina; Huizenga, Patty; Kittlelsrud, Julie; Soundy, Timothy J; Davies, Gareth E

2012-01-01

268

Fluoride inhibits the antimicrobial peroxidase systems in human whole saliva.  

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Fluoride (F-) ions at concentrations present in vivo at the plaque/enamel interface (0.05-10 mM) inhibited the activities of lactoperoxidase (LP), myeloperoxidase (MP) and total salivary peroxidase (TSP) in a pH- and dose-dependent way. The inhibition was observed only at pH or = 0.1 mM. At pH 5.5 LP activity was inhibited by 85% and MP by 34% with 10 mM F-. TSP activity was also inhibited only at low pH (5.5) by approximately 25%. Furthermore, the generation of the actual antimicrobial agent in vivo, hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-), of the oral peroxidase systems was inhibited by F-, again at low pH (5.0-5.5) both in buffer (by 45%) and in saliva (by 15%). This inhibition was observed only with the highest F- concentrations studied (5-10 mM). Fluoridated toothpaste (with 0.10 or 0.14% F) mixed with saliva did not inhibit TSP or HOSCN/OSCN- generation. This may have been due to the 'buffering' effect of toothpaste which did not allow salivary pH to drop below 5.9. We conclude that the F- ions in acidic fluoride products, e.g. in gels or varnishes (but not in toothpastes), may have the potential to locally inhibit the generation of a nonimmune host defense factor, HOSCN/OSCN/SCN-, produced by oral peroxidase systems. The possible clinical significance of this finding remains to be shown. PMID:7850846

Hannuksela, S; Tenovuo, J; Roger, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Ekstrand, J

1994-01-01

269

Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

270

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

271

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

1997-09-01

272

Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1 at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10 using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 ?g/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 ?g/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 ?g/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

?or?evi? Snežana

2009-01-01

273

PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. Methods Urine and saliva were obtained from 47 thick film positive and 4 negative individuals one day after collection of blood slides and filter paper blood spots. P. falciparum DNA was extracted from blood, urine and saliva, in separate groups, using the Chelex method or Qiagen DNEasy® kit (urine and saliva only. Blood, urine and saliva extracts were subjected to PCR in separate batches. Amplicons from the various sample types were examined for MSP2 polymorphisms and restriction fragment patterns on DHFR amino acid codon 59. Results and discussion Malaria infections exhibited primarily low-grade parasite densities, with a geometric mean of 775 asexual parasites/?l. Regularly matching polymorphic MSP2 genotypes were found between the corresponding urine, saliva and peripheral blood amplicons of each individual, with different inter-individual polymorphic genotypes. Amplicon yields were significantly dependent on DNA extraction method, parasite density and primer set (p ® kit extraction had more than 2× higher amplicon yield than the Chelex method, for both urine and saliva. Amplicon yields were 1.6 fold higher from saliva than urine. For each unit increase in log parasite density, the probability of amplicon enhanced 1.8 fold. Highest amplicon yields were obtained from the primer set with the shortest PCR product. Conclusion P. falciparum infection is detectable by PCR on human urine and saliva samples. Subject to further refinement of extraction technique and amplicon yields, large-scale malaria parasite screening and epidemiological surveys could be possible without the need to collect blood and use of needles or sharps.

Thuma Philip E

2006-11-01

274

High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-Keto acids in human mixed saliva collected without stimulation were analysed by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several alpha-keto acids were found in saliva and their concentrations were: alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KGA), 221 +/- 142; pyruvic acid (PA), 7490 +/- 5600; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), 61 +/- 23; alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA), 137 +/- 79; alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), 41 +/- 19 nmol/dl (mean +/- SD, n = 40). Their levels proved to be lower than those in plasma, except that of PA. Their concentrations in saliva showed individual variation compared with those in blood. PMID:6581765

Tsuchiya, H; Hashizume, I; Tokunaga, T; Tatsumi, M; Takagi, N; Hayashi, T

1983-01-01

275

Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages  

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This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2), a sports drink (pH 3.5), and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8). Distille...

Shoji Takahashi; Shigeru Watanabe; Takashi Ogihara; Koji Watanabe; Kun Xuan; Xiaojing Wang

2011-01-01

276

Comparison of saliva sampling methods for measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured salivary adiponectin levels in saliva samples collected in two different ways and compared the results. Using the Salivette system, we collected samples from 30 healthy females into test tubes. Salivary adiponectin levels were evaluated using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma but with a slightly modified method. While there was a significant correlation between adiponectin levels in plasma and test-tube saliva (padiponectin levels in plasma and Salivette-sampled saliva was apparent. These findings suggest that test-tube sampling is more reliable than use of the Salivette system for measuring salivary adiponectin levels. PMID:18618368

Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa

2008-01-01

277

LA SALIVA Y SISTEMAS ADHESIVOS ALTERNATIVOS PARA PRÓTESIS TOTAL / SALIVA AND ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS FOR COMPLETE DENTURES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las prótesis totales pueden presentar problemas biomecánicos relacionados con la retención y la estabilidad, que pueden originarse a partir de errores del profesional durante la toma de impresión funcional de los tejidos, diseño y confección de las prótesis; además de errores durante la fase de labo [...] ratorio a cargo de los técnicos o simplemente a cambios biológicos que experimentan los tejidos subyacentes como la reabsorción ósea, atrofia de los maxilares y disminución del flujo salival. Esta última circunstancia es de principal preocupación, ya que la saliva tiene un papel importante en la retención de las prótesis como "adhesivo natural", por lo que durante años se han propuesto diversos métodos alternativos de retención, especialmente sistemas adhesivos complementarios cuyas propiedades se han perfeccionado con la inclusión de otros compuestos como algunos polímeros sintéticos, agentes antimicrobianos, colorantes, aditivitos y preservativos; además se encuentran disponibles en diferentes presentaciones comerciales. El objetivo de esta revisión es exaltar las propiedades de la saliva como adhesivo natural y la posibilidad de mejorar la retención de las prótesis, cuando estas no poseen la capacidad de asegurar resultados deseados mediante sistemas adhesivos complementarios, que son una alternativa segura y efectiva, siempre que el odontólogo asuma la responsabilidad y la competencia de prescribir el tipo de adhesivo en relación con condiciones específicas del paciente para evitar situaciones indeseables como efectos sistémicos por la ingesta excesiva y prolongada de sales de zinc incluidas en algunas presentaciones comerciales de adhesivos para prótesis. Abstract in english Complete dentures may present biomechanical problems related to retention and stability, which can arise from professional errors during functional tissue impression, as well as during prostheses design and manufacturing, in addition to errors during the laboratory phase by technicians or simply by [...] biological changes of adjacent tissues, such as bone resorption, maxillaries atrophy, and decreased salivary flow. The latter is a circumstance of major concern because saliva plays an important role in prosthesis retention as a "natural adhesive"; therefore, various alternative retention methods have been suggested over time, especially in terms of complementary adhesive systems whose properties have been improved by including other compounds such as synthetic polymers, antimicrobial agents, colorants, additives, and preservatives, which are available in different commercial presentations. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties of saliva as a natural adhesive and the possibility of improving denture retention when it lacks the ability to guarantee the desired results by additional adhesive systems, which are a safe and effective alternative, provided that the dentist is responsible and competent enough to prescribe the right adhesive in relation to specific patient conditions to avoid undesirable situations such as systemic effects due to prolonged excessive intake of zinc salts included in some commercial presentations of denture adhesives.

