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ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR) including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-01-01

2

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

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Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval,integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the informatics advances in saliva diagnostics made possible by the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. PMID:22699264

Ai, Ji-Ye; Smith, Barry; Wong, David T W

2012-06-01

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Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Multimedia

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

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Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray; Joan Day

1998-01-01

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MONITORING CYCLOSPORINE IN SALIVA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of monitoring cyclosporine in saliva comprising steps of freezing and thawing said saliva sample; sonicating said saliva sample; and adding said saliva sample to a solvent and water mixture to determine the concentration of cyclosporine in said saliva. Quantification thereby is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/ml. Cyclosporine concentration in saliva is be correlat with that in blood, allowing a less-evasive determination of blood cyclosporine concentration.

AKHLAGHI FATEMEH; MENDONZA ANISHA E

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Analysis of saliva samples from oncological patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work presents a chemical and morphological analysis of samples of saliva taken from patients who were under treatment with intravenous chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Samples of saliva were extracted from fifteen patients during the three stages of the treatment: The initial stage (previous to the chemotherapy), the intermediate stage (during the chemotherapy), and the final stage (twenty-one days after finishing the treatment). An amount of 50 ?l was collected in each visit. Chemical contrast images were taken by means of scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray characteristic spectra were obtained from all the studied samples by using an energy dispersive system from all the studied samples. Images that correspond to the intermediate stage showed important differences with respect to the initial and final stages. In addition, X-ray spectra provided information about the present elements in saliva and their relative abundance allowed us to determine variations in the chemical composition. The backscattered electron images and X-ray spectra from the intermediate stage showed clusters of crystals with fluorine content higher than those obtained in initial and final stages. This fact probably indicates the passage of metabolites of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium from the plasma to the oral cavity. This finding enhances the hypothesis proposed by other authors about the secondary effects of the drugs on the stomatognathic system such as oral mucositis, dysgeusia, and xerostomia with or without hyposalivation.

Mazzeo MA; Linares JA; López MM; Bachmeier E; Wietz FM; Galván V; Valentinuzzi MC; Riveros JA; Finkelberg A

2013-05-01

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Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The ke (more) ywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Hannas, Angélicas Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi

2012-10-01

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Saliva and dental erosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-01-01

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Nitrosamine formation in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrosamines formed when secondary amines were added to normal human saliva. Fractionation of saliva into cells and supernatant showed that factors that accelerated and retarded the nitrosation reaction were both present. Acidification of saliva greatly increased the nitrosamine yield, but differences in nitrosamine yield among saliva fractions were still observable.

Tannenbaum SR; Archer MC; Wishnok JS; Bishop WW

1978-02-01

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Nitrosamine formation in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrosamines formed when secondary amines were added to normal human saliva. Fractionation of saliva into cells and supernatant showed that factors that accelerated and retarded the nitrosation reaction were both present. Acidification of saliva greatly increased the nitrosamine yield, but differences in nitrosamine yield among saliva fractions were still observable. PMID:621744

Tannenbaum, S R; Archer, M C; Wishnok, J S; Bishop, W W

1978-02-01

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[Saliva, a physiological medium].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plaque and plaque fluid, rather than saliva, are of prime importance in determining the result of the interaction between tooth enamel and its environment. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions is higher in plaque fluid than in saliva. Local supersaturation may result in the remineralization of white spot lesions or in the formation of calculus. The latter may be inhibited with containing dentifrices. Undersaturation, resulting from bacterial acids production, promotes dental caries. Fluorides are effective against caries, although the limited transporting properties of saliva would be recognized when designing caries preventive treatments. Suppleting saliva with calcium and phosphat ions through mouthrinses is another method to fight caries, while stimulation of the secretion by chewing gum is also very effective.

ten Cate JM

1992-03-01

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Commercial saliva collections tools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases.

Slowey PD

2013-02-01

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Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

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Use of electronic information resources in goverment libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the use of electronic information resources in government libraries in Slovenia. It starts with the definition of government libraries and electronic publications. On a selected sample of government libraries, the state of the usage of electronic information resources in government libraries was studied. On the basis of interviews, carried out in five government libraries, it was established that government libraries mostly do not focus on, or even think about, the use of electronic information resources. What they have and use seems self-evident to them.

Simona Omahen; Maja Žumer

2003-01-01

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Oestrogens in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matched plasma and saliva samples were obtained from a non-pregnant and pregnant group (last trimester) of female caucasians. Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay, 17?-oestradiol was measured, and the gingival index system of Loe (1967) was used to assess the gingival condition of each patient. The results showed that 17?-oestradiol could be measured in saliva but that the levels were extremely low and a very sensitive immunoassay was necessary. In the pregnant group, saliva represented 3 per cent of the plasma level. This was not the case in the non-pregnant group, probably because of the constantly changing free: bound plasma ratio. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that oestrogens are known to bind to the oral epithelium

1981-01-01

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[Amino acids in saliva].  

Science.gov (United States)

Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

1984-01-01

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User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

2011-01-01

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Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

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Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Saliva and wound healing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. Furthermore, saliva contains a variety of proteins that play a role in the various stages of the intraoral wound healing. Tissue factor, present in salivary exosomes, accelerates the clotting of blood dramatically. The subsequent proliferation of epithelial cells is promoted by growth factors in saliva, especially epidermal growth factor. The importance of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor is demonstrated by the observation that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Members of the salivary histatin family promote wound closure in vitro by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration. Cell proliferation is not enhanced by histatin. Cyclization of histatin increased its biological activity approximately 1,000-fold compared to linear histatin. These studies suggest that histatins could potentially be used for the development of new wound healing medications.

Brand HS; Veerman EC

2013-01-01

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MONITORING CYCLOSPORINE IN SALIVA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva offers an alternative specimen for the therapeutic monitoring of cyclosporine (CsA) in children and patients with difficult venous access. For a highly protein-bound drug such as CsA, saliva provides a practical approach for measuring the unbound concentration. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is ideally suited for the measurement of drugs in saliva. A solid-phase extraction technique, analytic liquid chromatography over an Aqua Perfect column, maintained at 65 DEG C., and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify CsA in saliva. The method used cyclosporine C (CsC) as the internal standard. Mobile phase comprised of a 97:3 voL mixture of methanol and 30 mmol/L ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Chromatograms using mass transitions of m/z 1219.9->m/z 1202.9 for CsA and m/z 1235.9->m/z 1218.9 for CsC were obtained.; The calibration curve was linear from 1 to 300 mug/L with correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.9732 to 0.9968). The lower limit of quantification was 1 mug/L and limit of detection was 0.6 mug/L with an average extraction recovery of 84.7+-2.6% for CsA and 93.7+-4.4% for CsC from the saliva matrix. The accuracy of the method ranged from 92% to 104.7%, and the intra- and interim coefficients of variation were 6.9-12.2% and 8.3-12.1%, respectively. The correlation coefficient value between the CsA concentration measurements in 15 paired blood-saliva samples from kidney transplant recipients was 0.695 (P=0.006). The noninvasive and simple method of saliva collection coupled with the LC-MS/MS quantification technique for CsA analysis would generate novel data that could benefit patients undergoing CsA therapy.

AKHLAGHI FATEMEH; MENDONZA ANISHA E

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Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

24

Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Multimedia

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

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Electronics Learning-Resources on the Web  

Science.gov (United States)

The links on this page are to background information which students taking electronics courses (particularly PHY2003, PHY3128) may find helpful. The descriptors used in the tables are explained at the bottom of the page. Topics include Circuit Analysis and Complex Variables, Techniques and Good Practice, Oscilloscopes, Passive Components, Diodes, Transistors, Op-Amps, Filters, Digital Signal, Processing, Applications and Circuits, Monostables and Astables, and Microcontrollers and PICsSpice: Learning and using Spice

Williams, Charles D.

2013-06-12

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Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-01-01

27

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

28

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma; Pertti Vakkari

2004-01-01

29

Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

Doži? Ivan; Todorovi? Tatjana

2005-01-01

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Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

Shao, Fang

31

Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Ho, W.-F., E-mail: fujii@mail.dyu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan (China)

2009-11-13

32

Interaction of saliva and taste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of the coexistence of saliva and taste in the oral cavity, an understanding of their interactions is still incomplete. Saliva has modulating effects on sour, salt, and the monosodium-glutamate-induced savory or umami taste. It has a diminishing effect on sour taste as a result of the buffering by salivary bicarbonate. It probably also contributes to the umami taste with endogenous salivary glutamate levels. Salt taste is detected only when above salivary sodium-chloride concentrations; thus saliva influences salt taste threshold levels. It also provides the ionic environment for taste cells, probably critical in signal transduction. Salivary flow rate and composition are influenced by the type of taste stimuli. In general, sour taste, elicited by citric acid or sour food, induces the highest flow rate and Na+ concentrations, while salt gives rise to high protein and Ca2+ concentrations. Stimulation with the four basic taste modalities (sour, sweet, salty, and bitter), however, does not increase the relative proportion of any of the salivary proteins. This review examines the literature on the interactions of saliva with taste, and the effect of taste on salivary composition. The possible role of the von Ebner's salivary glands and the role of saliva as a chemical cue are also discussed.

Spielman AI

1990-03-01

33

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

34

ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

35

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

36

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free) and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

37

eFG: an electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein-protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely. DATABASE URL: http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ PMID:23798489

Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Luonan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

2013-06-22

38

White Light Generation in Human Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

2011-07-01

39

Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid specific radioimmunoassay for progesterone in mixed, unstimulated saliva is described. Column chromatography is not necessary. One single extraction with petroleum ether provides a fractional recovery of 75-95%. The assay sensitivity is 9 pg progesterone/tube. The intra- and interassay variation for low, medium, and highly concentrated progesterone pools is 13.1-9.5 and 17.4-13.9%, respectively. Analytical recovery documents excellent correlation between expected and detected progesterone concentrations (r = 0.994). Data from salivary progesterone of a regularly menstruating girl and of a patient with XO Turner's syndrome are provided. PMID:6852777

Sorgo, W; Manella, B; Zachmann, M

1983-01-01

40

Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid specific radioimmunoassay for progesterone in mixed, unstimulated saliva is described. Column chromatography is not necessary. One single extraction with petroleum ether provides a fractional recovery of 75-95%. The assay sensitivity is 9 pg progesterone/tube. The intra- and interassay variation for low, medium, and highly concentrated progesterone pools is 13.1-9.5 and 17.4-13.9%, respectively. Analytical recovery documents excellent correlation between expected and detected progesterone concentrations (r = 0.994). Data from salivary progesterone of a regularly menstruating girl and of a patient with XO Turner's syndrome are provided.

Sorgo W; Manella B; Zachmann M

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and observation to add clarity.Findings: The study assesses the faculty awareness and use of electronic resources in their academic and research needs. Besides, familiarity about search patterns for effective retrieval.Research Limitations: The study is limited to the faculty of the Autonomous Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) in Bengaluru Region of Karnataka State, India.Keywords: e-resources; search pattern; e-resource use; Autonomous Engineering Colleges.Paper Type: Survey cum Research

G. Kiran Kumar; Mallinath Kumbar

2012-01-01

42

Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.

Naumova Ella A; Kuehnl Phillip; Hertenstein Philipp; Markovic Ljubisa; Jordan Rainer A; Gaengler Peter; Arnold Wolfgang H

2012-01-01

43

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

2011-01-01

44

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science) in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu; Jung-Huei Shu

2008-01-01

45

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document mana...

Thomas Groenewald

46

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

1978-01-01

47

Using Electronic Repositories as a Student Resource for MSE Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the majority of engineering disciplines, MSE provides resources and applications with many other areas of engineering, e.g., design, structures, mechanics, and manufacturing. For the students to transfer and implement their MSE knowledge, they must have easy access to all their information. The eportfolio is a repository of the students entire academic MSE content and provides a wealth of knowledge applicable to all engineering disciplines. This repository combines not only lecture and textbook material, but also every assignment (in assessed format), all quizzes (with answers) laboratory activities (in audiovisual format), student oral presentations (podcast), and lectures in asynchronous format. This allows all of the data and information accumulated by students throughout their varying MSE course collected in one place, and is able to act as a quick resource and information kit for future use as the eportfolio is quickly accessed. Student and graduate responses have been positive especially for those in the workforce who require immediate and correct information.

Blicblau, Aaron

2009-09-22

48

Saliva Parameters and Erosive Wear in Adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between several parameters of saliva and erosive wear in adolescents. (Un-)stimulated saliva was collected from 88 adolescents with erosion and 49 controls (age 16 ± 1 years). Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were determined immediately. Total protein content, carbonic anhydrase VI, amylase, albumin, calcium, phosphate, urea, sodium, chloride and potassium were measured at a later time. Unstimulated flow rate was found to be significantly lower in subjects with erosive wear (p = 0.016). The chloride concentration in unstimulated saliva was found to be significantly higher in the erosion group (p = 0.019).

Zwier N; Huysmans MC; Jager DH; Ruben J; Bronkhorst EM; Truin GJ

2013-06-01

49

Disseminating Context-Specific Access to Online Knowledge Resources within Electronic Health Record Systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinicians' patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians' questions and provide automated links to relevant information in knowledge resources. This paper describes OpenInfobutton (www.openinfobutton.org): a standards-based, open source Web service that was designed to disseminate infobutton capabilities in multiple EHR systems and healthcare organizations. OpenInfobutton has been successfully integrated with 38 knowledge resources at 5 large healthcare organizations in the United States. We describe the OpenInfobutton architecture, knowledge resource integration, and experiences at five large healthcare organizations.

Del Fiol G; Curtis C; Cimino JJ; Iskander A; Kalluri AS; Jing X; Hulse NC; Long J; Overby CL; Schardt C; Douglas DM

2013-01-01

50

Saliva as an alternative source of high yield canine genomic DNA for genotyping studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic dog presents an attractive model system for the study of the genetic basis of disease. The development of resources such as the canine genome sequence and SNP genotyping platforms has allowed for the implementation of canine genetic studies. Successful implementation of such studies depends not only on the quality of individual DNA samples, but also on the number of samples obtained. The latter can be maximized using a non-invasive DNA collection method that can increase study participation. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained from blood and buccal swabs to those obtained using a non-invasive saliva collection kit (Oragene ®•ANIMAL kit). We also assessed the success rate of PCR amplification and genotyping accuracy of DNA isolated using these collection methods. Findings Comparison of DNA yields from matched saliva, blood and buccal swab samples showed that yields from saliva were significantly higher than those from blood (p = 0.0198) or buccal swabs (p = 0.0008). Electrophoretic analysis revealed that blood and saliva produced higher quality DNA than buccal swabs. In addition, a 1.1-kb PCR fragment was successfully amplified using the paired DNA samples and genotyping by PCR-RFLP yielded identical results. Conclusion We demonstrate that DNA yields from canine saliva are higher than those from blood or buccal swabs. The quality of DNA extracted from saliva is sufficient for successful amplification of a 1.1-kb fragment and for accurate SNP genotyping by PCR-RFLP. We conclude that saliva presents a non-invasive alternative source of high quantities of canine genomic DNA suitable for genotyping studies.

Mitsouras Katherine; Faulhaber Erica A

2009-01-01

51

Saliva immunoglobulins in elite women rowers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva immunoglobulins (sIgA, sIgG, and sIgM) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) rates were evaluated in 20 elite female rowers and 19 nonathletes. Also, the influence of carbohydrate versus placebo beverage consumption on saliva immunoglobulin responses to rowing training sessions was measured in 15 rowers and in 5 non-exercising rowers. Saliva samples were collected 1 day before, and 5-10 min and 1.5 h after rowing or rest. Pre-exercise sIgA (but not sIgG or sIgM) concentration was 77% higher in the rowers compared to nonathletes (P < 0.001). Health records kept over 2 months revealed mean 5.2 (SEM 1.2) and 3.3 (SEM 1.1) days with URTI symptoms for the rowers and controls, respectively. For all 39 subjects, and for the 20 rowers separately, no significant correlation was found between URTI symptoms or insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone concentrations and pre-exercise or exercise-related changes in saliva immunoglobulin concentrations or secretion rates. The patterns of change in saliva immunoglobulin concentration and secretion rate did not differ between the carbohydrate and placebo rowing trials, or between exercised and rested athletes. These data indicated an increased sIgA concentration in the female elite rowers compared to the nonathletes, no association between saliva immunoglobulins and URTI, and no effect of a normal 2-hour training session or carbohydrate ingestion on saliva immunoglobulin concentrations or secretion rates.

Nehlsen-Cannarella SL; Nieman DC; Fagoaga OR; Kelln WJ; Henson DA; Shannon M; Davis JM

2000-02-01

52

Saliva immunoglobulins in elite women rowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva immunoglobulins (sIgA, sIgG, and sIgM) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) rates were evaluated in 20 elite female rowers and 19 nonathletes. Also, the influence of carbohydrate versus placebo beverage consumption on saliva immunoglobulin responses to rowing training sessions was measured in 15 rowers and in 5 non-exercising rowers. Saliva samples were collected 1 day before, and 5-10 min and 1.5 h after rowing or rest. Pre-exercise sIgA (but not sIgG or sIgM) concentration was 77% higher in the rowers compared to nonathletes (P < 0.001). Health records kept over 2 months revealed mean 5.2 (SEM 1.2) and 3.3 (SEM 1.1) days with URTI symptoms for the rowers and controls, respectively. For all 39 subjects, and for the 20 rowers separately, no significant correlation was found between URTI symptoms or insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone concentrations and pre-exercise or exercise-related changes in saliva immunoglobulin concentrations or secretion rates. The patterns of change in saliva immunoglobulin concentration and secretion rate did not differ between the carbohydrate and placebo rowing trials, or between exercised and rested athletes. These data indicated an increased sIgA concentration in the female elite rowers compared to the nonathletes, no association between saliva immunoglobulins and URTI, and no effect of a normal 2-hour training session or carbohydrate ingestion on saliva immunoglobulin concentrations or secretion rates. PMID:10638381

Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L; Nieman, D C; Fagoaga, O R; Kelln, W J; Henson, D A; Shannon, M; Davis, J M

2000-02-01

53

Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments  

CERN Document Server

We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air audio played through speakers.

Woodruff, A; Grinter, R E; Hurst, A; Szymanski, M H; Thornton, J D; Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

2002-01-01

54

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems Taqman™ and Illumina Beadchip™ genome-wide arrays. METHOD: Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek®) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. RESULTS: Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2-52 ?g) than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58-577 ?g) and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97%) for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. CONCLUSION: We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

Abraham JE; Maranian MJ; Spiteri I; Russell R; Ingle S; Luccarini C; Earl HM; Pharoah PP; Dunning AM; Caldas C

2012-01-01

55

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded). Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental stud...

Romanov Kalle; Aarnio Matti

56

A device for the collection of submandibular saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to describe the construction of a non-invasive device for the collection of submandibular saliva. Preliminary tests were carried out on saliva collected from a single donor in order to determine whether the rheological properties of submandibular saliva collected using the device were comparable to whole saliva collected using the expectoration (or 'spit') method. The device collected a lower quantity of saliva than that collected using the expectoration method. Stimulated saliva collected using the device had a pH close to that of unstimulated saliva because the sealed collection unit in the device minimised contamination. Saliva exhibited shear-thinning behaviour regardless of the method of collection, although that collected using the device was more viscous. The viscoelasticity of saliva collected using the two methods was different, probably as a result of differences in composition. This difference was greater with stimulated saliva. Despite the discrepancies between whole saliva and submandibular saliva, the device provides a non-invasive method for the collection of high-quality saliva over extended periods.

Hanning S; Motoi L; Medlicott N; Swindells S

2012-03-01

57

The secretion, components, and properties of saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.

Carpenter GH

2013-01-01

58

Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis. PMID:6503222

McCarron, M M; Walberg, C B; Soares, J R; Gross, S J; Baselt, R C

59

Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis

1984-01-01

60

Influence of Human Saliva on the Development of Artificial Erosions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was hypothesized that saliva from patients with erosion exhibits lower protective efficacy compared to saliva from patients without erosion, based on in vitro enamel softening studies. A total of 645 enamel specimens were distributed among seven experimental groups. Saliva was gathered from each of 10 volunteers without clinical signs of dental erosion and from 10 patients exhibiting severe erosive defects. Aliquots of 50 ml of saliva from each patient were mixed with sour drops or citric acid, respectively. Pooled saliva, sour drops and citric acid mixed with water served as controls. The enamel specimens were soaked in the respective mixture for 5 min and were subsequently incubated in pure saliva for 2 min. This cycle was repeated three times, then the specimens were kept in 100 ml of saliva for 8 h. Surface microhardness was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and after each cycle. During the experiments, microhardness decreased significantly in all groups except for the pure saliva group. For sour drops and citric acid mixed with saliva from patients without erosion, the final microhardness was higher compared to the mixture of the two erosive compounds with saliva from patients with erosion. The storage of saliva for 8 h resulted in a certain amount of rehardening, with the highest level of rehardening being observed in the group that was least demineralized (sour drops plus saliva from patients without erosion). It is concluded that salivary components play a crucial role in the development of dental erosion.

Hellwig E; Lussi A; Goetz F

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Toward a standardized saliva proteome analysis methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed the evaluation of saliva sample pre-treatment, in particular the sample clearance usually performed by centrifugation, to the contribution of salivary proteome and peptidome. Using in-gel and off-gel approaches, a large content of salivary proteins was detected in the pellet fraction that is usually discarded. In addition, chaotropic/detergent treatment in combination with sonication, before the centrifugation step, resulted in salivary complex disruption and consequently in the extraction of high amounts of proteins. Based on this data, we suggest the use of urea/detergent with sonication as a standard saliva sample pre-treatment procedure. We also described a procedure to extract salivary peptides which can be performed even after saliva sample treatment with chaotropic/detergents. In overall, we reported for the first time the contribution of the pellet fraction to the whole saliva proteome. iTRAQ analysis highlighted a higher number of different peptides as well as distinct quantities of each protein class when after sample treatment with urea and sonication, acetone precipitation followed by solubilization with acetonitrile/HCl was performed. PMID:22809520

Vitorino, Rui; Guedes, Sofia; Manadas, Bruno; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco

2012-07-15

62

Toward a standardized saliva proteome analysis methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed the evaluation of saliva sample pre-treatment, in particular the sample clearance usually performed by centrifugation, to the contribution of salivary proteome and peptidome. Using in-gel and off-gel approaches, a large content of salivary proteins was detected in the pellet fraction that is usually discarded. In addition, chaotropic/detergent treatment in combination with sonication, before the centrifugation step, resulted in salivary complex disruption and consequently in the extraction of high amounts of proteins. Based on this data, we suggest the use of urea/detergent with sonication as a standard saliva sample pre-treatment procedure. We also described a procedure to extract salivary peptides which can be performed even after saliva sample treatment with chaotropic/detergents. In overall, we reported for the first time the contribution of the pellet fraction to the whole saliva proteome. iTRAQ analysis highlighted a higher number of different peptides as well as distinct quantities of each protein class when after sample treatment with urea and sonication, acetone precipitation followed by solubilization with acetonitrile/HCl was performed.

Vitorino R; Guedes S; Manadas B; Ferreira R; Amado F

2012-09-01

63

Bibliotecas digitales: recursos bibliográficos electrónicos en educación básica Digital Libraries: Electronic Bibliographic Resources on Basic Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudiar recursos bibliográficos en formato electrónico para la educación básica implica reflexionar sobre mecanismos de búsqueda que atiendan las necesidades de los pequeños usuarios. A través de los trabajos realizados en el proyecto de investigación educativa «Bibliotecas digitales», se puso en evidencia que los acervos explorados, manejan un lenguaje para un nivel de educación superior. Ante esta problemática, se planteó la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Cuáles son los criterios de clasificación de los recursos bibliográficos electrónicos para la educación básica? Se propuso una investigación no experimental, con una muestra de estudio no probabilística de casos tipo, integrada por 250 recursos que ofrecen los diez acervos bibliográficos seleccionados en base a un estudio exploratorio previamente realizado. Para el análisis, se valoraron los siguientes recursos: accesibilidad, eje curricular al que está dirigido, formato y aspectos pedagógicos, funcionales, tecnológicos y estéticos. Los resultados muestran una media de 3.76, la cual indica que los acervos bibliográficos ofrecen recursos de calidad, aunque es necesario trabajar en los aspectos pedagógicos y funcionales. Clasificar recursos electrónicos para educación básica requiere considerar necesidades pedagógicas, entorno gráfico, tecnológico y sobre todo, la forma dinámica y cambiante de cómo se concibe la información. Esto corrobora la necesidad de establecer un conjunto de indicadores que permita a los docentes seleccionar recursos electrónicos en relación a los ejes curriculares de la educación básica.Studying electronic bibliographic resources for basic education involves thinking about search mechanisms that meet the needs of young users. Through the investigation carried out during the educational research project «Digital libraries», it became evident that the collections explored use a language better suited to higher education. Faced with this problem, the following question arose: What are the criteria for classifying electronic bibliographic resources for basic education? The proposed investigation was non-experimental, with a non-probabilistic sample of case studies; the sample comprised 250 resources from 10 bibliographic collections. The analysis assessed resources according to: accessibility, the curricular axis to which it is addressed, and format; pedagogical, functional, technological and aesthetic aspects. The results show a mean of 3.76, which indicates that the bibliographic collections provide quality resources, although it is necessary to improve educational and functional aspects. Classifying electronic resources for basic education requires the consideration of pedagogical needs, graphical and technological qualities and, especially, the dynamic way in which information is conceived nowadays. This confirms the need to establish a set of indicators that enable teachers to select electronic resources based on basic education curricular axes.

Marcela Georgina López Zermeño

2012-01-01

64

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación/ Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad universitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan (more) las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality throug (more) h the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Pinto, Maria; Gomez-Camarero, Carmen; Fernández-Ramos, Andrés

2012-09-01

65

Ovulation detection in saliva, is it possible.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims: The new mini-microscope Geratherm® ovu control was evaluated for its recognition of saliva ferning in a collective of 47 patients taking part in an artificial reproductive technology program on the day of follicular puncture. Methods: The ferning phenomenon was evaluated by patients and laboratory staff according to the criteria: no ferning, slight ferning and good ferning. Results: Geratherm® ovu control showed a specificity of 78% and a sensitivity of 80% in relation to rising E2 levels under follicle-stimulating hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin. A comparison of the evaluations of the saliva test carried out by patients and by laboratory staff resulted in a high and substantial agreement of 89.4% (?). Conclusion: Evaluations performed by ovu control were similar to those achieved with a highly sophisticated inverted microscope. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24008369

Salmassi, A; Schmutzler, A G; Püngel, F; Schubert, M; Alkatout, I; Mettler, L

2013-09-04

66

Ovulation detection in saliva, is it possible.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background/Aims: The new mini-microscope Geratherm® ovu control was evaluated for its recognition of saliva ferning in a collective of 47 patients taking part in an artificial reproductive technology program on the day of follicular puncture. Methods: The ferning phenomenon was evaluated by patients and laboratory staff according to the criteria: no ferning, slight ferning and good ferning. Results: Geratherm® ovu control showed a specificity of 78% and a sensitivity of 80% in relation to rising E2 levels under follicle-stimulating hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin. A comparison of the evaluations of the saliva test carried out by patients and by laboratory staff resulted in a high and substantial agreement of 89.4% (?). Conclusion: Evaluations performed by ovu control were similar to those achieved with a highly sophisticated inverted microscope. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Salmassi A; Schmutzler AG; Püngel F; Schubert M; Alkatout I; Mettler L

2013-01-01

67

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

Friege H

2012-09-01

68

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

2011-01-01

69

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER??????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-01-01

70

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

71

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro; R.E. Ruiz De Valladares; I.L. Benito De Cárdenas

2005-01-01

72

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva/ Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo rec (more) omendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the (more) cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

Gutiérrez De Ferro, M.I.; Ruiz De Valladares, R.E.; Benito De Cárdenas, I.L.

