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Sample records for saliva electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resources Management : An Update

    Medeiros, Norm

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the Digital Library Federation’s (DLF) Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) guidelines, finalized in August 2004. The specifications are reviewed in light of the electronic resource (e-resource) management needs of academic libraries. The piece reflects on comments made by Tim Jewell and Adam Chandler in an earlier “On the Dublin Core Front” column. A review of commercial e-resource management system development is also included.

  2. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  3. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  4. TERMS: Techniques for electronic resources management

    Emery, Jill; Stone, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Librarians and information specialists have been finding ways to manage electronic resources for over a decade now. However, much of this work has been an ad hoc and learn-as-you-go process. The literature on electronic resource management shows this work as being segmented into many different areas of traditional librarian roles within the library. In addition, the literature show how management of these resources has driven the development of various management tools in the market as well a...

  5. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomicalgrowth of e-resourcese-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally onacquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a birds eye viewof various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  6. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS) Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.; Sanjay Kataria; Shri Ram,

    2013-01-01

    Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources) in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the s...

  7. Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software

    Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

    2012-01-01

    The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

  8. Techniques in Electronic Resource Management (TERMS)

    Stone, Graham; Emery, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Two decades after the advent of electronic journals and databases, librarians are still grappling with ways to best manage these resources in conjunction with their print resources. In addition, economic pressures at many institutions of Higher Education are resulting in librarians having to justify their spending on collections and resource management. Furthermore, ebooks are becoming yet another stream of purchasing and management with the added complexity of patron driven acquisitions. All...

  9. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    Tull, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, Ohio State University along with the University of Washington, the University of Western Australia, Washington State University, and Glasgow University entered into a development partnership with Innovative Interfaces. The goal was to develop a module to manage electronic resources, integrated into Innovatives Millennium library system. The product, Electronic Resource Management (ERM), became available in 2004 and is based on the work of the Digital Library Federation E...

  10. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the specific resource from the gamut of other resources followed by acquisition of the specific resource into the library realm and then felicitating access to the users and then the follow-up of studying the usage of the resource for further continuation of those resources. In between these processes there is the cumbersome chore of going through the licensing agreements and keeping the records correct. All these processes are time consuming and involve a lot of work. These relentless arrays of work have made librarians to look for systems which can save their time and energy and provide efficient management of e-resources. This paper looks at the origin of the ERMS (E-resource Management Systems and the available ERMS in the library digital landscape.

  11. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the specific resource from the gamut of other resources followed by acquisition of the specific resource into the library realm and then felicitating access to the users and then the follow-up of studying the usage of the resource for further continuation of those resources. In between these processes there is the cumbersome chore of going through the licensing agreements and keeping the records correct. All these processes are time consuming and involve a lot of work. These relentless arrays of work have made librarians to look for systems which can save their time and energy and provide efficient management of e-resources. This paper looks at the origin of the ERMS (E-resource Management Systems and the available ERMS in the library digital landscape.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.33.4885

  12. Semantic Web and Electronic Information Resources

    Radovanovic, Danica

    2003-01-01

    The usage of electronic resources depends on good possibilities of searching and the Semantic Web concept can be convenient solution for information retrieval (IR). WWW (World Wide Web) enables, with the help of search engines and huge number of available (meta)information, data that can satisfy user's need for information, but only at some extent. At the same time, there are more and more research efforts to increase the efficiency for IR until one gets as much as possible rel...

  13. Saliva and dental erosion

    Marlia Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Anglicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  14. Saliva and dental erosion

    Marlia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  15. Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology

    Ghosh, T B.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake inform...

  16. Saliva and wound healing.

    Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I

    2014-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration. PMID:24862594

  17. Constructing a dental electronic information resource (DEIR).

    Lang, W P

    1994-04-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a dental electronic information resource (DEIR). Development is based on the Internet gopher client/server model. Information is organized in a series of hierarchical menus. A DEIR can be browsed by traversing the menu hierarchy or by performing keyword searches. Searches can result in a menu of found items from across the Internet. Initially, contents of the DEIR will be text files. Electronic copy will be given to an editorial board that will review submissions for conformity to publication standards. A current estimate for electronic storage costs of a DEIR is $1.25/Mb per year. There will be additional costs associated with any purchases of data (e.g. Current Contents), production of data (e.g. development time), and editorial and managerial activities. The DEIR will be accessible from any computer or terminal that can connect to the Internet. Primary user groups will be faculty, staff, and students of dental schools. However, access to the DEIR will be free, and an extensive user community will be encouraged, including practicing dentists, dental associations, public health agencies, and dental insurance companies. PMID:8005714

  18. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these collections efficiently. Not only libraries, but also the negotiators of Alliance and National Licences need a software application which helps them to handle these complex licences efficiently. The project presented in this paper aims at developing a national Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS. It is funded by the German Research Foundation/Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG. The project partners are the North Rhine-Westphalian Library Service Centre (hbz, the University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg Frankfurt, the Head Office of the Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund (GBV and the Freiburg University Library. The projected ERMS  will provide a software system with a central knowledge base which supports a unified overview of licence data with a local, regional and national scope. In the current state of development, the focus is on data and function modelling and on designing concepts for rights management, cooperative data management, implementation of interface standards and the intended services such as statistical analyses.

  19. Techniques for Electronic Resource Management: Crowdsourcing for Best Practices

    Emery, Jill; Stone, Graham

    2013-01-01

    TERMS: Techniques for Electronic Resource Management has been a crowdsourcing experiment to get librarians from Europe and the U.S. to share their best practices and workflows of electronic resource management freely to interested librarians via social media venues such as Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr. You will be participating in the development of the next steps of capturing the best practices of electronic resources management

  20. "Have I Learnt It?" Evaluating Skills for Resource-based Study Using Electronic Resources.

    Macdonald, Janet; Heap, Nick; Mason, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of electronic information resources and information literacy in higher education focuses on the information handling skills students need and the factors influencing their acquisition in two networked resource-based courses at the United Kingdom Open University. Offers guidelines for course designers incorporating electronic resources.

  1. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    E. Cosgun; A. Küyük; Karabulut, E; E. Karaagaoglu

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  2. Online electronic information resources on business management

    Ghosh, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the Post Graduate Management Institutes in South Gujarat and the problems of their libraries. The author has described the freely available Internet resources on Business management like E-journals, business databases, stock exchanges, management virtual libraries etc. and has also started to compile the links of these free internet resources at URL http://www.geocities.com/ghoshtbin to integrate the resources in a uniform location for the benefit of the Management faculti...

  3. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  4. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the

  5. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  6. Use of electronic information resources in goverment libraries

    Simona Omahen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the use of electronic information resources in government libraries in Slovenia. It starts with the definition of government libraries and electronic publications. On a selected sample of government libraries, the state of the usage of electronic information resources in government libraries was studied. On the basis of interviews, carried out in five government libraries, it was established that government libraries mostly do not focus on, or even think about, the use of electronic information resources. What they have and use seems self-evident to them.

  7. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  8. Saliva and dental erosion

    Marlia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Anglicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the re...

  9. TERMS: Techniques for electronic resource management

    Stone, Graham; Emery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Graham Stone, University of Huddersfield, and Jill Emery, Portland State University, have set up TERMS, a project looking at each of the stages in the e-resources cycle. They are inviting review and comment on the blog.

  10. Electronic Media: A Motif for Shared Resources.

    Lightner, Stanley L.; Johnson, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of trade and industrial education supervisors from 10 states determined the degree of use of electronic education methods. Instructors in these states used presentation software and web-based exercises most often; fewer used video, CD-ROM, and distance technologies; 70% had been taught electronic presentation methods in preservice or…

  11. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  12. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  13. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  14. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  15. Saliva and viral infections.

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases. PMID:26662485

  16. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  17. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  18. Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva

    Dožić Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

  19. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  20. Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva.

    van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and growth of bacteria. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which the composition of the oral microflora is modulated by saliva. Saliva covers the oral hard and soft tissues with a conditioning film which governs the initial attachment of microorganisms, a crucial step in the setup of the oral microflora. It furthermore contains proteins which in the soluble phase bind to bacteria, blocking their adherence to surfaces. When the supply of nutrients is diminished, bacteria use salivary glycoproteins, especially high-molecular-weight mucins, as a source of complex carbohydrates, requiring a consortium of microorganisms for breakdown. In this way saliva promotes the complexity of the oral microflora, which in itself protects against overgrowth by few pathogenic species. Finally, saliva harbors a large panel of antimicrobial proteins which directly and indirectly inhibit uncontrolled outgrowth of bacteria. These include lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides. Under pathological conditions serum leakage occurs, and saliva mobilizes the humoral and cellular defense mechanisms in the blood. In sum, saliva favors the establishment of a highly diverse microflora, rather than a semisterile environment. PMID:24862593

  1. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  2. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  3. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  4. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  5. SALIVA AS A DIAGNOSTIC FLUID

    Pezelj-Ribaric Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues’ integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  6. A Pioneering Spirit: Using Administrative Metadata to Manage Electronic Resources

    Medeiros, Norm

    2003-01-01

    This article describes administrative metadata, and its use in managing electronic resources. The focus of the article is an interview with Tim Jewell, Head of Collection Management Services at the University of Washington and Adam Chandler, Information Technology Librarian at Cornell University.

  7. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  8. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  9. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning

    Nolan, Nathanial S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositoriessuch as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipediafor their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first-year medical students' learning as it does not fully address their information needs and is more demanding in terms of cognitive resources invested. PMID:26807049

  10. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  11. Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-11-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  12. An electronic approach to evaluating healthcare Web resources.

    Hodson-Carlton, K; Dorner, J L

    1999-01-01

    Information literacy skills, which include the ability to evaluate electronic healthcare sites, are critical to the decision-making responsibilities of students and professionals. The authors describe the experiences of nursing and library services faculty in the development and implementation of a Web-delivered module for the evaluation of healthcare Web resources. A range of electronic tools was used for both the collaborative creation of the module as well as the instructional delivery of the content. Evaluation of the module revealed its usefulness to the students and the potential of the collaborative development model for other content areas. PMID:10795251

  13. Public libraries and the consortium purchase of electronic resources

    Ball, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper embodies research on the purchasing of electronic resources by public libraries. It sought to identify what works well and what is problematic with respect to the management of commercial products. Views were also sought on future development, and how procurement could best be managed. The main concerns identified were the lack of a national dimension and strategy, and of expertise in individual authorities and consortia, particularly with licences. Purchasers were felt to be r...

  14. The functions of human saliva

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, Siri Beier; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-01-01

    moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food...... as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being...... supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the...

  15. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

  16. Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO2 and Cr2O3 forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

  17. Multiscale Modelling of Saliva Secretion

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-01-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gl...

  18. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  19. The proteome of human saliva

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  20. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  1. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  2. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  3. Biopterin and neopterin in human saliva.