Javier Enrique, Méndez Silva; Cristhian Camilo, Madrid Troconis; Lesbia Rosa, Tirado Amador.

2013-12-01

278

Relación entre niveles de carbamazepina en saliva y plasma: Estudio piloto / Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine have a poor correlation: a pilot study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Abstract: Carbamazepine is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy and its plasma concentrations must be monitored periodically to obtain a useful and safe clinical effect. There is not a good relationship between the dose of the carbamazepine and their effects in [...] humans, but the effects of this drug have been well correlated with its plasma levels. Aim: To measure the correlation between plasma and saliva levels of carbamazepine in children with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine were measured by using instrumental planar chromatography in 11 epileptic children aged 8 to 15 years treated with the drug for at least six months. Results: The mean saliva/plasma ratio was 0.18±0.05 and the mean of carbamazepine concentration in saliva, expressed as a percentage of concentrations in plasma, was 17.97±5.40. There was a poor linear correlation (r =0.37) between the concentrations of carbamazepine in both fluids. Conclusions: In this group of epileptic children the correlation between saliva and plasma carbamazepine levels was weak

Sigrid, Mennickent C; Mario, Vega H; Carmen Gloria, Godoy M; M. Doris, León H.

279

Relación entre niveles de carbamazepina en saliva y plasma: Estudio piloto Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine have a poor correlation: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Carbamazepine is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy and its plasma concentrations must be monitored periodically to obtain a useful and safe clinical effect. There is not a good relationship between the dose of the carbamazepine and their effects in humans, but the effects of this drug have been well correlated with its plasma levels. Aim: To measure the correlation between plasma and saliva levels of carbamazepine in children with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine were measured by using instrumental planar chromatography in 11 epileptic children aged 8 to 15 years treated with the drug for at least six months. Results: The mean saliva/plasma ratio was 0.18±0.05 and the mean of carbamazepine concentration in saliva, expressed as a percentage of concentrations in plasma, was 17.97±5.40. There was a poor linear correlation (r =0.37 between the concentrations of carbamazepine in both fluids. Conclusions: In this group of epileptic children the correlation between saliva and plasma carbamazepine levels was weak

Sigrid Mennickent C

2007-03-01

280

Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents  

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Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las concentraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzim?tico indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales.At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA and O2- in the saliva and blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL, RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL. There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

Ninoska Tahis Viera Sirit

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos / Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las con [...] centraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales. Abstract in english At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA) and O2- in the saliva and [...] blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL), RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL). There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

Ninoska Tahis, Viera Sirit; Thais Teresita, Morales Rojas; Alejandra Isabel, Morón Medina; Rita Mireya, Navas Perozo; Adriana Beatriz, Pedreañez Santana.

2011-09-01

282

Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

2013-08-01

283

Determination of the progestagen dienogest in plasma and saliva by radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following oral administration of 2 mg of dienogest (17?-cyanomethyl-17?-hydroxy-4,9-estradien-3-one) to female volunteers, the dienogest concentration courses in plasma and saliva were determined by means of a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Three different procedures of the plasma sample preparation prior to the RIA were compared. The dienogest RIA was directly applied to saliva. There is a high correlation between the dienogest concentrations in plasma and saliva. The dienogest plasma elimination half life of about 9 hrs is not significantly different from that derived from saliva. The salivary dienogest concentrations indicate a relatively high non-protein bound portion of this steroid drug in plasma. Following repeated oral administration of dienogest, there is no significant cumulation of plasma dienogest. (author)

284

Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both patients were subjected to real time RT-PCR for DENV detection and quantification. Dengue RNA was detected in serum, urine and saliva samples of both patients. Patient 1 was infected with DENV-2 and patient 2 with DENV-3. Data presented in this study suggest that urine and saliva could be used as alternative samples for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection when blood samples are difficult to obtain, e.g., in newborns and patients with hemorrhagic syndromes.

Aquino Victor H

2010-01-01

285

UCLA study finds primary component of turmeric kicks off cancer-killing mechanisms in human saliva:  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin, the main component in the spice turmeric, suppresses a cell signaling pathway that drives the growth of head and neck cancer, according to a pilot study using human saliva by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

286

Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in saliva by polymerase chain reaction.  

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Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 2011-2012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

2013-11-01

287

Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting  

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Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

2014-01-01

288

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas / Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO) y el [...] telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX), medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g), SHAM (n=12) y ovariectomizadas (OVX) (n=12). Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca) y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría). En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml) como FAO (UI/l) en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p Abstract in english Bone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopept [...] ide (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g) [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml) by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark) and b-AP (IU/L) (Wiener, colorimetrically). Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p

Pellegrini, Gretel; Macarena, Gonzáles Cháves; Julia, Somoza; Silvia, Friedman; Susana N., Zeni.

2006-06-01

289

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas / Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO) y el [...] telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX), medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g), SHAM (n=12) y ovariectomizadas (OVX) (n=12). Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca) y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría). En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml) como FAO (UI/l) en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p Abstract in english Bone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopept [...] ide (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g) [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml) by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark) and b-AP (IU/L) (Wiener, colorimetrically). Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p

Pellegrini, Gretel; Macarena, Gonzáles Cháves; Julia, Somoza; Silvia, Friedman; Susana N., Zeni.