2005-03-01

73

[Inhibitory effect of human saliva on HIV-1 infectivity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is known to decrease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to confirm these findings and to explore the mechanism of action of saliva. Whole saliva from seronegative donors was incubated with HIV-1IIIB chronically infected MOLT 4 cells (MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells) or cell-free HIV-1IIIB or KMT strains. We monitored viral infectivity by using MAGI/CCR5 cells. Whole saliva with Na levels less than 20 mEq/l rapidly damaged MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells, thereby HIV infection to MAGI/CCR5 cells by MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells was nearly abolished. On the contrary, in the cace of whole saliva with Na levels more than 23 mEq/l which damaged few cells, cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1IIIB was prevented by more than 50%. The infectivity of cell-free HIV-1IIIB to MAGI/CCR5 cells was abolished after incubating and filtering the HIV with whole saliva. Depletion of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) from whole saliva resulted in a 11-28% decrease in the anti HIV-1KMT activity of saliva. Preincubation of host cells with whole saliva led to an enhancement of the HIV infection rather than inhibition. Whole saliva had no effect on the expression level of the cellular receptors (CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5). These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of whole saliva on HIV-1 infectivity is directly linked to the virus itself rather than on the host cell. Moreover, the physical entrapment of cell-free HIV-1 by whole saliva seems to have major salivaly defence mechanisms against HIV-1 infection through the oral cavity. PMID:16578966

Etsuko, K; Wei, S

2001-08-01

74

Detection of HIV antibodies in saliva and its implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human immunodeficiency virus has been detected in almost all body fluids. With a silent disease such as HIV infection, testing for HIV antibodies currently is the most cost effective means for determining the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection in the community and for identifying HIV infection in the individuals. HIV antibodies are found in human saliva and can be detected by sensitive ELISA. Saliva collection is easy to perform, non-invasive, safe to use and thus provides alternative method to blood collection. Research is underway to develop a low-cost saliva assay, thus saliva could become the HIV antibody testing medium of choice for much of the developing countries.

Anil S; Beena VT; Nair RG; Varghese BJ

1995-07-01

75

Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

2013-01-01

76

Reducing clinical trial monitoring resource allocation and costs through remote access to electronic medical records.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. METHODS: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. RESULTS: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. CONCLUSION: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren SC; Kirkman MB; Dalton BS; Zalcberg JR

2013-01-01

77

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66%) questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9%) of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Saturday U. Omeluzor; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Itunu Bamidele; Susan U. Ogbuiyi

2012-01-01

78

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años), provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL). Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva.Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is implement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd) from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile) participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL). In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Luis A Salazar; Claudio Vásquez; Alejandro Almuna; Gonzalo Oporto; Roberto Santana; Christian L Herrera; Antonio Sanhueza

2008-01-01

79

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva/ Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron (more) de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años), provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL). Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is implement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd) from five (more) different schools from Temuco city (Chile) participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL). In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Salazar, Luis A; Vásquez, Claudio; Almuna, Alejandro; Oporto, Gonzalo; Santana, Roberto; Herrera, Christian L; Sanhueza, Antonio

2008-12-01

80

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of Different Tastants on Parotid Saliva Flow and Composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva from parotid glands plays a role in taste perception. Parotid saliva is also stimulated by tastants. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different tastants on the parotid salivary response in six subjects. Five tastants were given in different concentrations in solution and ...

Neyraud, E.; Heinzerling, C.I.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mesmin, C.; Dransfield, E.

82

Thiocyanate as a marker of saliva in gastric juice?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One source of error in gastric secretion studies is swallowed saliva. The possibility that salivary thiocyanate might be used to measure this contamination has been investigated. Thiocyanate concentration was measured in saliva and gastric juice collected simultaneously in 22 duodenal ulcer patients...

Boulos, P B; Whitfield, P F; Dave, M; Faber, R G; Hobsley, M

83

Evidence for thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase activity in human saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A procedure was developed for determining the relative levels of lactoperoxidase, leukocyte myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase in human saliva. With this procedure, most of the peroxidase activity in whole saliva from normal (those without cancer) subjects was found to be associat...

Cowman, R A; Baron, S S; Obenauf, S D; Byrnes, J J

84

Studies of Histidine-Rich Polypeptides from Human Parotid Saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation of an histidine-rich polypeptide from human parotid saliva is described. This polypeptide, termed HRP-1, contains 17% histidine. HRP-1 is a neutral molecule and is a precursor of the cationic histidine-rich polypeptides found in saliva. Resu...

B. J. Baum J. L. Bird D. B. Millar R. W. Longton

1976-01-01

85

Improved artificial saliva for studying the cariogenic effect of carbohydrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva is a complex fluid that possesses many important functions regarding oral health. Many in vitro studies require relatively large quantities of saliva. While natural saliva would be the material of choice, it is difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities and varies in composition. Substitutes mimicking the physicochemical properties of saliva have been developed, but these are not appropriate to study the growth of mutans streptococci. Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) has been commonly used for this, but this medium is richer in nutrients than saliva. We therefore developed artificial saliva (AS) with nutrient levels resembling those in natural saliva as a substitute for natural human saliva (HS) to study the influence of different carbon sources on mutans streptococci growth. Growth of a wild-type Streptococcus mutans strain and S. mutans ATCC 15175 in BHI, HS, and AS was monitored anaerobically. Growth of S. mutans in the modified AS was very similar to the growth in HS, both in the absence and presence of different carbon sources. We therefore conclude that the developed AS is suitable for in vitro tests on S. mutans growth.

Björklund M; Ouwehand AC; Forssten SD

2011-07-01

86

A dynamic model of saliva secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We construct a mathematical model of the parotid acinar cell with the aim of investigating how the distribution of K(+) and Cl(-) channels affects saliva production. Secretion of fluid is initiated by Ca(2+) signals acting on Ca(2+) dependent K(+) and Cl(-) channels. The opening of these channels facilitates the movement of Cl(-) ions into the lumen which water follows by osmosis. We use recent results into both the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores via the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) and IP(3) dynamics to create a physiologically realistic Ca(2+) model which is able to recreate important experimentally observed behaviours seen in parotid acinar cells. We formulate an equivalent electrical circuit diagram for the movement of ions responsible for water flow which enables us to calculate and include distinct apical and basal membrane potentials to the model. We show that maximum saliva production occurs when a small amount of K(+) conductance is located at the apical membrane, with the majority in the basal membrane. The maximum fluid output is found to coincide with a minimum in the apical membrane potential. The traditional model whereby all Cl(-) channels are located in the apical membrane is shown to be the most efficient Cl(-) channel distribution.

Palk L; Sneyd J; Shuttleworth TJ; Yule DI; Crampin EJ

2010-10-01

87

Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands (SGs), taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, SGs, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa.

Zolotukhin S

2013-04-01

88

Orosensory stimulation effects on human saliva proteome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva flow induced by 6-gingerol (pungent), hydroxy-?/?-sanshools (tingling), and citric acid (sour) was measured, and the time-dependent changes in the whole saliva proteome were analyzed by means of 2D-PAGE, followed by tryptic in-gel digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprint analysis. The proteins showing significantly decreased abundance after oral 6-gingerol stimulation were identified as glutathione S-transferase P, the heat shock protein ?-1, the heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, annexin A1, and cytoplasmic ?-actin, whereas prolactin inducible proteins (PIP), short palate, lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2 (SPLUNC2), zinc-?-2-glycoproteins (Zn-?-GP), and carbonic anhydrase VI (CAVI) were found with increased abundance. As the effects of this study were observed instantaneously upon stimulation, any proteome modulation is very likely to result from the release of proteins from preformed vesicles and not from de novo synthesis. The elevated levels of SPLUNC2, Zn-?-GP, and CAVI might be interpreted to trigger innate protective mechanisms in mucosal immunity and in nonimmune mucosal defense and might play an important role during the initial stage of inflammation.

Lorenz K; Bader M; Klaus A; Weiss W; Görg A; Hofmann T

2011-09-01

89

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS), workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.???89-93

? Nerisa Kamar?

2008-01-01

90

Trimethoprim: prediction of serum concentrations from saliva measurements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva has been used in the past as a non-invasive predictor of serum drug concentration. Prediction may be made from a regression line of saliva versus serum concentration or from an equation proposed by Matin et al. (1974); such predictions have been examined for trimethoprim, a drug that has a pKa of 7.3, the degree of ionisation influencing its partition between saliva and serum. A relationship was found between serum and saliva trimethoprim concentrations. Salivary trimethoprim concentrations were marginally related to salivary flow rate, but not salivary pH. The precision and bias of prediction from linear regression and the equation of Matin et al. (1974) was considered; the equation did not describe the relationship between serum and saliva trimethoprim concentrations and we conclude that its use is inappropriate.

Watson ID; Stewart MJ

1986-01-01

91

Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2001-06-01

92

Marshmallows used as saliva stimulant do not affect cortisol concentrations: finally a palatable alternative for toddler saliva collection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two studies were conducted to validate marshmallows as a saliva stimulant for use with toddlers. First, cortisol concentrations from 14 subjects (ages 6-46 years) were compared using three saliva collection methods: (1) plain cotton dental roll, (2) dental roll with one mini-marshmallow, and (3) expectorating into a collection tube using no cotton or stimulant. EIA was used for analyses. There were no significant differences among cortisol concentrations. Second, saliva collection compliance rate was compared for 21-month-olds (n = 51) using either flavored drink crystal- (compliance rate = 16.7%) or marshmallow-flavored (compliance rate = 60%) dental rolls for saliva collection (chi(2) (1) = 4.02, p = .045). These studies indicate that marshmallow is a viable option for saliva stimulation to determine toddler cortisol concentrations using EIA.

Clements AD; Parker CR Jr; Dixon WE Jr; Salley B

2007-11-01

93

Proteome of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva induced by the secretagogues pilocarpine and dopamine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins from the saliva of Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks fed on rabbits. Gel slices were subjected to tryptic digestion and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC followed by MS/MS analysis. The data were compared to a database of salivary proteins of the same tick and to the predicted proteins of the host. Saliva was obtained by either pilocarpine or dopamine stimulation of partially fed ticks. Electrophoretic separations of both yielded products that were identified by mass spectrometry, although the pilocarpine-derived sample was of much better quality. The majority of identified proteins were of rabbit origin, indicating the recycling of the host proteins in the tick saliva, including hemoglobin, albumin, haptoglobin, transferring, and a plasma serpin. The few proteins found that were previously associated with parasitism and blood feeding include 2 glycine-rich, cement-like proteins, 2 lipocalins, and a thyropin protease inhibitor. Among other of the 19 tick proteins identified, albeit with undefined roles, were SPARC and cyclophilin A. This catalog provides a resource that can be mined for secreted molecules that play a role in tick-host interactions.

Oliveira CJ; Anatriello E; de Miranda-Santos IK; Francischetti IM; Sá-Nunes A; Ferreira BR; Ribeiro JM

2013-09-01

94

The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR) performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers’ satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

Ojokuku, R. M.; Sajuyigbe, A. S.

2012-01-01

95

Transmisión del hiv por la saliva: ¿mito o realidad?/ Hiv transmission through saliva: myth or reality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El impacto causado por el SIDA en los profesionales de salud y la presencia del HIV en diversos fluidos corporales ha estado generando una discusión sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus a través de la saliva. El manejo frecuente del cirujano dentista frente a la secreción salivar exige de este profesional el conocimiento necesario respecto a esta posible vía de transmisión. Al revisar la literatura, describiendo los puntos clave en lo tocante al asunto, se (more) concluye que, probablemente, la baja concentración del virus en la saliva y la presencia de componentes salivares anti-HIV serían factores responsables por un reducido riesgo de transmisión oral del HIV. Pero, la existencia de soluciones de continuidad en la mucosa oral crea una vía de contaminación no debiendo, por lo tanto, esta posibilidad ser descuidada. Abstract in english The AIDS impact over healthcare professionals and the presence of HIV in body fluids has generated a concern about the possibility of transmission of the virus through the saliva. Frequent handling of the dental surgeon on salivary secretion demands from this professional the necessary knowledge in relation to this possible way of transmission. This review of the literature describes key points regarding this subject, and some conclusions could be drawn: probably, the low (more) concentration of HIV in saliva and the presence of anti-HIV salivary components would be responsible factors for a reduced risk of oral HIV transmission. However, the existence of a portal of entry on oral mucosa creates a possibility of contamination, which should not be neglected.

Barbosa de Souza, Fábio; Ramos Marques, Candice; Carneiro Leão, Jair

2006-08-01

96

Transmisión del hiv por la saliva: ¿mito o realidad? Hiv transmission through saliva: myth or reality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El impacto causado por el SIDA en los profesionales de salud y la presencia del HIV en diversos fluidos corporales ha estado generando una discusión sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus a través de la saliva. El manejo frecuente del cirujano dentista frente a la secreción salivar exige de este profesional el conocimiento necesario respecto a esta posible vía de transmisión. Al revisar la literatura, describiendo los puntos clave en lo tocante al asunto, se concluye que, probablemente, la baja concentración del virus en la saliva y la presencia de componentes salivares anti-HIV serían factores responsables por un reducido riesgo de transmisión oral del HIV. Pero, la existencia de soluciones de continuidad en la mucosa oral crea una vía de contaminación no debiendo, por lo tanto, esta posibilidad ser descuidada.The AIDS impact over healthcare professionals and the presence of HIV in body fluids has generated a concern about the possibility of transmission of the virus through the saliva. Frequent handling of the dental surgeon on salivary secretion demands from this professional the necessary knowledge in relation to this possible way of transmission. This review of the literature describes key points regarding this subject, and some conclusions could be drawn: probably, the low concentration of HIV in saliva and the presence of anti-HIV salivary components would be responsible factors for a reduced risk of oral HIV transmission. However, the existence of a portal of entry on oral mucosa creates a possibility of contamination, which should not be neglected.

Fábio Barbosa de Souza; Candice Ramos Marques; Jair Carneiro Leão

2006-01-01

97

Comparative evaluation of saliva collection methods for proteome analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Saliva collection devices are widely used for large-scale screening approaches. This study was designed to compare the suitability of three different whole-saliva collection approaches for subsequent proteome analyses. METHODS: From 9 young healthy volunteers (4 women and 5 men) saliva samples were collected either unstimulated by passive drooling or stimulated using a paraffin gum or Salivette® (cotton swab). Saliva volume, protein concentration and salivary protein patterns were analyzed comparatively. RESULTS: Samples collected using paraffin gum showed the highest saliva volume (4.1±1.5 ml) followed by Salivette® collection (1.8±0.4 ml) and drooling (1.0±0.4 ml). Saliva protein concentrations (average 1145 ?g/ml) showed no significant differences between the three sampling schemes. Each collection approach facilitated the identification of about 160 proteins (?2 distinct peptides) per subject, but collection-method dependent variations in protein composition were observed. CONCLUSION: Passive drooling, paraffin gum and Salivette® each allows similar coverage of the whole saliva proteome, but the specific proteins observed depended on the collection approach. Thus, only one type of collection device should be used for quantitative proteome analysis in one experiment, especially when performing large-scale cross-sectional or multi-centric studies.

Golatowski C; Salazar MG; Dhople VM; Hammer E; Kocher T; Jehmlich N; Völker U

2013-04-01

98

Identification and Characterization of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase from Human Saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST), the enzyme responsible for the sulfation of tyrosine residues, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands previously (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 338: 90-96). Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase catalyses the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins and is believed to be present only in the cell. In the present study, this enzyme was identified for the first time in human saliva. Analysis of human saliva and parotid saliva for the presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase revealed tyrosine sulfating activity displayed by both whole saliva and parotid saliva at pH optimum of 6.8. In contrast to tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase isolated from submandibular salivary glands, salivary enzyme does not require the presence of Triton X-100, NaF and 5'AMP for maximal activity. Similar to the submandibular TPST, the enzyme from saliva also required MnCl2 for its activity. Maximum TPST activity was observed at 20mM MnCl2. The enzyme from saliva was immunoprecipitated and purified by immunoaffinity column using anti-TPST antibody. Affinity purified salivary TPST showed a single band of 50-54 kDa. This study is the first report characterizing a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in a secretory fluid.

Kasinathan C.; Ramaprasad P.; Sundaram P.

2005-01-01

99

Biochemical markers in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome characterized by disorder in metabolism of carbon hydrates, lipids and proteins. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by measuring the blood glucose level using standardized methods. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose level could be inconvenient for patients because of possible pain during blood sample taking. In the last few years biological materials with non invasive sampling, like saliva, have been analyzed. Research has confirmed that some organic and inorganic components of saliva are modified in diabetic patients (glucose, lipid and protein components, oxidative stress markers, electrolytes). Beside other markers, the analysis of glucose in saliva is an attempt to find a non-invasive and painless way for frequent monitoring of glucose concentration in diabetic patients. Collecting saliva is simple and economical, it neither requires expensive equipment nor specially trained staff. Saliva can be taken many times and in unlimited quantity. In regards to the data about the possibilities for using saliva as biological sample in monitoring diabetes mellitus, which could be alternative to blood serum or plasma, the conclusion is that saliva becomes more important in this context.

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana; Doži? Radica; Todorovi? Tatjana; Doži? Ivan

2012-01-01

100

Relating ionisation of calcium chloride in saliva to bitterness perception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva plays a role in the perception of bitter, sour and salty tastes that are presumed to be derived from the concentration of free cations or anions ions dissolved in saliva. The role of ionisation of calcium in bitter taste was studied by determining binding in vitro mixture of saliva and protein solutions and in spit. In vitro, the addition of whey to calcium chloride solutions increased the calcium binding, pH and viscosity. The addition of saliva to these mixtures, the increased calcium binding and the induced small changes in viscosity and pH were thought not to contribute significantly to bitterness perception. Nonstimulated saliva, at pH 7.5, contained about 5 mM calcium, of which about one third was ionised. The bitter threshold of fully ionised calcium chloride in water varied between 1 and 15 mM among individuals. In spit, after tasting whey, ionised calcium was found to have increased at low, but decreased at high, calcium concentrations and varied 30% among individuals. Bitterness was related, on average, to the concentration of ionised calcium and not to the total concentration of calcium in spit. A general explicative model based on the composition of bulk saliva is discussed in relation to perception threshold and the likely importance of saliva from von Ebner's gland.

Neyraud E; Dransfield E

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. Method Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT) primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. Conclusions Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells.

Lässer Cecilia; Seyed Alikhani Vesta; Ekström Karin; Eldh Maria; Torregrosa Paredes Patricia; Bossios Apostolos; Sjöstrand Margareta; Gabrielsson Susanne; Lötvall Jan; Valadi Hadi

2011-01-01

102

Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. METHOD: Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT) primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells.

Lässer C; Alikhani VS; Ekström K; Eldh M; Paredes PT; Bossios A; Sjöstrand M; Gabrielsson S; Lötvall J; Valadi H

2011-01-01

103

Challenges of Providing Bibliographic Access to Remote Electronic Resources in National Bibliographies: Problems and Solutions--An Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proliferation of online resources has resulted in creating and accentuating challenges for national bibliographic agencies throughout the world. Through strategic planning and innovative approaches, providers of national bibliographies are seeking to realize bibliographic control of remote electronic material. For success, they will need to…

Byrum, John D., Jr.

104

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

Claudio Maranhão Pereira; Fábio Ramôa Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti Corrêa; Osvaldo di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de Almeida

2004-01-01

105

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients/ Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetido (more) s a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients (more) were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

2004-12-01

106

Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

1989-01-01

107

Crystal growth on bioactive glass sputter-coated alumina in artificial saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, a bioactive glass was deposited on the alumina disk specimens by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study crystal formation ability in artificial saliva. Bioactive glass-coated specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and 6 months. The specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystals that formed on the specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopic analysis and Micro-X-ray diffraction. SEM photomicrographs showed the formation of needle-like structures after immersion for 1 week, and tabular structures formed on the surface of the specimen for 6 months. EDS showed that both the needle-like and tabular structures were enriched with Ca and P. Raman and Micro-XRD spectra for the tabular structure showed peaks that may correspond to calcium phosphate. Thus, when immersed in artificial saliva, bioactive glass-coated alumina produced a crystal which might be calcium phosphate.

Iijima M; Hashimoto M; Kohda N; Nakagaki S; Muguruma T; Endo K; Mizoguchi I

2013-01-01

108

Crystal growth on bioactive glass sputter-coated alumina in artificial saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a bioactive glass was deposited on the alumina disk specimens by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study crystal formation ability in artificial saliva. Bioactive glass-coated specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and 6 months. The specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystals that formed on the specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopic analysis and Micro-X-ray diffraction. SEM photomicrographs showed the formation of needle-like structures after immersion for 1 week, and tabular structures formed on the surface of the specimen for 6 months. EDS showed that both the needle-like and tabular structures were enriched with Ca and P. Raman and Micro-XRD spectra for the tabular structure showed peaks that may correspond to calcium phosphate. Thus, when immersed in artificial saliva, bioactive glass-coated alumina produced a crystal which might be calcium phosphate. PMID:24088833

Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Kohda, Naohisa; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

2013-01-01

109

Human saliva forms a complex film structure on alumina surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Films formed from saliva on surfaces are important for the maintenance of oral health and integrity by protection against chemical and/or biological agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate adsorbed amounts, thickness, and structure of films formed from human whole saliva on alumina surfaces by means of in situ ellipsometry, neutron reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. Alumina (Al2O3, synthetic sapphire) is a relevant and interesting substrate for saliva adsorption studies as it has an isoelectric point close to that of tooth enamel. The results showed that saliva adsorbs rapidly on alumina. The film could be modeled in two layers: an inner and dense thin region that forms a uniform layer and an outer, more diffuse and thicker region that protrudes toward the bulk of the solution. The film morphology described a uniformly covering dense layer and a second outer layer containing polydisperse adsorbed macromolecules or aggregates. PMID:17206789

Cárdenas, Marité; Arnebrant, Thomas; Rennie, Adrian; Fragneto, Giovanna; Thomas, Robert K; Lindh, Liselott

2007-01-01

110

Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.)

1987-01-01

111

Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk-producing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations.

Dotter, A.; Kroker, R.; Arnold, D.; Somogyi, A.

1987-02-01

112

Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... 496-7243 Saliva is effective in screening for CMV infection in newborns, says NIH-funded research Swabbing ... used to quickly and effectively screen for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a leading cause of hearing loss in ...

113

Detection of HIV antibodies in saliva and its implications.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus has been detected in almost all body fluids. With a silent disease such as HIV infection, testing for HIV antibodies currently is the most cost effective means for determining the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection in the community and for identifying HIV infection in the individuals. HIV antibodies are found in human saliva and can be detected by sensitive ELISA. Saliva collection is easy to perform, non-invasive, safe to use and thus provides alternative method to blood collection. Research is underway to develop a low-cost saliva assay, thus saliva could become the HIV antibody testing medium of choice for much of the developing countries.

Anil S; Beena V; Nair R; Varghese B

1995-01-01

114

Detection of HIV antibodies in saliva and its implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus has been detected in almost all body fluids. With a silent disease such as HIV infection, testing for HIV antibodies currently is the most cost effective means for determining the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection in the community and for identifying HIV infection in the individuals. HIV antibodies are found in human saliva and can be detected by sensitive ELISA. Saliva collection is easy to perform, non-invasive, safe to use and thus provides alternative method to blood collection. Research is underway to develop a low-cost saliva assay, thus saliva could become the HIV antibody testing medium of choice for much of the developing countries. PMID:9495113

Anil, S; Beena, V T; Nair, R G; Varghese, B J

115

Presence of wax esters and squalene in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and relative composition of neutral lipids in human saliva. DESIGN: Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from 12 subjects ranging from 21 to 29 years old. Samples were lyophilized, and lipids were extracted using chloroform-methanol. Lipids were analysed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Human saliva contains cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, wax esters, cholesterol esters and squalene. The mean total neutral lipid content was 12.1±6.3 ?g/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These lipids in human saliva closely resemble the lipids found on the skin surface. These salivary lipids are most likely produced by the sebaceous follicles in the oral mucosa and sebaceous glands associated with major salivary glands.

Brasser AJ; Barwacz CA; Dawson DV; Brogden KA; Drake DR; Wertz PW

2011-06-01

116

Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))

1992-01-01

117

HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI) days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days). Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS), right eye (OD), and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198) and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396). The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers?±?the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773?±?2019 and 2294?±?869 for tears (no statistical difference). Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits.

Hill James M; Nolan Nicole M; McFerrin Harris E; Clement Christian; Foster Timothy P; Halford William P; Kousoulas Konstantin G; Lukiw Walter J; Thompson Hilary W; Stern Ethan M; Bhattacharjee Partha S

2012-01-01

118

HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI) days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days). Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS), right eye (OD), and saliva. RESULTS: The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198) and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396). The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers?±?the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773?±?2019 and 2294?±?869 for tears (no statistical difference). CONCLUSION: Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits.

Hill JM; Nolan NM; McFerrin HE; Clement C; Foster TP; Halford WP; Kousoulas KG; Lukiw WJ; Thompson HW; Stern EM; Bhattacharjee PS

2012-01-01

119

High-yield RNA-extraction method for saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The use of salivary diagnostics is increasing because of its noninvasiveness, ease of sampling, and the relatively low risk of contracting infectious organisms. Saliva has been used as a biological fluid to identify and validate RNA targets in head and neck cancer patients. The goal of this study was to develop a robust, easy, and cost-effective method for isolating high yields of total RNA from saliva for downstream expression studies. METHODS: Oral whole saliva (200 ?L) was collected from healthy controls (n = 6) and from patients with head and neck cancer (n = 8). The method developed in-house used QIAzol lysis reagent (Qiagen) to extract RNA from saliva (both cell-free supernatants and cell pellets), followed by isopropyl alcohol precipitation, cDNA synthesis, and real-time PCR analyses for the genes encoding ?-actin ("housekeeping" gene) and histatin (a salivary gland-specific gene). RESULTS: The in-house QIAzol lysis reagent produced a high yield of total RNA (0.89-7.1 ?g) from saliva (cell-free saliva and cell pellet) after DNase treatment. The ratio of the absorbance measured at 260 nm to that at 280 nm ranged from 1.6 to 1.9. The commercial kit produced a 10-fold lower RNA yield. Using our method with the QIAzol lysis reagent, we were also able to isolate RNA from archived saliva samples that had been stored without RNase inhibitors at -80 °C for >2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our in-house QIAzol method is robust, is simple, provides RNA at high yields, and can be implemented to allow saliva transcriptomic studies to be translated into a clinical setting.

Pandit P; Cooper-White J; Punyadeera C

2013-07-01

120

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967) and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202). Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019), samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

Nishita Denise M; Jack Lisa M; McElroy Mary; McClure Jennifer B; Richards Julie; Swan Gary E; Bergen Andrew W

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of saliva processing on bacterial DNA extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 700 bacterial species inhabit oral cavity of humans. Various oral diseases are related to changes in the structure of this complex community. Their pathogenesis can, thus, be better understood by study of oral microbial flora. As many bacteria are refractory to cultivation, molecular approaches based on PCR followed by downstream analysis are more suitable for community analysis than culture dependent methods. Effective DNA extraction from the sample matrix is a fundamental part of the pre-analytical phase but it can be influenced by processing of the starting material. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of saliva processing on DNA extraction using several non-commercial isolation procedures. Bacterial chromosomal DNA was extracted from three different sample matrices: fresh saliva, diluted saliva and pelleted saliva using four different extraction methods: phenol chloroform protocol, benzyl-chloride protocol, extraction with Chelex-100 and extraction with Triton X. Extraction from different saliva samples and the use of different extraction methods significantly affected the effectiveness of DNA extraction. The most suitable material for bacterial DNA extraction for molecular analysis is a fresh saliva sample. The most effective methods for isolating salivary DNA are the benzyl-chloride protocol and Chelex-100 extraction. Our results have implications for studies concentrating on salivary microbiome and its role in the pathogenesis of oral diseases.

Polgárová K; Behuliak M; Celec P

2010-10-01

122

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive clinical examination to identify potential female carriers of HED. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

123

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão.

Mônica Pereira Saporeti; Enio Tonani Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco Sales

2012-01-01

124

Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva as a vehicle for horizontal transmission of HBV among children.

Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette

2010-01-01

125

Systematically assessing the situational relevance of electronic knowledge resources: a mixed methods study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Electronic Knowledge Resources (EKRs) are increasingly used by physicians, but their situational relevance has not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: Systematically scrutinize the situational relevance of EKR-derived information items in and outside clinical settings. BACKGROUND: Physicians use EKRs to accomplish four cognitive objectives (C1-4), and three organizational objectives (O1-3): (C1) Answer questions/solve problems/support decision-making in a clinical context; (C2) fulfill educational-research objectives; (C3) search for personal interest or curiosity; (C4) overcome limits of human memory; (O1) share information with patients, families, or caregivers; (O2) exchange information with other health professionals; (O3) plan-manage-monitor tasks with other health professionals. METHODS: Longitudinal mixed methods multiple case study: Cases were 17 residents' critical searches for information, using a commercial EKR, during a 2-month block of family practice. Usage data were automatically recorded. Each "opened" item of information was linked to an impact assessment questionnaire, and 1,981 evaluations of items were documented. Interviews with residents were guided by log files, which tracked use and impact of EKR-derived information items. Thematic analysis identified 156 critical searches linked to 877 information items. For each case, qualitative data were assigned to one of the seven proposed objectives. RESULTS: Residents achieved their search objectives in 85.9% of cases (situational relevance). Additional sources of information were sought in 52.6% of cases. Results support the seven proposed objectives, levels of comparative relevance (less, equally, more), and levels of stimulation of learning and knowledge (individual, organizational). CONCLUSION: Our method of systematic assessment may contribute to user-based evaluation of EKRs.