    Katoh, S; Sueoka, T; Matsuura, S; Sugimoto, T

    1989-01-01

    Presence of biopterin and neopterin in human saliva was investigated by HPLC after iodine oxidation in acidic medium. Concentrations of biopterin and neopterin (M +/- SEM) were 1.271 +/- 0.254 and 0.358 +/- 0.075 ng per ml, respectively, in saliva of apparently healthy young male adults, ages 20 to 22 years (n = 9). Nearly identical value of the neopterin/biopterin ratio (0.29 +/- 0.07) was obtained for each of these specimens. Monapterin, the L-threo-isomer of neopterin (0.084 +/- 0.022 ng per ml saliva), and other unconjugated pterins such as xanthopterin, 6-hydroxymethylpterin and pterin were also found in the saliva. These pterins were all detectable in saliva of young female adults with similar levels to those of male saliva. Another fluorescent compound which was identical with 7-iso biopterin in retention time on HPLC was observed in all specimens of normal saliva examined. PMID:2615555

  4. Saliva as a potential diagnostic tool

    T Deepa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a complex fluid consisting of secretions from the major and minor salivary glands. Gland-specific saliva can be used to diagnose any pathology from the specific major salivary gland. Whole saliva has serum constituents that are derived from the local vasculature of the salivary glands and gingival crevicular fluid. Saliva, as a diagnostic fluid, has distinctive advantages over serum as whole saliva can be collected non-invasively by individuals with limited training using simple equipments. This review aimed to explore the diagnostic applications of saliva in systemic and oral diseases. Analysis of saliva can offer a cost-effective approach to screen for a larger population. Salivary analysis may be useful for diagnosing systemic oral disorders, as well as for monitoring hormone and therapeutic levels of drug.

  5. Antiviral activities in human saliva.

    Malamud, D; Abrams, W R; Barber, C A; Weissman, D; Rehtanz, M; Golub, E

    2011-04-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses-gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection. PMID:21441478

  6. Antiviral Activities in Human Saliva

    Malamud, D.; Abrams, W. R.; Barber, C.A.; Weissman, D.; Rehtanz, M.; Golub, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and virusesgp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial c...

  7. SALIVA SEBAGAI UJI SARING OSTEOPOROSIS

    Niniarty Z. Djamal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease, and is characterized by low bone mass and microstructure deterioration of the bone, which leads to increased risk of fracture. Biomarker of bone metabolism can be seen as beginning of bone loss and first detection before imbalanced bone turnover comes. Biomarker of bone formation as serum bone alkaline fosfatase, osteocalcin (OC, procollagen type I, and biomarker of bone resorption as urine pyridinoline (Pyd and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd crosslinks, hydroxyprolin. The simultaneous examination of serum OC and urine Pyd or Dpd as a very good screening test for determination of bone imbalanced at the moment of the menopausal or the beginning of the pasca menopausal. Saliva as a potential diagnostic fluid for the assessment of osteoporosis biomarker concentrations. The study found elevated three classic warning signs for osteopororsis os OC, Dpd and 116 in the saliva of sheep without ovaries, which were similar to the levels of signs found in their blood and urine. Expectations, that the test may become available within five years and one day the test may be able to be performed at home like pregnancy test. Osteoporosis biomarker in saliva suggested detected of bone mass density easier. Beside that can be used as a method of early diagnostic and as a monitor therapy that as salinity of the examinations of bone mass on radiology.

  8. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  9. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  10. Harnessing electronic information resources through prospective consortia approach: a national necessity

    Vasishta, Seema; Dhingra, Navjyoti

    2007-01-01

    Earlier information resources were considered physical entities but now these have evolved from traditional print documents to electronically stored information resources. In this time of lessening finances, myriad forms of resources and rising expectations of user community, libraries face many challenges to operate competently. The demand to provide more electronic information resources often results in a need to find creative ways to get the most out of our limited financial resources. Pre...

  11. Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.

    Lakatos-Varsányi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I

    1997-01-01

    Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

  12. Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota.

    Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed. PMID:26662484

  13. Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows

    Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

  14. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies in parotid saliva.

    Tumilasci, O R; Arqueros, M C; Ostuni, M A; el Tamer, E; Houssay, A B

    1996-01-01

    Parotid saliva was collected with a Carlson-Crittenden device, under citric acid stimulation, in 18 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyrotropin Receptor Antibodies (TRAb) were measured with a radioreceptor assay in parotid saliva and in serum in the same patients, and a statistical analysis of the data was performed. TRAb levels in parotid saliva were higher than in serum in the 3 pathologies studied (Graves' disease, Hashitoxicosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis). There was good correlation between salivary and serum levels. PMID:8884533

  15. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review

    Martí-Álamo, Silvia; Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desqu...

  16. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid: literature review

    Martí Álamo, Silvia; Mancheño Franch, Aisha; Marzal Gamarra, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable ...

  17. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  18. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    P?nar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  19. eFG: an electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum.

    Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Luonan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein-protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely. DATABASE URL: http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ PMID:23798489

  20. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  1. Saliva in studies of epidemiology of human disease: the UK Biobank project.

    Galloway, John W; Keijser, Bart J F; Williams, David M

    2016-02-01

    There has been immense interest in the uses of saliva in the diagnosis of systemic disease over the past decade and longer because it is recognized that saliva possesses great potential as a diagnostic fluid. In spite of this, the usefulness of saliva in studies of the epidemiology of human disease has still to be properly evaluated. This review describes the UK Biobank project and explores the scope to use this and other such cohort studies to gain important insights into the epidemiological aspects of systemic disease. The Biobank holds around 85,000 well-characterized saliva samples, together with blood and urine samples, the results of a battery of physiological tests, a full medical history and a detailed description of the subject's lifestyle. This repository is a resource for insightful and highly powered oral and dental research. PMID:26662490

  2. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  3. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    Susmita Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences.This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites.There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids.This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  4. What Do Libraries Really Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Shorten, Jay

    2005-01-01

    One hundred fourteen academic libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, electronic resources, subject guides, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their

  5. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  6. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  7. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  8. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid

    Qing Qu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.

  10. Morphology and Differentiation of MG63 Osteoblast Cells on Saliva Contaminated Implant Surfaces

    Neda Shams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoblasts are the most important cells in the osseointegration process. Despite years of study on dental Implants, limited studies have discussed the effect of saliva on the adhesion process of osteoblasts to implant surfaces. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of saliva on morphology and differentiation of osteoblasts attached to implant surfaces.Materials and Methods: Twelve Axiom dental implants were divided into two groups. Implants of the case group were placed in containers, containing saliva, for 40 minutes. Then, all the implants were separately stored in a medium containing MG63 human osteoblasts for a week. Cell morphology and differentiation were assessed using a scanning electron microscope and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined. The t-test was used to compare the two groups.Results: Scanning electron microscopic observation of osteoblasts revealed round or square cells with fewer and shorter cellular processes in saliva contaminated samples, whereas elongated, fusiform and well-defined cell processes were seen in the control group. ALP level was significantly lower in case compared to control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Saliva contamination alters osteoblast morphology and differentiation and may subsequently interfere with successful osseointegration. Thus, saliva contamination of bone and implant must be prevented or minimized.

  11. Cataloguing the Chameleon: A Guide to Electronic Resources

    Cox, Joseph P.; Dekker, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This manual was created to bridge the gap in guidelines for describing internet resources during the long period when AACR2 was updating its rules for cataloguing. Librarians needed interim procedures and Cataloguing the Chameleon was a set of guidelines recommended by the Cataloguing Internet Resources Project based at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Information Studies.

  12. "Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days

    Pan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

  13. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    Susmita Saxena; Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to au...

  14. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry.

  15. Gingival crevicular fluid and saliva.

    Taylor, John J; Preshaw, Philip M

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the structure and function of the mouth, its tissues and secretions is of great interest to physiologists, cell biologists, immunologists and microbiologists but is also of fundamental interest to the dental professional interested in comprehending the aberrant processes associated with oral disease and in the application of effective clinical interventions. The field of periodontology, which has a truly multidisciplinary perspective cutting across leading edge molecular and cellular biology, clinical dentistry, epidemiology and behavioural science, exemplifies this. A paradigm shift in recent years has led to the consideration of the oral cavity (and, thus, oral disease) not in isolation but as a component integrated with systemic physiology, important in maintaining systemic health and reflective of systemic disease; this has served to promote periodontology, in particular, into the forefront of medicine in general. This volume of Periodontology 2000 considers the role of gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in physiological function, maintenance of oral tissue integrity, defense against pathogens and oral disease as well as the many, emerging applications of analysis of these fluids in support of periodontal disease diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. However, whilst the emphasis is on periodontal disease, the wider contexts of oral and systemic health are also key considerations. PMID:26662478

  16. Collection Development of Electronic Information Resources in Turkish University Libraries

    Tonta, Yaşar

    2001-01-01

    The number of information sources available through both printed and electronic media are ever increasing. Even libraries with sizable collection development budgets are having difficulties in coping with this increase. Yet with the development of new technologies, the possibilities of innovative interlibrary cooperation projects emerge: libraries combining their efforts through various consortia are trying to get access to electronic information sources more economically. In this paper, we b...

  17. Electronic Engineering Library In Sweden: A Quality Assessed Internet Resource from the Swedish Technological University Libraries

    Lager, Gunnar; Nordlander, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A status report of the plans and issues under discussion in creating this cooperative electronic national resource to support engineering education in Sweden. An opportunity to preview what is currently under construction for the EELS.

  18. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  19. NRC Clients' Perceptions of Electronic Resources and Use of CISTI's Virtual Library.

    Belzile, Sylvie; Kneale, Jean; Young, Ian; Summers, Randy; Colbourne, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a study of use of the Web-based virtual library at CISTI (Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information) by NRC (National Research Council of Canada). Results indicate that NRC staff is favorably inclined toward electronic resources and that a positive correlation exists between use of digital resources and perception and

  20. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year

  1. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  2. Saliva as an alternative source of high yield canine genomic DNA for genotyping studies

    Faulhaber Erica A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic dog presents an attractive model system for the study of the genetic basis of disease. The development of resources such as the canine genome sequence and SNP genotyping platforms has allowed for the implementation of canine genetic studies. Successful implementation of such studies depends not only on the quality of individual DNA samples, but also on the number of samples obtained. The latter can be maximized using a non-invasive DNA collection method that can increase study participation. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained from blood and buccal swabs to those obtained using a non-invasive saliva collection kit (Oragene ®•ANIMAL kit. We also assessed the success rate of PCR amplification and genotyping accuracy of DNA isolated using these collection methods. Findings Comparison of DNA yields from matched saliva, blood and buccal swab samples showed that yields from saliva were significantly higher than those from blood (p = 0.0198 or buccal swabs (p = 0.0008. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that blood and saliva produced higher quality DNA than buccal swabs. In addition, a 1.1-kb PCR fragment was successfully amplified using the paired DNA samples and genotyping by PCR-RFLP yielded identical results. Conclusion We demonstrate that DNA yields from canine saliva are higher than those from blood or buccal swabs. The quality of DNA extracted from saliva is sufficient for successful amplification of a 1.1-kb fragment and for accurate SNP genotyping by PCR-RFLP. We conclude that saliva presents a non-invasive alternative source of high quantities of canine genomic DNA suitable for genotyping studies.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of amphetamines in rat parotid saliva.

    Digregorio, G J; Kniaz, E K

    1976-10-01

    Amphetamines, a commonly abused class of drugs, have been detected in various biological specimens, in particular, urine and blood. However, little information is available concerning the detection of these drugs in saliva. This investigation, utilizing the rat salivary secretions, has been attempted to establish the ability of amphetamines to be secreted in saliva and to determine the feasibility of using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for drug detection in saliva. The results of this investigation showed that (1) d-amphetamine and methamphetamine decreased salivary flow, (2) after d-amphetamine RIA tests were demonstrated in both saliva and plasma for a period of fifty minutes, and (3) positive RIA reactions were obtained by the following metamphetamine metabolites: amphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine. Methamphetamine and 4-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine were found to be non-reactive in the radioimmunoassay procedure. The results indicate that saliva could be radioimmunoassayed for the detection of amphetamine or amphetamine derivatives after the administration of either d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:1017382

  4. Electronic Information Resources in Undergraduate Education: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities for Student Learning and Independence.