290

Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Essential for the Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Human Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negative selection screening, we identified 147 genes potentially required for growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva, among which genes predicted to be involved in cell envelope biosynthesis, cell transport, amino acid metabolism, and stress response predominated. The Tn-seq findings were validated by testing a panel of directed gene deletion mutants for their ability to survive in saliva under two testing conditions: at room temperature without CO2, representing transmission, and at 37°C with CO2, representing in-host carriage. These validation experiments confirmed that the plsX gene and the amiACDEF and aroDEBC operons, involved in respectively fatty acid metabolism, oligopeptide transport, and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids play an important role in the growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva at 37°C. In conclusion, this study shows that S. pneumoniae is well-adapted for growth and survival in human saliva and provides a genome-wide list of genes potentially involved in adaptation. This notion supports earlier evidence that S. pneumoniae can use human saliva as a vector for transmission. PMID:24586856

Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burghout, Peter; Schraa, Kiki; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Mennens, Svenja; Eleveld, Marc J.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

2014-01-01

291

The effect of saturation by artificial saliva on the effectiveness of denture adhesives  

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Full Text Available Purpose: of this examination was to evaluate the impact of saturation of adhesive materials by artificial saliva upon the generated bonding force.Design/methodology/approach: Four selected types of denture adhesives have been chosen. Measurements of bonding forces of the materials of different degree of saturation by artificial saliva have been carried out by dynamometer. The stamp covered by denture adhesive was pressed against the glass with force of 30 - 40 N and then keeping perpendicular movement against the glass, the stamp was pulled off and the joining was broken. It has been assumed that the bonding force was the equivalent of maximal pulling off force obtained in the test. The samples of different degree of saturation by artificial saliva have been exposed to tests of extensibility in a device of own design. The final denture adhesives have been put on the complete denture. It was pressed down against the denture bearing area model and next the values of retention forces were determined on a universal testing machine.Findings: Proper saturation of the samples by artificial saliva makes it possible to obtain approximate values of retention force for the majority of denture adhesives. However excessive saturation of adhesive materials can result in considerable reduction of their effectiveness.Research limitations/implications: The samples are handmade as well as part of the measurements are carried out manually and this is justified by the specific clinical conditions.Practical implications: Analysis of the impact of the level of saturation of denture adhesives by artificial saliva upon the generated bonding force highlights the need for individual selection of adhesive creams. The choice of material should be related to individual features such as secretion of saliva. It is advisable to introduce into clinical practice the option of adjusting the optimum saturation of particular denture adhesives by artificial saliva materials.Originality/value: The presented research work results allow to combine the secretion of saliva with the effectiveness of denture adhesives.

J. Kasperski

2011-09-01

292

SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  

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Full Text Available

Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 35 healthy children as control group and 71 thalassemia major, 10 thalassemia intermedia and 15 thalassemia trait patients were involved. Their saliva  and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured.  There was no statistically difference between age and gender in all groups and control group (p>0.05.  In all groups saliva iron levels are higher than serum iron levels(p<0.05. Furthermore there was a positive correlation betwen serum and saliva  iron levels in thalassemia major, intermedia and trait groups ( p=0.000, r=0.972, r=0.720, r=0.955 and also there was a positive correlation between serum and saliva iron levels in control and iron deficiency group (p= 0.000, r= 0.885, r= 0.368.  In conclusion,  Saliva iron and ferritin levels increase  as well as serum in patients with thalassemia and decrease in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Saliva can be used for diagnosis routinely  to shows the iron overload  and deficiency of the body and its easy applicability and also a non-invasive procedure is important advantage.

Duran Canatan

2012-01-01

293

The effects of alcohol and smoking on serum, saliva, and urine sialic acid levels.  

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Our results indicate that serum TSA were affected by, and possibly related to, smoking, and that serum GGT, AST, ALT and serum TSA can be used as a marker for monitoring of alcohol abuse. Our study indicate that urine, and saliva TSA can be used as non-invasive markers for alcohol abuse. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the concentrations of TSA on a greater number of serum, saliva, and urine samples from smokers and drinkers.

Naciye Kurtul

2004-12-01

294

Corticosteroids in plasma and saliva: the influence of oral contraceptive use and pregnancy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cortisol in saliva is considered to be derived from the free, unbound fraction in plasma by simple diffusion through the salivary gland. Despite considerable conversion into cortisone in the salivary gland by the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, levels of cortisol in saliva form a good reflection of the free plasma fraction, which is considered to be the biologically active part. In the present study the relation between plasma free and salivary concentrations of cortisol and cortiso...

Meulenberg, E. P. M. M.

1995-01-01

295

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and c [...] ontrolling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Michelle Peneluppi, Silva; José, Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda, Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva, Machado; Luciane Dias de, Oliveira; Juliana Campos, Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

2012-02-01

296

Evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase levels in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions - a biochemical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva can be used as diagnostic fluid in medicine and dentistry. Components of saliva proposed as disease markers include enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, esterase, aspartate aminotransferase, ? glucoronidase, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and steroid hormones (cortisol. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between aspartate aminotransferase (AST in different periodontal conditions indicated by community periodontal index treatment needs (CPITN, as salivary AST test is non-invasive and cost effective diagnostic adjunct for assessing periodontal destruction.

Aravind Kumar P

2012-04-01

297

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method...

Cvetkovi? Andrijana; Vulovi? Marko; Ivanovi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

298

Saliva inhibits the chemiluminescence response, phagocytosis, and killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva inhibited several functional properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from murine peritoneal exudate, namely, luminol-mediated chemiluminescence (CL) induced by either Staphylococcus epidermidis or formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), phagocytosis, and killing of bacteria in vitro. The concentration of saliva in the reaction mixture that caused a complete inhibition of the CL response of PMNs to both S. epidermidis and FMLP was 25%. However, there was no catalase or su...

Saito, K.; Kato, C.; Teshigawara, H.