Pluye P; Grad RM; Mysore N; Knaapen L; Johnson-Lafleur J; Dawes M

2007-09-01

126

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam). The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8) and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0) seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L

2012-01-01

127

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. METHODS: Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. RESULTS: The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam). The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8) and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0) seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. CONCLUSIONS: This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa NB; Sokun C; Wei C; Lauritsen JM; Rieder HL

2012-01-01

128

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

129

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.???89-102

??????????? ?

2007-01-01

130

Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter). Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001); however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

Bayat Movahed S.; Soleymani Shayesteh Y.; Mehrizi H.; Rezayi Sh.; Mohammadi M.; Bamdad Mehrabani K.; Koohkan M.; Golestan B.

2007-01-01

131

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1) issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2) issues with resources in a developing setting; (3) issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4) issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2008-01-01

132

Method development for proteome stabilization in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human saliva is a biological fluid with emerging early detection and diagnostic potentials. However, the salivary proteome suffers from rapid degradation and thus compromises its translational and clinical utilities. Therefore, easy, reliable and practical methods are urgently required for the storage of human saliva samples. In this study, saliva samples from healthy subjects were collected and stored at room temperature (RT) and 4 °C for different lengths of time with and without specific protein stabilization treatments. SDS-PAGE was run to compare the protein profiling between samples. Reference proteins, ?-actin and interleukin-1 ? (IL1?), were chosen to evaluate salivary protein stability. Immunoassay was used for the detection of these target proteins. All data was compared with the positive control that had been kept at -80 °C. The results show that the salivary proteome that has been stored at 4 °C with added protease inhibitors was stable for approximately two weeks without significant degradation. By adding ethanol to the samples, the salivary proteome was stabilized at RT. After optimization, a simple, robust and convenient method is developed for the stabilization of proteins in human saliva that does not affect the downstream translational and clinical applications. The salivary proteome could be stabilized without significant degradation by adding ethanol at RT for about two weeks. This optimized method could greatly accelerate the clinical usage of saliva for future diagnosis.

Xiao H; Wong DT

2012-04-01

133

Saliva sampling method affects performance of a salivary ?-amylase biosensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Prompted by the discordance between a standardized salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) biosensor applied in clinical settings and a reference laboratory analyzer, we examined the impact of the saliva sampling method on the analytic performance of the biosensor. METHODS: Direct mouth readings using the biosensor from 31 normal, healthy volunteers were compared to biosensor and conventional assay readings obtained from saliva samples collected concurrently by passive drool and processed in three different ways (unprocessed, thawed, and thawed and centrifuged). RESULTS: The direct readings from the mouth showed consistently lower sAA values (Ps?saliva were strongly correlated with one another, and Bland-Altman plots of agreement indicated a smaller discrepancy between conventional and biosensor readings obtained with passive drool when compared to the direct mouth readings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the analytical performance of the sAA biosensor is influenced significantly by the saliva sampling method. In contrast to the relatively imprecise direct mouth measurements, biosensor sAA levels established indirectly from passive drool saliva samples provide more accurate estimation of sAA levels, even after intermediary processing steps (e.g., freezing, thawing, centrifugation). Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Robles TF; Sharma R; Harrell L; Elashoff DA; Yamaguchi M; Shetty V

2013-09-01

134

Automated genomic DNA extraction from saliva using the QIAxtractor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Venipuncture is an invasive procedure to obtain whole blood in order to obtain high quality and sufficient amounts of genomic DNA. Obtaining DNA from non-invasive sources is preferred by patients, medical doctors and researchers. Saliva collected with cotton swabs (Salivette) is increasingly being used to study chemical compounds, and it can also be a source of DNA. However, extracting DNA from Salivettes is very laborious and time consuming. Therefore, we developed a protocol for automated genomic DNA extraction from saliva collected in Salivette using the QIAxtractor. METHODS: Saliva (0.1-2.0 mL) was collected by chewing on a Salivette for 1-2 min. A total of 70 samples, collected from healthy volunteers, were extracted with the QIAxtractor robot and a Qiagen DX reagent pack. Quantity and quality was assessed using UV spectrometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (substitution at position -729 in the CYP1A2 gene). RESULTS: The average DNA concentration from the saliva samples was 6.0 microg/mL (95% CI 5.4-6.6 microg/mL). In 100% of the saliva samples, PCR products were detected with an average cycle threshold of 23.1 (95% CI 22.6-23.6). CONCLUSIONS: DNA can be extracted in sufficient amounts from Salivette with a fully automated system with a short turnaround time. Real-time PCR can be performed with these samples.

Keijzer H; Endenburg SC; Smits MG; Koopmann M

2010-05-01

135

Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry.

Ahmadi-Motamayel F; Goodarzi MT; Hendi SS; Kasraei S; Moghimbeigi A

2013-01-01

136

Changes in the biochemical composition of saliva in diabetic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic patients, beside numerous acute and chronic complications, often have oral manifestations of the disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish changes in saliva of diabetic patients in relation to healthy population in order to use saliva in the disease monitoring, as well as the changes depending on the type of diabetes. Materials and methods: The study comprised 52 adult patients of both sexes and at the age between 18 and 79 with Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 who were treated at the Institute for endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders of the Clinical center of Serbia. The control group consisted of 67 volunteers from Belgrade, students at the School of Dentistry, aged between 19 and 24. The whole of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was collected and biochemical parameters (glucose, total proteins, albumin, sodium and potassium) were determined by methods commonly used for serum. Results: The results showed that salivary potassium level was increased in saliva of diabetic patients, that of sodium and total proteins was decreased, and glucose and albumin did not show changes compared to the control group. Concentrations of total proteins and potassium were higher in patients with DM type 2, and sodium was higher in DM type 1 (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients often have changes in biochemical composition of saliva.

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana; Mirkovi? Silvija; Todorovi? Tatjana; Zeli? Obrad

2006-01-01

137

CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals at the same time interval in the morning without any oral stimuli. Circadianic periodics in protein productions have been avoided. The presence of chromogranin A and its derived peptides was determined in whole saliva, after centrifugation at 40C for 12 min at 14 000 rpm, by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Immunoblotting (Western Blot). To ensure same protein concentrations Bradford protein quantification assay has been performed before.For the first time, we have determined an overexpression of chromogranin A in saliva of diabetic patients in 100% of the individuals.Chromogranin A, a circulating biomarker for epithelial tumours, is also overexpressed in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients. To confirm our results, more studies with a large amount of patients is necessary.

Martine Soell; Ahmed Feki; Matthias Hannig; Hidehiko Sano; Michel Pinget; Denis Selimovic

2010-01-01

138

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corr (more) osão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliv (more) a (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Saporeti, Mônica Pereira; Mazzieiro, Enio Tonani; Sales, Wisley Falcco

2012-12-01

139

Thiocyanate concentration in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiocyanates (SCN-) are ubiquitous in nature. There are indispensable part of host defense system that act as a substrate for lactoperoxidase (LPO). In our study we present initial data on SCN- concentration in saliva of CF patients in comparison to healthy non-smokers and healthy smokers. 5 ml of saliva was collected from each subject to a sterile tube and thiocyanate concentration was measured in each sample. The results of the measurements are presented on Fig. 1. Mean concentration of SCN- in saliva of CF patients was 0.031 +/- 0.0052 g/l, in healthy non-smokers 0.039 +/- 0.0048 g/l and in healthy smokers 0.048 +/- 0.0161 g/l. The differences between each group were statistically significant. Studies on larger group of patients and probably on different material (BALF or induced sputum) should present interesting data complementing the in vitro studies.

?ukasz Minarowski; Dorota Sands; Alina Minarowska; Alicja Karwowska; Anetta Sulewska; Marek Gacko; Elzbieta Chyczewska

2008-01-01

140

Stimulus effects on protein and electrolyte concentrations in parotid saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve subjects collected ten 1 min samples and then a 2.5 ml sample of parotid saliva at a constant flow rate on five separate days with citric acid, salt, sugar, quinine sulphate, and sour lemon drops as gustatory stimuli. The ten 1 min samples were analysed for protein and electrolyte content and the final 2.5 ml sample was used for electrophoretic separation of the different salivary proteins. In most subjects, salt elicited the secretion of saliva with a much higher protein concentration than did the other stimuli, but none of the stimuli differentially influenced the relative proportions of the different proteins secreted. There were several small but statistically significant effects of the nature of the stimulus on the concentrations of sodium, calcium and chloride, but not on potassium, magnesium or phosphate. Since the nature of the gustatory stimulus can influence the composition of saliva, salivary composition could be influenced by the nature of the diet.

Dawes C

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Immunological characterization of plasminogen activators in human parotid saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

These were characterized in stimulated saliva from 21 healthy volunteers using antibodies specific for human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase. After pre-incubation with immunoglobulins, with and without specific antibodies, the fibrinolytic activity was assayed on fibrin plates containing plasminogen. Fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in all salivas but one; it was completely quenched by antibodies against t-PA, but antibodies against urokinase-like plasminogen activator had no effect. The fibrinolytic activity was expressed in international units (IU) using a standard curve obtained by serial dilution of the international tissue-plasminogen standard. The normal range was 0.05-0.35 IU/ml, and the maximal value 2 IU/ml. There is thus considerable individual variation in fibrinolytic activity in parotid saliva, where it is regulated by t-PA under physiological conditions.

Kjaeldgaard M; Kjaeldgaard A

1987-01-01

142

Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

2009-01-01

143

Changes in whole saliva in patients with coeliac disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many systemic diseases impair salivary flow rate and composition and therefore incite oral pathological processes. This study analyses the composition of whole saliva in patients with diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) and in healthy controls, and monitors possible changes in saliva composition after a short oral gluten challenge. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected from 128 CD patients and 55 healthy controls. In a separate study, paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 33 CD patients and 10 controls both before and 24 h after an oral mucosal and submucosal gluten challenge. No difference in saliva flow rate was observed, but total protein (Psaliva than do healthy controls.

Lenander-Lumikari M; Ihalin R; Lähteenoja H

2000-05-01

144

Saliva as a potential tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Saliva and sweat are modified by cystic fibrosis (CF). In both cases the chloride and sodium ion concentrations for healthy subjects and CF patients differ, this representing a possible alternative tool for CF diagnosis. In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of these ions in saliva samples taken from CF patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out at a university CF center, in which the saliva samples were analyzed on an ABL 835 Radiometer® to determine the ion concentration. RESULTS: For the CF patients (n = 80) the values for the biochemical parameters of chloride, potassium and sodium ion concentration were higher (p < 0.009) and the volume and pH of the saliva were lower than in the case of healthy subjects (p < 0.009). For the healthy subjects group (n = 84) versus CF patients, according to the ROC curve, the values for sodium were: cutoff: 13.5 mmol/L, sensitivity: 73.4%, specificity: 70.6%; and for chloride: cutoff: 20 mmol/L, sensitivity: 68.1%, specificity: 72.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The chloride and sodium concentrations in the saliva samples were higher for CF patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Thus, saliva as a tool for CF diagnosis can be considered a new challenge, and a population study including patients in all age classes needs to be performed, in different countries over the world, to extend the database to include a broad spectrum of information in order to identify normal ion concentration ranges for CF patients according to age, genotype and environment. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2614233148750145.

Gonçalves AC; Marson FA; Mendonça RM; Ribeiro JD; Ribeiro AF; Paschoal IA; Levy CE

2013-01-01

145

Saliva in Prader-Willi syndrome: quantitative and qualitative characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate salivary flow rates and assess whole salivary total protein, MUC7 and cystatin in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: The participants were forty-eight individuals with PWS (mean age 20.2 ± 9.5) and an age- and sex-matched control group. Flow rates of unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), stimulated whole saliva (SWS), submandibular/sublingual (SS), and parotid saliva (PS) were recorded (ml/min) and unstimulated whole saliva used for further protein analysis. Total protein concentration was determined via the bicinchoninic acid method, and MUC7 and cystatin levels via a Dot Blot. RESULTS: Mean UWS (0.12 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.20, p<0.001), SWS (0.41 ± 0.35 vs. 1.06 ± 0.63, p<0.001) and SS (0.27 ± 0.19 vs. 0.50 ± 0.29, p<0.001) salivary flow rates were significantly lower in PWS compared with controls. No significant difference was found in PS flow rate between the two groups. The mean total protein concentration (mg/ml) was 3.19 ± 3.04 in PWS compared with 1.32 ± 1.11 in controls (p<0.001). Median concentration of MUC7 (mg/ml) was 1.29 (0.11-10.85) in the PWS group, and 0.39 (0.03-2.22) in the control group (p<0.001). No significant difference was found in cystatin concentration between the groups. The output of proteins did not differ significantly between PWS and controls. CONCLUSION: With the exception of parotid saliva, salivary flow rates were lower among individuals with PWS than in their matched controls. Saliva protein concentrations in UWS were high compared with the healthy group, although the protein output did not differ significantly.

Saeves R; Reseland JE; Kvam BM; Sandvik L; Nordgarden H

2012-10-01

146

Aedes mosquito saliva modulates Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. METHODS: C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. FINDINGS: After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. INTERPRETATION: Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV.

Le Coupanec A; Babin D; Fiette L; Jouvion G; Ave P; Misse D; Bouloy M; Choumet V

2013-06-01

147

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers.

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

148

The unique correlation between anti-mutagenicity of human saliva and change in body weight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction on the anti-mutagenicity of human saliva. Subjects were 16 male college judo players. The anti-mutagenicity of the saliva was measured using the umu test. There was an inhibiting effect of the saliva on the mutagenicity of A...

Toda, Masahario; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kazuo

149

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

150

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citati...

DiCarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

151

Quantification of D-dimer levels in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Plasma D-dimer tests are currently used to exclude deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Human saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic sample. The aims of our study were to develop a reliable immunoassay to detect D-dimer levels in saliva, and to determine the correlation between salivary and blood D-dimer levels. Results/methodology: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 40 healthy volunteers. We developed a AlphaLISA(®) immunoassay with acceptable analytical performances to quantify D-dimer levels in the samples. The median salivary D-dimer levels were 138.1 ng/ml (morning) and 140.7 ng/ml (afternoon), and the plasma levels were 75.0 ng/ml. Salivary D-dimer levels did not correlate with plasma levels (p = 0.61). Conclusion: For the first time, we have quantified D-dimer levels and found twofold increase in saliva (p D-dimer in patients with confirmed deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. PMID:24053240

Zhang, Xi; Wan, Yunxia; Cooper-White, Justin; Dimeski, Goce; Atherton, John; Punyadeera, Chamindie

2013-09-01

152

Quantification of D-dimer levels in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Plasma D-dimer tests are currently used to exclude deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Human saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic sample. The aims of our study were to develop a reliable immunoassay to detect D-dimer levels in saliva, and to determine the correlation between salivary and blood D-dimer levels. Results/methodology: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 40 healthy volunteers. We developed a AlphaLISA(®) immunoassay with acceptable analytical performances to quantify D-dimer levels in the samples. The median salivary D-dimer levels were 138.1 ng/ml (morning) and 140.7 ng/ml (afternoon), and the plasma levels were 75.0 ng/ml. Salivary D-dimer levels did not correlate with plasma levels (p = 0.61). Conclusion: For the first time, we have quantified D-dimer levels and found twofold increase in saliva (p < 0.05) than in plasma. Further studies are required to demonstrate the clinical relevance/utility of salivary D-dimer in patients with confirmed deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism.

Zhang X; Wan Y; Cooper-White J; Dimeski G; Atherton J; Punyadeera C

2013-09-01

153

Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de saúde  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introdução: O estado de portador de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é apontado como preditor de infecçãoe fator para a disseminação ambiental e de pessoa a pessoa, incluindo trabalhadores de serviço de saúde. Estes quandocolonizados são freqüentemente associados a surtos.Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de hospital universitário.Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico longitudinal realizado em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, com 486 trabalhadores noperíodo de abril de 2006 a junho de 2008 compreendeu a coleta de três amostras de saliva e aplicação de instrumento de coletade dados. Staphylococcus aureus foram isolados dos espécimes clínicos e caracterizados fenotipicamente. Os dados foramorganizados e processados no Programa EPI-Info e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva.Resultados: Entre os trabalhadores investigados, 60,9% estavam colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na saliva,sendo 67.9% carreadores transitórios e 32.1% carreadores persistentes; a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistenteà meticilina (MRSA) entre os isolados foi de 15.7%. A prevalência média de MRSA foi de 12.7% sendo maior entre técnicosem enfermagem (21.4%) e auxiliares de limpeza (20.6%) e menor entre enfermeiros (4.5%) e médicos (5.9%).Conclusões: Os trabalhadores apresentaram alta prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, indicando a boca comoimportante sítio corporal para a investigação da colonização por MRSA e potencial fonte para sua disseminação.

Elaine Drehmer De Almeida Cruz; Fabiana Cristina Pimenta; Izabel Cristina Vanzato Palazzo; Ana Lúcia da Costa Darini; Elucir Gir

2011-01-01

154

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet) from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110) from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110), and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30)."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

K Oskouizadeh; T Zahraei-Salehi; SJ Aledavood

2010-01-01

155

Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in or...

Bayat Movahed S.; Soleymani Shayesteh Y.; Mehrizi H.; Rezayi Sh.; Mohammadi M.; Bamdad Mehrabani K.; Koohkan M.; Golestan B.

156

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

157

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent.

Patsalos PN; Berry DJ

2013-02-01

158

Observations on saliva osmolality during progressive dehydration and partial rehydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A need exists to identify dehydrated individuals under stressful settings beyond the laboratory. A predictive index based on changes in saliva osmolality has been proposed, and its efficacy and sensitivity was appraised across mass (water) losses from 1 to 7%. Twelve euhydrated males [serum osmolality: 286.1 mOsm kg(-1) H(2)O (SD 4.3)] completed three exercise- and heat-induced dehydration trials (35.6°C, 56% relative humidity): 7% dehydration (6.15 h), 3% dehydration (with 60% fluid replacement: 2.37 h), repeat 7% dehydration (5.27 h). Expectorated saliva osmolality, measured at baseline and at each 1% mass change, was used to predict instantaneous hydration state relative to mass losses of 3 and 6%. Saliva osmolality increased linearly with dehydration, although its basal osmolality and its rate of change varied among and within subjects across trials. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated a good predictive power for saliva osmolality when used with two, single-threshold cutoffs to differentiate between hydrated and dehydrated individuals (area under curve: 3% cutoff = 0.868, 6% cutoff = 0.831). However, when analysed using a double-threshold detection technique (3 and 6%), as might be used in a field-based monitor, <50% of the osmolality data could correctly identify individuals who exceeded 3% dehydration. Indeed, within the 3-6% dehydration range, its sensitivity was 64%, while beyond 6% dehydration, this fell to 42%. Therefore, while expectorated saliva osmolality tracked mass losses within individuals, its large intra- and inter-individual variability limited its predictive power and sensitivity, rendering its utility questionable within a universal dehydration monitor.

Taylor NA; van den Heuvel AM; Kerry P; McGhee S; Peoples GE; Brown MA; Patterson MJ

2012-09-01

159

Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick.

Patton TG; Dietrich G; Brandt K; Dolan MC; Piesman J; Gilmore RD Jr

2012-01-01

160

Comparison of Saliva-Check Mutans and Saliva-Check IgA Mutans with the Cariogram for caries risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the combined use of two rapid, semiquantitative detection kits (Saliva-Check Mutans and Saliva-Check IgA Mutans) to assess caries risk using the Cariogram computer-based program as a reference method. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 71 subjects, 20-73 yr of age, and the number of Streptococcus mutans per ml of saliva was measured using Saliva-Check Mutans. After 15 min, a red line in the test detection window indicated >5 × 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) of S. mutans per ml of saliva. The concentration of salivary IgA in relation to the number of mutans streptococci was examined using the Saliva-Check IgA Mutans test kit. The presence or absence of a red line after 15 min indicated a high or a low concentration of IgA, respectively. By combining the results obtained from these two test systems, each patient was classified into one of four groups of low to high caries risk. Compared with the Cariogram data, the combined results of both detection kits showed that 39 (95%) of 41 subjects had a high chance of avoiding caries and 20 (67%) of 30 subjects had a low chance. The data suggest that the combination of Saliva-Check Mutans and Saliva-Check IgA Mutans could be used for caries risk assessment. PMID:24028585

Wennerholm, Kerstin; Emilson, Claes-Göran

2013-07-19

 
 
 
 
161

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR) libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar; Gareema Sanaman

2013-01-01

162

INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1) Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2) Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17) selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children). The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

Maya Rashkova

2012-01-01

163

Saliva can mediate HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIV is not usually transmitted by saliva from HIV-1-infected individuals. Antiviral substances in saliva responsible for this may include HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We evaluated saliva ADCC titers of 62 HIV-1-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and 55 uninfected individuals. HIV-1-infected women were less likely to have ADCC activity in saliva than in serum or cervical lavage fluid (CVL). 24% of HIV-1-positive women and a similar percentage of uninfected women had HIV-1-specific saliva ADCC activity. A significant amount of saliva ADCC activity in infected women was HIV-gp120-specific. These studies demonstrate that HIV-specific ADCC activity can be present in saliva. This activity may contribute to host defence against initial infection with HIV.

Kim JS; Nag P; Landay AL; Alves M; Cohn MH; Bremer JW; Baum LL

2006-11-01

164

Saliva can mediate HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV is not usually transmitted by saliva from HIV-1-infected individuals. Antiviral substances in saliva responsible for this may include HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We evaluated saliva ADCC titers of 62 HIV-1-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and 55 uninfected individuals. HIV-1-infected women were less likely to have ADCC activity in saliva than in serum or cervical lavage fluid (CVL). 24% of HIV-1-positive women and a similar percentage of uninfected women had HIV-1-specific saliva ADCC activity. A significant amount of saliva ADCC activity in infected women was HIV-gp120-specific. These studies demonstrate that HIV-specific ADCC activity can be present in saliva. This activity may contribute to host defence against initial infection with HIV. PMID:16978244

Kim, Jenney S; Nag, Pratip; Landay, Alan L; Alves, Mario; Cohn, Mardge H; Bremer, James W; Baum, Linda L

2006-09-18

165

A simplified quantitative test-adapted Checkbuf test-for resting saliva buffering capacity compared with a standard test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The aim of this study was to adapt a quantitative test for stimulated saliva, known as the Checkbuf test, to measure the buffering capacity of resting saliva and to evaluate its correlation with the Ericsson test for resting saliva. Study design: Resting saliva was collected from 112 pati...

Kitasako, Y; Burrow, MF; Huq, LN; Stacey, MA; Reynolds, EC; Tagami, J

166

Application of electronic tachymeter for surveying works at mineral resources fields / ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors justify the expediency of surveying works at open pit mines of construction materials fields applying electronic tachymeters, give the schemes for carrying out measuring aimed at determining the coordinates of points of surveyor' pickup and the estimation of the accuracy of their results. / ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????-?? ???????? ?? ???????????.

Latenko V.D. / Latenko Vasily Dmitriyevich; Anopin V.N. / Anopin Vladimir Nikolayevich; Sabitova T.A. / Sabitova Tatyana Anatolyevna; Latenko D.V. / Latenko Dmitry Vasilyevich

167

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and sto...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

168

The effects of orthodontic bonding steps on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of various orthodontic bonding steps on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of saliva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydroxyapatite (HA) and orthodontic adhesive (AD) disks were prepared to a uniform size. HA disks were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel in the etched group (HE). In the primed group (HP), Transbond XT primer was applied to the etched HA surface and light-cured. For biofilm formation, Streptococcus mutans was grown on each specimen in a biofilm medium with either glucose or sucrose in the presence of fluid-phase UWS (F-UWS) or surface adsorbed saliva (S-UWS). The adherent bacteria were quantified by enumeration of the total viable counts of bacteria. Biofilms formed on each surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: When glucose was used, both F-UWS and S-UWS suppressed biofilm formation of S. mutans. Compared to HA and HE, biofilm formation was significantly inhibited on HP and AD in the presence of glucose. Biofilm-forming patterns that were inhibited by saliva were restored in a sucrose-containing medium. F-UWS promoted biofilm formation on HA and HE, while S-UWS significantly promoted biofilm formation on HP. S. mutans developed biofilm better on HA and HE than on AD when sucrose was used as the sole carbohydrate source. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the biofilm development by S. mutans is significantly influenced by the orthodontic bonding procedure. Biofilm formation of S. mutans was inhibited on AD more than other surfaces, irrespective of the presence of saliva or a carbohydrate source.

Ahn SJ; Cho EJ; Oh SS; Lim BS

2012-12-01

169

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan; Yusuf Yalç?n

2009-01-01

170

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

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Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is high and could be comparedwith that of a passive layer resulting from electrochemical treatment. The replacement of vanadium with niobium or iron favours the passivation, thus increasing the corrosion resistance.

DANIEL MARECI; CATALIN BOCANU; GHEORHE NEMTOI; DELIA AELENEI

2005-01-01

171

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

2013-05-06

172

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

173

PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based)  

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Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples) were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen) and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples) included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples). DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan). Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

M.M. Ali; D.A. Shokry; H.S. Zaghloul; L.A. Rashed; M.G. Nada

2013-01-01

174

Analysis of parotid and mixed saliva in Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In ruminants, different functions have been ascribed to the different salivary glands according to the feeding type. In this context, possible adaptations of salivary functions were investigated regarding the secretion of various proteins by different types of salivary glands. To yield uncontaminated parotid saliva in large quantities, a non-surgical method has been developed. Parotid gland secretions were collected via endoscopic placement of guide wires into each parotid duct, which were subsequently used for placement of collection catheters. Salivary flow was stimulated by intra-glandular administration of the parasympathomimetic compound pilocarpine-hydrochloride into the parotid gland. Mixed saliva (excluding parotid saliva) was collected into sterile tubes by normal outflow during the sampling of parotid saliva. The total flow volume, flow rate and the content of proteins as well as of several ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, inorganic phosphate) of both types of saliva were measured in sheep, fallow deer and roe deer. Roe deer secreted the highest amount of total salivary proteins relative to body mass [mg/kg body mass] and the highest relative volume [ml/10 min/kg body mass], both in parotid and mixed saliva, of all ruminant species examined. Additionally, the protein profile and the tannin-binding properties of parotid and mixed saliva in roe deer were investigated. Parotid saliva bound almost twice as much tannin as mixed saliva, underlining the importance of yielding uncontaminated parotid saliva for tannin-binding studies.

Fickel J; Göritz F; Joest BA; Hildebrandt T; Hofmann RR; Breves G

1998-05-01

175

The intra-oral distribution of unstimulated and chewing-gum-stimulated parotid saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to determine the percentage contribution of parotid saliva to whole saliva and to the saliva at 11 sites in the mouth, when flow rate was unstimulated or stimulated with chewing-gum. The marker substance used was alpha-amylase, as this is in much higher concentration in parotid saliva than in secretions from other salivary glands. Formulae were derived for calculation of the minimum, maximum, and mean percentage contributions of parotid saliva to saliva in different areas of the mouth. The results, from 10 individuals, showed that the contributions of parotid to unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva averaged 30.1% and 35.6%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for samples from the region vestibular to the upper molars were 56.1% and 61.4%, but only 2.8% and 6.8% for samples from an area vestibular to the upper incisors. Thus parotid saliva was not evenly distributed throughout the mouth. Stimulated samples mostly contained significantly higher proportions of parotid saliva, but the distribution of the parotid saliva was still extremely variable. Because the different regions of the mouth are not exposed to the same fluid environment, this may influence the site-specificity of supragingival calculus deposition and of various diseases such as dental caries.

Sas R; Dawes C

1997-07-01

176

ANALYSIS OF MYCOPHENOLIC ACID IN SALIVA USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for mass spectrometric analysis of a saliva sample possibly containing mycophenolic acid or its metabolites mycophenolic acid phenyl glucuronide (MPAG) or mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide (Acyl-MPAG), including the steps: (a) providing a saliva sample containing one or more drug or metabolites; (b) deproteinating the sample; (c) separating the one or more drug or metabolites from the saliva sample; and (d) analyzing the one or more drug or metabolites using a mass spectrometer. The sample containing one or more MPA or metabolites is obtained from in an oral fluid based biological samples i.e. whole saliva or saliva obtained by chemical or mechanical stimulation or from specific salivary glands. The size of the sample contains one or more MPA or metabolites is at least about 100 microL.A kit for use in mass spectrometric analysis of a sample may contain one or more MPA or metabolites from saliva samples, comprising: (a) reagents for deproteinating of the saliva sample, including internal standards; (b) reagents for separating the one or more MPA or metabolites from the saliva sample; (c) reagents for analyzing the one or MPA or metabolites using a mass spectrometer; (d) a solution of one or more MPA or metabolites' in saliva samples; and (e) instructions for analyzing the one or more MPA or saliva using a mass spectrometer. The kit includes (a) mobile phase solutions; (b) a chromatography column; and (c) a quality control specimen.