    McDowell, Liz

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative interview-based study examines lecturer perspectives on the roles of electronic information resources in undergraduate education. Highlights include electronic academic libraries; changes toward more constructivist approaches to learning; information quality on the Web; plagiarism; information use; information literacy; and…

  5. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  6. Detection of phthalate metabolites in human saliva.

    Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Samandar, Ella; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2005-11-01

    In assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants, the use of unconventional matrices is becoming an increasingly important area of research. Saliva is one of the most promising alternative matrices because its collection is easy, noninvasive, and inexpensive. In this study, we measured the salivary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites in 39 anonymous adult volunteers using isotope-dilution, automated solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seven phthalate metabolites were detected at the concentrations ranging from below the limit of detection (chemicals such as phthalates, the similar levels in serum and saliva suggest that saliva could be used as a surrogate matrix for measuring the bioavailable dose of phthalates in biomonitoring studies. PMID:15995852

  7. Using the Internet Gopher Protocol to link a computerized patient record and distributed electronic resources.

    Hales, J. W.; Low, R. C.; Fitzpatrick, K T

    1993-01-01

    At Duke University Medical Center, we are developing a prototype clinical application for automated patient care plans with integrated links to electronic documents and other electronic resources. These links are implemented using the Internet Gopher Protocol, an emerging standard for distributed document search and retrieval. Use of this protocol permits storage of electronic documents in an open, nonproprietary manner. This paper discusses the architecture of the link mechanism and presents...

  8. Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva

    Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis

  9. Isolation and Analytical Characterization of Local Malaysian Leech Saliva

    Mohamed Alaama; Manar AlNajjar; Abdualrahman Abdualkader; Abbas Mohammad; and Ahmed Merzouk

    2011-01-01

    Leech saliva contains biologically active compounds that are mainly proteins and peptides. In this study a modified and smooth extraction method of saliva was used without leeches' scarification. UV and Bradford Assay protein methods showed that the saliva extract contains high concentrations of proteins. RP-HPLC chromatogram revealed that more than 30 different peaks were observed in leech saliva extract. Gel electrophoresis revealed the existence of proteins and peptides with different mo...

  10. Binding of corroded ions to human saliva.

    Mueller, H J

    1985-05-01

    Employing equilibrium dialysis, the binding abilities of Cu, Al, Co and Cr ions from corroded Cu-Al and Co-Cr dental casting alloys towards human saliva and two of its gel chromatographic fractions were determined. Results indicate that both Cu and Co bind to human saliva i.e. 0.045 and 0.027 mg/mg protein, respectively. Besides possessing the largest binding ability, Cu also possessed the largest binding capacity. The saturation of Cu binding was not reached up to the limit of 0.35 mg protein/ml employed in the tests, while Co reached full saturation at about 0.2 mg protein/ml. Chromium showed absolutely no binding to human saliva while Al ions did not pass through the dialysis membranes. Compared to the binding with solutions that were synthetically made up to contain added salivary-type proteins, it is shown that the binding to human saliva is about 1 order of magnitude larger, at least for Cu ions. PMID:4005360

  11. Modulation of host immunity by tick saliva

    Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.888, year: 2014

  12. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  13. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review.

    Martí-Álamo, Silvia; Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis - much the same as blood analysis - aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren's syndrome and cɶliac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing's syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis. PMID:24558562

  14. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs. PMID:22023919

  15. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  16. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  17. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on real world learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education. PMID:26309211

  18. Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource

    Rusbridge, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

  19. Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia

    Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, Jos C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-?. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-? expression. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those transmitted by a different vector. PMID:21655303

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Electronic Information Resources: An Evaluation of the Middle East Technical University Library

    Batı, Hacer

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid transition from print to electronic resources. Significant amount of library budgets are allocated for licensing electronic resources. Identifying and analyzing the benefits and costs of this new trend is therefore important for academic libraries. In this presentation experiences of METU (Middle East Technical University) Library on licensing and usage of electronic resources is evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and ...

  1. Specific Features of Development of Electronic Information and Education Resources for the Distant Learning Systems ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????

    Sergienko Yelena A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is analyzed the features of distance learning and forms of its realization, is devoted to research existing technologies and tools of distance learning, as well as their possible applications in modern education system. Presents the potential for electronic information-educational resources for distance education systems.? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????- ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.

  2. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  3. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  4. A Mid-infrared Digital Electronic Camera System for Assessing Natural Resources

    Water strongly absorbs mid-infrared (1300-2500 nm) radiation, resulting in this region of the spectrum being sensitive to the water content within features. Little information is available on using an electronic digital camera filtered to this region of the spectrum to assess natural resources. Th...

  5. A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China

    Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project" universities…

  6. What Do Community College Libraries Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Shorten, Jay

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fourteen community college libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their web site. They do not usually

  7. Saliva aldosterone concentration in healthy infants.

    Few, J. D.; Mangat, T K; Oppe, T E; James, V H

    1986-01-01

    Aldosterone and glucocorticoid (cortisol + cortisone) concentrations were measured in 106 saliva samples from healthy infants. Most aldosterone values fell within the adult range (0-0.15 nmol/l (0-5.4 micrograms/100 ml)), but 10 were greater than 0.2 nmol/l (7.2 micrograms/100 ml). Aldosterone concentration was not related to sex, ethnic origin, time of collection, distress, or cortisol concentration but decreased with age.

  8. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  9. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  10. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. PMID:24720944

  11. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of...... this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients...... (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva...

  12. Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan; Hertz, Jens Michael; Almer, Lis; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Kreiborg, Sven

    2007-01-01

    saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN......: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high...... concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive...

  13. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; MacKenzie, D; MacFarlane, C.B.; Speirs, C F

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampi...

  14. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM) of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote; Kitsiri Chochiang

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM) of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent), employee engagement (55 percent), organizational file structure (10 percent), idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent) and assess...

  15. Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method

    Kravchenko Evgeny V.; Kuznetsov Geniy V.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary t...

  16. PROJECT VERITY: virtual and Electronic Resources for Information Skills Training for Young People

    Παπάζογλου, Αλεξάνδρα

    1999-01-01

    Introduces VERITY (Virtual and Electronic Resources for Information Skills Training for Young People) and its Virtual Librarian to help young people with their information seeking process. VERITY, funded by the Libraries sector under the European Union's Telematics Applications Programme, aims to explore new ways of providing virtual library services that are creative, stimulating and educational for young people in the 13-19 age group. It will be developed in parallel in five languages (Engl...

  17. ENABLING CLOSED RESOURCE LOOPS IN ELECTRONICS: UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER DISPOSAL BEHAVIOUR USING INSIGHTS FROM DIFFUSION MODELS

    Sinha Khetriwal, Deepali; First, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores consumer disposal behaviour, especially in the context of durable electronic products. The purpose of the research is to understand why, how and when consumers dispose of their durable products. The research aims to provide policy makers, waste managers and product marketers new insights on consumer disposal behaviour that will help improve policy, encourage better resource management and incentivise product designs that maximise environmental and social benefits. We apply ...

  18. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:364-370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:27017840

  19. Postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of scientific information databases and electronic resources

    Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of these resources. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. Results The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model. PMID:27123213

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of saliva proteins for the noninvasive differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors

    Feng S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shangyuan Feng,1 Shaohua Huang,1 Duo Lin,2 Guannan Chen,1 Yuanji Xu,3 Yongzeng Li,1 Zufang Huang,1 Jianji Pan,3 Rong Chen,1 Haishan Zeng41Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, 2Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 4Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: The capability of saliva protein analysis, based on membrane protein purification and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, for detecting benign and malignant breast tumors is presented in this paper. A total of 97 SERS spectra from purified saliva proteins were acquired from samples obtained from three groups: 33 healthy subjects; 33 patients with benign breast tumors; and 31 patients with malignant breast tumors. Subtle but discernible changes in the mean SERS spectra of the three groups were observed. Tentative assignments of the saliva protein SERS spectra demonstrated that benign and malignant breast tumors led to several specific biomolecular changes of the saliva proteins. Multiclass partial least squares–discriminant analysis was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from healthy subjects, benign breast tumor patients, and malignant breast tumor patients, yielding diagnostic sensitivities of 75.75%, 72.73%, and 74.19%, as well as specificities of 93.75%, 81.25%, and 86.36%, respectively. The results from this exploratory work demonstrate that saliva protein SERS analysis combined with partial least squares–discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for the noninvasive and label-free detection of breast cancer.Keywords: SERS, saliva protein purification, PLS-DA, breast cancer, noninvasive detection

  1. Nonenzymatic antioxidants in saliva of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Moori, M; Ghafoori, H; Sariri, R

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-directed self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulation, resulting in damage to essentially all the organs. SLE is associated with the increased production of free radicals. Increase in free radicals or impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Considering that saliva could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was to evaluate some antioxidants in the saliva and serum of patients with SLE and compare these with healthy individuals. This could help us in obtaining a possible marker in saliva in the future. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were investigated. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva and blood samples, they were examined using spectrophotometric methods and the results were analyzed by statistical software. According to the results, concentrations of malondialdehyde, uric acid and total antioxidants were significantly increased but the level of reduced glutathion was reduced significantly in the saliva and serum of SLE patients as compared to controls. It is therefore suggested that antioxidant power is impaired in saliva and serum of SLE patients. As there was a positive correlation between the antioxidant level of saliva and blood serum, the antioxidant status of saliva could be an indicator of serum antioxidants. PMID:26449364

  2. Integrating electronic information resources for NHS Glasgow staff at the point of need: a model of interlibrary collaboration and resource sharing.

    Davies, S; Wales, A

    2001-12-01

    The Glasgow NHS Libraries Consortium has harnessed the political imperative of collaboration and the capability of electronic information resources to address inequalities in access to the knowledge base across NHS Glasgow. They have negotiated consortium arrangements to an extensive range of electronic databases and journals which no single Glasgow NHS library could afford independently. A Project Officer was appointed to undertake the administration, technical work and promotion required to build a Web-based electronic library to deliver resources to all NHS Glasgow staff on an equitable basis. Close partnership with online content providers enabled the Project Officer to find solutions to problems caused by authentication systems and license restrictions. These efforts have culminated in the production of a fully integrated virtual library--the NHS Glasgow e-Library--delivering 11 major electronic databases, 440 full-text electronic journals, 48 electronic textbooks and over 5000 journal contents pages. The NHS Glasgow e-Library is without precedent within the NHS in terms of its wealth of resources, and it provides a model for Scotland-wide access to the knowledge base. The sustainability and transferability of the resource is dependent on a number of key areas-maintenance, user training, evaluation, IT infrastructure and ongoing collaboration and unification. Ongoing research will monitor how far the NHS Glasgow e-Library has strengthened the connection between research evidence and clinical practice. PMID:11791863

  3. Role of crevice in the occurrence of hemoglobin in saliva.

    Martí, García A V; Friedman, S M; Cabrini, R L; Costa, O R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of the gingival-periodontal component in the presence of blood in saliva. We studied a population of 184 adult patients composed of 101 totally edentulous patients with no oral mucosa lesions and 83 dentulous patients with clinically healthy gums. Saliva samples obtained by spontaneous salivation were collected in sterile containers. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of each of the samples was performed. 67% of the dentulous patients tested positive for hemoglobin in saliva. None of the patients in the totally edentulous group exhibited hemoglobin in saliva. These data suggest that the periodontal condition is an essential factor for the presence of hemoglobin in saliva. PMID:15214311

  4. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  5. Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method

    Kravchenko Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary temperature fields to improve the reliability of the forecast operating life of power semiconductor devices.