1988-01-01

299

Susceptibility of human and avian influenza viruses to human and chicken saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral cavity can be an entry site of influenza virus and saliva is known to contain innate soluble anti-influenza factors. Influenza strains were shown to vary in their susceptibility to those antiviral factors. Whether the susceptibility to the saliva antiviral factors plays any role in the host species specificity of influenza viruses is not known. In this study, the antiviral activity of human and chicken saliva against human and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses were investigated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) assays. In comparison to human influenza viruses, H5N1 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to human saliva as measured by HI and NT assays. Interestingly, an H5N1 isolate that bind to both ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acid showed much higher HI titers with human saliva, suggesting that the susceptibility profile was linked to the receptor-binding preference and the presence of ?2,6-linked sialic in human saliva. On the other hand, the H5N1 isolates showed increased HI titers but reduced NT titers to chicken saliva as compared to human influenza isolates. The human salivary antiviral components were characterized by testing the sensitivity to heat, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), CaCl?/EDTA dependence, and inhibition by mannan, and shown to be ?- and ?-inhibitors. These data suggest that the H5N1 HPAI influenza virus had distinctive susceptibility patterns to human and chicken saliva, which may play some roles in its infectivity and transmissibility in these hosts. PMID:24214532

Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Auewarakul, Prasert; Wiriyarat, Witthawat

2014-05-01

300

Detection of drugs of abuse in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty drugs of abuse and metabolites were successfully measured by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using gold- and silver-doped sol-gels immobilized in glass capillaries. A method was developed that provided consistent detection of 50 ppb cocaine in saliva in a focused study. This general method was successfully applied to the detection of a number of additional drugs in saliva, such as amphetamine, diazepam, and methadone. PMID:21929854

Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

302

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

303

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

304

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX, medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g, SHAM (n=12 y ovariectomizadas (OVX (n=12. Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría. En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml como FAO (UI/l en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, pBone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopeptide (CTX and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark and b-AP (IU/L (Wiener, colorimetrically. Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p<0.05 y 71±29 vs. 104±23; p<0.01, respectively. Saliva presented the same behaviour (3.6±0.5 vs. 6.4±2.9; p<0.02 y 73±29 vs. 90±8; p<0.003, respectively. When saliva CTX and b-AP were plotted against serum concentration significant positive correlations were obtained: r=0.58, p<0.05 and r=0.59; p<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the present results are promisory in the sense of the potential use of a salivary-based test for evaluating bone remodeling. However, the use of this methodology for clinical practice needs extensive additional investigations.

Pellegrini Gretel

2006-06-01

305

Saliva vs. Plasma Bioequivalence of Metformin in Humans: Validation of Class II Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12?h after 500?mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III. PMID:24452520

Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T

2014-11-01

306

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

307

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

308

alpha-L-Fucosyltransferases related to biosynthesis of blood group substances in human Saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-L-Fucosyltransferases were demonstrated in human saliva which catalyze the transfer of L-fucose from GDP-L-[14C]-fucose to oligosaccharides from human milk. An alpha-(1 yields 4)-L-fucosyltransferase that synthesizes lacto-N-fucopentaose II and lacto-N-difucohexaose I from lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-fucopentaose I, respectively, was detected in saliva samples of Le(a--b+) secretors and Le(a+b--) non-secretors in which Lea substance was secreted. This enzyme activity was demonstrable neither in saliva samples of Le(a--b--) secretors nor non-secretors. An alpha-(1 yields 2)-L-fucosyltransferase, that synthesizes lacto-N-fucopentaose I from lacto-N-tetraose, was detected in saliva samples from Le(a--b+) secretors which secreted H and Leb substances and from Le(a--b--) secretors which secreted only H substance. An alpha-(1 yields 3)-L-fucosyltransferase was present in all saliva samples of different ABO and Lewis blood groups, irrespective of their ABH secretor status of the donors. The fucosyltransferases in saliva were activated by Mn++ or Mg++ ions, and were inhibited by ATP, GTP and EDTA. They had a broad pH optimum between pH 5.0 and 6.5. PMID:6892924

Yazawa, S; Furukawa, K

1980-04-01

309

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva for its use in forensic identification  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva has long been known for its diagnostic value in several diseases. It also has a potential to be used in forensic science. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from saliva with those extracted from blood in order to assess the feasibility of extracting sufficient DNA from saliva for its possible use in forensic identification. Materials and Methods: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers and DNA extraction was performed through Phenol Chloroform technique. The quantity and quality of isolated DNA was analyzed by spectrophotometery and the samples were then used to amplify short tandem repeat (STR) F13 using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mean quantity of DNA obtained in saliva was 48.4 ± 8.2 ?g/ml and in blood was 142.5 ± 45.9 ?g/ml. Purity of DNA obtained as assessed by the ratio of optical density 260/280, was found to be optimal in 45% salivary samples while remaining showed minor contamination. Despite this positive F13 STR amplification was achieved in 75% of salivary DNA samples. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that saliva may prove to be a useful source of DNA for forensic purpose. PMID:25125913

Khare, Parul; Raj, Vineet; Chandra, Shaleen; Agarwal, Suraksha

2014-01-01

310

Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat. The second aim was to try to relate this composition to a liking for fat and its perception. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva from 13 subjects was collected in the morning and afternoon on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Saliva characteristics such as flow, protein concentration, lipolysis, proteolysis, amylolysis, lipocalin concentration, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant status and uric acid concentrations were measured, as well as the liking for and perceived fattiness of a fat solution. The results showed that for most of the measured characteristics, intra-subject variability in saliva composition was smaller than inter-subject variability, with remarkable stability over time (8 months) in terms of flow, lypolysis, proteolysis and total antioxidant status. Relationships were found between some of these characteristics (lipolysis, lipocalin and flow) and fat-liking or perception, showing that the composition of saliva may play an important role in fat perception and liking. PMID:22024405

Neyraud, Eric; Palicki, Olivier; Schwartz, Camille; Nicklaus, Sophie; Feron, Gilles

2012-05-01

311

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelera [...] tes in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Natalia Cadaxo, Rochael; Luize Goncalves, Lima; Sandra Maria Pereira de, Oliveira; Marcello Andre, Barcinski; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Robson Queiroz, Monteiro; Lucia Helena, Pinto-da-Silva.