AKHLAGHI FATEMEH; MENDONZA ANISHA E

177

Synergistetes cluster A in saliva is associated with periodontitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Synergistetes is a novel bacterial phylum consisting of gram-negative anaerobes. Increasing lines of evidence demonstrate that this phylum is associated with periodontal diseases. This study aimed to compare the presence and levels of Synergistetes clusters A and B, in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP) and non-periodontitis subjects, and investigate their correlation with clinical parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Saliva was collected from patients with CP (n = 20), G-AgP (n = 21) and non-periodontitis subjects (n = 18). Full mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. The numbers of Synergistetes cluster A and cluster B or the associated species Jonquetella anthropi were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization and microscopy. RESULTS: Synergistetes cluster A bacteria were detected more frequently, and at higher numbers and proportions in the two periodontitis groups, than the non-periodontitis control group. The prevalence was 27.7% in the control group, 85% in CP and 86% in G-AgP. Compared to the control group, the numbers were significantly higher by 12.5-fold in CP and 26.5-fold in G-AgP, whereas the difference between the two forms of periodontitis was not statistically significant. Within the total bacterial population, the proportion of this cluster was increased in CP and G-AgP compared to the control group, with the difference between the two forms of periodontitis being also significant. There was a positive correlation between the levels of Synergistetes cluster A in saliva and all full mouth clinical periodontal parameters. Nevertheless, Synergistetes cluster B bacteria and J. anthropi species were detected infrequently and at low levels in all the three subject groups. CONCLUSION: Synergistetes cluster A, but not cluster B, bacteria are found at higher prevalence, numbers and proportions in saliva from patients with periodontitis, than non-periodontitis subjects. These findings support the association of this cluster with periodontitis.

Belibasakis GN; Oztürk VO; Emingil G; Bostanci N

2013-02-01

178

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p<0.05). Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI) used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Luciana Borges Retamoso; Fabrício Mezzomo Collares; Eduardo Silveira Ferreira; Susana Maria Werner Samuel

2009-01-01

179

Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?Saliva fluoride did not increase beyond year 1 and did at no time point differ between schools. Reductions in numbers of tooth surfaces with dental plaque were significantly positively related to the number of caries reversals over the 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Background saliva fluoride concentration is increased by brushing at least once daily on schooldays, does not increase further over 3 years, and is not affected by rinsing after brushing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Continuous use of fluoride toothpaste produces ambient saliva fluoride levels similar to saliva fluoride in areas with fluoridated water.

Richards A; Machiulskiene V; Nyvad B; Baelum V

2013-01-01

180

Secretory IgA in saliva and academic stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several reports have proposed that the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) in saliva is an indicator of psychological stress. With this in mind, we decided to examine it in 10 second year medical student volunteers at Kawasaki Medical School course between May 4 and July 13, 2000 and discussed the relationship between S-IbA and the stress from academic examinations. Saliva was collected three times (on rising, at forenoon, and at bedtime) every Thursday. During this period, sporadic academic examinations were held twice and term end examination occurred during the last two weeks. Results showed the concentration of S-IgA significantly higher at the on rising time-point than at the other two time-points. There was also a tendency for the S-IgA level in saliva to be higher on the day before academic examinations and during them and lower on the days between these examinations. In addition, daily variations in the S-IgA concentration sometimes seemed to be disturbed by other academic stress. Therefore it may be possible to use this measurement to monitor psychological stress in students and workers.

Otsuki T; Sakaguchi H; Hatayama T; Takata A; Hyodoh F; Tsujita S; Ueki A; Morimoto K

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Secretory IgA in saliva and academic stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports have proposed that the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) in saliva is an indicator of psychological stress. With this in mind, we decided to examine it in 10 second year medical student volunteers at Kawasaki Medical School course between May 4 and July 13, 2000 and discussed the relationship between S-IbA and the stress from academic examinations. Saliva was collected three times (on rising, at forenoon, and at bedtime) every Thursday. During this period, sporadic academic examinations were held twice and term end examination occurred during the last two weeks. Results showed the concentration of S-IgA significantly higher at the on rising time-point than at the other two time-points. There was also a tendency for the S-IgA level in saliva to be higher on the day before academic examinations and during them and lower on the days between these examinations. In addition, daily variations in the S-IgA concentration sometimes seemed to be disturbed by other academic stress. Therefore it may be possible to use this measurement to monitor psychological stress in students and workers. PMID:15345191

Otsuki, T; Sakaguchi, H; Hatayama, T; Takata, A; Hyodoh, F; Tsujita, S; Ueki, A; Morimoto, K

182

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the other that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. in (more) festans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Cardoso, Antonio Valadão; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Marcondes, Guilherme de Araújo; Ferreira, Adriana Rosa; Araújo, Patrícia Rosa de

2007-03-01

183

Analysis of cariogenic bacteria in saliva of cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined salivary flow and salivary pH and the prevalence and levels of cariogenic bacteria in the saliva of oncological patients and healthy controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of microbes including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus acidophilus in the saliva of 41 patients with a solid tumor (SO), 30 patients with a hematologic malignancy (HE), and 40 healthy controls. Salivary flow and pH were lower in oncological patients than in controls. The frequencies of all four cariogenic bacteria were highest in the SO group. S. mutans and L. salivarius were the most commonly detected in all three study groups. Mean numbers of S. sobrinus and L. salivarius in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between patients and controls with respect to mean numbers of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in saliva. However, the proportions of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius versus total bacteria in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls. Within patients, both mean numbers and the proportions of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly different (p<0.05). In summary, significant differences were found in salivary pH values and the levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius between SO patients and healthy controls.

Kang MS; Oh JS; Jeong KY; Kim HJ; Lee JJ; Lee GS; Lim HJ; Lim HS

2013-08-01

184

Analysis of cariogenic bacteria in saliva of cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined salivary flow and salivary pH and the prevalence and levels of cariogenic bacteria in the saliva of oncological patients and healthy controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of microbes including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus acidophilus in the saliva of 41 patients with a solid tumor (SO), 30 patients with a hematologic malignancy (HE), and 40 healthy controls. Salivary flow and pH were lower in oncological patients than in controls. The frequencies of all four cariogenic bacteria were highest in the SO group. S. mutans and L. salivarius were the most commonly detected in all three study groups. Mean numbers of S. sobrinus and L. salivarius in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between patients and controls with respect to mean numbers of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in saliva. However, the proportions of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius versus total bacteria in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls. Within patients, both mean numbers and the proportions of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly different (p<0.05). In summary, significant differences were found in salivary pH values and the levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius between SO patients and healthy controls. PMID:24010070

Kang, Mi-Sun; Oh, Jong-Suk; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Hyeong-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Guem-Sug; Lim, Hoi-Jeong; Lim, Hae-Soon

2013-08-22

185

Analysis of Cariogenic Bacteria in Saliva of Cancer Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined salivary flow and salivary pH and the prevalence and levels of cariogenic bacteria in the saliva of oncological patients and healthy controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of microbes including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus acidophilus in the saliva of 41 patients with a solid tumor (SO), 30 patients with a hematologic malignancy (HE), and 40 healthy controls. Salivary flow and pH were lower in oncological patients than in controls. The frequencies of all four cariogenic bacteria were highest in the SO group. S. mutans and L. salivarius were the most commonly detected in all three study groups. Mean numbers of S. sobrinus and L. salivarius in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between patients and controls with respect to mean numbers of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in saliva. However, the proportions of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius versus total bacteria in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls. Within patients, both mean numbers and the proportions of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly different (p<0.05). In summary, significant differences were found in salivary pH values and the levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius between SO patients and healthy controls.

Kang, Mi-Sun; Oh, Jong-Suk; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Hyeong-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Guem-Sug; Lim, Hoi-Jeong

2013-01-01

186

Detection of sulphate-reducing bacteria in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in human saliva and correlate with oral and systemic conditions. Methods. Saliva samples were collected from 118 patients and inoculated in 2 ml of modified Postgate's E medium culture. After 28 days of incubation at 30°C the presence of SRB was identified by the production of sulphide. Results. Of 118 saliva samples collected, 35 were positive for the presence of SRB. Three positive samples were randomly chosen to identify the species of SRB by PCR and sequenced. The three selected samples were identified as Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Raoultella ornithinolytica. Gastritis (14.4%) was the most prevalent systemic disease, followed by diabetes (3.4%), while periodontitis (11%) and traumatic fibroma (4.2%) were the oral manifestations most frequently found. A bivariate analysis was performed to examine for the presence of SRB and the most prevalent systemic and oral manifestations. Only periodontitis showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.0003). Conclusions. The results showed SRB can be found in oral microbiota of healthy patients. Regarding the several conditions studied, there was a higher prevalence of SRB in patients with gastritis and patients with periodontal disease, with a possible correlation between the presence of SRB in the oral microbiota and periodontal disease.

Heggendorn FL; Souza Gonçalves L; Dias EP; Silva Junior A; Galvão MM; Lutterbach MT

2013-05-01

187

Detection of sulphate-reducing bacteria in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in human saliva and correlate with oral and systemic conditions. Methods. Saliva samples were collected from 118 patients and inoculated in 2 ml of modified Postgate's E medium culture. After 28 days of incubation at 30°C the presence of SRB was identified by the production of sulphide. Results. Of 118 saliva samples collected, 35 were positive for the presence of SRB. Three positive samples were randomly chosen to identify the species of SRB by PCR and sequenced. The three selected samples were identified as Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Raoultella ornithinolytica. Gastritis (14.4%) was the most prevalent systemic disease, followed by diabetes (3.4%), while periodontitis (11%) and traumatic fibroma (4.2%) were the oral manifestations most frequently found. A bivariate analysis was performed to examine for the presence of SRB and the most prevalent systemic and oral manifestations. Only periodontitis showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.0003). Conclusions. The results showed SRB can be found in oral microbiota of healthy patients. Regarding the several conditions studied, there was a higher prevalence of SRB in patients with gastritis and patients with periodontal disease, with a possible correlation between the presence of SRB in the oral microbiota and periodontal disease. PMID:23638810

Heggendorn, Fabiano Luiz; Souza Gonçalves, Lucio; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley; Galvão, Mariana Machado; Lutterbach, Márcia T S

2013-05-01

188

Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de saúde/ Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of healthcare workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O estado de portador de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é apontado como preditor de infecção e fator para a disseminação ambiental e de pessoa a pessoa, incluindo trabalhadores de serviço de saúde. Estes quando colonizados são freqüentemente associados a surtos. Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de hospital universitário. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico longitudinal realizado em (more) Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, com 486 trabalhadores no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2008 compreendeu a coleta de três amostras de saliva e aplicação de instrumento de coleta de dados. Staphylococcus aureus foram isolados dos espécimes clínicos e caracterizados fenotipicamente. Os dados foram organizados e processados no Programa EPI-Info e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados:Entre os trabalhadores investigados, 60,9% estavam colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, sendo 67.9% carreadores transitórios e 32.1% carreadores persistentes; a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) entre os isolados foi de 15.7%. A prevalência média de MRSA foi de 12.7% sendo maior entre técnicos em enfermagem (21.4%) e auxiliares de limpeza (20.6%) e menor entre enfermeiros (4.5%) e médicos (5.9%). Conclusões: Os trabalhadores apresentaram alta prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, indicando a boca como importante sítio corporal para a investigação da colonização por MRSA e potencial fonte para sua disseminação. Abstract in english Background: The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as an infection predictor and a factor for environmental and person-to-person dissemination, including health service workers. These, when colonized are commonly associated to outbreaks. Objective: Analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers at a university hospital. Methodology: Epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, with 48 (more) 6 workers between April 2006 and June 2008. Three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes. The data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed via descriptive statistics. Results: Among the healthcare workers studied, 60.9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva; of those, 67.9% were transitory carriers and 32.1% were persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the isolated cases was 15.7%. The average prevalence of MRSA was 12.7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21.4%) and cleaning aides (20.6%) and lower among nurses (4.5%) and doctors (5.9%). Conclusions: Healthcare workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating the mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by MRSA and a potential source to its dissemination.

De Almeida Cruz, Elaine Drehmer; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Vanzato Palazzo, Izabel Cristina; da Costa Darini, Ana Lúcia; Gir, Elucir

2011-06-01

189

Digital and analog fiber optic communications for CATV and FTTx applications [electronic resource] / Avigdor Brillant.  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This book is intended to provide a step-by-step guide to all design aspects and tradeoffs from theory to application for fiber-optics transceiver electronics. Presenting a compendium of information in a structured way, this book enables the engineer to develop a methodical design approach, a deep understanding of specifications parameters and the reasons behind them, as well as their effects and consequences on system performance, which are essential for proper component design. Further, a fundamental understanding of RF, digital circuit design, and linear and nonlinear phenomena is important in order to achieve the desired performance levels. Becoming familiar with solid-state devices and passives used to build optical receivers and transmitters is also important so one can effectively overcome design limitations.

190

Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?

Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V

2013-01-01

191

Saliva secretion rate and acidity in a group of physically disabled older care home residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A growing number of older people have teeth, which are vulnerable to oral diseases. To maintain good oral health, an adequate amount of saliva should be secreted and the saliva should possess adequate buffer capacity. The study aim was to investigate the associations of saliva secretion rate and acidity with gender, age, and some medical characteristics in a convenience sample of physically disabled older care home residents. In 20 male and 30 female physically disabled older care home residents with a mean age of 78.1 ± 9.7 years, the resting, chewing-stimulated, and acid-stimulated whole saliva secretion rate and acidity, as well as the main medical diagnosis and the number of medications used, were registered. Resting, chewing-stimulated and acid-stimulated whole saliva secretion rates were lower in women than in men and negatively associated with age and the number of medications used. In female residents, the acidity of acid-stimulated whole saliva was negatively associated with the acid-stimulated whole saliva secretion rate. In residents aged >70 years, the acidity of resting whole saliva was positively associated with age. The acidity of acid-stimulated whole saliva of all residents was positively associated with the number of medications used.

van der Putten GJ; Brand HS; De Visschere LM; Schols JM; de Baat C

2013-01-01

192

Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

2013-01-01

193

Effects of protocol utilized for collection of whole saliva stimulated by TENS in healthy adult Indians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rate in healthy adult subjects and to find out whether the protocol utilized for collection of saliva influence the quantity of saliva stimulated. Materials and Methods: Using an extraoral TENS applied over parotid glands stimulated whole saliva flow rate in fifty healthy adult subjects was measured Collection of TENS stimulated saliva was performed on day 1 after collection of unstimulated saliva, on day 2 only TENS stimulated saliva was measured. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using paired ‘t’ test. Results: Thirty nine patients on day one and thirty six patients on day two out of 50 (75 % of the subjects tested) responded to TENS therapy with an increase of stimulated whole saliva flow rate .There was a reduction in quantity of TENS stimulated saliva on day one and two with a difference of 4% which statistically significant with p value 0.009. Conclusions: Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) as an extra-oral device can be considered as a safe, non-pharmacological measure in order to achieve an increase of the rate of unstimulated saliva. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the possibility of using TENS in relieving the symptoms of xerostomia.

Vijayalaxmi Bhoomanna Nimma; T Ramesh; Sudhakara Reddy; Reddy Lavanya; L A Swapna

2012-01-01

194

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

|In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

195

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests/ Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquímica. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletr (more) odo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medi (more) um, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P.; Sathler, Lúcio

2007-09-01

196

Comparison of the antioxidant potential in urine, saliva and skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Free radicals, oxidative stress and their possible consequences for health are becoming increasingly important in modern medicine. Reactive species influence the organism, potentially causing oxidative cell damage. They can be produced by exogenous sources, or be a product of a variety of not only physiological metabolic processes, such as immune response, but also pathological processes. The antioxidant protection system protects the organism from oxidative damage caused by reactions producing an excess of free radicals. The analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) is therefore becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis of individual vitality. Method: The photochemoluminescence method was used to measure the AOP in urine and saliva, spectrometry was employed to measure the ?-carotene content of the skin. In addition, it was investigated whether the AOPsaliva correlated with the AOPUurine (uric-acid independent AOP) as well as the ?-carotene content of the skin. Results: The AOP was significantly higher in urine than in saliva, and both values were significantly positively correlated with each other. However, there was no significant correlation to the ?-carotene content of the skin. Discussion: The components of the AOPUurine are accumulated over time (night), whereas AOP measurement in saliva is like a snapshot, which explains why AOPUurine was significantly higher than AOPsaliva, although the two parameters are correlated with each other. ?-carotene is a fat-soluble antioxidant, whereas in our study, only water-soluble antioxidants were determined in the urine. This explains why there is no positive correlation between ?-carotene of the skin and AOP. Conclusion: For the characterization of the AOP in epidemiological studies, we recommend determining the AOPUurine and parallel to this, the ?-carotene content of the skin.

Benkhai, Hicham; Köhler, Franziska; Lademann, Jürgen; Lemanski, Sandra; Bornewasser, Manfred; Below, Elke; Below, Harald; Kramer, Axel

2011-01-01

197

Biochemical analysis of saliva of subjects with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most common diseases of periodontal tissues are inflammatoryprocesses of gum and insertion of teeth normality associated to the local accumulation of teeth biofilm. The objective of this search is evaluating if the periodontal diseases are able to induce qualitative and quantitative alteration in saliva of subjects with periodontal diseases. Forty subjects,divided in 2 groups of 20, being one the control group (CG) and the other the test group (TG), based on age and sex were evaluated. There were analyzed the following salivary parameters: capacity of buffer, salivary flow speed, pH, calcium, urea and total proteins concentrations. The medium values and standard directions were: pH: CG 7.43 (± 0.62),TG 8.1 (± 0.49); salivary flow CG 1.21 (± 0.23); TG 1.01 (± 0.75);calcium CG 4.7 (± 1.2), TG 5.4 (± 0.85); urea CG 30.7 (± 9.6), TG 38.6(± 19.9); total proteins CG 355.5 (± 256.7), TG 299.2 (± 132.4).Significant rise in the amount of urea and calcium in the saliva of the periodontal disease individuals was observed whereas the amount of total proteins in the saliva of these individuals diminished, suggesting a change in microbiota. Salivary pH in the individuals of the TG is slightly higher of that of the CG. Salivary flow and capacity of buffer have been considered normal in both groups.

Mônica Erthal SCHÜTZEMBERGER; Regina Teixeira SOUZA; Romina Eulálio PETRUCCI; Mariângela NAVAL MACHADO; Vula PAPALEXIOU; João Armando BRANCHER

2007-01-01

198

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

2005-10-31

199

Delays of 5-15min between awakening and the start of saliva sampling matter in assessment of the cortisol awakening response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linking psychosocial measures to the cortisol awakening response (CAR) demands accurate saliva sampling times. Monitoring adherence to the saliva sampling protocol requires electronic monitoring of both awakening and sampling times since self-reported times are inaccurate. Delays greater than 15min between awakening and commencement of saliva sampling reduce CAR magnitude. Less delay has been judged tolerable but remains unexplored for different magnitude measures, and for timing of the CAR peak. Study 1: Fifty healthy females (21±4 years) were instructed to collect saliva on four days at 0, 15, 30 and 45min post-awakening (samples 1-4). Both self-reported awakening and sampling times were electronically monitored using actigraphy and track caps. Self-reported awakening was later than actigraph estimated awakening (median difference of 4min). Estimates of CAR magnitude were significantly greater on non-adherent days (delay of 5-15min) compared to adherent days (delay<5min). On non-adherent compared to adherent days cortisol on average peaked earlier, at sample 3 rather than at sample 4. Study 2: Accurately timed cortisol values were obtained in an intensive investigation of 10 participants who collected saliva on 2 days every 5min for 30min post-awakening. Cortisol did not significantly increase until 10min post-awakening, suggesting a time lag may be typical between awakening and observation of a cortisol increase. We conclude that moderate delays between awakening and collection of saliva samples previously considered tolerable result in erroneous estimation of CAR magnitude and timing of the peak. These results are attributed to an approximate 10min time lag between awakening and the start of the cortisol rise. The absence of this latent period in calculations leads to overestimation of the CAR magnitude on moderately non-adherent sampling days. These findings, if more universally generalizable, will further theoretical understanding of the physiology of the CAR, but are methodologically challenging for researchers since self-reported awakening times are not accurate enough to override the concerns raised. However accurate electronic measurement of adherence to protocol would enable sampling delays to be taken into account in computing CAR estimates. PMID:23312064

Smyth, Nina; Clow, Angela; Thorn, Lisa; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil

2013-01-09

200

Substrate specificity of fucosyltransferase purified from human parotid saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purified fucosyltransferase from human parotid saliva was shown to transfer fucose from GDP-fucose onto the oligosaccharide chains containing the Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc or Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc/Glc sequences. Competition studies between asialotransferrin and either lacto-N-fucopentaose 1 or 2'-fucosyllactose provided evidence that both the substrates competed for a common enzyme active site. These results suggest that the fucosyltransferase activities for the three acceptors may be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

Tamagawa H; Iwakura K; Amano A; Shizukuishi S; Tsunemitsu A

1987-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Frog saliva-induced toxic keratopathy: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corneal toxicity due to exposure to many chemicals and medications have been described in the literature. We present a case of toxic keratopathy by corneal exposure to salivary secretion of a frog. A 40-year-old male patient reported a sudden splash of frog saliva in his right eye while he was examining it at a close distance. Corneal punctate epitheliopathy and stromal oedema and Descemet folds were the initial clinical findings, which completely recovered on the 2nd control day of topical dexamethasone and ofloxacin treatment. We aimed to show the toxic effects of animal-derived secretions on the cornea as a rare cause of toxic keratopathy.

Teberik K; Ozer PA; Ozek D; Akkaya ZY

2012-12-01

202

Saliva de animais hematófagos: fonte de novos anticoagulantes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar os anticoagulantes e inibidores da agregação plaquetária que foram encontrados em animais hematófagos. Esses animais precisam inibir as reações hemostáticas no local onde se alimentam no hospedeiro para realizar a refeição sangüínea e também para manter o sangue fluido nos seus próprios tratos digestivos. Devido a essa necessidade, eles desenvolveram ao longo da evolução uma grande diversidade de substâncias que são injetadas no hospedeiro através da saliva e que permitiram o sucesso de seu parasitismo. Tais recursos farmacológicos podem ser utilizados como ferramentas em pesquisa da fisiologia vascular e hemostática, e têm potencial uso terapêutico em doenças cardiovasculares.

Ciprandi Alessandra; Horn Fabiana; Termignoni Carlos

2003-01-01

203

Isolation of circulating microRNA in saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral cancer diagnosis can be greatly facilitated by early diagnosis in order to improve the 50 % 5-year mortality that has not changed much over the last years. Saliva is an easily accessible medium that has been shown to contain microvesicles (exosomes) that enclose microRNAs. We have previously demonstrated that the majority of salivary microRNAs are within exosomes. MicroRNAs have been implicated in oral cancer and the use of salivary exosomal microRNAs holds the promise of identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers.

Gallo A; Alevizos I

2013-01-01

204

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

205

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength of resin luting cements to dentin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: This study examined the effect of saliva contamination on the microtensile bond strength (?TBS) of resin luting cements to dentin. Methods: For RelyX ARC (ARC, 3M ESPE), dentin surfaces were etched with 32% phosphoric acid. The subgroups were: ARC-control (uncontaminated), ARC-I (saliva ...

Chung, CWM; Yiu, CKY; King, NM; Hiraishi, N; Tay, FR

206

Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2009-01-01

207

Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E/sub 2/ were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E/sub 2/ throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E/sub 2/ was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E/sub 2/ concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E/sub 2/ levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E/sub 2/ provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program.

Belkien, L.D.; Bordt, J.; Moeller, P.; Hano, R.; Nieschlag, E.

1985-09-01

208

Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in sixteen healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics.

Yuki D; Kikuchi A; Miura N; Kakehi A; Onozawa M

2013-08-01

209

Characteristic differences between saliva-dependent aggregation and adhesion of streptococci.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteri...

Rosan, B; Malamud, D; Appelbaum, B; Golub, E

210

Overestimation of salivary 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level when using stimulated saliva with gum-chewing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in whole saliva can be a noninvasive tool for assessing vitamin D status. Gum-chewing increases salivation and is often used to collect an adequate sample volume of saliva within a shorter time. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the concentration of 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva is influenced by gum-chewing. METHODS: Stimulated saliva was collected from healthy volunteers chewing a tasteless and flavorless chewing gum after unstimulated saliva was collected without gum-chewing. The salivary 25(OH)D3 and albumin concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The salivary 25(OH)D3 concentration was reproducibly measured when saliva was collected without gum-chewing, whereas the concentration was significantly increased by gum-chewing (p<0.05, paired t-test). One of the causes for the gum-chewing-induced increase in the 25(OH)D3 concentration may be the increased amount of protein-bound 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva. CONCLUSION: Stimulated saliva by gum-chewing should be used with caution in the measurement of 25(OH)D3. The protein binding rate in plasma is a significant consideration when predicting whether the salivary concentration of a compound is varied by gum-chewing.

Higashi T; Hijikuro M; Yamagata K; Ogawa S

2013-09-01

211

The corrosion of dental amalgam in artificial salivas: an electrochemical impedance study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An electrochemical impedance study of the corrosion of Tytin dental amalgam was carried out in electrolytes similar to artificial saliva with or without lactic acid, and in standard inorganic artificial saliva with higher ionic concentration. Spectra were recorded in the presence and absence of diss...

Brett, Christopher M. A.; Trandafir, Florin

212

Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not promote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corro (more) sion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

Mariano, N.A.; Oliveira, R.G.; Fernandes, M.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.

2009-08-01

213

[Evaluation of saliva ferning test in diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate saliva ferning test in (SFT) diagnosis of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Dried samples of freshly produced saliva from 78 patients diagnosed as SS according to european community criteria and 80 healthy controls were examined by light microscopy. The crystallization was classified into 4 types according to the ferning phenomenon: uniformity, branching, spreading and integrity (type I normal and type II, III, IV abnormal). Then, the 78 patients underwent labial salivary gland biopsy. According to Tarpley's classification of labial gland biopsy, > or = 2+ was considered positive. RESULTS: (a) The sensitivity and specificity of SFT were 89.74% (70/78) and 83.75% (67/80) respectively. (b) Abnormal SFT was observed in 70/78 (89.74%) of SS and in 13/80 (16.25%) of normal controls. The differences of SFT in SS patients versus normal controls were significant (P < 0.01). (c) The sensitivity of SFT and labial gland biopsy had no significant differences (P > 0.05) as diagnostic tests in SS. CONCLUSIONS: SFT was valuable as a diagnostic test in patients suspective of SS.

Ding L; Tang Y; Lu Q

2001-05-01

214

Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes.

Jensdottir T; Nauntofte B; Buchwald C; Bardow A

2005-11-01

215

Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were included in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the (more) serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.

Menezes, Gisele Barreto Lopes; Pereira, Fernanda Albuquerque; Duarte, César Augusto Barros; Carmo, Theomira Mauadie Azevedo; Silva Filho, Hermes Pedreira da; Zarife, Maria Alice; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; Reis, Mitermayer G

2012-08-01

216

[Correlation of ornidazole concentration in saliva and serum of healthy volunteers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of ornidazole in the salivary and serum of healthy adults and explore the feasibility of monitoring serum drug concentration with salivary. METHODS: Six volunteers received a single dose of 0.6 g ornidazole via intravenous infusion. The concentrations of ornidazole in the saliva and serum were assayed by high-performance liquid chomatography, and the correlation of the drug concentrations in saliva to that in serum was analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of ornidazole in the saliva was strongly associated with that in the serum (r = 0.825-0.969), and the ratio of saliva-to-serum concentration (S/P) of ornidazole was 0.99 ± 0.13. CONCLUSION: Detection of saliva ornidazole concentration is feasible for monitoring the therapeutic concentration of ornidazole.

Jiang Y; Liu HC; Wu X; Feng CZ; Chang P; Zhang XH

2010-09-01

217

Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were included in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.