  6. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-01-01

    Die Verwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen stellt für Bibliotheken eine wichtige und zugleich nicht einfache Aufgabe dar. Sie müssen den Überblick behalten über heterogene Informationen, die sich mit herkömmlichen Bibliothekssystemen nur bedingt abbilden lassen. Die UB Kassel verwendet daher seit August 2014 das webbasierte Electronic Resource Management System RMS von SemperTool. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Funktionalitäten des Systems vor und schätzt den erforderlichen Arbeitsaufwand ab, ...

  7. ??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project

    Hui-Hsin Yeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

  8. AWARENESS AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN DEGREE COLLEGES OF KODAGU DISTRICT.

    Muthamma A.R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study with a view to survey awareness and use of electronic information resources by social science research scholar and the library professionals, a random sampling techniques were used. About 200 questionnaire were distributed for data collection 180 filled questionnaire was received giving a responds rate of 90%.Simple frequency counting and percentage were used in reporting and finding. The paper suggests for an improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more eresources by the academic college Libraries in Kodagu.

  9. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  10. HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  11. Assessment of accepting rate of Electronic Information Resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science faculty members

    Afshin Hamdipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR play an important role in the process of education and research. The aim of this study was to analyze the status of adoption of electronic information resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science (KIS faculty members. This applied- descriptive survey was carried out on Iranian KIS Faculty Members in 2012. The number of participants was determined based on the Cochran's sample size table. Of the 170 Faculty Members, 122 individuals were randomly selected. Data collection tool was an Electronic questionnaire, and its validity was confirmed by professionals. The reliability of the questionnaire was verified after a pilot study. By using IBM SPSS 20 software and through exploratory factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and inferential tests the data were analyzed. Results showed that, there is significant difference between the mean of adoption rate of electronic information resources (EIR by people with different levels of education. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between mean of adoption rate and the faculty’s teaching experience and age. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test showed that the curve of adoption rate of electronic information resources among the sample is normal, and thus, the adoption rate of resources over time, is S-shaped. Ultimately, this study confirmed The Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory (2003 in context of Adaptor categories of electronic information resources (EIR, and S-shaped curve, among faculty members in departments of knowledge and Information science in Iran.

  12. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  13. Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

    Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

  14. The use of saliva markers in psychobiology: mechanisms and methods.

    Bosch, Jos A

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, the use of saliva parameters has greatly expanded in recent years from the measurement of steroid hormones, like cortisol, and now includes a wide range of biochemical parameters. These salivary constituents can be broadly classified into two groups: (1) constituents that enter saliva from plasma (e.g. hormones, inflammatory markers, drug chemicals) and (2) constituents that are produced locally by the saliva glands (e.g. α-amylase, secretory IgA). Reliable measurement of blood-borne constituents assumes a constant saliva/plasma ratio (SPR), which implies that the concentration in saliva truthfully follows intra- and interindividual variations in plasma. The first part of this review discusses the main determinants of the SPR: the mechanism by which plasma constituents enter saliva (i.e. passive diffusion, active transport, ultrafiltration, leakage) and associated physiochemical factors. The second part of this review provides an overview of central and peripheral neural mechanisms that regulate saliva gland function and the release of glandular proteins. This section provides a neurobiological underpinning for a section, which addresses methodological implications for the assessment of glandular secretions. Salivary psychophysiology is a fast-growing field and the time seems ripe for more rigorous methodological studies that may help this discipline to reach its full potential. PMID:24862598

  15. Identification and Characterization of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase from Human Saliva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST, the enzyme responsible for the sulfation of tyrosine residues, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands previously (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 338: 90-96. Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase catalyses the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins and is believed to be present only in the cell. In the present study, this enzyme was identified for the first time in human saliva. Analysis of human saliva and parotid saliva for the presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase revealed tyrosine sulfating activity displayed by both whole saliva and parotid saliva at pH optimum of 6.8. In contrast to tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase isolated from submandibular salivary glands, salivary enzyme does not require the presence of Triton X-100, NaF and 5'AMP for maximal activity. Similar to the submandibular TPST, the enzyme from saliva also required MnCl2 for its activity. Maximum TPST activity was observed at 20mM MnCl2. The enzyme from saliva was immunoprecipitated and purified by immunoaffinity column using anti-TPST antibody. Affinity purified salivary TPST showed a single band of 50-54 kDa. This study is the first report characterizing a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in a secretory fluid.

  16. The human saliva proteome: overview and emerging methods for characterization

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Among the different biomolecules found in human saliva, proteins are among the most prominent. Proteins carry out many vital roles in saliva, from enzymatic catalysis to structure. Proteins also have great potential as diagnostic biomarkers, which can be easily collected using non-invasive methods. In order to catalog salivary proteins, and determine those with diagnostic potential for human disease and other health conditions, mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have been used over the last decade or more. Using these conventional technologies, several thousand proteins have been identified in whole saliva, with numerous studies identifying proteins with diagnostic promise for a variety of health conditions. In addition, these technologies have been used to identify proteins expressed by microbial communities in human saliva. In recent years, new mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have emerged that are giving researchers new tools for characterizing the proteome of whole saliva, as well as other biological sample types. Two of the most promising of these new technologies include methods for "data-independent acquisition", which allows for large-scale hypothesis-driven proteomic discovery studies, and proteogenomics, a bioinformatics-driven approach which integrates genomic and proteomic data to characterize novel gene products missed by conventional methods. This paper will summarize the efforts of cataloging the saliva proteome to-date, including highlights of studies identifying salivary protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, the emerging technologies of data-independent acquisition and proteogenomics will be described, along with their potential in characterizing the saliva proteome for diagnostic applications.

  17. Bacterial composition in whole saliva from patients with severe hyposalivation

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Rosing, Kasper; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Paster, Bruce J; Lynge Pedersen, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the microbiota of stimulated whole saliva samples from patients with severe hyposalivation to samples from individuals with normal whole saliva flow rates. It was hypothesized that the two groups differ with regard to salivary bacterial profiles...... stimulated whole saliva samples was characterized by HOMINGS. RESULTS: The two groups had comparable caries experience measured by decayed-missed-filled-surfaces/-teeth and decayed-missed-filled-root surfaces as well as active caries lesions. In addition, no single probe-target was present with a significant...

  18. Relationship between Human Resources Management Practices, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Sharing on Innovation in Iranian Electronic Industry

    Mahmoud Manafi; Indra Devi Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Electronic industry needs innovation to survive, and also to compete internationally. This study examines factors that can enhance technical innovation of companies in the electronic industry of Iran. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between human resource management practices, transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation of the large and major electronic companies.More specifically, the research attempts to examine whether knowledge sharing medi...

  19. Usage of Electronic Resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University: A Case Study

    S. Thanuskodi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has thrown a new challenge to the libraries. The technology has shown a great impact on the services of the libraries. Libraries use IT for better services and satisfying diverse user needs. Libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals, and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-zines. This has increased the global dissemination of information. Electronic resources (e-resources are easily accessible in the remote areas. The e-resources solve storage problems and control the flood of information. Print sources are being digitised. There is a great need to study the use of e-resources and investigate the factors that are a hindrance to their use. The present study is an attempt to examine the usage of electronic resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University. Study revealed that MPhil students respondents took the first position in their overall methods of searching e-resources, postgraduate student respondents the second position, PhD Scholar respondents the last position. The study confirmed that respondents were aware of the e-resources and various types of e-resources, e-database, and e-journals. The study recommended the improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more e-resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University.

  20. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION

    Edgard Ferro COLLARES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus. Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  1. Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows

    In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.)

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    Latifa KINANI; Rachida NAJIH; Abdelilah CHTAINI

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  3. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    Latifa KINANI; Abdelilah CHTAINI

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  4. Saliva-catalyzed hydrolysis of a ketobemidone ester prodrug

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    Saliva enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of ester prodrugs or drugs containing sensitive ester groups may be a limiting factor for the buccal absorption of such compounds. Using the isopropyl carbonate ester of ketobemidone as a model substance of a hydrolysis-sensitive prodrug the esterase activity of...... human saliva has been characterized as a function of various factors. The esterase activity was found to decrease rapidly upon storage of the saliva at 37°C. The activity increased with increasing pH in the range 4.5-7.4 and with increasing salivation flow rate up to a rate of 0.9 ml min. Under resting...... conditions, the flow rate was about 0.2 ml min which implied a greatly decreased esterase activity. The activity was highest after fasting and decreased after intake of a meal. The intraindividual variation in the saliva esterase activity was small whereas a larger interindividual variation was found....

  5. Saliva and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with colorectal cancer

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensen, Siri Beier; Reibel, Jesper; Laurberg, Søren; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims. A prospective cross-sectional study was designed to test if total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva and plasma correlated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population with symptoms consistent with this disease. Materials and methods. Stimulated whole saliva and blood...... samples were collected from 161 individuals referred to colonoscopy with symptoms associated with CRC. The results of the examination, as well as previous and/or current other diseases were recorded. In a blinded study, the authors used an in-house TIMP-1 ELISA previously validated for use in saliva and...... plasma to determine total levels of TIMP-1. Results. Fifty-six of the patients (35%) were diagnosed with CRC. Plasma TIMP-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with patients with other, non-malignant diseases and individuals without disease. Significant differences in saliva TIMP...

  6. Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

    2010-01-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

  7. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass–endophyte mutualism

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant–herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation...

  8. Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics

    Richards Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  9. Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?

    Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Moffa, Eduardo Buozi; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2016-01-01

    In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases. PMID:26981761

  10. Crystal growth on bioactive glass sputter-coated alumina in artificial saliva.

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Kohda, Naohisa; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a bioactive glass was deposited on the alumina disk specimens by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study crystal formation ability in artificial saliva. Bioactive glass-coated specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and 6 months. The specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystals that formed on the specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopic analysis and Micro-X-ray diffraction. SEM photomicrographs showed the formation of needle-like structures after immersion for 1 week, and tabular structures formed on the surface of the specimen for 6 months. EDS showed that both the needle-like and tabular structures were enriched with Ca and P. Raman and Micro-XRD spectra for the tabular structure showed peaks that may correspond to calcium phosphate. Thus, when immersed in artificial saliva, bioactive glass-coated alumina produced a crystal which might be calcium phosphate. PMID:24088833

  11. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  12. Protein biomarkers of periodontitis in saliva.