2013-09-01

312

Retention of antimicrobial activity in plaque and saliva following mouthrinse use in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of plaque and saliva towards the prolonged activity, also called substantivity, of three antimicrobial mouthrinses (Listerine®, Meridol®, Crest Pro Health®), used in combination with a toothpaste (Prodent Coolmint®). Volunteers brushed for 4 weeks with a toothpaste without antimicrobial claims, while during the last 2 weeks half of the volunteers used an antimicrobial mouthrinse in addition to brushing. At the end of the experimental period, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 h after oral hygiene, and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were determined. The contribution of plaque and saliva towards substantivity was assessed by combining plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only with plaque and saliva obtained after additional use of an antimicrobial rinse. Subsequently, resulting viabilities of the combined plaques were determined. The viabilities of plaque samples after additional rinsing with mouthrinses were lower than of plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only, regardless of the rinse involved. Moreover, plaque collected 6 h after rinsing with antimicrobial mouthrinses contained a surplus of antimicrobial activity. Only Listerine showed decreased viability in saliva, but none of the mouthrinses showed any residual antimicrobial activity in saliva. The findings indicate that plaque left behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the prolonged substantivity of antimicrobial mouthrinses. PMID:20838045

Otten, M P T; Busscher, H J; van der Mei, H C; Abbas, F; van Hoogmoed, C G

2010-01-01

313

An effective technique for the processing of saliva for the analysis of leptin and adiponectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of protein from saliva has been extensively investigated as a method to monitor health. The aim of this study was to compare filtration and centrifugation as two methods of saliva processing necessary for determining the levels of salivary leptin and adiponectin. Thirty-seven healthy patients (median age of 45 years; range 35-73) participated in the study. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected by a drooling technique. An aliquot was filtered using a Millex-Millipore(®) (0.45?m PVDF Dura Pore membrane) syringe and a second aliquot was centrifuged at 15000×g for 15min at 4°C. Leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed using an ELISA kit for serum (RayBio(®), GA, USA) with minor modifications. Leptin and adiponectin levels following the filtration technique yielded comparable results with those after centrifugation. Correlation was observed between filtered and centrifuged salivary leptin levels ((r=0.9155; 95% CI 0.8362-0.9573; padiponectin ((r=0.5718; 95% CI 0.3041-0.7558; p=0.0002) with concordance correlation coefficient k 0.5586 (95% CI 0.2977-0.7419)). Using a Bland-Altman plot, similar measurements for both adipocytokines were observed with mean difference within a 95% CI, and interpreted as no systematic differences between the two processing techniques. This study showed that filtration is an alternative saliva processing technique to retrieve supernatant for protein analysis. Filtered saliva yielded leptin and adiponectin concentrations comparable with those obtained from centrifuged saliva. PMID:23851006

Thanakun, S; Watanabe, H; Thaweboon, S; Izumi, Y

2013-09-01

314

Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation achieved using 1.5 mg/kg.

Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte

2011-01-01

315

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures / Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte [...] amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discus [...] s the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

Evelyn, Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki, Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo, Hirata; Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff, Melani; Rogério Nogueira, Oliveira.

2005-09-01

316

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório.

Evelyn Anzai-Kanto

2005-09-01

317

ABH secretor status in saliva of Calabar Municipality residents.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and seventy six healthy residents of Calabar Municipality were investigated for the presence of salivary ABH substances. Saliva and blood samples collected were analysed by haemagglutination inhibition and standard tube ABO grouping methods respectively. 86.90% and 13.10% of the subjects were ABH secretors and non-secretors respectively. A significant correlation was established between the secretor status frequency and ABO blood group phenotypes (P less than 0.001). No correlation was established with age or sex. O blood group subjects had higher titre of H-substances than A and B subjects while AB subjects had the lowest. In AB subjects, the A titre was usually higher than that of B substances. The gene frequencies for Se and se were 0.6390 and 0.3610 respectively while the phenotype prevalence rates for Se/se, Se se and se se were 40.83%, 46.15% and 13.10% respectively. It is concluded that the prevalence rate of non-secretors which has been associated with the occurrence of duodenal ulcer is low in the locality. PMID:1628544

Emeribe, A O; Igweagu, C A; Osim, E E

1992-01-01

318

Determination of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortisol is quantitatively the major glucocorticoid product of the adrenal cortex. The main reason to measure cortisol is to diagnose human diseases characterised by deficiency of adrenal steroid excretion in Addison's disease or overproduction in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In both cases a sensitive, accurate and reproducible assay of cortisol is required. Several methods have been described for the quantitative measurement of cortisol in both serum and urine. The most widely used methods in routine clinical laboratories are immunoassays (IA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), luminescence and fluorescence assays, which are available in numerous commercial kits and on automated platforms. However, there remains a number of problems in the so-called direct immunoassays if extraction and prepurification are not carried out before the assay. Recently, more specific chromatographic methods have been introduced, such as high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays (LC-MS/MS). The high specificity especially of LC-MS/MS facilitates reliable measurement of cortisol both in plasma, urine and saliva samples. PMID:24275191

Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa

2013-12-01

319

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value.

Herrmann, T.; Adamski, K.; Stefan, M. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

1984-01-01

320

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.

BANDERAS-TARABAY JOSÉ ANTONIO

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Amorphous alloys resistant to corrosion in artificial saliva solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tailoring of new corrosion-resistant alloys with specific properties has recently been performed mostly by the sputter deposition technique. The aim of this work was to investigate corrosion resistance of aluminum-tungsten (Al-W) amorphous alloys in artificial saliva solution, pH=5.5, based on the electrochemical methods of cyclic voltammetry and linear polarization. Thin alloy films were prepared on a sapphire substrate by magnetron codeposition. Completely amorphous films were obtained in the Al(80)W(20)-Al(67)W(33) composition range. Amorphous Al-W alloys exhibit very high corrosion resistance due to their homogeneous single-phase nature. The passive films spontaneously formed at their surface are uniform with characteristics of an insulator film and prevent corrosion progression in the bulk in a very demanding oral environment. The mechanism of increasing resistivity of Al-W alloys to pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion has been discussed in the view of increasing tungsten content in the alloy. Considering these exceptional corrosion properties and microhardness which falls in the range 7.5+/-1.6 Pa, Al-W alloys represent promising materials for dental applications. PMID:15348422

Kwokal, A; Metikos-Hukovi?, M; Radi?, N; Poljak-Guberina, R; Catovi?, A

2003-07-01

322

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

323

Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using 3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

324

Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 ?g/ml before and 0.16404 ?g/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677, sex, number of fillings (P=0.055, number of surface of filling (P=0.059 and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072, with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036.Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