Gisele Barreto Lopes Menezes; Fernanda Albuquerque Pereira; César Augusto Barros Duarte; Theomira Mauadie Azevedo Carmo; Hermes Pedreira da Silva Filho; Maria Alice Zarife; Marco Aurélio Krieger; Eliana Almeida Gomes Reis; Mitermayer G Reis

2012-01-01

218

Saliva of laboratory-reared Lutzomyia longipalpis exacerbates Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection more potently than saliva of wild-caught Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to compare the saliva effect from wild-caught and lab-reared L. longipalpis on the development of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously into the hind footpads with promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis plus salivary gland lysate from wild-caught (SGL-W) and lab-colonized (SGL-C) vectors. Lesion sizes were significantly larger in the mice infected with both saliva compared to mice infected with parasites alone; moreover, the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-C were significantly larger than the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-W. Histopathological morphometric studies regarding the acute phase of infections showed lower numbers of polymorphonuclear cells, greater numbers of mononuclear cells and parasites in SGL-C infected mice compared to SGL-W infected mice. In the chronic phase of infection, the number of mononuclear cells was lower and the number of parasites was greater in SGL-C infected mice than SGL-W infected mice. In vitro studies showed increased infection index of macrophages infected with parasites plus saliva compared to infection with parasites alone, with no difference between the saliva infection indices. SDS-PAGE gel for SGL-C and SGL-W showed differences in the composition and quantity of protein bands, determined by densitometry. These results call attention to the experimental saliva model, which shows exacerbation of infection caused by sandfly saliva.

Laurenti MD; Silveira VM; Secundino NF; Corbett CE; Pimenta PP

2009-09-01

219

Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples/ Detecção de anticorpos anti-VHA em amostras de saliva utilizando teste imuno-enzimático  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A possibilidade de identificar infecções presentes ou passadas utilizando fluidos corpóreos que seriam mais facilmente coletados do que o sangue, principalmente em crianças, facilitaria grandemente a investigação e o acompanhamento de surtos de hepatite A, que ocorrem com muita freqüência em nosso meio. Nosso estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de avaliar a detecção dos anticorpos anti-VHA, da classe IgA, IgM, e anticorpos totais em amostras de saliva, usan (more) do amostras de soro como padrão. Foram estudadas 43 amostras pareadas de saliva e de soro, colhidas de 24 crianças e de um adulto durante um surto de hepatite A, e de 18 funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Empregando saliva como amostra clínica, a sensibilidade para a detecção de anti-VHA IgM foi de 100,0%, de anti-VHA IgA foi de 80,8% e de anti-VHA total foi de 82,1%. Não houve nenhum resultado falso-positivo, sendo a especificidade de 100%. A concordância foi alta entre os resultados das amostras de saliva e soro na detecção dos anticorpos, indicando que amostras de saliva podem ser utilizadas no diagnóstico de infecção aguda pelo VHA e na seleção de indivíduos para vacinação contra o VHA, para conter surtos. Abstract in english The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and total antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and (more) 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

OBA, Isabel Takano; SPINA, Angela Maria Miranda; SARACENI, Cláudia Patara; LEMOS, Marcílio Figueiredo; SENHORAS, Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade; MOREIRA, Regina Célia; GRANATO, Celso Francisco Hernandes

2000-08-01

220

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (idades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado.

C. Maldonado; Pietro Fagiolino; M. Vázquez; A. Rey; I. Olano; R. Eiraldi; C. Scavone

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activity in human parotid and submandibular saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activity were studied in isolated parotid and submandibular saliva collected from five healthy individuals over a 3-wk period. During the first week, saliva samples were collected three times within one specified day (9 a.m., noon, 4 p.m.). Then for each of the following 2 wk, saliva was collected at 9 a.m. of the same day. NAGase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by using p-nitrophenyl-glycoside as substrate. Lysozyme activity was determined turbidimetrically by using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as substrate. NAGase and lysozyme were present in all samples of parotid and submandibular saliva. NAGase activity was generally higher in saliva samples collected in the morning and decreased during the day. There was considerable variation in NAGase activity and almost no variation in lysozyme activity in samples taken from the same person. NAGase activity was higher in parotid than in submandibular saliva while lysozyme activity was somewhat higher in submandibular saliva.

Fouda NE; Söder PO; Svensson ML

1987-06-01

222

Unstimulated whole saliva 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in patients with xerostomia in menopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to compare unstimulated whole saliva 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) in menopausal women with and without oral dryness (OD) feeling, and evaluate the relationship between saliva 25(OH)D and severity of OD feeling. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on 70 selected menopausal women aged 41-77 years with or without OD feeling (35 as case and 35 as control) conducted at the Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration. Xerostomia inventory (XI) score was used as an index of OD feeling severity. The saliva 25(OH)D concentration was measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis of Student's t test and Spearman correlation was used. RESULTS: The mean saliva 25(OH)D level was significantly higher in the case group (897.1 ± 128.9 pg/ml), compared with control (156.7 ± 43.4 pg/ml; P < 0.05). XI score correlated significantly with saliva 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the level of salivary 25(OH)D concentration may be higher in menopausal women with OD feeling than in the control group, and there is a positive correlation between OD feeling severity and unstimulated whole saliva 25(OH)D.

Agha-Hosseini F; Mirzaii-Dizgah I; Mirjalili N

2013-05-01

223

HCV clearance from saliva of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients on treatment with interferon plus ribavirin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA clearance from blood and saliva of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients undergoing combined therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN-RIB). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Study group was formed of 60 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C who were starting treatment with PEG-IFN-RIB. Blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline, at the end of treatment and 24 and 48 weeks later. A nested RT-PCR technique was used to detect HCV-RNA in saliva. RESULTS: HCV-RNA was detected in saliva at baseline in 64.7% of patients. Thirty-four patients completed follow-up. The response rate (undetectable HCV-RNA) in blood was 79.4% at the end of treatment; 55.8% at 24 weeks after the end of treatment and 50% at 48 weeks. HCV was detected in saliva of 13 (38.2%) patients at the end of treatment and in 18 (52.9%) patients at 24 and 48 weeks later. Concordance of HCV clearance from blood and saliva reached its maximum value at 48 weeks after the end of treatment (odds ratio, 112.51). CONCLUSION: In HIV-HCV-coinfected patients responders to PEG-IFN-RIB, the salivary glands do not appear to be a sanctuary site for HCV, although viral clearance from saliva may be slower than from blood.

Feijoo J; Eirea M; Limeres J; Abeleira M; Ramos I; Ocampo A; Diz P

2013-04-01

224

Mercury and silver in saliva from subjects with symptoms self-related to amalgam fillings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amount of mercury released into saliva from dental amalgam fillings is currently being debated. Mercury enters saliva as vapor, ions and particles of amalgam. The aim of the present study was to determine mercury and silver concentrations in saliva of persons with amalgam fillings. Moreover, it was the aim to investigate whether amalgam particles were present in samples of stimulated saliva in control subjects. In that case, we also wanted to determine the influence of these particles on the mercury concentrations found. Fifty-three patients with a wide range of complaints self-related to their amalgam fillings were examined by the Dental Biomaterials Adverse Reaction Unit of Norway. Among other tests, stimulated saliva was collected from each patient and analyzed for mercury and silver. Mercury and silver correlated with the amount of amalgam present. There was a strong correlation between mercury and silver concentrations. Amalgam particles were found by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It appears that a considerable part of the mercury and silver were present as amalgam particles. The present study shows that amalgam particles in saliva have to be controlled for when analyzing mercury in saliva from subjects with amalgam fillings.

Lygre GB; Høl PJ; Eide R; Isrenn R; Gjerdet NR

1999-12-01

225

Biochemical and electrophoretic analyses of saliva from the predatory reduviid species Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The saliva of Rhynocoris marginatus consists of amylase, invertase, trehalase, protease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, phospholipase, lipase, trypsin, hyaluronidase, and esterase. All enzyme activities were significantly higher in the saliva of female R. marginatus when compared to the saliva of male individuals. The saliva was analyzed by tricine SDS/PAGE, sephadex column chromatography, FT-IR, and MALDI-TOF. The pH of the saliva was slightly alkali. The SDS/PAGE revealed a few proteins with molecular masses greater than 29.5 and 36.2 kDa for male and female predator saliva respectively. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the acidic, proteinaceous, enzymatic, and aromatic nature of the saliva. The MALDI-TOF-MS revealed the presence of enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules. The most prominent peptides were named as RmIT-1 (3.79 kDa), RmIT-2 (9.7 kDa), and RmIT-3 (10.94 kDa) (Rhynocoris marginatus Insect Toxin). Further studies are underway to isolate and identify these biomolecules.

Kitherian S; Muthukumar S; Rivers D

2013-01-01

226

Sealant Microleakage After Using Nano-Filled Bonding Agents on Saliva-Contaminated Enamel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of correctly applied fissure sealants has been revealed in the prevention of caries. Saliva and moisture contamination of the etched enamel surface before sealant placement can decrease the bonding strength of the sealant to the enamel. The aim of this study was to test the new bonding agents containing nano-fillers in order to reduce the negative effect of saliva contamination on the sealant micro leakage.Materials and Methods: Seventy five sound human premolars were randomly assigned to five equal groups as follows: Group A: etching, sealant; Group B: etching, saliva contamination, sealant; Group C: etching, saliva contamination, Single bond, sealant; Group D: etching, saliva contamination, Adper Single bond 2, sealant; Group E: etching, saliva contamination, N Bond, sealant. The samples were thermo-cycled and immersed in basic fuchsine 0.5% by weight. Then, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and parallel to the long axis into two segments. Finally, the length of dye penetration at the sealant-tooth interface was scored according to a four-point scale.Results: Micro-leakage was higher in group B compared to the other groups, while there were no differences among the evaluated dentin adhesives.Conclusion: The use of nano-filled bonding agents as an intermediate layer between the etched enamel and the sealant can reduce sealant micro-leakage after saliva contamination at the level of the uncontaminated enamel.

Mehrsa Paryab

2013-01-01

227

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

228

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

229

Tear and saliva ferning tests in Sjogren's syndrome (SS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tear ferning test (TFT) and the saliva ferning test (SFT) as diagnostic tests for xerophthalmia and xerostomia respectively in patients with SS. Dried samples of freshly produced tears and saliva from: (A) 36 healthy controls without sicca symptoms, (B) 61 patients with primary SS, (C) 53 patients with secondary SS and (D) 22 patients with psychiatric disorders receiving antidepressants, were examined by polarizing light microscopy. All individuals included in the study were postmenopausal women. The crystallization was classified into 4 types according to the ferning phenomenon: uniformity, branching, spreading and integrity (type I normal and II, III, IV abnormal). Abnormal TFT was found in tear samples of: (A) 8/72 normal control eyes, (B) 110/122 prim SS eyes, (C) 86/106 sec SS eyes and (D) 30/44 psychiatric patients' eyes. Abnormal SFT was found in: (A) 6/36 of normal controls, (B) 59/61 of prim SS, (C) 51/53 of sec SS patients and (D) 16/22 of psychiatric patients. The differences of both TFT and SFT of patients with prim SS and sec SS versus controls were significant (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TFT was found to be high both in prim SS (90%) and in sec SS (81%). In addition the specificities of TFT and SFT were high 89% and 83% respectively. On the other hand the differences of TFT and SFT in psychiatric patients receiving antidepressants versus normal controls were also significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.025 respectively). According to our data TFT and SFT are simple, sensitive and specific tests to evaluate xerophthalmia and xerostomia in SS and probably in other conditions characterized by mucous membrane dryness.

Maragou M; Vaikousis E; Ntre A; Koronis N; Georgiou P; Hatzidimitriou E; Sotsiou F; Dantis P

1996-03-01

230

Tear and saliva ferning tests in Sjögren's syndrome (SS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tear ferning test (TFT) and the saliva ferning test (SFT) as diagnostic tests for xerophthalmia and xerostomia respectively in patients with SS. Dried samples of freshly produced tears and saliva from: (A) 36 healthy controls without sicca symptoms, (B) 61 patients with primary SS, (C) 53 patients with secondary SS and (D) 22 patients with psychiatric disorders receiving antidepressants, were examined by polarizing light microscopy. All individuals included in the study were postmenopausal women. The crystallization was classified into 4 types according to the ferning phenomenon: uniformity, branching, spreading and integrity (type I normal and II, III, IV abnormal). Abnormal TFT was found in tear samples of: (A) 8/72 normal control eyes, (B) 110/122 prim SS eyes, (C) 86/106 sec SS eyes and (D) 30/44 psychiatric patients' eyes. Abnormal SFT was found in: (A) 6/36 of normal controls, (B) 59/61 of prim SS, (C) 51/53 of sec SS patients and (D) 16/22 of psychiatric patients. The differences of both TFT and SFT of patients with prim SS and sec SS versus controls were significant (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TFT was found to be high both in prim SS (90%) and in sec SS (81%). In addition the specificities of TFT and SFT were high 89% and 83% respectively. On the other hand the differences of TFT and SFT in psychiatric patients receiving antidepressants versus normal controls were also significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.025 respectively). According to our data TFT and SFT are simple, sensitive and specific tests to evaluate xerophthalmia and xerostomia in SS and probably in other conditions characterized by mucous membrane dryness. PMID:8777844

Maragou, M; Vaikousis, E; Ntre, A; Koronis, N; Georgiou, P; Hatzidimitriou, E; Sotsiou, F; Dantis, P

1996-03-01

231

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana/ Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPO (more) D y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HW (more) S of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

BANDERAS-TARABAY, JOSÉ ANTONIO; GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ, MIREYA; SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO, MARTHA; MILLÁN-CORTÉZ, ELVA; LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ARACELI; VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ, ARACELI

1997-09-01

232

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ

1997-01-01

233

Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10) using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 ?g/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 ?g/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 ?g/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

?or?evi? Snežana; Kilibarda Vesna; Stojanovi? Tomislav

2009-01-01

234

Metal content of saliva of patients with and without metal restorations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many in vitro studies have confirmed the corrosion of dental alloys. However, in vivo corrosion studies, for example, recording of the release of metal ions into saliva, are scarce, and data on the repeatability of the metal content measurements of saliva are lacking. The present study examined the metal content of saliva of patients with and without metal restorations and assessed the repeatability of these data. The composition of each patient's oral cast alloys was analyzed using the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of metal biopsy specimens and was compared to the metals found in saliva. Saliva analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Chemical analysis comprised the metals Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Ni, Pd, Pt, Sn, and Zn. The metals Ag, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn were found in saliva of patients without metal restorations, but these data showed statistically significant differences in the metal content between consecutively performed samples per patient. The metals Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn were identified in saliva of patients with metal restorations being higher in concentration than in control patients. In 77% of the cases at least one metal of the restoration was found in the patient's saliva. However, the metal content showed statistically significant differences between replicate samples of the same patient taken at different times. The metal content of saliva is affected among other things by intraoral metal restorations, but present data do not support the idea that it is a reliable indicator for the systemic exposure to metals released from dental alloys.

Garhammer P; Hiller KA; Reitinger T; Schmalz G

2004-12-01

235

Comparison of saliva sampling methods for measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We measured salivary adiponectin levels in saliva samples collected in two different ways and compared the results. Using the Salivette system, we collected samples from 30 healthy females into test tubes. Salivary adiponectin levels were evaluated using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma but with a slightly modified method. While there was a significant correlation between adiponectin levels in plasma and test-tube saliva (p<0.05), no correlation between adiponectin levels in plasma and Salivette-sampled saliva was apparent. These findings suggest that test-tube sampling is more reliable than use of the Salivette system for measuring salivary adiponectin levels.

Toda M; Morimoto K

2008-01-01

236

Comparison of saliva sampling methods for measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured salivary adiponectin levels in saliva samples collected in two different ways and compared the results. Using the Salivette system, we collected samples from 30 healthy females into test tubes. Salivary adiponectin levels were evaluated using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma but with a slightly modified method. While there was a significant correlation between adiponectin levels in plasma and test-tube saliva (p<0.05), no correlation between adiponectin levels in plasma and Salivette-sampled saliva was apparent. These findings suggest that test-tube sampling is more reliable than use of the Salivette system for measuring salivary adiponectin levels. PMID:18618368

Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa

2008-01-01

237

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Careers in Focus: Electronics profiles 20 careers in this innovative field for young professionals. Job profiles of this title include: avionics engineers; computer-aided design drafters and technicians; cost estimators; electricians; electronics service technicians; hardware engineers; industrial engineers; microelectronics technicians; quality assurance testers; technical writers and editors; and, more.

Ferguson

2009-01-01

238

Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and bioequivalence of the tablet and syrup formulations of lacosamide in plasma, saliva, and urine: saliva as a surrogate of pharmacokinetics in the central compartment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To test for bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide oral tablet and syrup formulations. Additional objectives were to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide in saliva and plasma, and to evaluate its tolerability. METHODS: This open-label, randomized, two-way crossover trial was conducted in 16 healthy Caucasian male participants in Germany. The bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide tablet and syrup was evaluated using plasma to determine maximum measured concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve from zero to the last time point (AUC)(0-tz). Plasma and saliva samples for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of lacosamide and the major metabolite O-desmethyl lacosamide (SPM 12809) were taken over 15 time points (0.5-72 h) and used to statistically compare bioavailability of the two. Urine samples were collected predose and over five time points (0-48 h) to evaluate the cumulative amount of unchanged drug and metabolite. KEY FINDINGS: Lacosamide median time to reach C(max) (t(max)) was 1 h for tablet and 0.5 h for syrup in plasma and saliva. Mean terminal half life (t(½)) for tablet and syrup was 12.5 and 12.4 h in plasma, and 13.1 and 13.3 h in saliva, respectively. Tablet and syrup mean plasma AUC(0-tz) was 84.5 and 83.3 ?g/mL*h, respectively. Mean AUC(0-tz) in saliva was 93.2 ?g/mL*h for tablet and syrup. Mean C(max) for tablet was 5.26 ?g/mL in plasma and 5.63 ?g/mL in saliva. Syrup mean C(max) was 5.14 and 8.32 ?g/mL in plasma and saliva, respectively. Within 2 h of syrup administration, elevated lacosamide concentration in saliva compared to plasma was observed. The ratio of lacosamide syrup to tablet was 0.98 for C(max) and 0.99 for AUC(0-tz) in plasma, and 1.00 for AUC((0-tz)) in saliva; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for these parameters were within the range of 0.80-1.25, which meets accepted bioequivalence criteria. The syrup-to-tablet ratio for C(max) in saliva was 1.48, and the 90% CIs exceeded the accepted upper boundary for bioequivalence (1.32-1.66). Both formulations were well tolerated. Metabolite concentration versus time profiles for saliva were similar to plasma following tablet and syrup administration. SIGNIFICANCE: The tablet and syrup formulations of lacosamide 200 mg were bioequivalent and well tolerated. Saliva samples were demonstrated to be a suitable surrogate to evaluate lacosamide tablet pharmacokinetics in the central compartment. Due to residual syrup in the buccal cavity, limitations exist when using saliva to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide syrup <2 h after administration.

Cawello W; Bökens H; Nickel B; Andreas JO; Halabi A

2013-01-01

239

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Multimedia

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

240

UCLA study finds primary component of turmeric kicks off cancer-killing mechanisms in human saliva:  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin, the main component in the spice turmeric, suppresses a cell signaling pathway that drives the growth of head and neck cancer, according to a pilot study using human saliva by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

 
 
 
 
241

Development of a competitive immunoassay for the determination of cortisol in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new protein conjugates were prepared and studied to develop and compare two (direct and indirect) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats for the determination of cortisol in human saliva. Toward this goal, ovalbumin was conjugated to cortisol and used for developing an indirect competitive ELISA, while alkaline phosphatase was coupled with the same analyte for a direct competitive assay. The yield of the conjugation reactions was evaluated. The results obtained show that the indirect and direct ELISA formats developed for cortisol had working ranges of 0.5-70 and 2-330 ng/ml and detection limits of 0.5 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Artificial and real saliva samples were spiked with cortisol to study the matrix effect of saliva. The suitability of the assays for quantification of cortisol in saliva was also studied.

Sesay AM; Micheli L; Tervo P; Palleschi G; Virtanen V

2013-03-01

242

[Saliva pH and galvanic current ways in mouth tissues and liquids].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the group of 290 human having metal artificial limbs in an oral cavity, decrease in average value pH the mixed saliva in comparison with the persons who are not having metal inclusions was due to increase of percent of persons with sour reaction of saliva. Thus the degree of decrease the mixed saliva pH did not depend up on size of galvanic currents and presence of galvanic symptoms. The hypothesis was put forward, that decrease of saliva pH and development of galvanism was connected with local changes in a biofilm contacting to metal artificial prosthetic devices. Galvanic currents extended both on a surface of oral mucous membrane and in tissue. Clinical symptoms of galvanism we more expressed when galvanic currents flow manly in oral tissue.

Poniakina ID; Lebedev KA; Maksimovski? IuM; Mitronin AV; Sagan LG; Sagan NN

2009-01-01

243

The reproducibility of the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in human saliva after a nitrate load.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the reproducibility of the inter- and intra-individual variations in the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in saliva. Saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers just before and at regular intervals after a nitrate load on four non-consecutive days within a period of 2 months. On three occasions beetroot juice was the nitrate source and on one occasion a nitrate solution was given. Despite large day-to-day variations it was possible to discriminate between subjects with a consistently high or low nitrate conversion after a nitrate load. Neither saliva sampling before a nitrate load nor single saliva samples are sufficient to obtain clear information about individual capacities for nitrate-nitrite conversion. PMID:3366416

Bos, P M; Van den Brandt, P A; Wedel, M; Ockhuizen, T

1988-02-01

244

The reproducibility of the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in human saliva after a nitrate load.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the reproducibility of the inter- and intra-individual variations in the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in saliva. Saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers just before and at regular intervals after a nitrate load on four non-consecutive days within a period of 2 months. On three occasions beetroot juice was the nitrate source and on one occasion a nitrate solution was given. Despite large day-to-day variations it was possible to discriminate between subjects with a consistently high or low nitrate conversion after a nitrate load. Neither saliva sampling before a nitrate load nor single saliva samples are sufficient to obtain clear information about individual capacities for nitrate-nitrite conversion.

Bos PM; Van den Brandt PA; Wedel M; Ockhuizen T

1988-02-01

245

Adsorption of Lysozyme from Human Whole Saliva by Streptococcus sanguis 903 and Other Oral Microorganisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii plus fresh isolates of Streptococcus salivarius were surveyed for their abilities to deplete lysozyme from human-whole-saliva supernatant. Bacteria were incubated in ...

Laible, Nancy J.; Germaine, Greg R.

246

Saliva inhibits the chemiluminescence response, phagocytosis, and killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva inhibited several functional properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from murine peritoneal exudate, namely, luminol-mediated chemiluminescence (CL) induced by either Staphylococcus epidermidis or formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), phagocytosis, and killing of bacteria in ...

Saito, K; Kato, C; Teshigawara, H

247

Saliva and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with colorectal cancer : a prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A prospective cross-sectional study was designed to test if total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva and plasma correlated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population with symptoms consistent with this disease.

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Ib Jarle

2012-01-01

248

Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-?L cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the cortisol concentrations significantly decreased after human-dog interaction (P = 0.008), suggesting that this method does not induce stress in dogs. Our study indicates that the method of saliva collection by using filter paper is effective in measuring the cortisol concentrations to evaluate stress, although certain steps are required to enhance accuracy.

Oyama D; Hyodo M; Doi H; Kurachi T; Takata M; Koyama S; Satoh T; Watanabe G

2013-10-01

249

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. A (more) rtificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; Chibebe Junior, José; Jorjão, Adeline Lacerda; Machado, Ana Karina da Silva; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2012-02-01

250

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method was used to obtain data about the time of consuming refined carbohydrates and oral hygiene. Oral hygiene level was determined using the Silness-loe plaque index and saliva was analyzed by measuring the flow rate of stimulated saliva, as well as measuring pH of non-stimulated and stimulated saliva. Results: Examining the correlation of seven analyzed characteristics it was possible to determine the presence of 14 (66,7%) correlations out of 21 possible, with statistical significance and various p-values starting from p=0.038 (tau-b=0.229) up to p<0.001 (r=0.667). Out of seven analyzed characteristics, the time of carbohydrate consumption, the presence of caries (group) and pH of non-stimulated saliva are predominantly correlated with other characteristics. Conclusion: The results of this examination show caries appearance in children to be in highly significant correlation with frequency of carbohydrate consumption, plaque index and pH values of non-stimulated saliva. In other words, children with caries consume carbohydrates often between meals, have high plaque index and lower pH values of non-stimulated saliva.

Cvetkovi? Andrijana; Vulovi? Marko; Ivanovi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

251

SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 35 healthy children as control group and 71 thalassemia major, 10 thalassemia intermedia and 15 thalassemia trait patients were involved. Their saliva  and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured.  There was no statistically difference between age and gender in all groups and control group (p>0.05).  In all groups saliva iron levels are higher than serum iron levels(p<0.05). Furthermore there was a positive correlation betwen serum and saliva  iron levels in thalassemia major, intermedia and trait groups ( p=0.000, r=0.972, r=0.720, r=0.955) and also there was a positive correlation between serum and saliva iron levels in control and iron deficiency group (p= 0.000, r= 0.885, r= 0.368).  In conclusion,  Saliva iron and ferritin levels increase  as well as serum in patients with thalassemia and decrease in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Saliva can be used for diagnosis routinely  to shows the iron overload  and deficiency of the body and its easy applicability and also a non-invasive procedure is important advantage.

Duran Canatan; Sevgi Kosaci Akdeniz

2012-01-01

252

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Michelle Peneluppi Silva; José Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva Machado; Luciane Dias de Oliveira; Juliana Campos Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

2012-01-01

253

Comparative monitoring of oral theophylline treatment in blood serum, saliva, and nasal mucus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Theophylline, used in the treatment for various pulmonary pathologies, is usually given orally with drug levels measured primarily in blood serum and occasionally in saliva. Although theophylline treatment is now not commonly used it has been effective to correct smell loss (hyposmia). This is important because 21 million people in the United States exhibit hyposmia and oral theophylline has corrected hyposmia in about 50% of these patients. This result suggests that oral theophylline may result in the drug not only appearing in the serum but also in nasal mucus, thereby playing a role in correcting hyposmia. No prior report of theophylline in nasal mucus has been made and no comparison of levels in nasal mucus, blood serum, or saliva has been previously reported. PURPOSE: The aim was to determine, after oral theophylline treatment, if it is present in nasal mucus and, if present, to compare the levels with those in serum and saliva. METHODS: Oral theophylline was given to 23 hyposmic patients at daily doses of 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 mg for periods of 2-10 months. During each period, blood serum, saliva, and nasal mucus were collected and theophylline measured in each fluid. RESULTS: Theophylline was found in nasal mucus and in saliva and blood serum at each drug dose in each patient to whom it was given. The mean level of theophylline in nasal mucus was 74% that of serum; mean level in saliva was 67% of serum; mean level in nasal mucus was 111% that in saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Theophylline is present in nasal mucus after oral administration. Levels in nasal mucus reflect blood and saliva levels in a consistent manner and offer a simple convenient noninvasive method to monitor theophylline doses of the oral drug.

Henkin RI

2012-04-01

254

Bond Strength of Self-etch Adhesives After Saliva Contamination at Different Application Steps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY This study evaluated and compared the effect of saliva contamination and possible decontamination methods on bond strengths of two self-etching adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond [CSE], Optibond Solo Plus SE [OSE]). Flat occlusal dentin surfaces were created on 180 extracted human molar teeth. The two bonding systems and corresponding composite resins (Clearfil AP-X, Kerr Point 4) were bonded to the dentin under six surface conditions (n=15/group): group 1 (control): primer/bonding/composite; group 2: saliva/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 3: primer/saliva/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 4: primer/saliva/rinsing/drying/bonding/composite; group 5: primer/bonding (cured)/saliva/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 6: primer/bonding (cured)/saliva/removing contaminated layer with a bur/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite. Shear bond strength was tested after specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses. For CSE, groups 2, 3, and 4 and for OSE, groups 6, 2, and 4 showed significantly lower bond strengths than the control group (p<0.05). CSE groups 5 and 6 and OSE groups 3 and 5 revealed bond strengths similar to the control. When saliva contamination occurred after light polymerization of the bonding agent, repeating the bonding procedure recovered the bonding capacity of both self-etch adhesives. However, saliva contamination before or after primer application negatively affected their bond strength.