    Taylor, John J

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

  13. Lactobacilli in human dental caries and saliva.

    Smith, S I; Aweh, A J; Coker, A O; Savage, K O; Abosede, D A; Oyedeji, K S

    2001-01-01

    Samples (98 plaque and 72 saliva) from 93 patients with dental caries were investigated for Lactobacillus species which comprised 65 (62.5%) of 104 isolates. Yeasts (20.1%), Streptococcus spp. (8.7%), Staphylococcus spp. (2.9%) and a few unidentified species (5.8%), were also found. The Lactobacillus isolates were L. brevis (24.6%) L. fermentum (18.5%) L. casei (16.9%), L. delbrueckii (15.4%), L. plantarum (9.23%), L. acidophilus (7.69%), L. jensenii (4.62%), L. salivarius (1.54%) and L. gasseri (1.54%). The most common species was L. brevis (24.6%). The strains tested for beta-lactamase production showed 75.4% positive. All the Lactobacillus strains were tested for bacteriocin production against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei, Klebsiella spp. and Campylobacter sp. All the lactobacilli except L. jensenii produced bacteriocin against at least one of the indicator organisms. The involvement of Lactobacillus in dental caries was established, although its role and mechanism is not well understood. The ability of Lactobacillus spp. to protect their host against certain diseases by inhibiting the growth of potential pathogens was evident. PMID:11393751

  14. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  15. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

  16. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

  17. Caring for children and adolescents with epilepsy: creating an innovative electronic educational resource.

    Connolly, Anne M; Slade, Rob; Uppal, Preena; Bye, Ann M E

    2014-10-01

    The majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy are managed in the community setting by general paediatricians. However, there is a paucity of practical, relevant information and standardised management documents assisting paediatricians. In the era of sub-specialisation, an electronic educational resource developed by specialists in epilepsy and paediatrics enhances the interface between tertiary and secondary/primary care. We aimed to create a website (www.pennsw.com.au) designed to optimise the care of all children and adolescents living with epilepsy and to assess its clinical usefulness. The site provides clinicians and families an aligned resource, including key information on epilepsy syndromes, medication usage and adverse effects, safety (sleep deprivation, water sports), driving, pregnancy, psychosocial impact of epilepsy and coping skills. General paediatricians and carers completed a questionnaire, utilising rating scales and open ended questions, to evaluate design, content and clinical usefulness. Forty-nine general paediatricians with a median 12 years of paediatric practice participated. Thirty-two carers participated. Epilepsy syndrome was focal in 59% of the children and generalised in 41%. The majority of participants (paediatricians: 84-100%, families: 69-100%) rated the website as well designed, practical, informative and clinically useful. General paediatricians considered the "Medication" pages and "Epilepsy Management Documents" as practically useful. Carers recorded the "Family Resources", seizure recording documents, the support information on mental health, and the "Coping with Epilepsy" segment as most informative. General paediatricians and carers highly valued the website, reflected by 120,000 page views in 12 months since its launch. PMID:24906210

  18. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements. PMID:14700333

  19. The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    Ojokuku, R. M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

  20. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  1. A study of lawyers’ information behaviour leading to the development of two methods for evaluating electronic resources

    Makri, S

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we examine the information behaviour displayed by a broad cross-section of academic and practicing lawyers and feed our findings into the development of the Information Behaviour (IB) methods - two novel methods for evaluating the functionality and usability of electronic resources. We captured lawyers’ information behaviour by conducting naturalistic observations, where we asked participants to think aloud whilst using existing resources to ‘find information required for t...

  2. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette; Ladelund, Steen; Niesters, Hubert G M; Høgh, Birthe

    2010-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva...

  3. Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva

    Bayat Movahed S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter. Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001; however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

  4. Adverse affects of drugs on saliva and salivary glands

    Vidhi Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is the most valuable oral fluid is critical to the preservation and management of oral health. Saliva containing various organic and inorganic substances provides primary natural protection for teeth and soft tissues in the oral cavity assists in mastication, deglutition and digestion of food. The secretion of saliva can be affected due to various local and systemic causes. However if a patient is taking medication and has altered salivary secretion the differential diagnosis should include the possibility of an adverse drug reaction. The drugs may lead to alteration in the flow rate of saliva, which can be either increased or reduced, however certain drugs have been reported to cause change in the color of the saliva. Several drugs may lead to sialadenitis associated with altered salivary secretion. These symptoms may simulate systemic diseases, Hence oral physicians need to be vigilant in recognizing these adverse drug reactions in the patients and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to try to stay abreast of this ever evolving field especially as it relates to dental therapeutics.

  5. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  6. CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

    Martine Soell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals at the same time interval in the morning without any oral stimuli. Circadianic periodics in protein productions have been avoided. The presence of chromogranin A and its derived peptides was determined in whole saliva, after centrifugation at 40C for 12 min at 14 000 rpm, by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Immunoblotting (Western Blot. To ensure same protein concentrations Bradford protein quantification assay has been performed before.For the first time, we have determined an overexpression of chromogranin A in saliva of diabetic patients in 100% of the individuals.Chromogranin A, a circulating biomarker for epithelial tumours, is also overexpressed in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients. To confirm our results, more studies with a large amount of patients is necessary.

  7. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  8. Thiocyanate concentration in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Marek Gacko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiocyanates (SCN- are ubiquitous in nature. There are indispensable part of host defense system that act as a substrate for lactoperoxidase (LPO. In our study we present initial data on SCN- concentration in saliva of CF patients in comparison to healthy non-smokers and healthy smokers. 5 ml of saliva was collected from each subject to a sterile tube and thiocyanate concentration was measured in each sample. The results of the measurements are presented on Fig. 1. Mean concentration of SCN- in saliva of CF patients was 0.031 +/- 0.0052 g/l, in healthy non-smokers 0.039 +/- 0.0048 g/l and in healthy smokers 0.048 +/- 0.0161 g/l. The differences between each group were statistically significant. Studies on larger group of patients and probably on different material (BALF or induced sputum should present interesting data complementing the in vitro studies.

  9. Isolation and Analytical Characterization of Local Malaysian Leech Saliva

    Mohamed Alaama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech saliva contains biologically active compounds that are mainly proteins and peptides. In this study a modified and smooth extraction method of saliva was used without leeches' scarification. UV and Bradford Assay protein methods showed that the saliva extract contains high concentrations of proteins. RP-HPLC chromatogram revealed that more than 30 different peaks were observed in leech saliva extract. Gel electrophoresis revealed the existence of proteins and peptides with different molecular weights. The gel showed up to 25 different bands. Comparison of gel electrophoresis data with protein database revealed the closeness of four molecular weights to known proteins from Hirudinaria leech family. Other proteins detected by gel electrophoresis may be related to completely new biologically active proteins and peptides in the saliva extract or to a modification (isoforms of the existing ones or finally to a mixture of both.ABSTRAK: Air liur pacat secara biologinya mengandungi sebahagian besar campuran aktif protein dan peptida. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah pengestrakan air liur pacat yang telah diubah suai digunakan tanpa perlu membunuh pacat. Kaedah protein Cerakin UV dan Bradford menunjukkan air liur pacat yang diekstrak mengandungi konsentrasi protein yang tinggi. Kromatogram RP-HPLC memperlihatkan lebih daripada 30 puncak berbeza diperolehi semasa air liur pacat diekstrak. Gel elektroforesis memperlihatkan kewujudan protein dan peptida dengan berat molekul yang berbeza. Gel menunjukkan hingga 25 jalur yang berbeza. Perbandingan data menggunakan gel elektroforesis seiring dengan pangkalan data protein memperlihatkan persamaan empat berat molekul, dengan protein yang yang dikenali daripada keluarga pacat Hirudinaria. Jenis protein lain yang dikesan dengan menggunakan gel elektrofosis mungkin juga berkait secara biologinya dengan protein dan peptida aktif yang baru, dalam ekstrak air liur atau pengubahsuaian (beberapa jenis yang berbeza daripada protein yang sama daripada yang sedia ada ataupun gabungan kedua-duanya.KEY WORDS : leech saliva; RP-HPLC; gel electrophoresis.

  10. CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

    Martine Soell; Ahmed Feki; Matthias Hannig; Hidehiko Sano; Michel Pinget; Denis Selimovic

    2010-01-01

    Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 3...

  11. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  12. Virus excretion and neutralizing antibody response in saliva in human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Tamura, T.; Chiba, S.; Chiba, Y.; Nakao, T.

    1980-01-01

    The local secretory immune mechanism in infants with cytomegalovirus infection was studied by a measurement of neutralizing antibody in saliva. Neutralizing antibodies were determined by the microculture plaque assay in 65 saliva specimens including 54 samples from cytomegalovirus-infected subjects and 11 from seronegative controls. In addition, cytomegalovirus isolation from saliva or urine or both and antibody determination in serum and saliva were simultaneously performed on seven infants ...

  13. Simultaneous culture of saliva and jejunal aspirate in the investigation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

    Hamilton, I.; Worsley, B W; Cobden, I; Cooke, E. M.; Shoesmith, J G; Axon, A T

    1982-01-01

    Both saliva and jejunal aspirate were cultured from 22 patients with suspected small bowel bacterial overgrowth and from eight controls. Large numbers of organisms (greater than 10(6)/ml) were recovered from the jejunal aspirate of 16 subjects, in five of whom the same organisms were present in similar relative proportions in the saliva, suggesting contamination of the sample with saliva, while in 11 the jejunal organisms differed from those in saliva. In eight of these the jejunal flora was ...

  14. Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level

    Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

    2015-06-01

    The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

  15. Determination of trace elements in human saliva by PIXE technique

    Mineral trace element concentration of human saliva from healthy volunteers, were investigated by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis. The specimens were bombarded with Proton beams of 2 MeV from a Van de Graaff accelerator at NRC. The object of this measurement was to find a normal range of trace element concentration for Iranian people. (author)

  16. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  17. Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats saliva

    SJ Aledavood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110 from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110, and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

  18. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H; Holmstrup, P; Kirkby, N; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Twetman, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...

  19. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

  20. Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  2. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    Begley, D A; Krupke, D M; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J T; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tu...

  3. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Saturday U. Omeluzor; Susan U. Ogbuiyi

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was...

  4. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroqumico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corroso

    Glucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz; Leandro Freitas Silva; Jos Tarcsio Lima Ferreira; Jos Antnio da Cunha P. Gomes; Lcio Sathler

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artifici...

  5. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system. PMID:26351732

  6. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of Saliva Check of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

  7. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Bardow, Allan; Kokaras, Alexis; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Paster, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes. Design Unstimulated (n=20) and stimulated (n=20) saliva samples were collected from 20 orally and systemically healthy, non-smoking participants. Salivary bacterial profiles were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparison, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and correspondence analysis. Results From a total of 40 saliva samples, 496 probe targets were identified with a mean number of targets per sample of 203 (range: 146–303), and a mean number of probe targets of 206 and 200 in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples, respectively (p=0.62). Based on all statistical methods used for this study, the microbial profiles of unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same person were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial salivary profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same individual showed comparable results. Thus, the results verify that stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate of unstimulated saliva for microbiome-related studies. PMID:26987356

  8. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes. Design: Unstimulated (n=20 and stimulated (n=20 saliva samples were collected from 20 orally and systemically healthy, non-smoking participants. Salivary bacterial profiles were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS, and statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparison, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and correspondence analysis. Results: From a total of 40 saliva samples, 496 probe targets were identified with a mean number of targets per sample of 203 (range: 146–303, and a mean number of probe targets of 206 and 200 in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples, respectively (p=0.62. Based on all statistical methods used for this study, the microbial profiles of unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same person were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: Analysis of bacterial salivary profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same individual showed comparable results. Thus, the results verify that stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate of unstimulated saliva for microbiome-related studies.

  9. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  10. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  11. Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.

    Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

  12. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  13. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,

  14. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  15. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  16. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  17. Variability of Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances in Saliva

    Michal Behuliak; Roland Pálffy; Roman Gardlík; Július Hodosy; Lukáč Halčák; Peter Celec

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary TBARS are a potential marker of oxidative stress in the oral cavity. Previous studies have found increased levels of salivary TBARS in various diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the variability of salivary TBARS in both genders. Subjects & Methods: Saliva samples from thirty-eight healthy volunteers (18F & 20M) were collected every day during 30 day period. TBARS levels were measured spectrophotometrically using a high-throughput 96-well plate method. Time se...

  18. Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes

    Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential t...