F. Agha Hosseini

2004-09-01

325

Non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva and effects of a tooth gel containing antibacterial enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected innate: non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva were characterized and quantitated. The samples from dogs showed increased pH, higher lysozyme and salivary peroxidase activities, but lower hypothiocyanite concentration and myeloperoxidase activity when compared with human saliva. Secondly, a 1-month clinical pilot study was performed using a commercial tooth gel to determine acute and long-term changes in salivary host defense proteins. Daily application of the tooth gel did not substantially affect the concentrations of these factors in dogs with normal salivation. Our results suggest that canine saliva may be similar to human saliva, comprised of both immune and non-immune antimicrobial factors. However, as in humans, oral administration of antimicrobial proteins as reported here does not seem to benefit dogs with normal saliva secretion. Products such as the tooth gel evaluated in this study may benefit dogs with xerostomia or other clinical conditions causing decreased saliva production. PMID:11968939

Tenovuo, J; Illukka, T; Vähä-Vahe, T

2000-09-01

326

Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

327

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

2005-10-31

328

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

329

Visual thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tool to explore, study, and analyze the structure of the English language. By displaying the interrelationships between words and meanings as spatial maps, it translates language into a visible architecture. The Visual Thesaurus accesses data from WordNet, a publicly available lexical reference system developed by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University. This database contains over 50,000 words and 40,000 phrases collected into more than 70,000 sense meanings.

330

Eurovoc thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multilingual thesaurus covering the fields in which the European Communities are active, this product provides a means of indexing the documents in the documentation systems of the European institutions and of their users. It is currently used by the European Parliament, the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, national and regional parliaments in Europe, national government departments and certain European organisations.

331

UNESCO thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controlled vocabulary which includes subject terms for the following areas of knowledge: education, science, culture, social and human sciences, information and communication, politics, law and economics; also includes the names of countries and groupings of countries: political, economic, geographic, ethnic and religious, and linguistic groupings. Includes French and Spanish equivalents of English preferred terms.

332

Astronomy thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesaurus aims to standardise the terminology in the field of astronomy for the purposes of aiding unambiguous library cataloguing and more precise recall of data from computer databases. Intended for use by astronomy librarians and scientists.

333

ADAMS [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An information system that provides access to all documents made public by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since November 1, 1999 and to bibliographic records (some with abstracts and full text) that were made public up to October 1999.

334

Hydropower economics [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distinctive feature of this book is to provide a social planning perspective on the optimal use of water. This is a prerequisite for understanding and evaluating newly-established electricity markets.

335

Electricity auctions [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"This book presents a comprehensive overview of the international experience in electricity auctions, focusing on the procurement of long-term electricity contracts to foster new generation capacity"--from publisher's site.

336

DIALOGWEB [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides access to over 600 of the databases of classic Dialog via a Web browser. Subject areas of database coverage include: worldwide company information; industry information; patents and trademarks; chemistry, environment, science, and

337

Science conferences [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OSTI Science Conferences portal provides the capability to search for conference information on multiple web sites and databases with a single query utilizing a combination of surface web and deep web tools that can reach where ordinary search engines cannot. Emphasis is on U.S. conferences hosted and/or published by scientific and professional organizations whose areas of focus relate substantially to the Department of Energy's mission. Also possible to search and access the full-text of a subscribed service, the AIP Conference Proceedings.

338

Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09 after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09 após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. A quantidade média ± dp (mg de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado clinicamente. Por outro lado, essa goma de mascar deveria ser evitada por crianças na idade de risco para a fluorose dentária.

Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella

2005-12-01

339

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid / Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (i [...] dades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 [...] years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.

C., Maldonado; Pietro, Fagiolino; M., Vázquez; A., Rey; I., Olano; R., Eiraldi; C., Scavone.

340

Concentrations of thiocyanate and hypothiocyanite in the saliva of young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to determine thiocyanate (SCN-) and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) concentrations in resting (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) and stimulated parotid saliva (SPS) of 20 healthy young adults aged 21-29 y. Samples of saliva were collected at 12:30, immediately before lunch. Resting saliva was collected by expectoration, and stimulated saliva was collected during the uniform chewing of paraffin wax. Parotid secretion was collected using a modified Carlsson-Crittenden cup (Carlsson et al., Am, J. Physiol., 26, 169-177, 1910). SCN- concentration was determined by the ferric nitrate method (Betts et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 5721-5727, 1953) whilst OSCN- was assayed using 2-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent (Pruitt et al., Caries Res., 16, 315-323, 1982). In RWS, SWS and SPS, the mean SCN- concentrations (in mM) were 1.48 +/- 0.59(S.D.), 0.90 +/- 0.56(S.D.) and 1.24 +/- 0.65(S.D.) whilst the mean OSCN- concentrations (in microM) were 31.21 +/- 13.54(S.D.), 24.90 +/- 12.61 and 30.19 +/- 23.35(S.D.) in the respective salivas. The presence of OSCN- in the secretion collected from the parotid gland supported previous findings by Tenovuo and Pruitt (Tenovuo et al., J. Oral Path, ol. 13, 573-584, 1984), who suggested an endogenous glandular (eukaryotic) source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), since parotid saliva from healthy glands is devoid of bacteria and leukocytes. PMID:7869127

Jalil, R A

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

342

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

343

Proteomic analysis of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. PMID:24762651

Tirloni, Lucas; Reck, José; Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E; Fox, Jay W; Yates, John R; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva

2014-01-01

344

Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Saliva: A Comparison between Partially and Fully Engorged Females  

Science.gov (United States)

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. PMID:24762651

Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, Joao Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Fox, Jay W.; Yates, John R.; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antonio F. M.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

2014-01-01

345

Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

346

Investigation of Zinc Concentrations in Saliva of Patients with Thyroid Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that thyroid hormone disorders can influence homeostasis of trace elements in the body, such as zinc (Zn. The aim of this study was to evaluate saliva Zn levels in patients with thyroid diseases. Material and Method: The study was performed on 126 patients (21 male, 105 female with thyroid diseases (31 hyperthyroid, 30 hypothyroid, 31 subclinical hyperthyroid and 34 subclinical hypothyroid and 38 healthy control subjects (7 male, 31female. Saliva was collected from all participants and Zn levels were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Results: Our results demonstrated that saliva Zn (p=0.007 for hypothyroid patients and p=0.023 for subclinical hypothyroid patients levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients than in control subjects. Discussion: This is the first study investigating saliva Zn levels in patients with thyroid diseases. Our results show that saliva Zn levels are affected by hypothyroid disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 1-4

Sevil Kurban

2013-03-01

347

Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers. PMID:24808912

Kaabi, Yahia A.; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A.