Cobanoglu N; Unlu N; Ozer F; Blatz M

2013-01-01

255

Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

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Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO) participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28) in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19), moderate disease activity (n=19) and high disease activity (n=25). NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3) to nitrite (NO-2) was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3) was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05). We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05). Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

Amela Dervisevic; Nermina Babic; Jasminko Huskic; Sekib Sokolovic; Emina Nakas-Icindic; Lejla Causevic

2012-01-01

256

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Silva MP; Chibebe Junior J; Jorjão AL; Machado AK; Oliveira LD; Junqueira JC; Jorge AO

2012-01-01

257

Bond Strength of Self-etch Adhesives After Saliva Contamination at Different Application Steps.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY This study evaluated and compared the effect of saliva contamination and possible decontamination methods on bond strengths of two self-etching adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond [CSE], Optibond Solo Plus SE [OSE]). Flat occlusal dentin surfaces were created on 180 extracted human molar teeth. The two bonding systems and corresponding composite resins (Clearfil AP-X, Kerr Point 4) were bonded to the dentin under six surface conditions (n=15/group): group 1 (control): primer/bonding/composite; group 2: saliva/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 3: primer/saliva/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 4: primer/saliva/rinsing/drying/bonding/composite; group 5: primer/bonding (cured)/saliva/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite; group 6: primer/bonding (cured)/saliva/removing contaminated layer with a bur/rinsing/drying/primer/bonding/composite. Shear bond strength was tested after specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses. For CSE, groups 2, 3, and 4 and for OSE, groups 6, 2, and 4 showed significantly lower bond strengths than the control group (pCSE groups 5 and 6 and OSE groups 3 and 5 revealed bond strengths similar to the control. When saliva contamination occurred after light polymerization of the bonding agent, repeating the bonding procedure recovered the bonding capacity of both self-etch adhesives. However, saliva contamination before or after primer application negatively affected their bond strength. PMID:23327232

Cobanoglu, N; Unlu, N; Ozer, Ff; Blatz, Mb

2013-01-17

258

The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

2008-03-25

259

Aberrant proteins in the saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Confirmation of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) currently relies on histological analysis, which does not provide clear indication of cancer development from precancerous lesions. In the present study, whole saliva proteins of patients with OSCC (n = 12) and healthy subjects (n = 12) were separated by 2DE to identify potential candidate biomarkers that are much needed to improve detection of the cancer. The OSCC patients' 2DE saliva protein profiles appeared unique and different from those obtained from the healthy subjects. The patients' saliva ?1-antitrypsin (AAT) and haptoglobin (HAP) ? chains were resolved into polypeptide spots with increased microheterogeneity, although these were not apparent in their sera. Their 2DE protein profiles also showed presence of hemopexin and ?-1B glycoprotein, which were not detected in the profiles of the control saliva. When subjected to densitometry analysis, significant altered levels of AAT, complement C3, transferrin, transthyretin, and ? chains of fibrinogen and HAP were detected. The increased levels of saliva AAT, HAP, complement C3, hemopexin, and transthyretin in the OSCC patients were validated by ELISA. The strong association of AAT and HAP with OSCC was further supported by immunohistochemical staining of cancer tissues. The differently expressed saliva proteins may be useful complementary biomarkers for the early detection and/or monitoring of OSCC, although this requires validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:23784731

Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Ong, Kien-Chai; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Haji; Zain, Rosnah Mohd; Wong, Kum-Thong; Hashim, Onn Haji

2013-08-02

260

Identification of periodontitis associated changes in the proteome of whole human saliva by mass spectrometric analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Interest in human saliva proteomics for disease-specific biomarker screening increased in the last decade. We used whole saliva samples from periodontally healthy and diseased subjects with chronic periodontitis to screen for disease-associated differences in the protein pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 20 periodontally healthy and 20 periodontally diseased subjects from the population-based cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2 and SHIP-Trend). Saliva collection was performed with commercially available Salivette(®) (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany). Whole saliva proteins were analysed after trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation and proteolytic digestion with trypsin by LC-MS/MS. MS-data were analysed and quantified using the Rosetta Elucidator software package. RESULTS: In whole saliva we identified 344 human protein groups across all samples. For label free quantitation we only considered 152 proteins identified with more than one unique peptide. In total, 20 proteins showed 1.5-fold difference in abundance between controls and patients (p < 0.05); the majority of these proteins showed higher abundance in the periodontally diseased subjects. Functional annotation of proteins linked the periodontally diseased status with acute phase response and inflammatory processes. CONCLUSION: Label free proteomic analysis of whole saliva is a powerful tool to characterize the periodontal disease status and differentiate between healthy and periodontally diseased subjects.

Salazar MG; Jehmlich N; Murr A; Dhople VM; Holtfreter B; Hammer E; Völker U; Kocher T

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

alpha-L-Fucosyltransferases related to biosynthesis of blood group substances in human Saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

alpha-L-Fucosyltransferases were demonstrated in human saliva which catalyze the transfer of L-fucose from GDP-L-[14C]-fucose to oligosaccharides from human milk. An alpha-(1 yields 4)-L-fucosyltransferase that synthesizes lacto-N-fucopentaose II and lacto-N-difucohexaose I from lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-fucopentaose I, respectively, was detected in saliva samples of Le(a--b+) secretors and Le(a+b--) non-secretors in which Lea substance was secreted. This enzyme activity was demonstrable neither in saliva samples of Le(a--b--) secretors nor non-secretors. An alpha-(1 yields 2)-L-fucosyltransferase, that synthesizes lacto-N-fucopentaose I from lacto-N-tetraose, was detected in saliva samples from Le(a--b+) secretors which secreted H and Leb substances and from Le(a--b--) secretors which secreted only H substance. An alpha-(1 yields 3)-L-fucosyltransferase was present in all saliva samples of different ABO and Lewis blood groups, irrespective of their ABH secretor status of the donors. The fucosyltransferases in saliva were activated by Mn++ or Mg++ ions, and were inhibited by ATP, GTP and EDTA. They had a broad pH optimum between pH 5.0 and 6.5.

Yazawa S; Furukawa K

1980-04-01

262

Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of ? amyloid (A?) using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva A?42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of A?42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva A?40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva A?42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva A?42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

Bermejo-Pareja Felix; Antequera Desiree; Vargas Teo; Molina Jose A; Carro Eva

2010-01-01

263

Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat. The second aim was to try to relate this composition to a liking for fat and its perception. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva from 13 subjects was collected in the morning and afternoon on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Saliva characteristics such as flow, protein concentration, lipolysis, proteolysis, amylolysis, lipocalin concentration, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant status and uric acid concentrations were measured, as well as the liking for and perceived fattiness of a fat solution. The results showed that for most of the measured characteristics, intra-subject variability in saliva composition was smaller than inter-subject variability, with remarkable stability over time (8 months) in terms of flow, lypolysis, proteolysis and total antioxidant status. Relationships were found between some of these characteristics (lipolysis, lipocalin and flow) and fat-liking or perception, showing that the composition of saliva may play an important role in fat perception and liking.

Neyraud E; Palicki O; Schwartz C; Nicklaus S; Feron G

2012-05-01

264

A novel method of collection of saliva for estimation of steroid levels in extremely premature infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The major advantage of salivary cortisol sampling is that it is considerably less invasive than taking a blood sample. However, previous methods of obtaining saliva in premature infants have been poorly tolerated and inaccurate. We describe a simple, non-distressing technique for obtaining saliva samples to assess extremely premature infants' salivary cortisol status. METHODS: We prospectively obtained early morning saliva samples from extremely premature infants. Their gestational age ranged between 23 and 27 weeks. Saliva was obtained using four standard universal swabs by placing one swab at a time in the infant's mouth for 1-2 min. No salivary stimulants were used. RESULTS: There were 65 infants (36 males). Mean gestation was 25.3 ± 1.3 weeks. This technique had a success rate of 85% in obtaining a mean of 150 ?L of saliva (range 50-350 ?L) by trained staff. No adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel, safe, non-distressing and effective method of saliva collection for salivary cortisol measurement in extremely premature infants.

Ng SM; Drury JA; Turner MA; Didi M; Victor S; Newland P; Weindling AM

2013-04-01

265

Stimulating whole saliva affects the response of antimicrobial proteins to exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the salivary secretion rates of antimicrobial proteins in response to prolonged, exhaustive exercise in both stimulated (STIM) and unstimulated (UNSTIM) saliva flow sample methods. Twenty-four trained men cycled for 2.5?h at 60% V ? O 2 m ? a x and then to exhaustion at 75% V ? O 2 m ? a x . Timed collections of whole saliva were made before exercise, mid-exercise, at the end of the moderate exercise bout and post-exhaustive exercise. After each UNSTIM collection, a STIM sample was collected following chewing flavored gum for 1?min. Saliva was analysed for lysozyme, ?-amylase and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and secretion rates were calculated. Saliva flow was 156% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?saliva flow collection during exercise by chewing flavored gum increased the quantity of saliva and the secretion of lysozyme and ?-amylase, but had a limited impact on the secretion of s-IgA. PMID:23506418

Allgrove, J E; Oliveira, M; Gleeson, M

2013-03-19

266

Stimulating whole saliva affects the response of antimicrobial proteins to exercise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the salivary secretion rates of antimicrobial proteins in response to prolonged, exhaustive exercise in both stimulated (STIM) and unstimulated (UNSTIM) saliva flow sample methods. Twenty-four trained men cycled for 2.5?h at 60% V ? O 2 m ? a x and then to exhaustion at 75% V ? O 2 m ? a x . Timed collections of whole saliva were made before exercise, mid-exercise, at the end of the moderate exercise bout and post-exhaustive exercise. After each UNSTIM collection, a STIM sample was collected following chewing flavored gum for 1?min. Saliva was analysed for lysozyme, ?-amylase and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and secretion rates were calculated. Saliva flow was 156% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?saliva flow collection during exercise by chewing flavored gum increased the quantity of saliva and the secretion of lysozyme and ?-amylase, but had a limited impact on the secretion of s-IgA.

Allgrove JE; Oliveira M; Gleeson M

2013-03-01

267

Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL patients over three consecutive days. The patients received 10 mg arsenic trioxide each day via intravenous infusion. The saliva samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Monomethylarsonous acid and monomethylmonothioarsonic acid were identified along with arsenite, dimethylarsinic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, and arsenate. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species, accounting for 71.8 % of total arsenic in the saliva. Following the arsenic infusion each day, the percentage of methylated arsenicals significantly decreased, possibly suggesting that the arsenic methylation process was saturated by the high doses immediately after the arsenic infusion. The temporal profiles of arsenic species in saliva following each arsenic infusion over 3 days have provided information on arsenic exposure, metabolism, and excretion. These results suggest that saliva can be used as an appropriate clinical biomarker for monitoring arsenic species in APL patients.

Chen B; Cao F; Yuan C; Lu X; Shen S; Zhou J; Le XC

2013-02-01

268

Oral and systemic health correlates of HIV-1 shedding in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva. PMID:20671205

Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Kono, N; Kumar, S K S; Nowicki, M; Alves, M; Mack, W J

2010-07-29

269

Oral and systemic health correlates of HIV-1 shedding in saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva.

Navazesh M; Mulligan R; Kono N; Kumar SK; Nowicki M; Alves M; Mack WJ

2010-10-01

270

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of t (more) he prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Goncalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-09-01

271

Comparative evaluation of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate and compare cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) before and after treatment. METHODS: Forty AP patients and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Clinical parameters included probing depth and sulcus bleeding index. GCF and saliva were collected from both groups. The levels of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-? and TNF-? were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: The probing depth in AP patients was significantly deeper before treatment than after treatment. The concentrations of cytokines in GCF and saliva were significantly higher in AP patients than in the control group and decreased after periodontal treatment. Positive relationships were found between cytokine levels in GCF and clinical parameters. The reliability of cytokines in GCF and saliva was assessed by Cronbach's alpha analysis, which could be considered satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Cytokine levels in GCF and saliva correlated well with clinical parameters and AP. Measurements of cytokines in saliva may be regarded as a noninvasive and quick method for monitoring periodontal disease activity.

Yue Y; Liu Q; Xu C; Loo WT; Wang M; Wen G; Cheung MN; Bai LJ; Dou YD; Chow LW; Hao L; Tian Y; Li JL; Yip AY; Ng EL

2013-01-01

272

Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry/ Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. METODOLOGIA: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. RESULTA (more) DOS: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%). Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This study evaluated the quality of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to human identification. METHODS: The saliva samples of 20 subjects, collected in the form of saliva in natura and from mouth swabs and stored at -20ºC, were analyzed. After 7 days, the DNA was extracted from the 40 saliva samples and subjected to PCR and electrophoresis. After 180 days, the technique was repeated with the 20 swab samples. RESULTS: The first-stage res (more) ults indicated that DNA was successfully extracted in 97.5% of reactions, 95% of saliva in natura and 100% of swab saliva samples, with no statistically significant difference between the forms of saliva. In the second phase, the result was positive for all 20 analyzed samples (100%). Subsequently, in order to analyze the quality of the DNA obtained from human saliva, the SIX3-2 gene was tested on the 20 mouth swab samples, and the PCR products were digested using the MbO1 restriction enzyme to evaluate polymorphisms in the ADRA-2 gene, with positive results for most samples. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the quantity and quality of DNA from saliva and the techniques employed are adequate for forensic analysis of DNA.

Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Ribeiro-Bicudo, Lucilene Arilho; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da

2010-01-01

273

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures/ Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na (more) pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples we (more) re randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

Anzai-Kanto, Evelyn; Hirata, Mário Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira

2005-09-01

274

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório.

Evelyn Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata; Fabio Daumas Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani; Rogério Nogueira Oliveira

2005-01-01

275

Genotyping from saliva with a one-step microdevice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a disposable microfluidic device for on-chip lysing, PCR, and analysis in one continuous-flow process. Male-female sex determination was performed with human saliva in less than 20 min from spit to finish, and requiring only seconds of manual sample handling. This genetic analysis was based on the amplification and detection of the DYZ1 repeat region unique to the Y-chromosome. The flow-through microfluidic chip consisted of a single serpentine channel designed to guide samples through 42 heating and cooling cycles. Cycling was performed by matching the local channel geometry to a steady-state temperature gradient established across the microfluidic chip. 38 channel segments were designed for rapid low volume PCR, and four were optimized for spatial DNA melting analysis. Fluorescence detection was used to monitor the amplification and to capture the melting signature of the amplicon was performed with a basic 8-bit CCD camera. The microfluidic device itself was fabricated from microscope slides and a double-sided tape. The simplicity of the system and its robust performance combine in an elegant solution for lab-on-a-chip genetic analysis.

Pjescic I; Crews N

2012-07-01

276

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value.

Herrmann, T.; Adamski, K.; Stefan, M. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

1984-01-01

277

Affinity interactions between natural pigments and human whole saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the null hypothesis that there are no differences of affinity between pigments and human whole saliva (WS), and the affinity is not influenced by the functional groups of pigments, temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations. METHODS: The affinity constants of interactions between WS and theaflavin (TF)/curcumin (Cur)/cyanidin (Cy) were determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence quenching. Mass-uptake at various temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations was also carried out. RESULTS: The order of affinity of the pigments binding to WS is TF>Cur>Cy. A large number of complexes and precipitations of pigments/proteins were formed through a quick, strong, and almost irreversible binding process. The mass-uptake of pigments was affected not only by the functional groups, but also by molecular weight of pigments, temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations. CONCLUSION: The complex of pigments may easily and rapidly deposit onto the WS film, and are difficult to remove from the WS surface. However, the complex of pigments can be reduced by properly regulating the physicochemical conditions, such as temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations.

Yao JW; Lin F; Tao T; Lin CJ

2011-03-01

278

Effects of Iron on the Pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol in Saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paracetamol has been reported to chelate with iron. It was found that no in vitro reaction between ferrous ion and paracetamol. Other studies found that there is an aerobic (in the gastrointestinal tract) oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion caused in iron-paracetamol in vivo reactions. The objective of this study was to determine if iron interacts with paracetamol and reduces paracetamol absorption. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction of paracetamol and ferrous ion. Paracetamol (1.0 g) was co-ignested alone or with (300 mg) ferrous sulphate by ten healthy male volunteers, using saliva drug levels as a parameter. Concomitant administration of ferrous sulphate and paracetamol, decreased AUC8 from 42.88±3.8-34.25±2.8 ?g h mL-1 (p = 0.04) and Cmax from 18.75±1.9 to 15.9±1.7 ?g mL-1 (p = 0.11), while no change in tmax (p = 0.5) was originated. A significant difference was found in the paracetamol pharmacokinetic parameter oral clearance (Cl/F) (p = 0.02) and slightly increased in volume of distribution (Vd/F) (p = 0.10). Co-administration of iron and paracetamol results in decreased paracetamol absorption due to an interaction between iron and paracetamol.

Mahmoud Mohamed Issa; R`afat Mahmoud Nejem; Alaa Abu Shanab

2013-01-01

279

The use of saliva for assessment of cortisol pulsatile secretion by deconvolution analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cortisol is the key effector molecule of the HPA axis and is secreted in a pulsatile manner in all species studied. In order to understand cortisol signalling in health and disease, detailed analysis of hormone pulsatility is necessary. To dissect cortisol pulsatility in plasma deconvolution techniques have been applied. Blood sampling is a labour-intensive, expensive and invasive technique that causes stress and alters HPA axis activity. Therefore saliva has been extensively investigated as an alternative sample to measure cortisol. Here we use state of the art deconvolution algorithms to investigate cortisol pulsatility in saliva. Blood and saliva samples were obtained at 15-min intervals over an 8h period in 18 healthy men to analyse their diurnal cortisol levels. A multiparameter deconvolution technique was used to generate statistically significant models of cortisol secretion and elimination in plasma and saliva. The models consisted of estimates of the number, amplitude, duration and frequency of secretory bursts as well as the elimination half-life (t1/2) in a subject specific manner. No significant differences were noted between plasma and saliva with regard to the observed secretory bursts (7.8±1.5 vs. 7.0±1.4) and the interpeak interval (59.6±10.5 min vs. 61.0±11.5 min). Moreover a strong positive correlation between the numbers of peaks in both fluids was observed (r=0.83, P<0.0001). Monte Carlo simulations revealed an 84% temporal concordance between plasma and saliva peaks in all donors (P<0.05) with a mean of 1.3±0.8 plasma peaks unmatched in saliva. The percentage concordance increased to 90% when concording only the morning cortisol peaks in plasma and saliva up to 11:00 h. The deconvolution of the most distinct component of cortisol diurnal rhythm-cortisol awakening response (CAR), revealed an average 2.5±1.1 peaks based on the individual time for cortisol to return to baseline levels. In conclusion, deconvolution analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol concentration time series showed a close correlation and similar pulsatile characteristics between saliva and plasma cortisol. Similarly, Monte Carlo simulations revealed a high concordance between the peaks in these coupled time series suggesting that saliva is a suitable medium for subsequent deconvolution analysis yielding accurate and reliable models of cortisol secretion in particular during the morning hours.

Trifonova ST; Gantenbein M; Turner JD; Muller CP

2013-07-01

280

Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female) who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc) was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc) was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 ?g/ml before and 0.16404 ?g/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677), sex, number of fillings (P=0.055), number of surface of filling (P=0.059) and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072), with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036).Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

F. Agha Hosseini; P. Begianian Vaziri

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged be...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.

282

Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. METHODS: Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene(R) OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. RESULTS: Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene(R) OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. CONCLUSION: When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments.

Pulford DJ; Mosteller M; Briley JD; Johansson KW; Nelsen AJ

2013-06-01

283

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid/ Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (idades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a rela (more) ção não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was foun (more) d for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.

Maldonado, C.; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, M.; Rey, A.; Olano, I.; Eiraldi, R.; Scavone, C.

2008-06-01

284

Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control) and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09) after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle) e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09) após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05). A quantidade média ± dp (mg) de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado clinicamente. Por outro lado, essa goma de mascar deveria ser evitada por crianças na idade de risco para a fluorose dentária.

Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella; Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti; Maria Fernanda Borro Bijella; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2005-01-01

285

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários/ Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciência da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Dias, Guilherme Ataíde

2002-09-01

286

Saliva CA125 and TPS levels in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the levels of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and patients with nonneoplastic disease of the oral cavity, and to investigate their diagnostic value and their relationship with pathological grade and clinical stage. METHODS: A total of 97 hospitalized patients with OSCC, 36 patients with nonneoplastic disease of the oral cavity and 50 healthy individuals were included in this investigation. Mixed saliva was collected from these patients and the healthy controls before treatment. Saliva samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The saliva CA125 and TPS concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in patients with nonneoplastic disease and healthy controls, but not significantly different between patients with nonneoplastic disease and controls. Neither the saliva CA125 nor the TPS level was correlated with pathological grade and clinical stage. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of saliva CA125 and TPS for the diagnosis of OSCC were 80.0%, 66.0%, 75.7%, and 82.1%, 74.0%, 79.3%, respectively. When CA125 and TPS were analyzed independently, there was no significant difference in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two markers. When CA125 and TPS were analyzed in combination, there was no significant difference in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between independent detection and combined detection. CONCLUSIONS: The saliva CA125 and TPS concentrations were elevated in patients with OSCC. CA125 and TPS may prove to be useful tumor markers in OSCC.

Geng XF; Du M; Han JX; Zhang M; Tang XF; Xing RD

2013-04-01

287

The effect of monoalkyl phosphates and fluoride on dissolution of hydroxyapatite, and interactions with saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims were to investigate the effect of monoalkyl phosphates (MAPs) and fluoride on dissolution rate of native and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA). Fluoride at 300 mg/l (as NaF) inhibited dissolution of native HA by 12%, while potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates (PDP, SDP), at 0.1% or higher, inhibited dissolution by 26-34%. MAPs, but not fluoride, also showed persistence of action. MAPs at 0.5% and fluoride at 300 mg/l were then tested separately against HA pre-treated with human saliva for 2 or 18 h. Agents were applied with brushing to half the specimens, and without brushing to the other half. In control (water-treated) specimens, pre-treatment of HA with human saliva reduced dissolution rate on average by 41% (2 h) and 63% (18 h). Brushing did not have a statistically significant effect on dissolution rate of saliva-coated specimens. In brushed specimens, fluoride significantly increased the inhibition due to 2- or 18-hour saliva pre-treatment. It is hypothesised that brushing partially removes the salivary film and allows KOH-soluble calcium fluoride formation at the surfaces of HA particles. Inhibition was reduced by PDP in 2-hour/non-brushed specimens and in 18-hour/brushed specimens. PDP did not affect dissolution rates in the remaining groups and SDP did not affect dissolution rate in any group. Possible reasons for these variable results are discussed. The experiments show that pre-treatment with saliva can significantly modify results of tests on potential anti-erosive agents and it is recommended that saliva pre-treatment should be a routine part of testing such agents. PMID:23571769

Jones, S B; Rees, G D; Shellis, R P; Barbour, M E

2013-04-05

288

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

1990-01-01

289

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

1990-01-01

290

The effect of monoalkyl phosphates and fluoride on dissolution of hydroxyapatite, and interactions with saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims were to investigate the effect of monoalkyl phosphates (MAPs) and fluoride on dissolution rate of native and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA). Fluoride at 300 mg/l (as NaF) inhibited dissolution of native HA by 12%, while potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates (PDP, SDP), at 0.1% or higher, inhibited dissolution by 26-34%. MAPs, but not fluoride, also showed persistence of action. MAPs at 0.5% and fluoride at 300 mg/l were then tested separately against HA pre-treated with human saliva for 2 or 18 h. Agents were applied with brushing to half the specimens, and without brushing to the other half. In control (water-treated) specimens, pre-treatment of HA with human saliva reduced dissolution rate on average by 41% (2 h) and 63% (18 h). Brushing did not have a statistically significant effect on dissolution rate of saliva-coated specimens. In brushed specimens, fluoride significantly increased the inhibition due to 2- or 18-hour saliva pre-treatment. It is hypothesised that brushing partially removes the salivary film and allows KOH-soluble calcium fluoride formation at the surfaces of HA particles. Inhibition was reduced by PDP in 2-hour/non-brushed specimens and in 18-hour/brushed specimens. PDP did not affect dissolution rates in the remaining groups and SDP did not affect dissolution rate in any group. Possible reasons for these variable results are discussed. The experiments show that pre-treatment with saliva can significantly modify results of tests on potential anti-erosive agents and it is recommended that saliva pre-treatment should be a routine part of testing such agents.

Jones SB; Rees GD; Shellis RP; Barbour ME

2013-01-01

291

Saliva testosterone time-course response to hCG in adult normal men. Comparison with plasma levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Testosterone time-course response to 5000 IU hCG was studied simultaneously in the saliva and the plasma of 13 adult normal men. Baseline levels in saliva and plasma were: 93 +/- 9 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) and 4.9 +/- 0.3 ng/ml respectively. After hCG the same biphasic pattern was observed in both fluids with a similar early response but the delayed peak at 72 h was relatively higher in saliva than in plasma. Thus it was suggested to collect saliva instead of plasma for the evaluation of testicular secretion of testosterone after hCG administration.

Nahoul K; Rao LV; Scholler R

1986-05-01

292

Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

2009-01-01

293

Relationship between secretion of the Anton blood group antigen in saliva and adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to oropharynx epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inhibition of adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells contributes to a reduction of infections by these bacteria. We have shown that the Anton blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for Haemophilus influenzae (van Alphen et al. 1986, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37, 69-71), occurs in saliva, that the occurrence is not related to the secretor state of the donor of the saliva and that saliva containing Anton antigen could not inhibit the adherence of H. influenzae to oropharynx epithelial cells. Anton antigen was detected in saliva samples of 14 donors by immunoblotting with two different anti-Anton sera. The amount of Anton antigen correlated with the ability of H. influenzae to adhere to the epithelial cells of the donor of the saliva: 4.1 +/- 0.1 Anton antigen units for donors with more than 50 H. influenzae per cell and 1.6 +/- 0.5 units for donors with less adhering epithelial cells. No correlation between the amount of Anton antigen in saliva and secretor status of the donor was observed. Adherence of H. influenzae to epithelial cells was not inhibited by saliva of secretors (N = 11) or non-secretors (N = 3). The same saliva did not inhibit the interaction of the bacteria with Anton antigen bearing erythrocytes as measured by haemagglutination inhibition. This indicates that the amount of Anton antigen in saliva is probably too low to interfere with the interaction of H. influenzae with oropharynx epithelial cells and erythrocytes.

van Alphen L; van Ham M; Geelen-van den Broek L; Pieters T

1989-06-01

294

Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C8 -cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

Abdel-Rehim A; Abdel-Rehim M

2013-09-01

295

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

296

Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil/ Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a validade da utilização da saliva no diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola. Quarenta e cinco amostras pareadas de sangue e de saliva, coletadas de 1 a 29 dias após o início da doença, foram testadas para detecção de imunoglobulina (Ig) M específica por radioimunoensaio com captura (MACRIA). Anticorpos IgM específicos contra rubéola foram detectados em todas as amostras sangüíneas e em 38 (84,4%) das amostras de saliva. A (more) especificidade do teste na saliva foi de 96%. Estes resultados indicam que a utilização da saliva pode ser uma alternativa válida para obtenção de espécimens clínicos na investigação de casos recentes de rubéola, especialmente nas atividades de vigilância epidemiológica e controle da virose. Abstract in english This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other pat (more) ients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

Oliveira, Solange Artimos de; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Brown, David W.G.; Litton, Pamella; Camacho, Luís Antonio B.; Castro, Sílvia Thees; Cohen, Bernard J.

2000-08-01

297

Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a validade da utilização da saliva no diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola. Quarenta e cinco amostras pareadas de sangue e de saliva, coletadas de 1 a 29 dias após o início da doença, foram testadas para detecção de imunoglobulina (Ig) M específica por radioimunoensaio com captura (MACRIA). Anticorpos IgM específicos contra rubéola foram detectados em todas as amostras sangüíneas e em 38 (84,4%) das amostras de saliva. A especificidade do teste na saliva foi de 96%. Estes resultados indicam que a utilização da saliva pode ser uma alternativa válida para obtenção de espécimens clínicos na investigação de casos recentes de rubéola, especialmente nas atividades de vigilância epidemiológica e controle da virose.