  19. Towards further defining the proteome of mouse saliva

    Blanchard, Anne A; Ezzati, Peyman; Shamshurin, Dmitry; Nistor, Andreea C; Leygue, Etienne; Wilkins, John A.; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the mouse salivary proteome is not well documented and as a result, very limited. Currently, several salivary proteins remain unidentified and for some others, their function yet to be determined. The goal of the present study is to utilize mass spectrometry analysis to widen our knowledge of mouse salivary proteins, and through extensive database searches, provide further insight into the array of proteins that can be found in saliva. A comprehensive mouse salivary pr...

  20. Sand-Fly Saliva-Leishmania-Man: The Trigger Trio

    Oliveira, Fabiano; Carvalho, Augusto M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniases are worldwide diseases transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand-fly. Sand-fly biting and parasite inoculation are accompanied by the injection of salivary molecules, whose immunomodulatory properties are actively being studied. This mini review focuses on how the interactions between sand-fly saliva and the immune system may shape the outcome of infection, given its immunomodulatory properties, in experimental models and in the endemic area. Additionall...

  1. Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity

    Matias, Isabelle; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; MARSICANO, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal...

  2. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  3. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  4. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  5. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute

    Madhvika Patidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of ?-Ti20Mo alloy in artificial saliva.

    Mareci, Daniel; Chelariu, Romeu; Dan, Ioan; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the potential of ?-Ti20Mo alloy as a dental material, we tested its corrosion behaviour in artificial saliva in comparison to that of cp-Ti. Open-circuit potential (E(OC)), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used as electrochemical methods to characterize the corrosion behaviour of Ti20Mo alloy and cp-Ti, respectively. Corrosion current and passive current densities obtained from the polarization curves showed low values indicating a typical passive behaviour for Ti20Mo alloy. The EIS technique enabled us to study the nature of the passive film formed on the binary Ti20Mo alloy at various imposed potentials. The Bode phase spectra obtained for Ti20Mo alloy in artificial saliva exhibited two-time constants at higher potential (0.5 V, 1.0 V), indicating a two-layer structure. According to our experimental measurements, Ti20Mo alloy appears to possess superior corrosion resistance to that of cp-Ti in artificial saliva. PMID:20711847

  7. Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation

    Antonio Valado, Cardoso; Marcos Horcio, Pereira; Guilherme de Arajo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrcia Rosa de, Arajo.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

  8. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  9. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  10. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test

  11. PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based

    M.G. Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

  12. Aphid gel saliva: sheath structure, protein composition and secretory dependence on stylet-tip milieu.

    Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; van Bel, Aart J E

    2012-01-01

    In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliva) protein fractions were significantly different. To test the effect of the stylet milieu on saliva secretion, aphids were fed on various diets. Hardening of gel saliva is strongly oxygen-dependent, probably owing to formation of sulfide bridges by oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Surface texture of gel saliva deposits is less pronounced under low-oxygen conditions and disappears in dithiothreitol containing diet. Using diets mimicking sieve-element sap and cell-wall fluid respectively showed that the soluble protein fraction was almost exclusively secreted in sieve elements while non-soluble fraction was preferentially secreted at cell wall conditions. This indicates that aphids are able to adapt salivary secretion in dependence of the stylet milieu. PMID:23056521

  13. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira; Fábio Ramôa Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti Corrêa; Osvaldo di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  14. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    Begley, D. A.; Krupke, D. M.; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J. T.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tumor data from different scientific research areas and facilitates integration of molecular, genetic, and pathologic data. Current status of MTB, search capabilities, data types, and future enhancements are detailed in this article. PMID:21282667

  15. Searching Electronic Resources on Internet : Tools for Researchers And Library Professional

    Lokhande, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    In this Internet Era Libraries & Information Centers increasingly being called upon to provide more relevant, up-to-date and timely information to a wide range of users. To satisfy the varied needs, they require availability and accessibility to a variety of information resources and formats ( such as digital, full text, sound, graphics, images, multimedia & hypertext as well as printed documents). To cope with the new technology library professionals and the researchers should developed hims...

  16. Corrosion behaviour of FePt-based bulk magnets in artificial saliva solution

    Bulk hard magnetic FePt-based alloys are proposed as new materials for dental applications. In this study the corrosion behaviour of bulk Fe50Pt50, Fe35Pt35P30 and Fe53Pt44C3 magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering of mechanically milled powders is evaluated in artificial saliva solution at 37 oC in dependence on their exposure time and in comparison to that of other relevant dental alloys by means of electrochemical polarisation measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The alloys exhibit in this environment a platinum-like behaviour and thus, they are highly stable also during long-term exposure. Enhanced corrosion activity does not occur when coupling these alloys with commercial dental alloys of Fe- and CoCr-based. A particular low-corroding state is attained in combination with the dental spring steel Fe-18Cr-18Mn-2Mo-1N

  17. The Inhibition Effect of Eugenol to the Biocorrosion of Titanium in Saliva Medium

    Latifa KINANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of eugenol in controlling corrosion of titanium grade 2 in saliva medium containing bacteria at different pH has been evaluated by electrochemical polarization methods, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical data show that the corrosion resistance is greatly enhanced after surface modification. The best protection is obtained with eugenol at pH 7. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that theses inhibitors act by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface. The film, act as a barrier to the transport of the metal ions from the metal to the solution at high concentration of inhibitor acts by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface.

  18. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M; Engelholm, S A; Larsen, Ole Hyldegaard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of...... isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus...... rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation...

  19. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

  20. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  1. Saliva and other taste stimuli are important for gustatory processing of linoleic acid

    Stratford, Jennifer M.; Robert J. Contreras

    2009-01-01

    Paradoxically, bilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve (CTX) raises the taste discrimination threshold for the free fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), yet the chorda tympani nerve (CT) is unresponsive to lingual application of LA alone. LA may require a background of saliva to activate taste cells, since CTX decreases saliva production through denervation of the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands. To assess the role of saliva, we measured LA taste discrimination thresholds for...

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Essential for the Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Human Saliva

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burghout, Peter; Schraa, Kiki; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Mennens, Svenja; Eleveld, Marc J.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J

    2014-01-01

    Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negativ...

  3. Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: comparisons of bacterial species and strains.

    Malamud, D; Appelbaum, B; Kline, R; Golub, E E

    1981-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of aggregating activity for Streptococcus mutans, however, was different. PMID:7228395

  4. Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: comparisons of bacterial species and strains.

    Malamud, D.; Appelbaum, B; Kline, R.; Golub, E E

    1981-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of agg...

  5. Characteristic differences between saliva-dependent aggregation and adhesion of streptococci.

    Rosan, B.; Malamud, D.; Appelbaum, B; Golub, E.

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Altho...

  6. A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia

    Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author)

  7. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda. Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  8. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

  9. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid

    Han Roelofsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fl uid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

  10. Short Communication: HIV Type 1 Escapes Inactivation by Saliva via Rapid Escape into Oral Epithelial Cells

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Gebhard, Kristin H.; Fasching, Claudine E.; Giacaman, Rodrigo A.; Kappes, John C.; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Saliva contains anti-HIV-1 factors, which show unclear efficacy in thwarting mucosal infection. When incubated in fresh, unfractionated whole saliva, infectious HIV-1 IIIb and BaL (X4- and R5-tropic, respectively) persisted from 4 to at least 30 min in a saliva concentration-dependent manner. In salivary supernatant for up to 6 h, both infectious HIV-1 strains “escaped” into immortalized oral epithelial cells; infectious BaL showed selectively enhanced escape in the presence of saliva. Fluore...

  11. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Holmstrup, Palle

    2014-01-01

    the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification...... levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort....

  12. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    in the submandibular glands was unchanged during cysteamine treatment. Furthermore, the effects of intragastric instillation of exogenous EGF, infusion of saliva without EGF, and infusion of saliva with a high concentration of EGF on the development of cysteamine-induced gastric lesions were...... investigated in rats without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric...

  13. "Sustainable management" of commercial electronic research resources and of its use in bibliometrics

    Regolini, A.; Gentilini, E.; Baligand, M.P.; Jannès-Ober, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the pertinence of Bradford’s law applied to a set of electronic periodical collections in a given discipline. This study applied Bradford’s law using citations rather than articles from a theme, thus ensuring the pertinence of the periodicals cited. Concentrating on citations in articles focuses on the stage following research rather than prior stages. The sources are actually used because they have been cited. The study demonstrates the data cent...

  14. The Space Shuttle Orbiter's advanced display designs and an analysis of its growth capabilities [electronic resource

    Tranthien, Baoquoc.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the growth capability of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS). MEDS is a new "glass cockpit" system, using Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) to replace the existing Orbiter cockpit instruments. The primary goals were to analyze the MEDS growth capabilities and to propose advanced Orbiter displays using the MEDS. Analysis of the Orbiter state vectors resulted in designs for real-time graphical displays for use during the...

  15. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

  16. Comparison of the antioxidant potential in urine, saliva and skin

    Benkhai, Hicham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Free radicals, oxidative stress and their possible consequences for health are becoming increasingly important in modern medicine. Reactive species influence the organism, potentially causing oxidative cell damage. They can be produced by exogenous sources, or be a product of a variety of not only physiological metabolic processes, such as immune response, but also pathological processes. The antioxidant protection system protects the organism from oxidative damage caused by reactions producing an excess of free radicals. The analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP is therefore becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis of individual vitality. Method: The photochemoluminescence method was used to measure the AOP in urine and saliva, spectrometry was employed to measure the β-carotene content of the skin. In addition, it was investigated whether the AOPsaliva correlated with the AOPUurine (uric-acid independent AOP as well as the β-carotene content of the skin. Results: The AOP was significantly higher in urine than in saliva, and both values were significantly positively correlated with each other. However, there was no significant correlation to the β-carotene content of the skin. Discussion: The components of the AOPUurine are accumulated over time (night, whereas AOP measurement in saliva is like a snapshot, which explains why AOPUurine was significantly higher than AOPsaliva, although the two parameters are correlated with each other. β-carotene is a fat-soluble antioxidant, whereas in our study, only water-soluble antioxidants were determined in the urine. This explains why there is no positive correlation between β-carotene of the skin and AOP. Conclusion: For the characterization of the AOP in epidemiological studies, we recommend determining the AOPUurine and parallel to this, the β-carotene content of the skin.

  17. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MS X-NONE AR-SA Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT. The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100 is 43.205g/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S.aureus and fungi spp. (C.albicans and C.neoformans. It was found that saliva has an inhibition activity against Sal.typhi (minimal inhibitory concentration MIC 78.253g/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253g/ml and E.coli (MIC 121.256g/ml.ABSTRAK: Pacat-pacat diberi makan larutan phagostimulatory menerusi membran parafilem. Pacat-pacat yang kekenyangan itu dipaksa memuntahkan larutan tersebut dengan direndam di dalam bekas berisi ais. Aktiviti antigumpal ditentukan menggunakan cerakin masa trombin (TT. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan air liur pacat menyebabkan pertambahan TT sebanyak 100% (IC100 iaitu 43.205g/ml plasma. Aktiviti antimikrob air liur telah diuji dengan pelbagai jenis bakteria (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi dan S.aureus dan pelbagai jenis kulat (C.albicans and C.neoformans. Didapati air liur menghasilkan aktiviti perencatan terhadap Sal.typhi (kepekatan perencat minima (Minimal inhibitory concentration - MIC 78.253g/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253g/ml dan E.coli (MIC 121.256g/ml.