2014-01-01

348

Effects of delmopinol on antimicrobial peroxidase systems and lysozyme in vitro and in human whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delmopinol is a new surface-active agent which can reduce plaque formation and gingivitis. This study was aimed to analyze whether delmopinol (0.0032-0.65 mM) interferes with the activity of two surface-active oral antimicrobial enzymes, salivary peroxidase and lysozyme. In addition to human whole saliva (pH 5.0 and 6.0), the experiments were done in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) with purified lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). LPO and MPO were significantly inhibited in buffer by delmopinol concentrations > 6.5 mM and > or = 3.2 mM, respectively. No such inhibition was found for total peroxidase activity in mixed saliva. In vitro, delmopinol was found to desorb surface-bound peroxidases in an active form to the liquid phase. In further analyses, the possible effect of delmopinol on peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-) was studied in saliva and buffer. No effect was found in buffer, but salivary HOSCN/OSCN- declined significantly with 6.5 mM delmopinol. This was obviously due to an enhanced decay of hypothiocyanite, rather than its reduced rate of formation. No delmopinol-related inhibition of lysozyme occurred in saliva or buffer. The results suggest that high concentration (6.4 mM -0.2%) of delmopinol may lower the concentrations of antimicrobial HOSCN/OSCN- in saliva but has no effect on human lysozyme. PMID:7552957

Tenovuo, J; Hannuksela, S; Lenander-Lumikari, M

1995-08-01

349

Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Binge eating episodes in persons with bulimia nervosa may to some extent be a result of disturbed sensations of hunger and satiety. It has been hypothesized that abnormal appetite sensations may be due to bulimia nervosa-related alterations in the release of hormones that are known to be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa than in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake of potentially xerogenic medication. Subjects with bulimia nervosa experienced reduced hunger, which could not be explained by pre- or postprandial alterations in circulating ghrelin, leptin, insulin, or glucose concentrations. Conclusions: There were no apparent differences in the composition of blood and saliva between bulimia nervosa and control subjects, and meal-induced compositional changes in blood were not directly mirrored in saliva composition.

Dynesen, Anja WeirsØe; Jensen, Allan Bardow

2008-01-01

350

Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV. Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and total antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%, employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7% and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%. The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

OBA Isabel Takano

2000-01-01

351

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given.

John Murren

2008-10-01

352

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

353

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

Kršljak Elena

2008-01-01

354

Antioxidant status and dialysis: plasma and saliva antioxidant activity in patients with fluctuating urate levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is concerned with the influence of processes occurring during dialysis on the antioxidant capacity of plasma and saliva. The biological fluids were also tested for uric acid and total protein content. Before hemodialysis, plasma antioxidant status of hemodialyzed patients appears slightly higher than the corresponding status in normal subjects; after hemodialysis it is found unchanged. The result can be explained by a balance between a reduction in uric acid plasma content, due to the dialytic procedure, and an increase in protein content, possibly due to a dialysis-related hemoconcentration. Moreover, pre-dialysis total antioxidant capacity of whole saliva samples is higher than in healthy individuals and drastically decreases towards normal values following dialytic procedure. Our data indicate a certain concentration of the uric acid in the saliva of hemodialyzed patients and evidence that both total protein concentration and uric acid level show a good correlation with saliva total antioxidant capacity, suggesting that proteins are major antioxidants of this fluid. Further observations are needed to assess whether this improved saliva antioxidant ability has any consequence on the periodontal conditions of hemodialyzed subjects. PMID:9925029

Meucci, E; Littarru, C; Deli, G; Luciani, G; Tazza, L; Littarru, G P

1998-11-01

355

Analysis of intracellular enzymes in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal tissue. It is more commonly found in young adults. Analysis of biochemical markers in saliva is very important to monitor the level of periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the intracellular enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Material and Methods. The study included 22 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 28 healthy subjects (control group. Enzyme activity was measured in mixed non-stimulated saliva using kinetic methods in a spectrophotometer and expressed in international units per litre (U/L. Results. The activity of enzymes ALT and ALP was significantly higher in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis compared to healthy subjects, while AST activity was not significantly different. Also, there was no correlation between the activity of intracellular enzymes in saliva and clinical parameters such as gingival index, bleeding index, probing depth in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion. Obtained results indicate that salivary enzymes AST, ALT and ALP can be used as biochemical markers to aid in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

Popovi? Žana

2013-01-01

356

Estimation of salivary protein thiols and total antioxidant power of saliva in brain tumor patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in the genesis of various types of cancers is well established. Several chemical, cell culture and animal studies also indicate that antioxidants may slow or even prevent the development of cancer. Brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage as brain tissue has high rate of oxygen consumption, high lipid content and relatively low antioxidant defenses, compared to other tissues. Materials and Methods: The study design chosen for the present study was cross sectional. The biochemical parameters that were estimated in saliva manually using spectrophotometric methods were ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay - a direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and protein thiols. The physical parameters of saliva that were also assessed were salivary flow rate, pH of the saliva and the osmolality of the saliva. Results: The mean values of salivary flow rate and pH were significantly decreased among malignant and benign tumor patients whereas the salivary osmolality was significantly increased in both the groups of patients. The mean values of salivary FRAP were significantly reduced among malignant and benign tumor patients. However, the salivary protein thiols were significantly increased in these patients. Conclusion: Hence with these observations it can be concluded that in saliva, besides the physical characteristics, salivary FRAP and protein thiol levels are appropriate indicators of the antioxidant status in brain tumor patients.

Suma H

2010-01-01

357

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

2013-08-01

358

Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four t [...] reatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

Daniela Correia Cavalcante, SOUZA; Marisa, MALTZ; Lina Naomi, HASHIZUME.