Solange Artimos de Oliveira; Marilda Mendonça Siqueira; David W.G. Brown; Pamella Litton; Luís Antonio B. Camacho; Sílvia Thees Castro; Bernard J. Cohen

2000-01-01

298

Organizing Internet Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

Hsueh-Hua Chen

1996-01-01

299

Long-term assessment of the implant titanium material--artificial saliva interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the long-term (20,000 exposure hours) behavior of titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy-Carter-Brugirard saliva interface and the short-term (500 exposure hours) resistance of titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy-Tani&Zucchi saliva interface. Potentiodynamic polarization method was applied for the determination of the main electrochemical parameters. Linear polarization measurements for to obtain the corrosion rates were used. Monitoring of the open circuit potentials (E(oc)) for long-term have permitted to calculate the potential gradients due to the pH, DeltaE(oc)(pH) and to the saliva composition DeltaE(oc)(c) changes which can appear "in vivo" conditions and can generate local corrosion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has analyzed the surface roughness. Ion release was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). In Carter-Brugirard saliva both titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy present very stable passive films, long-term stability, "very good" resistance, low values of the open circuit potential gradients, which cannot generate local corrosion. In Tani&Zucchi artificial saliva, pitting corrosion and noble pitting protection potentials (which cannot be reached in oral cavity) were registered; titanium ion release is very low; surface roughness increase in time and in the presence of the fluoride ions, denoting some increase in the anodic activity. PMID:17990081

Popa, M V; Vasilescu, E; Drob, P; Vasilescu, C; Demetrescu, I; Ionita, D

2007-11-08

300

Long-term assessment of the implant titanium material--artificial saliva interface.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper studies the long-term (20,000 exposure hours) behavior of titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy-Carter-Brugirard saliva interface and the short-term (500 exposure hours) resistance of titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy-Tani&Zucchi saliva interface. Potentiodynamic polarization method was applied for the determination of the main electrochemical parameters. Linear polarization measurements for to obtain the corrosion rates were used. Monitoring of the open circuit potentials (E(oc)) for long-term have permitted to calculate the potential gradients due to the pH, DeltaE(oc)(pH) and to the saliva composition DeltaE(oc)(c) changes which can appear "in vivo" conditions and can generate local corrosion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has analyzed the surface roughness. Ion release was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). In Carter-Brugirard saliva both titanium and Ti-5Al-4V alloy present very stable passive films, long-term stability, "very good" resistance, low values of the open circuit potential gradients, which cannot generate local corrosion. In Tani&Zucchi artificial saliva, pitting corrosion and noble pitting protection potentials (which cannot be reached in oral cavity) were registered; titanium ion release is very low; surface roughness increase in time and in the presence of the fluoride ions, denoting some increase in the anodic activity.

Popa MV; Vasilescu E; Drob P; Vasilescu C; Demetrescu I; Ionita D

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The subjects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M (more) . leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Rosa, Fernanda Borowsky da; Souza, Victor Costa de; Almeida, Tatiana Amaral Pires de; Nascimento, Valdinete Alves do; Vasquez, Felicien Goncalves; Cunha, Maria da Graca Souza; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

2013-08-01

302

Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in saliva and gingival tissues, respectively. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Reduced salivary TFF1 and TFF3 concentrations were observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Decreased TFF3 expression in gingival tissues of patients with CP was demonstrated (P = 0.041). Levels of salivary TFF3 concentrations were negatively correlated with periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (formerly known as Bacteroides forsythus). CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of TFFs in saliva and gingival tissues was detected in patients with CP. The results suggest that TFF3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek

2012-01-01

303

Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva provides a useful and non-invasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a 6-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/ml (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/ml (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrices.

Stevens, Richard C.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E.

2011-01-01

304

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given.

Stuart Farquharson; Alan Gift; Chetan Shende; Frank Inscore; Beth Ordway; Carl Farquharson; John Murren

2008-01-01

305

Complex formation in mixtures of lysozyme-stabilized emulsions and human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we studied the interaction between human unstimulated saliva and lysozyme-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt/wt% oil phase, 10 mM NaCl, pH 6.7), to reveal the driving force for flocculation of these emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) showed formation of complexes between salivary proteins and lysozyme adsorbed at the oil-water interface and lysozyme in solution as well. To assess the electrostatic nature of the interaction in emulsion/saliva mixtures, laser-diffraction and rheological measurements were conducted in function of the ionic strength by adding NaCl to the mixture in the range between 0 and 168 mM. Increasing the ionic strength reduced the ability of saliva to induce emulsion flocculation as shown by the decreased floc size and the effect on the viscosity. Turbidity experiments with varying pH (3-7) and ionic strength also showed decreased complex formation in mixtures between saliva and lysozyme in solution upon NaCl addition up to 200 mM. Decreasing the pH increased the turbidity, in line with the increase of the positive net charge on the lysozyme molecule. We conclude that electrostatic attraction is the main driving force for complex formation between saliva components and lysozyme adsorbed at the oil droplets and in solution.

Silletti E; Vingerhoeds MH; Norde W; van Aken GA

2007-09-01

306

Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and total antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

OBA Isabel Takano; SPINA Angela Maria Miranda; SARACENI Cláudia Patara; LEMOS Marcílio Figueiredo; SENHORAS Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade; MOREIRA Regina Célia; GRANATO Celso Francisco Hernandes

2000-01-01

307

Rapid and sensitive detection of varicella zoster virus in saliva of patients with herpes zoster.  

Science.gov (United States)

VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles) which may be further complicated by meningoencephalitis, myelopathy, vasculopathy and multiple ocular disorders. Importantly, these neurological and ocular complications of VZV reactivation can occur without rash. In such instances, virological verification relies on detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or less often, the presence of VZV DNA in blood mononuclear cells or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue samples (e.g., saliva or tears) in patients with neurological disease in the absence of rash and shown to correlate with the standard tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. In patients with acute herpes zoster, the yield of cell DNA was greater in saliva collected by passive drool or synthetic swab than by cotton swab. The time to process saliva from collection to obtaining DNA was 1h. VZV DNA was present exclusively in the pelleted fraction of saliva and was found in 100% of patients before antiviral treatment. This rapid sensitive method can be applied readily to saliva from humans with neurologic and other disease that might be caused by VZV in the absence of rash. PMID:23747545

Mehta, Satish K; Tyring, Stephen K; Cohrs, Randall J; Gilden, Don; Feiveson, Alan H; Lechler, Kayla J; Pierson, Duane L

2013-06-05

308

[Usefulness of the saliva ferning test in diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the characteristics of mucous is its ability to crystallize to the form of ferns when it is dried at room temperature and observed by polarized light microscopy (ferning phenomenon-FP). Several studies have shown that dry mouth can be diagnosed on the basis the loss of FP in dried saliva samples. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of saliva ferning test (SFT) in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Saliva was taken from 11 patients with primary SS, 32 patients with secondary SS as well as from 27 controls. Samples of freshly produced saliva were dropped on light-microscope slides and allowed to dry at room temperature. Crystallization was observed by polarizing light microscopy within 10 minutes after collection. The type of crystallization was classified acc. to Rolando et al. Abnormal SFT was observed in 11 (100%) patients with primary SS and 27 (84%) patients with secondary SS. Saliva from 5 (16%) patients with secondary SS and from 27 (100%) control patients yielded normal picture of crystallization. In our opinion SFT is a simple, reproducible, and useful non-invasive diagnostic test in SS.

Puszczewicz M; Zimmermann-Górska I; Bia?kowska-Puszczewicz G

2002-01-01

309

[Usefulness of the saliva ferning test in diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the characteristics of mucous is its ability to crystallize to the form of ferns when it is dried at room temperature and observed by polarized light microscopy (ferning phenomenon-FP). Several studies have shown that dry mouth can be diagnosed on the basis the loss of FP in dried saliva samples. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of saliva ferning test (SFT) in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Saliva was taken from 11 patients with primary SS, 32 patients with secondary SS as well as from 27 controls. Samples of freshly produced saliva were dropped on light-microscope slides and allowed to dry at room temperature. Crystallization was observed by polarizing light microscopy within 10 minutes after collection. The type of crystallization was classified acc. to Rolando et al. Abnormal SFT was observed in 11 (100%) patients with primary SS and 27 (84%) patients with secondary SS. Saliva from 5 (16%) patients with secondary SS and from 27 (100%) control patients yielded normal picture of crystallization. In our opinion SFT is a simple, reproducible, and useful non-invasive diagnostic test in SS. PMID:12046339

Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Zimmermann-Górska, Irena; Bia?kowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

2002-01-01

310

Immunological and molecular detection of human immunodeficiency virus in saliva, and comparison with blood testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to test the detection feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in saliva, a three-method blind screening analysis was conducted. Sixty-eight individuals were studied, comprising 34 HIV carriers and 34 noncarriers (controls) of matched gender and age. An oral examination preceded saliva and blood sampling of studied individuals. All samples were tested blind for HIV by using two immunological methods [Oraquick-compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a fluorescent immunoenzymatic method (ELFA)], confirmed by western blotting, and a simple molecular method (polymerase chain reaction amplification of a relatively constant viral DNA region), confirmed by DNA hydridization. Compared with the controls, about twice as many HIV carriers had oral health problems, including periodontal disease. ELFA resulted in 33/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in saliva, while it detected 34/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in blood. ELISA performed even better, with correct assignment of all positives and negatives in both saliva and blood. The PCR method, at three annealing temperatures, surprisingly detected all positive samples, while it gave no false-positive result. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HIV in saliva may achieve accuracy of 97.1-100%, comparable with that in blood. Furthermore, this study suggests that a highly accurate molecular method of HIV detection may be feasible, although the studied carriers had rather homogeneous characteristics. PMID:16776764

Yapijakis, Christos; Panis, Vassilis; Koufaliotis, Nikos; Yfanti, Georgia; Karachalios, Stefanos; Roumeliotou, Anastasia; Mantzavinos, Zacharias

2006-06-01

311

Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

Sato H; Obata AN; Moda I; Ozaki K; Yasuhara T; Yamamoto Y; Kiguchi M; Maki A; Kubota K; Koizumi H

2011-04-01

312

Relationship of unstimulated saliva cortisol level with severity of oral dryness feeling in menopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Menopause may be associated with some adverse changes, such as oral dryness (OD) feeling. The exact mechanisms that mediate sensation of OD in menopausal women have not been firmly established. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of unstimulated whole saliva cortisol level with severity of OD feeling in menopausal women. METHODS: A case control study was carried out on 70 selected menopausal women with/without OD feeling, conducted at the Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The xerostomia inventory (XI) score was used as an index of OD feeling severity. Unstimulated whole saliva cortisol concentration was measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis of student's t-test and Spearman correlation was used. RESULTS: The mean cortisol concentration of saliva was significantly higher in women with OD feeling than the control. There was significant positive correlation between the XI score and the concentration of unstimulated whole saliva cortisol (r = 0.559, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Unstimulated whole saliva cortisol is higher in menopausal women with OD feeling than in controls and this correlates with the severity of OD.

Agha-Hosseini F; Mirzaii-Dizgah I; Mirjalili N

2011-06-01

313

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r) between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

Kršljak Elena; Goši? Katarina

2008-01-01

314

Measurement of HER2 in saliva of women in risk of breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

HER2 amplification can be present in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of measuring soluble HER2 in the saliva of patients at risk of breast cancer towards early diagnosis and prognosis. Women with lesions classified as 4 according to BIRADS and women with spontaneous nipple discharge (NAF) were recruited for this study. Quantification of soluble HER2 in saliva was performed using the enzyme immunoassay ELISA. Median values of HER2 were quantified in saliva of the control groups and in the patient groups. The statistical test nonparametric Mann-Whitney was applied for the evaluation of median differences. Although the medians increased with the severity of the clinical status, no significant difference was found in all possibilities (p?>?0.05) when comparing the medians among the patients groups. Interestingly, inter-individual HER2 quantity variations in the saliva were detected in this study in some subjects from each group. Considering possible inter-individual variations, research on saliva-based circulating HER2 has to be reinforced to ensure its correct application in diagnosis, treatment and in follow-up of breast cancer patients. Older and current issues surrounding the controversy about the appropriate methods for HER2 evaluation are discussed. PMID:23479082

de Abreu Pereira, Denise; Areias, Vivian Rabello; Franco, Marco Felipe; Benitez, Manuel Carlos Moreira; do Nascimento, Cristina Moreira; de Azevedo, Carolina Maria; Alves, Gilda

2013-03-12

315

Rice MtN3/saliva/SWEET family genes and their homologs in cellular organisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The MtN3/saliva/SWEET-type genes, existing either alone or in a family group, are found in diverse organisms, from monocellular protozoa to higher eukaryotes, indicating their importance in cellular organisms. These genes encode polytopic membrane proteins that feature an MtN3/saliva domain, also known as a PQ loop repeat. The rice MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family consists of 21 members and is among the largest families in sequenced organisms. Accumulating data suggest that these genes are involved in multiple physiological processes, including reproductive development, senescence, environmental adaptation, and host-pathogen interaction, in different species. In rice, some members of the family, including Xa13/Os8N3/OsSWEET11, which is essential for reproductive development, are used by the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae to invade its host. Emerging data have also revealed that at least some MtN3/saliva/SWEET-type proteins may regulate different physiological processes by facilitating ion transport via interaction with ion transporters or as sugar transporters. The accumulating knowledge about MtN3/saliva/SWEET-type genes will help to elucidate the molecular bases of their function in different organisms.

Yuan M; Wang S

2013-05-01

316

Measurement of HER2 in saliva of women in risk of breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HER2 amplification can be present in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of measuring soluble HER2 in the saliva of patients at risk of breast cancer towards early diagnosis and prognosis. Women with lesions classified as 4 according to BIRADS and women with spontaneous nipple discharge (NAF) were recruited for this study. Quantification of soluble HER2 in saliva was performed using the enzyme immunoassay ELISA. Median values of HER2 were quantified in saliva of the control groups and in the patient groups. The statistical test nonparametric Mann-Whitney was applied for the evaluation of median differences. Although the medians increased with the severity of the clinical status, no significant difference was found in all possibilities (p?>?0.05) when comparing the medians among the patients groups. Interestingly, inter-individual HER2 quantity variations in the saliva were detected in this study in some subjects from each group. Considering possible inter-individual variations, research on saliva-based circulating HER2 has to be reinforced to ensure its correct application in diagnosis, treatment and in follow-up of breast cancer patients. Older and current issues surrounding the controversy about the appropriate methods for HER2 evaluation are discussed.

de Abreu Pereira D; Areias VR; Franco MF; Benitez MC; do Nascimento CM; de Azevedo CM; Alves G

2013-07-01

317

Prevalence and persistence of male DNA identified in mixed saliva samples after intense kissing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of foreign biological material by genetic profiling is widely used in forensic DNA testing in different cases of sexual violence, sexual abuse or sexual harassment. In all these kinds of sexual assaults, the perpetrator could constrain the victim to kissing. The value of the victim's saliva taken after such an assault has not been investigated in the past with currently widely used molecular methods of extremely high sensitivity (e.g. qPCR) and specificity (e.g. multiplex Y-STR PCR). In our study, 12 voluntary pairs were tested at various intervals after intense kissing and saliva samples were taken from the women to assess the presence of male DNA. Sensitivity-focused assays based on the SRY (single-copy gene) and DYS (multi-copy gene) sequence motifs confirmed the presence of male DNA in female saliva after 10 and even 60min after kissing, respectively. For specificity, standard multiplex Y-STR PCR profiling was performed and male DNA was found in female saliva samples, as the entire Y-STR profile, even after 30min in one sample. Our study confirms that foreign DNA tends to persist for a restricted period of time in the victim's mouth, can be isolated from saliva after prompt collection and can be used as a valuable source of evidence.

Kamodyová N; Durdiaková J; Celec P; Sedlá?ková T; Repiská G; Sviežená B; Minárik G

2013-01-01

318

Detection of human papillomavirus in the saliva of women with concurrent human papillomavirus related genital lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of the human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes in the saliva of women and HPV-related genital lesions. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 104 women with documented genital HPV-related lesions and known HPV status were selected. These cases were examined for the HPV subtypes in their salivary specimens from July 2006 to August 2009 at the Gynecologic Clinics of Alzahra Teaching Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. To detect HPV DNA subtypes of 16, 18, 31, 33, 6, and 11,HPV was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: Type 16 HPV was the most frequently detected subtype in the saliva (29.8%), and cervix (24%). In addition, there was a significant association between the saliva and cervix with co-infection (p=0.009), and between the viral types of salivary and cervical+vulvar samples (p=0.00), and salivary and vulvar samples (p=0.001). On the other hand, there was a significant difference between the cervical and vulvar samples for the viral subtypes (p=0.000). CONCLUSION: The high risk HPV 16 is the most common simultaneous HPV subtype in the saliva and cervix of the cases. Identifying the HPV subtypes in saliva may facilitate recognizing persistent genital infections.

Sayyah-Melli M; Kazemi-Sheshvan M; Bonyadi M; Ouladsahebmadarek E; Dasranj-Tabrizi A; Ghojazadeh M; Jafary-Shobeiry M; Mostafa-Gharabaghi P

2011-02-01

319

Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Binge eating episodes in persons with bulimia nervosa may to some extent be a result of disturbed sensations of hunger and satiety. It has been hypothesized that abnormal appetite sensations may be due to bulimia nervosa-related alterations in the release of hormones that are known to be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa than in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake of potentially xerogenic medication. Subjects with bulimia nervosa experienced reduced hunger, which could not be explained by pre- or postprandial alterations in circulating ghrelin, leptin, insulin, or glucose concentrations. Conclusions: There were no apparent differences in the composition of blood and saliva between bulimia nervosa and control subjects, and meal-induced compositional changes in blood were not directly mirrored in saliva composition.

Dynesen, Anja WeirsØe; Jensen, Allan Bardow

2008-01-01

320

Action of an antioxidant complex on the antioxidant power of saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Based on the results of the soluble antioxidants test (SAT), we have produced a combination of oral antioxidants aimed at increasing the antioxidant power of saliva. Several antioxidants are included in this product (Vit E, beta-carotene, Vit A, Vit C, polyphenols, cathechins, ellagic acid, anthocyanins, coenzyme Q10 and pyridoxine in association with Se, Zn, L-cysteine). The aim of this registry study was to evaluate the efficacy of these antioxidants in saliva, plasma and urines. METHODS: MF Odontovis, an antioxidant complex, was administered to healthy subjects in the evening for one week with a final administration in the morning. RESULTS: Plasma, urine and saliva showed an increase in antioxidant power following both the evening administration and the final morning administration. The antioxidant action appeared to be present even at night when salival secretion is lower. Plasma SAT levels (SATs) in the morning following evening treatment were increased by 21% in comparison with controls. Morning administration increased levels up to 34% when measured 4 hours after treatment. Comparable increases were observed in saliva (SATs and morning values were +44 %; +58% two hours after morning administration and +28 % after 4 hours). In urine the evening administration caused an increase in antioxidant power (+6%). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that antioxidant levels can be increased with specific nutritional supplement. The clinical value of an increased antioxidant power in biological fluids, particularly in saliva, may be relevant for future trials of prevention and treatment.

Cornelli U; Belcaro G; Nardi GM; Cesarone MR; Dugall M; Hosoi M; Grossi MG; Ippolito E; Ledda A; Ruffini I

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

XTT assay of ex vivo saliva biofilms to test antimicrobial influences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: Many dental diseases are attributable to biofilms. The screening of antimicrobial substances, in particular, requires a high sample throughput and a realistic model, the evaluation must be as quick and as simple as possible. For this purpose, a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-[(phenylamino)-carbony]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate) converted by saliva biofilms is recommended. Cleavage of XTT by dehydrogenase enzymes of metabolically active cells in biofilms yields a highly colored formazan product which is measured photometrically.Materials and method: The suitability of the XTT assay for detecting the vitality of ex vivo saliva biofilms was tested to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine and ozone versus saliva biofilms grown on titanium discs.Results: The XTT method lends itself to testing the vitality of microorganisms in saliva biofilms. The sensitivity of the arrays requires a specific minimum number of pathogens, this number being different for planktonic bacteria and those occurring in biofilms. The antibacterial effect after treatment with chlorhexidine or ozone was measured by XTT conversion that was significantly reduced. The antimicrobial efficacy of 60 s 0.5% and 0.1% chlorhexidine treatment was equal and comparable with 60 s ozone treatment. Conclusion: The XTT assay is a suitable method to determine the vitality in saliva biofilms, permitting assessment of the efficacy of antimicrobial substances. Its quick and easy applicability renders it especially suitable for screening.

Koban I; Matthes R; Hübner NO; Welk A; Sietmann R; Lademann J; Kramer A; Kocher T

2012-01-01

322

Detorque evaluation of dental abutment screws after immersion in a fluoridated artificial saliva solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Implant-abutment connections still present failures in the oral cavity due to the loosening of mechanical integrity by detorque and corrosion of the abutment screws. The objective of this study was to evaluate the detorque of dental abutment screws before and after immersion in fluoridated solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five commercial implant-abutment assemblies were assessed in this investigation: (C) Conexão®, (E) Emfils®, (I) INP®, (S) SIN®, and (T) Titanium Fix®. The implants were embedded in an acrylic resin and then placed in a holding device. The abutments were first connected to the implants and torqued to 20 Ncm using a handheld torque meter. The detorque values of the abutments were evaluated after 10 minutes. After applying a second torque of 20 Ncm, implant-abutment assemblies were withdrawn every 3 hours for 12 hours in a fluoridated solution over a period of 90 days. After that period, detorque of the abutments was examined. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) associated to energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was applied to inspect the surfaces of abutments. RESULTS: Detorque values of systems C, E, and I immersed in the fluoridated solution were significantly higher than those of the initial detorque. ANOVA demonstrated no significant differences in detorque values between designs S and T. Signs of localized corrosion could not be detected by SEM although chemical analysis by EDS showed the presence of elements involved in corrosive processes. CONCLUSION: An increase of detorque values recorded on abutments after immersion in fluoridated artificial saliva solutions was noticed in this study. Regarding chemical analysis, such an increase of detorque can result from a corrosion layer formed between metallic surfaces at static contact in the implant-abutment joint during immersion in the fluoridated solutions.

Duarte AR; Neto JP; Souza JC; Bonachela WC

2013-06-01

323

Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%). Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA.

Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel et al.

2010-01-01

324

A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode for probing glucose in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report on a novel nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode. The results of the scanning electron microscopy indicate that electronic network was formed through their direct binding with the graphene/carbon nanofiber, which leads to larger active surface areas and faster electron transfer for the glucose sensor. High electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose was observed with a rapid response (<2s), a low detection limit (0.1µM), a wide and useful linear range (1-5.3mM) as well as good stability and repeatability. Moreover, the common interfering species, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and so forth did not cause obvious interference. The sensor can also be used for quantification of glucose concentration in real saliva samples. Therefore, this work has demonstrated a simple and effective sensing platform for nonenzymatic detection of glucose. PMID:24148397

Ye, Daixin; Liang, Guohai; Li, Huixiang; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

2013-04-30

325

Possibility of saliva use in detecting anti herpes simplex virus IgM antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of saliva use instead of sera for detecting anti HSV IgM antibodies. Three groups of patients were included in this study. The first two consisted of immunocompetent persons with clinically and virologicaly approved primary and reccurent herpetic infection. The third group was comprised of AIDS patients with recurrent infection. Anti HSV-1 IgM antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence assay. In saliva and sera samples obtained from persons with primary and recurrent HSV infection, findings of specific IgM antibodies correlated with the dynamic of their synthesis in infection generally. But in the third group, which consisted of AIDS patients, in a few cases there were positive anti HSV IgM concentration, both in sera and saliva samples.

Pavlica Dušan

2002-01-01

326

Saliva crystallisation as a means of determining optimal mating time in bitches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To chart saliva crystallisation patterns throughout pro-oestrus and oestrus in bitches, and to assess their reliability as a tool for optimising the timing of breeding. METHODS: Six beagle bitches with normal reproductive activity were used. Saliva ferning patterns were established during pro-oestrus and oestrus. Vaginal cytology, progesterone (P4) levels and behavioural signs were used to determine the optimum mating time. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. RESULTS: Different ferning patterns were scored from 0 to 2. Although variations in saliva crystallisation were noted during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle in bitches, the test did not prove accurate; test sensitivity was 40.6%, i.e. too low to reliably discriminate the fertile period, while specificity was 86.1%. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This test could be used to complement other methods of determining the fertile period in bitches, but its potential capacity remains to be demonstrated.

Pardo-Carmona B; Moyano MR; Fernández-Palacios R; Pérez-Marín CC

2010-08-01

327

Drooling of saliva: a review of the etiology and management options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drooling of saliva appears to be the consequence of a dysfunction in the coordination of the swallowing mechanism, resulting in excess pooling of saliva in the anterior portion of the oral cavity and the unintentional loss of saliva from the mouth. Drooling can produce significant negative effects on physical health and quality of life, especially in patients with chronic neurological disabilities. Various approaches to manage this condition have been described in the literature, including oral motor therapy, behavior modification via biofeedback, orofacial regulation therapy, drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatments. Minimally invasive modalities, such as injection of botulinum toxin, photocoagulation, and acupuncture, have also been reported. This article provides a comprehensive and thorough overview of drooling, with an emphasis on understanding its etiologies and modalities of treatment.

Meningaud JP; Pitak-Arnnop P; Chikhani L; Bertrand JC

2006-01-01

328

Characterisation of advanced glycation endproducts in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop increased advanced glycation endproducts causing local complications and increased overall morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were determined in saliva of 52 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 age-matched healthy control subjects. Resonance spectra showed specific peaks at 2.3, 7.3, and 8.4 ppm in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus. These peaks could be generated by incubation of saliva from healthy control subjects with hypochloric acid in vitro, indicating the presence of advanced glycation endproducts. The presence of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with approximal plaque index, indicating increased periodontal damage. The study indicates that increased advanced glycation endproducts are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

2004-10-15

329

Interleukin-1 beta in unstimulated whole saliva is a potential biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate cytokines in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients as compared to those with pre- and post-operation for evaluation as markers of OSCC. Sixteen OSCC patients were included in this study. Cytokine concentrations in resting saliva were measured using a Bio-Plex suspension array system. Only interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta showed significantly different cytokine concentration in saliva between pre- and post-operation. IL-1 beta was released from cultured OSCC cells confirmed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. From this study, IL-1 beta in UWS may be useful for detection of early stage OSCC. More studies are needed to accept the utility of IL-1 beta in UWS for predicting, diagnosis and evaluation of OSCC. PMID:24063998

Kamatani, T; Shiogama, S; Yoshihama, Y; Kondo, S; Shirota, T; Shintani, S

2013-09-21

330

Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

2013-01-01

331

Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apy (more) rase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors.

Cavalcante, Reginaldo R; Pereira, Marcos H; Freitas, Jorge M; Gontijo, Nelder de F

2006-02-01

332

Polyol-combinant saliva stimulants: a 4-month pilot study in young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies indicate that xylitol (X) consumption is associated with certain biochemical changes in dental plaque and whole saliva. In making X-containing saliva stimulants more cost-effective and palatable, manufacturers may use maltitol syrup (MS, which normally contains some sorbitol and higher polyols) or polydextrose (PD, a polysaccharide molecule with a mass > 22 kDa) as bulking agents. Combinations of X with MS and PD have not been tested regarding their salivary effects. One hundred and eighty-eight young subjects (mean age, 22 years) of both sexes were divided into three groups of equal size for a 4-month study. The subjects in one group used X-MS dragees (in 7 daily episodes; 8 g X per day), while the subjects in another group used X-PD dragées in as many daily episodes (8 g X per day). Subjects in the third (comparison) group did not receive saliva stimulants. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline, after 2 months, and at endpoint. The usage of X-MS was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the salivary sucrase activity. After 4 months, the activity of enzymes hydrolyzing N(alpha)-benzoyl-DL-arginyl-p-nitroaniline was significantly reduced in all groups, while the levels of free sialic acid were reduced in group X-PD only (P < 0.05). These salivary changes most likely reflected microbial shifts in the oral cavity and suggest that information from saliva studies may be of avail when deciding which bulking agents should be used in xylitol-based saliva stimulants. PMID:9669459

Mäkinen, K K; Olak, J; Russak, S; Saag, M; Seedre, T; Vasar, R; Vihalemm, T; Mikelsaar, M; Mäkinen, P L

1998-04-01

333

Analysis of the shedding of three ?-herpesviruses in urine and saliva of children with renal disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. To elucidate the kinetics of the three ?-herpesviruses in saliva and urine samples were collected serially from children with renal diseases. Twenty children with renal diseases were enrolled in this study. A total of 240 saliva and urine samples were collected monthly from the patients over a 1-year period. Viral DNAs loads were measured by real-time PCR. In 10 CMV seropositive patients CMV DNA was detected rarely in saliva and CMV DNA load was lower than the other two ?-herpesviruses DNA loads. All patients were seropositive for HHV-6B and the virus was detected frequently in saliva. Two of 20 patients were HHV-7 seronegative. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P?=?0.039). HHV-6B DNA loads were significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatment compared to those without treatment (P?=?0.013). Although CMV DNA was detected in urine samples collected from 5 of 10 CMV seropositive patients, HHV-6B and HHV-7 DNA were detected at relatively low frequencies in urine. No remarkable temporal associations between viral DNA excretion and proteinuria or immunosuppressive treatment were demonstrated. The pattern of viral DNA excretion in saliva and urine were different among the three viruses. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases. J. Med. Virol. 9999:1-7, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yamamoto Y; Morooka M; Hashimoto S; Ihra M; Yoshikawa T

2013-10-01

334

Etiological relationships of parotid saliva cyclic nucleotides in patients with taste and smell dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that parotid saliva cAMP and cGMP were lower in patients with taste and smell dysfunction than in normal subjects. We subsequently demonstrated parotid saliva cAMP and cGMP were inversely correlated with smell loss degree such that as smell loss severity increased parotid saliva cAMP and cGMP decreased proportionately. To learn more about these relationships we studied parotid saliva cAMP and cGMP with respect to aetiology of sensory loss in these patients. DESIGN: Parotid saliva cAMP and cGMP in patients with smell loss (hyposmia) who participated in an open label fixed design controlled clinical trial with treatment with oral theophylline were evaluated with respect to their initial etiological diagnosis. Levels of cyclic nucleotides in each etiological category were compared to each other, to the entire patient group and to normal subjects. RESULTS: Mean cAMP and cGMP in all patients combined were below those in normals, as previously described. However, categorized by aetiology, there was a stratification of levels of both cyclic nucleotides; some levels were below the normal mean and some were at or above the normal mean. CONCLUSIONS: Parotid saliva cyclic nucleotides characterised in hyposmic patients by aetiology indicate (1) there are differential alterations in these nucleotides related to aetiology of sensory dysfunction and (2) these moieties measured prior to treatment indicate which patient groups may benefit from treatment with phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors which increase levels of these moieties and thereby correct their sensory dysfunction.