  18. Biochemical analysis of saliva of subjects with periodontal disease

    João Armando BRANCHER

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common diseases of periodontal tissues are inflammatoryprocesses of gum and insertion of teeth normality associated to the local accumulation of teeth biofilm. The objective of this search is evaluating if the periodontal diseases are able to induce qualitative and quantitative alteration in saliva of subjects with periodontal diseases. Forty subjects,divided in 2 groups of 20, being one the control group (CG and the other the test group (TG, based on age and sex were evaluated. There were analyzed the following salivary parameters: capacity of buffer, salivary flow speed, pH, calcium, urea and total proteins concentrations. The medium values and standard directions were: pH: CG 7.43 (± 0.62,TG 8.1 (± 0.49; salivary flow CG 1.21 (± 0.23; TG 1.01 (± 0.75;calcium CG 4.7 (± 1.2, TG 5.4 (± 0.85; urea CG 30.7 (± 9.6, TG 38.6(± 19.9; total proteins CG 355.5 (± 256.7, TG 299.2 (± 132.4.Significant rise in the amount of urea and calcium in the saliva of the periodontal disease individuals was observed whereas the amount of total proteins in the saliva of these individuals diminished, suggesting a change in microbiota. Salivary pH in the individuals of the TG is slightly higher of that of the CG. Salivary flow and capacity of buffer have been considered normal in both groups.

  19. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    Belstrm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H; Holmstrup, P; Kirkby, N; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Twetman, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...... principal component analysis displayed a marked difference in the bacterial community profiles between groups. Presence of manifest caries was associated with a reduced diversity and an altered salivary bacterial community profile. Our data support recent theories that ecological stress-induced changes of...

  20. [HBsAG in feces, urine and saliva].

    Lento, F G; Tandurella, S

    1979-01-01

    After some observations about the tests of the research exposed in the literature, authors illustrate the tests for 142 patients divided into 5 groups: a) patients affected with acute viral hepatitis; b) patients affected with praegressa acute viral hepatitis; c) relatives of patients with acute viral hepatitis; d) volunteers; e) patients affected with chronic uraemia under dialisis periodic treatment. After the testing control, authors, conclude with an hipotesis: a possible epidemic function of faeces, urine saliva, in the passage of the acute viral hepatitis. PMID:488577

  1. Frog saliva-induced toxic keratopathy: a case report.

    Teberik, Kuddusi; Ozer, Pinar A; Ozek, Dilay; Akkaya, Zuleyha Yalniz

    2012-12-01

    Corneal toxicity due to exposure to many chemicals and medications have been described in the literature. We present a case of toxic keratopathy by corneal exposure to salivary secretion of a frog. A 40-year-old male patient reported a sudden splash of frog saliva in his right eye while he was examining it at a close distance. Corneal punctate epitheliopathy and stromal oedema and Descemet folds were the initial clinical findings, which completely recovered on the 2nd control day of topical dexamethasone and ofloxacin treatment. We aimed to show the toxic effects of animal-derived secretions on the cornea as a rare cause of toxic keratopathy. PMID:22791555

  2. Tick saliva-mediated immunomodulation of the vertebrate host

    Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J. F.; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Woldemeskel, M.), s. 19-36 ISBN 978-1-62081-136-8. - (Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior) R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/11/J029; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick infestation * host system modulation * bioactive molecules * tick-borne pathogens * saliva-assisted transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36294

  3. Leachability of denture-base acrylic resins in artificial saliva.

    Koda, T; Tsuchiya, H; Yamauchi, M; Ohtani, S; Takagi, N; Kawano, J

    1990-01-01

    We studied the influence of salivary acidity on leachability of denture-base acrylic resins with etiological interest in denture stomatitis because denture surfaces are frequently exposed to acidic conditions in the oral cavities. Auto-, heat-, and microwave-polymerized resins were immersed in artificial saliva with pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.8 at 37 degrees C, and leachables were pursued quantitatively with time. Methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and benzoic acid leached from all resins. Their concentrations in the saliva were markedly high for auto-polymerized resins, while leachability of heat- and microwave-polymerized resins was so low that quantitative analysis of leachables was impossible. Lower pH showed higher concentrations of methyl methacrylate, although no apparent association was confirmed between salivary acidity and its own leachability. The concentrations of methacrylic acid increased remarkably with an increase in pH, which was probably due to hydrolysis of methyl methacrylate. These results suggest that chemotoxic actions of auto-polymerized resins are potentially ascribable to methyl methacrylate under more acidic conditions and to methacrylic acid under less acidic conditions. PMID:2376289

  4. AZITHROMYCIN DECREASE SALIVA CALPROTECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASES.

    Vladimir E. Panov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calprotectin is a calcium binding heterocomplex protein which appear to have regulatory functions in the inflammatory process. Epithelial cells which expressing calprotectin are more resistant to bacterial invasion . In acute phase inflammatory reactions calprotectin is detectable in elevated levels. The aim of the present study is to detect the calprotectin level in saliva in patients with periodontal disease (chronic and aggressive periodontitis and gingivitis and to follow calprotectin level during azithromycin treatment. Methods and materials: In nine healthy patients without systemic disease and malignancy whole unstimulated saliva was investigated. Salivary calprotectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent using a commercial kit (ELISA Hycult Biotech. Azithromycin treatment was taken as 500 mg (2 x 250 mg tabls. once daily at 10.00 am for 4 consecutive days. Results: At baseline Day levels of calprotectin ranged between 1.45 and 2.97; median 2.19. On Day 5 (first day after azithromycin treatment the salivary calprotectin levels decreased in 6 of the patients. The measured values at Day 10 were more similar to those at Day 5, than those at Day zero. This was confirmed by the values of the average median of calprotectin. Conclusion: We present the first study with the application of antibiotic and measurement the calprotectin levels before, during and after azithromycin intake with no side effects reported. Measuring calprotectin levels could benefit the monitoring of antibiotic treatment efficacy in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis.

  5. Cancer biomarker discovery in saliva by mass spectrometry

    Kiran S. Ambatipudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The quest for biomarkers has been much pursued to aid in the early diagnosis, monitor post-treatment progress and development of targeted therapies. Nevertheless, the translation of biomarker discovery to clinical use has been limited due to multiple reasons such as the long path from discovery to clinical assays, limitation of samples and incoherent pipeline for biomarker development. To date, diagnosis of cancer has been based on biopsies and histological examinations and often becomes difficult to get repeated sampling from patients for confirmation. Consequently, it is important for clinical researchers to look at multiple body fluids and different molecular techniques to identify biomarkers. One such bodyfluid is saliva, which is easily and non-invasively collected and contains thousands of potential protein biomarkers. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry based proteomics hold great promise to identify potential biomarkers. This review presents an overview of the potential use of saliva and mass spectrometry for global discovery and validation of biomarkers.

  6. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  7. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M; Engelholm, S A; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation...

  8. Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects.

    Epstein, J.B.; Pearsall, N N; Truelove, E L

    1980-01-01

    Patients with candidiasis had greater than 400 colony-forming units per ml of saliva, whereas carriers of Candida albicans had less than 400 colony-forming units per ml. Thus, quantitative cultures of saliva may aid in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

  9. Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent

    A Abarghooyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

  10. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * saliva ry proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  11. Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

  12. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR

    Cassandra L. Krone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  13. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program

  14. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION / A ontogenia da secreo de saliva em lactentes e a proteo pr-epitelial do esfago

    Edgard Ferro, COLLARES; Maria Inez Machado, FERNANDES.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto Vrios estudos tm indicado que a esofagite de refluxo rara em lactentes no primeiro ano de vida a despeito da elevada ocorrncia de regurgitao nesta fase da vida. H evidncias da importncia da saliva para a proteo pr-epitelial da mucosa esofgica. Resultados Um estudo longitudina [...] l conduzido em lactentes saudveis indicou que a capacidade estimulada da secreo de saliva (volume de saliva/kg de peso) foi significativamente elevada no primeiro ano de vida comparada com crianas com mais idade e adultos jovens. Este padro tambm foi observado nas primeiras semanas de vida de recm-nascidos com baixo peso e persistiu em lactentes com desnutrio proteico-calrica grave (marasmo) Concluso A grande habilidade para secretar saliva uma importante condio fisiolgica que pode proteger o lactente da agresso cido/pptica do esfago durante os primeiros estgios do seu desenvolvimento. Abstract in english Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study [...] conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight) was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus). Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  15. Clinical relevance of therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin and gentamicin in the saliva of children.

    Berkovitch, M; Bistritzer, T; Aladjem, M; Burtin, P; Dagan, T; Chen-Levi, Z; Freedom, R; Koren, G

    1998-06-01

    Digoxin and gentamicin are widely used in pediatric medicine, and therapeutic monitoring is mandatory because of their narrow margin of safety and wide interpatient and intrapatient pharmacokinetic variabilities. Saliva sampling may be of potential interest, especially in children, in whom blood sampling is often difficult. In 11 children treated with digoxin for various cardiac conditions, and in 24 children treated with gentamicin (14 patients were administered gentamicin three times a day, and 10 once-daily), drugs levels were measured in plasma and saliva. There was no correlation between plasma total or free digoxin concentrations and saliva levels, precluding the clinical use of the saliva test for digoxin. No correlation was found between plasma gentamicin concentrations and saliva levels when the drug was administered three times a day; however, good correlation was found when the drug was administered once-daily (r2 = 0.89, p serum concentrations to guide dosage adjustments in patients administered the drug once-daily. PMID:9631920

  16. Short communication: HIV type 1 escapes inactivation by saliva via rapid escape into oral epithelial cells.

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Kappes, John C; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2012-12-01

    Saliva contains anti-HIV-1 factors, which show unclear efficacy in thwarting mucosal infection. When incubated in fresh, unfractionated whole saliva, infectious HIV-1 IIIb and BaL (X4- and R5-tropic, respectively) persisted from 4 to at least 30 min in a saliva concentration-dependent manner. In salivary supernatant for up to 6 h, both infectious HIV-1 strains "escaped" into immortalized oral epithelial cells; infectious BaL showed selectively enhanced escape in the presence of saliva. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virus-like particles entered oral epithelial cells within minutes of exposure. Using a previously unrecognized mechanism, therefore, strains of HIV-1 escape inactivation by saliva via rapid uptake into oral epithelial cells. PMID:22077822

  17. Characteristic differences between saliva-dependent aggregation and adhesion of streptococci.

    Rosan, B; Malamud, D; Appelbaum, B; Golub, E

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Although heating saliva significantly reduces bacterial aggregation, it has little or no effect on adherence. A comparison of aggregation and adhesion with serial dilutions of saliva demonstrated that adhesion could still be detected at 100 to 500-fold-lower concentrations of salivary protein that bacterial aggregation. These findings support the concept that aggregation and adherence involve two distinct mechanisms of microbial clearance in the oral cavity. PMID:6274804

  18. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  19. Can Saliva Proteins Be Used to Predict the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction among High-Risk Patients?

    Rahim, Mohd Aizat Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2015-01-01

    Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic flui...

  20. Determination of morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in saliva of substance-abuse patients using HPLC/MS methods

    Milovanović Vesna; Ćirić Biljana; Milenković Jasna; Kilibarda Vesna; Ćurčić Marijana; Vučinić Slavica; Antonijević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Saliva represents an alternative specimen for substances abuse determination in toxicology. Hence, the aim of this study was to optimize a method for saliva specimen preparation for heroin metabolites, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-mam), and codeine determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and to apply this method on saliva samples taken from the patients. Methods. Saliva specimen was prepared using liqiud/liquid extraction of morphine, co...