2014-08-26

359

Quantitative nanostructural and single-molecule force spectroscopy biomolecular analysis of human-saliva-derived exosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structure, surface biochemistry, and mechanical characteristics. These distinct nanometer-sized bioparticles are secreted from the surfaces of oral epithelial cells into saliva and are of interest as oral-cancer biomarkers. We use high- resolution AFM to show single-vesicle quantitative differences between exosomes derived from normal and oral cancer patient's saliva. Compared to normal exosomes (circular, 67.4 ± 2.9 nm), our findings indicate that cancer exosome populations are significantly increased in saliva and display irregular morphologies, increased vesicle size (98.3 ± 4.6 nm), and higher intervesicular aggregation. At the single-vesicle level, cancer exosomes exhibit significantly (P < 0.05) increased CD63 surface densities. To our knowledge, it represents the first report detecting single-exosome surface protein variations. Additionally, high-resolution AFM imaging of cancer saliva samples revealed discrete multivesicular bodies with intraluminal exosomes enclosed. We discuss the use of quantitative, nanoscale ultrastructural and surface biomolecular analysis of saliva exosomes at single-vesicle- and single-protein-level sensitivities as a potentially new oral cancer diagnostic. PMID:22017459

Sharma, Shivani; Gillespie, Boyd M; Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Gimzewski, James K

2011-12-01

360

Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in saliva and gingival tissues, respectively. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Reduced salivary TFF1 and TFF3 concentrations were observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Decreased TFF3 expression in gingival tissues of patients with CP was demonstrated (P = 0.041). Levels of salivary TFF3 concentrations were negatively correlated with periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (formerly known as Bacteroides forsythus). CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of TFFs in saliva and gingival tissues was detected in patients with CP. The results suggest that TFF3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek

2012-01-01

362

Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis. PMID:25025096

Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi

2014-06-01

363

Surface-enhanced Raman spectral measurements of 5-fluorouracil in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide microg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 microL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 microg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given. PMID:18946423

Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Ordway, Beth; Farquharson, Carl; Murren, John

2008-01-01

364

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group, according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control. After varnish application (4 mg, specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: Colorimetric analysis was not able to detect xylitol in saliva samples of the control group. Salivary xylitol concentrations were significantly higher up to 8 h after application of the 20% xylitol varnish. Thereafter, the 10% xylitol varnish released larger amounts of that polyol in artificial saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the results in short-term, sustained xylitol releases could be obtained when the 10% xylitol varnish was used. These varnishes seem to be viable alternatives to increase salivary xylitol levels, and therefore, should be clinically tested to confirm their effectiveness.

Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira

2012-04-01

365

Saliva vs. Plasma Bioequivalence of Paracetamol in Humans: Validation of Class I Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of paracetamol in healthy human volunteers, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class I drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non compartmental analysis. Analysis of variance, 90% confidence intervals, intra-subject and inter-subject variability values of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after logarithmic transformation. Calculations were done using Kinetica program V5. Descriptive and comparative statistics were also calculated by Excel.Paracetamol falls into class I (High permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and was subjected to salivary excretion, with correlation coefficient of 0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations and saliva/plasma concentrations ratios of 1.45-1.50. The 90% confidence limits of areas under curve (AUClast and AUC?) showed similar trend and passed the 80-125% acceptance criteria in both saliva and plasma. On the other hand for maximum concentration (Cmax), the 90% confidence limits passed the acceptance criteria in plasma and failed in saliva. Inter and intra subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva. Saliva and plasma parameter ratios were not significantly different (P>0.05).Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class I drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into classes II or III. PMID:24452519

Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T

2014-10-01

366

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-12-01

367

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-11-01

368

Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%. Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA.

Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel et al.

2010-01-01

369

Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25% less than costs of printing the reports prepared by conventional methods. Because the largest report workload in the offices conducting water resources investigations is preparation of Water-Resources Investigations Reports, Open-File Reports, and annual State Data Reports, the pilot studies only involved these projects. (USGS)

Stiltner, G.J.

1990-01-01

370

Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p

Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes

2007-01-01

371

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish [...] used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h) and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p

Agnes de Fátima Faustino, Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da, Silva; Thelma Lopes da, Silva; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães, Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

2012-04-01

372

Possibility of saliva use in detecting anti herpes simplex virus IgM antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of saliva use instead of sera for detecting anti HSV IgM antibodies. Three groups of patients were included in this study. The first two consisted of immunocompetent persons with clinically and virologicaly approved primary and reccurent herpetic infection. The third group was comprised of AIDS patients with recurrent infection. Anti HSV-1 IgM antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence assay. In saliva and sera samples obtained from persons with primary and recurrent HSV infection, findings of specific IgM antibodies correlated with the dynamic of their synthesis in infection generally. But in the third group, which consisted of AIDS patients, in a few cases there were positive anti HSV IgM concentration, both in sera and saliva samples.

Pavlica Dušan

2002-01-01

373

A simple identification method of saliva by detecting Streptococcus salivarius using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that detection of Streptococcus salivarius is feasible for proving the presence of saliva in a forensic sample. Here, a simple and rapid method for the detection of S. salivarius in forensic samples was developed that uses loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP primer set was designed using S. salivarius-specific sequences of glucosyltransferase K. To simplify the procedure, the sample was prepared by boiling and mutanolysin treatment only, and the entire analytical process was completed within 2.5 h. The cut-off value was set at 0.1 absorbance units, measured at 660 nm, upon termination of the reaction. S. salivarius was identified in all saliva samples, but was not detected in other body fluids or on the skin surface. Using this method, S. salivarius was successfully detected in various mock forensic samples. We therefore suggest that this approach is useful for the identification of saliva in forensic practice. PMID:21198609

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takada, Aya; Shojo, Hideki; Adachi, Noboru; Saito, Kazuyuki

2011-01-01

374

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish [...] used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h) and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p

Agnes de Fátima Faustino, Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da, Silva; Thelma Lopes da, Silva; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães, Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

375

Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in [...] sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apyrase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors.

Reginaldo R, Cavalcante; Marcos H, Pereira; Jorge M, Freitas; Nelder de F, Gontijo.

376

Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion. The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apyrase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors.

Reginaldo R Cavalcante

2006-02-01

377

Characterisation of advanced glycation endproducts in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop increased advanced glycation endproducts causing local complications and increased overall morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were determined in saliva of 52 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 age-matched healthy control subjects. Resonance spectra showed specific peaks at 2.3, 7.3, and 8.4 ppm in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus. These peaks could be generated by incubation of saliva from healthy control subjects with hypochloric acid in vitro, indicating the presence of advanced glycation endproducts. The presence of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with approximal plaque index, indicating increased periodontal damage. The study indicates that increased advanced glycation endproducts are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

378