Henkin RI; Velicu I

2012-06-01

335

Influence of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of adhesives on enamel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength of 3 adhesive systems (Single Bond, TransbondTM MIP and TransbondTM XT) applied on bovine enamel under saliva contamination condition. METHOD: One hundred and twenty enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 20) according to the adhesive system used (TransbondTM XT, TransbondTM MIP and Single Bond) with or without saliva contamination. For each adhesive system, there were two groups defined as no contamination group (NC): 37% H3PO4 conditioning for 30 seconds and two layers of adhesive systems; saliva contamination group (SC): After the first adhesive layer application, the examined areas were contaminated with saliva. Samples were mounted appropriately for testing and stored in deionized water at 37 ºC for 7 days. Samples were then submitted to shear bond strength trials at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated under stereomicroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to compare mean values (? = 0.05). RESULTS: Groups XT (NC) = 26.29 ± 7.23; MIP (NC) = 24.47 ± 7.52 and SB (NC) = 32.36 ± 4.14 XT (SC) = 19.59 ± 6.76; MIP (SC) = 18.08 ± 6.39 and SB (SC) = 18.18 ± 7.03 MPa. ARI 0 and 1 were the most prevalent scores in all study groups examined. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination significantly decreased bond strength of the three adhesive systems examined (p <0.05). However, the comparison of groups with and without saliva contamination did not reveal any significant differences, and, therefore, the three systems may be considered equivalent.

Tatiana Feres Assad-Loss; Mônica Tostes; José Nelson Mucha

2012-01-01

336

Use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for the identification of mixed oral yeasts in human saliva.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was established for the simultaneous presumptive identification of multiple yeast species commonly present in the oral cavity. Published primer sets targeting different regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 26-28S rRNA gene (denoted primer sets N and U) and the 18S rRNA gene (primer set E) were evaluated with ten Candida and four non-Candida yeast species, and twenty Candida albicans isolates. Optimized PCR-DGGE conditions using primer set N were applied to presumptively identify, by band matching, yeasts in the saliva of 25 individuals. Identities were confirmed by DNA sequencing and compared with those using CHROMagar Candida culture. All primer sets yielded detectable DGGE bands for all species tested. Primer set N yielded mainly single bands and could distinguish all species examined, including differentiating Candida dubliniensis from C. albicans. Primer set U was less discriminatory among species but yielded multiple bands that distinguished subspecies groups within C. albicans. Primer set E gave poor yeast discrimination. DGGE analysis identified yeasts in 17 of the 25 saliva samples. Six saliva samples contained two yeast species: three contained C. albicans and three C. dubliniensis. C. dubliniensis was present alone in one saliva sample (total prevalence 16?%). CHROMagar culture detected yeasts in 16 of the yeast-containing saliva samples and did not enable identification of 7 yeast species identified by DGGE. In conclusion, DGGE identification of oral yeast species with primer set N is a relatively fast and reliable method for the simultaneous presumptive identification of mixed yeasts in oral saliva samples.

Weerasekera MM; Sissons CH; Wong L; Anderson S; Holmes AR; Cannon RD

2013-02-01

337

ANALYSIS OF FLUORIDE RELEASED FROM GIC AND RMGIC IN SALIVA AND DENTINO-ENAMEL SUBSTANCE  

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Full Text Available Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) are two restorative materials in dentistry that have the capacity of releasing fluoride to saliva, dentino-enamel substance, and the ability to form fluoroapatite crystal. The aim of this study is to compare the amount of fluoride release in saliva and dentino-enamel substance. A total of 48 caries free premolar teeth were prepared to form a cavity with the dimension of 4 X 4 X 2 mm on the buccal surfaces. These teeth were then divided into 3 groups, each containing 16 samples. The first group was determined as the control group, and therefore no restorative material was applied to the teeth in this group; the teeth in the second group were filled with GIC, the third group was filled with RMGIC. These teeth were then soaked in artificial saliva without fluoride content and were incubated at room temperature (37 0Celcius). Each group was divided again into 4 sub groups, each consisting of 4 samples. Each of 4 subgroups received different periods of soaking, namely 1 day, 3 days, 10 days, and 20 days. The fluoride content of saliva was analyzed using ion chromatography, and fluoroapatite on dentino-enamel substance was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction or XRD. Data obtained from the experiments were analyzed using ANOVA, and the level of significance was set at p ? 0,05. There was a significantdifference in the analysis of fluoride release in saliva within the 3 groups: GIC, RMGIC, and the control group, and there was no significant difference in the analysis of fluoroapatite formation on dentino-enamel substance within 3 groups. The fluoride content in saliva showed a significant difference within the 3 groups of GIC, RMGIC, and control. No significant difference was found in the fluoroapatite content on dentino-enamel substance.

Endang Suprastiwi; Anggraeni; Dewa Ayu Npa

2009-01-01

338

Determination of methylphenidate in plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In adults, clinical monitoring of MPH therapy is usually performed by measuring plasma MPH concentrations. In children blood sampling is however undesirable. Saliva may be an alternative matrix for monitoring MPH concentrations with the advantage that it can be obtained non-invasively. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. We present the validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC). In 100 ?L sample, proteins were precipitated with 750 ?L acetonitrile/methanol 84/16 (v/v) containing d9-methylphenidate as the internal standard. Standard curves were prepared over the MPH concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ?g/L. The total analysis time was 45 s. Accuracy and within- and between-run imprecision were in the range of 98-108% and less than 7.0%, respectively. Matrix effects were greater for plasma than saliva with 46% and 8% ionization suppression. The matrix effects were adequately compensated by the use of deuterated MPH as internal standard. MPH significantly degraded in plasma and saliva at room temperature and 5°C. Samples were stable at -20°C for at least 4 weeks. The method was successfully applied for the determination of MPH concentrations in plasma and saliva samples from an adult healthy volunteer. Using protein precipitation and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, this method allows fast, accurate and precise quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva.

Seçilir A; Schrier L; Bijleveld YA; Toersche JH; Jorjani S; Burggraaf J; van Gerven J; Mathôt RA

2013-04-01

339

An effective technique for the processing of saliva for the analysis of leptin and adiponectin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recovery of protein from saliva has been extensively investigated as a method to monitor health. The aim of this study was to compare filtration and centrifugation as two methods of saliva processing necessary for determining the levels of salivary leptin and adiponectin. Thirty-seven healthy patients (median age of 45 years; range 35-73) participated in the study. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected by a drooling technique. An aliquot was filtered using a Millex-Millipore(®) (0.45?m PVDF Dura Pore membrane) syringe and a second aliquot was centrifuged at 15000×g for 15min at 4°C. Leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed using an ELISA kit for serum (RayBio(®), GA, USA) with minor modifications. Leptin and adiponectin levels following the filtration technique yielded comparable results with those after centrifugation. Correlation was observed between filtered and centrifuged salivary leptin levels ((r=0.9155; 95% CI 0.8362-0.9573; p<0.0001) with concordance correlation coefficient k 0.9114 (95% CI 0.8332-0.9539)). Less correlation was observed for adiponectin ((r=0.5718; 95% CI 0.3041-0.7558; p=0.0002) with concordance correlation coefficient k 0.5586 (95% CI 0.2977-0.7419)). Using a Bland-Altman plot, similar measurements for both adipocytokines were observed with mean difference within a 95% CI, and interpreted as no systematic differences between the two processing techniques. This study showed that filtration is an alternative saliva processing technique to retrieve supernatant for protein analysis. Filtered saliva yielded leptin and adiponectin concentrations comparable with those obtained from centrifuged saliva.

Thanakun S; Watanabe H; Thaweboon S; Izumi Y

2013-09-01

340

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

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Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk) is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk). This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell; Allison Littlejohn; Charles Duncan

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The effect of electronic medical record-based clinical decision support on HIV care in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that one million people infected with HIV initiate anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained countries annually. This occurs against a background of overburdened health workers with limited skills to handle rapidly changing treatment standards and guidelines hence compromising quality of care. Electronic medical record (EMR)-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are considered a solution to improve quality of care. Little evidence, however, exists on the effectiveness of EMR-based CDSS on quality of HIV care and treatment in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify original studies on EMR-based CDSS describing process and outcome measures as well as reported barriers to their implementation in resource-constrained settings. We characterized the studies by guideline adherence, data and process, and barriers to CDSS implementation. METHODS: Two reviewers independently assessed original articles from a search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Global Health Library databases until January 2012. The included articles were those that evaluated or described the implementation of EMR-based CDSS that were used in HIV care in low-income countries. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria, 10 of which were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. None of the papers described a strong (randomized controlled) evaluation design. Guideline adherence: One study showed that ordering rates for CD4 tests were significantly higher when reminders were used. Data and process: Studies reported reduction in data errors, reduction in missed appointments, reduction in missed CD4 results and reduction in patient waiting time. Two studies showed a significant increase in time spent by clinicians on direct patient care. Barriers to CDSS implementation: Technical infrastructure problems such as unreliable electric power and erratic Internet connectivity, clinicians' limited computer skills and failure by providers to comply with the reminders are key impediments to the implementation and effective use of CDSS. CONCLUSION: The limited number of evaluation studies, the basic and heterogeneous study designs, and varied outcome measures make it difficult to meaningfully conclude on the effectiveness of CDSS on quality of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. High quality evaluation studies are needed. Factors specific to implementation of EMR-based CDSS in resource-limited setting should be addressed before such countries can demonstrate its full benefits. More work needs to be done to overcome the barriers to EMR and CDSS implementation in developing countries such as technical infrastructure and care providers' computer illiteracy. However, simultaneously evaluating and describing CDSS implementation strategies that work can further guide wise investments in their wider rollout.

Oluoch T; Santas X; Kwaro D; Were M; Biondich P; Bailey C; Abu-Hanna A; de Keizer N

2012-10-01

342

High levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in saliva and peripheral blood from Ugandan mother-child pairs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Africa, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma. We measured levels of EBV DNA in saliva and buffy coats from 233 asymptomatic Ugandan children with sickle cell disease and their mothers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was detected in saliva from 90% of the children (median [interquartile range [IQR

Mbulaiteye SM; Walters M; Engels EA; Bakaki PM; Ndugwa CM; Owor AM; Goedert JJ; Whitby D; Biggar RJ

2006-02-01

343

COMPARATIVE DETECTION OF MEASLES SPECIFIC IGM ANTIBODY IN SERUM AND SALIVA BY AN ANTIBODY-CAPTURE IGM ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (EIA)  

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Laboratory diagnosis of acute measles is usually achieved by serology assays for measle-specific IgM antibody. For comparison of measle-specific IgM antibody in saliva and serum, 95 paired blood and saliva samples were collected 1-14 days after the onset of rash. The specimens were tested for specif...

Talat Mokhtari Azad; Anahid Ehteda; Parvin Yavari; R. Hamkar; Zahra Safar Pour; M. Essalat; Rakhsheh Nategh

344

COMPARATIVE DETECTION OF MEASLES SPECIFIC IGM ANTIBODY IN SERUM AND SALIVA BY AN ANTIBODY-CAPTURE IGM ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (EIA)  

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Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of acute measles is usually achieved by serology assays for measle-specific IgM antibody. For comparison of measle-specific IgM antibody in saliva and serum, 95 paired blood and saliva samples were collected 1-14 days after the onset of rash. The specimens were tested for specific IgM antibody by an IgM antibody-capture Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). Measles IgM antibody was detected in 89 (93.7%) of serum samples and in 85(89.5%) of saliva specimens. Of the 6(6.3%) serum samples that were IgM antibody-negative, 2 (2.1 %) of the paired saliva samples were IgM antibody-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of saliva testing compared with serum was 95.5% and 66.7% respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of saliva testing were 97.7% and 50.0% respectively and the accuracy of saliva testing was 93.7%. Our results indicate that saliva samples provided Enzyme Immunoassay results that were in good agreement with results from serum samples. Salivary IgM antibody detection is a suitable non-invasive method for diagnosing recent measles infections and epidemiological studies, especially in children.

Talat Mokhtari Azad; Anahid Ehteda; Parvin Yavari; R. Hamkar; Zahra Safar Pour; M. Essalat; Rakhsheh Nategh

2003-01-01

345

Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications  

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Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ..mu..l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ..mu..g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously.

Hiramatsu, R. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-12-09

346

Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

1994-01-01

347

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa) were: G1)10.15 ± 3.75; G2) 6.8 ± 2.54; G3) 9.3 ± 3.36; G4) 8.3 ± 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da contaminação por saliva na resistência de união de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte com um compósito resinoso hidrofílico. MÉTODOS: oitenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20), de acordo com o material de colagem e a presença de contaminação - G1) colagem com Transbond XT na ausência de contaminação; G2) colagem com Transbond XT na presença de contaminação; G3) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na ausência de contaminação; G4) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presença de contaminação. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão (MPa) foram G1 = 10,15 ± 3,75; G2 = 6,8 ± 2,54; G3 = 9,3 ± 3,36; G4 = 8,3 ± 2,95. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomínio do escore 0 e distribuição similar no G3. CONCLUSÃO: a contaminação por saliva reduziu a resistência de união no grupo que usou a resina hidrofóbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidrofílica Transbond Plus Color Change não foi influenciada pela contaminação.

Mauren Bitencourt Deprá; Josiane Xavier de Almeida; Taís de Morais Alves da Cunha; Luis Filipe Siu Lon; Luciana Borges Retamoso; Orlando Motohiro Tanaka

2013-01-01

348

Fluoride levels in human parotid saliva following ingestion of fluoride compounds of varying solubility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthy dental students received oral doses of 10.0 mg F daily in the form of compounds of widely varying solubilities. Parotid saliva F concentration and urinary F excretion were highest with NaF, Na2PO3F, and SnF2, lowest with CaF2, and intermediate with AlF3. Solubility of the ingested fluoride compound was a controlling factor in the amount of F excreted in the urine, the peak F concentration reached in parotid saliva, and the duration of a significant elevation in salivary F.

Shannon IL; Edmonds EJ

1977-12-01

349

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da contaminação por saliva na resistência de união de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte com um compósito resinoso hidrofílico. MÉTODOS: oitenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20), de acordo com o material de colagem e a presença de contaminação - G1) colagem com Transbond XT na ausência de contaminação; G2) colagem com Transbond XT na presença de contaminação; G3) colagem com Transbond (more) Plus Color Change na ausência de contaminação; G4) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presença de contaminação. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão (MPa) foram G1 = 10,15 ± 3,75; G2 = 6,8 ± 2,54; G3 = 9,3 ± 3,36; G4 = 8,3 ± 2,95. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomínio do escore 0 e distribuição similar no G3. CONCLUSÃO: a contaminação por saliva reduziu a resistência de união no grupo que usou a resina hidrofóbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidrofílica Transbond Plus Color Change não foi influenciada pela contaminação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded (more) with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa) were: G1)10.15 ± 3.75; G2) 6.8 ± 2.54; G3) 9.3 ± 3.36; G4) 8.3 ± 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.

Deprá, Mauren Bitencourt; Almeida, Josiane Xavier de; Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves da; Lon, Luis Filipe Siu; Retamoso, Luciana Borges; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

2013-02-01

350

El concepto de metadato: algo más que descripción de recursos electrónicos/ The metadata concept: something more than description of electronic resources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resulta evidente la necesidad de establecer mecanismos que permitan una descripción más exhaustiva de los recursos electrónicos. En este trabajo se propone como solución el uso de metadatos. Por ese motivo se estudia el concepto de metadato con el fin de determinar tanto su campo de acción como los diferentes presupuestos subyacentes en este. Abstract in english It is evident the necessity to establish mechanisms that allow a more exhaustive description of the electronic resources. In this work we propose as solution the use of metadata. For that reason the concept of metadata is studied for the purpose of determining their action field and the underlying different meanings in this.

Senso, José A.; Rosa Piñero, Antonio de la

2003-08-01

351

Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No significant differences were recorded in the amount of culturable bacteria in all studied conditions; however, from microscopy images, the saliva/HEMA combining effect induced a significant bacterial aggregation and adhesion on HGFs. HEMA treatment decreased viable eukaryotic cell number with a parallel increment of necrotic cells, but when saliva was added to the co-culture, the viable cells percentage increased to a value comparable to the control sample.

Di Giulio M; di Giacomo V; Di Campli E; Di Bartolomeo S; Zara S; Pasquantonio G; Cataldi A; Cellini L

2013-08-01

352

Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No significant differences were recorded in the amount of culturable bacteria in all studied conditions; however, from microscopy images, the saliva/HEMA combining effect induced a significant bacterial aggregation and adhesion on HGFs. HEMA treatment decreased viable eukaryotic cell number with a parallel increment of necrotic cells, but when saliva was added to the co-culture, the viable cells percentage increased to a value comparable to the control sample. PMID:23670604

Di Giulio, Mara; di Giacomo, Viviana; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Zara, Susi; Pasquantonio, Guido; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina

2013-05-14

353

Characterization of the antioxidant profile of human saliva in peri-implant health and disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Peri-implant disease is considered to be an inflammatory disease, but many aspects of its pathogenesis remain unknown. At present, peri-implant disease is considered to be initiated and perpetuated by a small group of predominantly Gram-negative, anaerobic, or micro-aerophilic bacteria that colonize the subgingival area. Bacteria cause the observed tissue destruction directly by toxic products and indirectly by activating host defence systems, i.e. inflammation. A variety of molecular species appears in the inflamed tissues, among them are reactive species such as free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to assess levels of various antioxidants in saliva to identify differences between the saliva of patients with healthy peri-implant tissues and patients with peri-implant disease, and to examine whether the whole saliva of those with peri-implant disease conditions might have lower levels of antioxidants than that of healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy adult volunteers (14 men and 16 women) with implant-supported overdentures (Ankylos Biofunctional Implants) were selected from the group of patients from Tallinn Dental Clinic. Biochemical and clinical parameters evaluated were the following ones: the levels of urate, ascorbate, myeloperoxidase in saliva, total antioxidant status of saliva, pocket probing depth (mm), gingival index (0, 1, 2, or 3), and bleeding on probing (0 or 1). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Total antioxidant status (TAS) of saliva and concentration of uric acid and ascorbate, which are the main salivary antioxidants, are significantly decreased in patients with peri-implant disease. TAS in healthy subjects was 0.41+/-0.10 for resting saliva and 0.31+/-0.09 for stimulated saliva; in diseased subjects TAS was 0.19+/-0.07 and 0.12+/-0.03, respectively. In healthy subjects, the concentration of urate was 307.2+/-78.06 microM/l in resting saliva and 241.5+/-89.09 microM/l in stimulated saliva. In diseased patients, the concentration of urate was 120+/-36.13 and 91.60+/-39.35 microM/l, respectively. The concentration of ascorbate did not differ in resting and stimulated saliva. In healthy subjects, it was 2.79+/-0.81 mg/l and in diseased subjects, it was 1.54+/-0.30 mg/l. This may indicate that excessive ROS production in peri-implant disease is leading to the situation of excessive oxidative stress, which may be an important factor contributing the destruction of peri-implant tissues. The importance of these findings may be the better understanding of the processes involved in the pathogenesis of peri-implant disease and that the treatment of peri-implant disease may involve adjuvant anti-oxidants supplementation together with cumulative interceptive supportive therapy concept introduced by Mombelli & Lang.

Liskmann S; Vihalemm T; Salum O; Zilmer K; Fischer K; Zilmer M

2007-02-01

354

There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012). Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2), 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS).Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

Annie M. Hughes

2013-01-01

355

Detección de arn de virus hepatitis c en la saliva de un grupo de pacientes con hepatitis c crónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La Hepatitis C constituye un problema de salud pública y su transmisión está claramente asociada con la ruta parenteral. Sin embargo su agente causal, Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC), también ha sido aislado de otros fluidos incluyendo la saliva, aunque la relación existente entre VHC y la patología bucal no está completamente dilucidada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con Hepatitis C crónica. En la pre (more) sente investigación se evaluaron 24 pacientes provenientes del Departamento de Hepatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad Central de Venezuela, con infección por VHC. 5 ml de saliva no estimulada fue tomada de cada paciente. ARN-VHC fue detectada por la técnica de Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en cadena de la Polimerasa (TR-RCP). En 29%, (7/24) pacientes VHC+, se observó la presencia de ARN-VHC en saliva. En este estudio, observamos la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC. Es necesario realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala, para clarificar el significado biológico de la presencia de este agente viral en la saliva, incluyendo la potencial vía de transmisión por la exposición con este fluido. Abstract in english Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmisión is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids, including saliva, although the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva from patients with chronic C hepatitis. In the present investigation 24 patients, attended at the Hepatology Departm (more) ent, at the the Clinical Hospital University, Central University of Venezuela, with HCV infection were evaluated . 5ml of unstimulated saliva were taken of each patient. Saliva HCV-RNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 29% (7/24) of HCV+ patients showed HCV-RNA in saliva. In this study, we observed the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients infected with HCV. Further large-scale epidemiological studies are required to clarify the clinical significance of HCV in the saliva, including the potencial for viral transmisión through exposure to these fluids.

Luna, M; De Guglielmo; Garassini, M; Perrone, M; Correnti, M

2008-12-01

356

Platelet aggregation and coagulation inhibitors in leech saliva and their roles in leech therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prolonged bleeding by the host after the leech ceases to feed and several reports that the use of leeches restores blood flow in the microcirculation after plastic surgery led us to search for inhibitors of platelet aggregation in Hirudo medicinalis saliva. Dilute leech saliva was collected by phagostimulating starved leeches with a solution of arginine in saline. The saliva is shown to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, platelet activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-3-glycerophophoryl choline [PAF]), and arachidonic acid. We have isolated the PAF inhibitor and found it to be an amphipathic phosphoglyceride. We have also purified apyrase adenosine triphosphate ([ATP] diphosphohydrolase), which inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and have described collagenase. Besides well-known hirudin, Hirudo saliva contains a potent inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa. We also report antiaggregant and anticoagulant activities in the crop content of the closely related Nile leech, Limnatis nilotica. Anticoagulants of hematophagous species are surveyed. We have used medicinal leeches in plastic surgery for decompression of skin flaps and in patients with postphlebitic syndrome and peripheral arterial occlusions. Preliminary results indicate certain beneficial effects of leech therapy.

Rigbi M; Orevi M; Eldor A

1996-01-01

357

Platelet aggregation and coagulation inhibitors in leech saliva and their roles in leech therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged bleeding by the host after the leech ceases to feed and several reports that the use of leeches restores blood flow in the microcirculation after plastic surgery led us to search for inhibitors of platelet aggregation in Hirudo medicinalis saliva. Dilute leech saliva was collected by phagostimulating starved leeches with a solution of arginine in saline. The saliva is shown to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, platelet activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-3-glycerophophoryl choline [PAF]), and arachidonic acid. We have isolated the PAF inhibitor and found it to be an amphipathic phosphoglyceride. We have also purified apyrase adenosine triphosphate ([ATP] diphosphohydrolase), which inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and have described collagenase. Besides well-known hirudin, Hirudo saliva contains a potent inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa. We also report antiaggregant and anticoagulant activities in the crop content of the closely related Nile leech, Limnatis nilotica. Anticoagulants of hematophagous species are surveyed. We have used medicinal leeches in plastic surgery for decompression of skin flaps and in patients with postphlebitic syndrome and peripheral arterial occlusions. Preliminary results indicate certain beneficial effects of leech therapy. PMID:8836013

Rigbi, M; Orevi, M; Eldor, A

1996-01-01

358

Relationship of serum and saliva calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with dry mouth feeling in menopause.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase of menopausal women with/without dry mouth (DM) feeling. BACKGROUND: The composition of saliva in menopause women with/without DM feeling is different. Some of these differences are in hormones that are related to bone turnover. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on 60 selected menopausal women aged 45-79 years with or without DM feeling (30 as case, 30 as control), conducted at the Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The phosphorus concentration was measured by photometrical measurement of the blue colour formed after the addition of ammonium molybdate and stannous chloride; calcium was measured by Arsenazo reaction; and alkaline phosphatase by the pNPP-AMP method. Statistical analysis of Student's t-test was used. RESULTS: The mean serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase, stimulated and unstimulated saliva calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the menopausal women suffering from DM. There were no significant differences between groups regarding saliva phosphorus and serum calcium concentration. CONCLUSION: Calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase appear associated with DM feeling in menopause.

Agha-Hosseini F; Mirzaii-Dizgah I; Moosavi MS

2012-06-01

359

Tick saliva represses innate immunity and cutaneous inflammation in a murine model of Lyme disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lyme borreliosis is an arthropod-borne disease transmitted by the Ixodes tick. This spirochetal infection is first characterized by a local cutaneous inflammation, the erythema migrans. The skin constitutes a key interface in the development of the disease. During Borrelia inoculation, tick saliva affects the innate and adaptive immunity of the vertebrate host skin. Some key mediators of innate immunity such as antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidin and defensin families) have been identified as important initiators of skin inflammation. We analyzed the role of tick saliva on integumental innate immunity using different protocols of Borrelia infection, via syringe or direct tick transmission. When syringe inoculation was used, Borrelia triggered skin inflammation with induction of CRAMP, the mouse cathelicidin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, when Borrelia was transmitted directly via the tick, we observed a significant repression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a critical role of tick saliva in skin innate immunity. For all the protocols tested, a peak of intense Borrelia multiplication occurred in the skin between days 5 and 15, before bacterial dissemination to target organs. We conclude that Borrelia pathogens specifically use the tick saliva to facilitate their transmission to the host and that the skin constitutes an essential interface in the development of Lyme disease.

Kern A; Collin E; Barthel C; Michel C; Jaulhac B; Boulanger N

2011-10-01

360

Actividad Cariogenica y su Relación con el Flujo Salival y la Capacidad Amortiguadora de la Saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio es comprobar la relación existente entre el flujo salival, la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva y las lesiones iniciales de caries. El presente estudio se realizó en 20 jóvenes entre 12 y 15 años de edad. El examen clínico se llevó a cabo en una sesión y la aplicación de la prueba salival se realizó al siguiente día. A los datos obtenidos se le aplicaron pruebas paramétricas convencionales. Los resultados mostraron que la capaci (more) dad amortiguadora de la saliva fue alta en toda la muestra independientemente de la actividad cariogénica. Igualmente el flujo salival tanto estimulado como no estimulado no mostró diferencias significativas en relación con la actividad de caries. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow, buffer capacity of saliva, and initial caries lesions. This study evaluated 20 people between 12 and 15 year-old. The clinical examination was performed in one appointment, and the salivary test was performed the next day. The results showed that the buffer capacity of the saliva was high in the whole sample. In the same way, the mouth resting and stimulated salivary measurement did not show significant differences in relation to the caries activity.

Loyo Molina, Kenny; Balda Zavarce, Rebeca; González Blanco, Olga; Solórzano Peláez, Ana Lorena; González A, Marjorie

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups). Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001) in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001), as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

Šurdilovi? Dušan; Stojanovi? Ivana; Apostolovi? Mirjana

2008-01-01

362

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

1996-03-01

363

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years...

Kršljak Elena; Goši? Katarina

364

Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose) and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except so