  1. Saliva Versus Plasma Bioequivalence of Rusovastatin in Humans: Validation of Class III Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2015-01-01

    Bioequivalence of rusovastatin in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 72 h after oral administration of rusovastatin 40 mg to 12 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental an...

  2. ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?

    Makri, S; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other resources. Although we...

  3. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy

    Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field of respiratory allergy. PMID:26999364

  4. Corrosion of gold alloys and titanium in artificial saliva

    Two types of gold alloys and one type of pure titanium have been submitted to corrosion in artificial saliva for periods of up to about 2 months. The release of copper, gold and silver from the gold alloys as well as titanium from the titanium matrix was measured with nuclear tracer technique. The physical/chemical state of the corrosion products of gold alloys referring to the ionic state or presence in particulate form has been examined retaining the particulate matter on a glass filter. Copper was observed to be mainly present in the ionic state. Considerable amounts of gold were observed to be retained on the glass filter explained by the presence of gold in particulate form or as a compentent of a dispersed collloidal phase. The estimation of the release of titanium was registered by the tracer nuclide 46Sc assuming particulate matter to be deteriorated from the titanium surface. (author)

  5. mediante LC-MS en plasma y saliva.

    A. de Castro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Fluoxetina es uno de los representantes de los Inhibidores Selectivos de la Recaptación de Serotonina (ISRS, fármacos de primera elección en la terapia antidepresiva moderna. A pesar de la mayor seguridad con respecto a los antidepresivos clásicos, muchos autores defienden la necesidad de monitorizar sus niveles plasmáticos en determinadas circunstancias, dado la gran variabilidad interindividual en la de sus efectos. Se ha desarrollado un método rápido y sensible aplicando la tecnología LCMS que permite la determinación de Fluoxetina y su principal metabolito activo Norfluoxetina, tanto en plasma como en saliva, en 10 minutos, tras llevar a cabo una sencilla extracción líquido-líquido

  6. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  7. Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment

    Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

    of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Niels Rathlev, MD; Reda Almomen, MD; Ashley Deutsch, MD; Howard Smithline, MD; Haiping Li, MD; Paul Visintainer, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED) use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1) opioid use di...

  9. Correlations between bacterial levels in autologous subgingival plaque and saliva of adult Sudanese.

    Darout, Ismail A; Albandar, Jasim M; Skaug, Nils

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of oral bacteria and their correlations in paired samples of saliva and subgingival plaque in a population of adult Sudanese. Whole saliva and pooled subgingival plaque samples from six probing sites of one tooth in each jaw were obtained from 56 Sudanese adults (mean age 35.2+/-8.9 years). Levels of 24 oral bacteria in the autologous saliva and pooled plaque sample of each subject were assessed by DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. There were significantly ( P or =10(5) bacterial cells of Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus salivarius, and Leptotrichia buccalis and significantly ( P or =10(6) bacterial cells were significantly higher for Selenomonas sputigena, S. anginosus, Streptococcus sanguis, and S. salivarius and significantly lower for Porphyromonas gingivalis in saliva than in subgingival plaque ( PStreptococcus mitis demonstrated significant ( P< or =0.05) positive correlations between their levels in plaque and saliva. This study indicates that the levels of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, S. sputigena, S. sanguis, and S. mitis correlate significantly in saliva and subgingival plaque and that higher accuracy of detection and assessment of the levels of these bacteria in the oral cavity may be achieved by concurrent sampling of saliva and subgingival plaque. PMID:12483235

  10. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  11. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  12. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  13. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  14. Enhanced saliva-mediated bacterial aggregation and decreased bacterial adhesion in caries-resistant versus caries-susceptible individuals.

    Rosan, B; Appelbaum, B; Golub, E; Malamud, D; Mandel, I D

    1982-01-01

    A study of saliva-mediated aggregation and adhesion has been carried out in a group of caries-resistant (CR) and caries-susceptible (CS) individuals. The submandibular saliva of the CS group had a much greater potency, as determined by dilution, in promoting adherence to hydroxyapatite beads than did the saliva of CR group. In contrast, the CR group demonstrated a twofold enhancement of saliva-mediated aggregation compared with the CS group. These observations support the hypothesis that saliva-mediated aggregation and adherence are important factors in caries resistance. PMID:7152662

  15. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

  16. Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages

    Shoji Takahashi; Shigeru Watanabe; Takashi Ogihara; Koji Watanabe; Kun Xuan; Xiaojing Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2), a sports drink (pH 3.5), and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8). Distille...

  17. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Nemoda Zsofia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses.

  18. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the...... experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application......-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p...

  19. Supplementation of xylitol-containing chewing gum with probiotics: a double blind, randomised pilot study focusing on saliva flow and saliva properties.

    Gueimonde, Laura; Vesterlund, Satu; García-Pola, María J; Gueimonde, Miguel; Söderling, Eva; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily chewing, for 12 weeks, of 2 different probiotic gums compared with placebo on saliva flow rate, saliva IgA levels and saliva pH. The intervention study included 54 adult volunteers with hyposalivation in a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled design with three parallel groups. Volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 different groups: subjects in group A (n = 19) were given placebo chewing gum, group B (n = 17) received Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (ATCC 27536) and group C (n = 18) received Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (ATCC 53103), Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583) and Bifidobacterium longum 2C (DSM 14579) gums, during 3 months. Two volunteers from group B left the study for personal reasons leaving 19, 15 and 18 volunteers, respectively, for analyses. Clinical examinations, personal interviews, sialometries and saliva sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. No statistically significant differences were found between probiotic and placebo groups for any of the parameters analysed. No side effects of probiotic or placebo chewing gums were observed. Chewing gum, with and without probiotics, had a positive impact on salivary flow rate and saliva pH and IgA levels. PMID:26913493

  20. The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation

    Jacobsen, Stine; Adler, Ditte Marie Top; Bundgaard, Louise; Srensen, Mette Aamand; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emke

    2014-01-01

    analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin......, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be......The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were...

  1. Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    Lajer, Christel; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Specht, Lena; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Jensdottir, Thorbjrg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. PURPOSE: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (Xerodent......, Xerodent stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO(2) and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored...... most likely due to the limited drop in pH resulting in saliva that was still supersaturated with respect to FAp. CONCLUSION: Both Xerodent with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable....

  2. Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: simultaneous determination of free and bound cells.

    Golub, E E; Thaler, M; Davis, C; Malamud, D

    1979-01-01

    Two new assays for saliva-mediated aggregation of oral bacteria have been developed, based on the use of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells. One assay separates free cells from aggregated cells by centrifugation through sucrose, whereas the other utilizes membrane filters (8 micrometers, Nuclepore) to effect the separation. Comparison of these assays with the turbidity method reveals that they are faster (X20 to 40) and require 10 times less saliva and bacteria. The aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis M5, as determined with these assays, is complete in 5 min and is dose dependent on added cells and saliva. The reaction exhibits a temperature optimum of 42 degrees C with no reaction at 0 degrees C. If the pH is reduced to below 5, saliva-dependent aggregation is inhibited. The salivary factor(s) are heat labile, losing 100% of their activity after 100 degrees C, 10 min or 70 degrees C, 30 min. PMID:43286

  3. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN......: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  4. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Michelle Peneluppi Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p≤0.05.

  5. Welfare assessment in the Indian rhino and Asian elephant through cortisol measurement in saliva

    Menargues Marcilla, María Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Navarrete, José María; López González, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    At Estación Biológica Terra Natura (University of Alicante, Spain), we are developing a stress assessment program in the Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) at Terra Natura’s Theme Park. We are attempting to test the effect of environmental enrichment techniques applied in their enclosures, through cortisol measurement in saliva. We obtain the saliva daily and the cortisol level is analysed using RIA (Radio Immuno Assay techniques), at the endocrinology...

  6. Effect of Mobile Phone Usage Time on Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati; Saeedeh Salimi; Ali Vaziry-Rabiee; Mohammad Noraeei

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phone is very popular, causing concern about the effect it has on people's health. Parotid salivary glands are in close contact to cell phone while talking with the phone and the possibility of being affected by them. Limited studies have evaluated the effect of cell phone use on the secretions of these glands; so this study was designed to investigate the effects of duration of mobile phone use on the total antioxidant capacity of saliva.Unstimulated saliva from 105 volunteer...

  7. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden; Livia Alexandra Gugoaşă; Bogdan Calenic; Juliette Legler

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obta...

  8. A comparative study of saliva and serum paracetamol levels using a simple spectrophotometric method.

    Adithan, C.; Thangam, J

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between saliva and serum paracetamol levels was investigated in ten healthy male volunteers. The salivary and serum paracetamol levels showed significant correlation with each other. The salivary and serum paracetamol concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary and serum paracetamol half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of paracetamol concentration in saliva and serum failed to show significant correla...

  9. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lacta...

  10. Zika virus infection spread through saliva – a truth or myth?

    Walter Luiz SIQUEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

  11. Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings

    F. Agha Hosseini; P. Begianian Vaziri

    2004-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and ...

  12. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  13. Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Amela Dervisevic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28 in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19, moderate disease activity (n=19 and high disease activity (n=25. NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3 to nitrite (NO-2 was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3 was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05. We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05. Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

  14. The corrosion of dental amalgam in artificial salivas: an electrochemical impedance study

    Brett, Christopher M. A.; Trandafir, Florin

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical impedance study of the corrosion of Tytin dental amalgam was carried out in electrolytes similar to artificial saliva with or without lactic acid, and in standard inorganic artificial saliva with higher ionic concentration. Spectra were recorded in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen to show the importance of the formation of oxide film and the adsorption of the organic component, as well as the exposed surface microstructure. The data, supported by open circuit po...

  15. Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children

    Cvetković Andrijana; Vulović Marko; Ivanović Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method...

  16. Novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes in human saliva.

    Ahmed, Asif; Rushworth, Jo V; Wright, John D; Millner, Paul A

    2013-12-17

    Streptococcus pyogenes , also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), is a Gram positive human pathogen responsible for invasive and noninvasive human infections with a high incidence rate. Traditional detection methods involve cell culture and PCR, which are limited by long processing times or the need for high cost equipment. Impedance-based electrochemical immunosensors provide an alternative by which precise and rapid quantitative detection of the organism can help with rapid clinical decisions. To bring a biosensor for point-of-care applications to market, strict optimization of each level of construction and operation is required. In this paper, commercial screen-printed gold electrodes have been used to construct polytyramine (Ptyr)-based immunosensors. Biotin tagged whole antibodies against S. pyogenes were conjugated to Ptyr amine group via biotin-NeutrAvidin coupling. Sensors were optimized at each level of construction, particularly for Ptyr electrodeposition and antibody concentration, to optimize signal and specificity. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and on-sensor analysis (HRP conjugated enhanced chemiluminescence-based semiquantitative method) to detect Ptyr surface amine and bound antibody were performed as supporting techniques. Cumulative and single shot incubations had shown detection range of 100 to 10(5) cells per 10 ?L and 100 to 10(4) cells per 10 ?L of bacteria in PBS, respectively. Sensors were also able to specifically detect S. pyogenes in 50% (v/v) human saliva, with good selectivity and low cross-reactivity. PMID:24256123

  17. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using 3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

  18. Effects of Iron on the Pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol in Saliva

    R`afat Mahmoud Nejem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol has been reported to chelate with iron. It was found that no in vitro reaction between ferrous ion and paracetamol. Other studies found that there is an aerobic (in the gastrointestinal tract oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion caused in iron-paracetamol in vivo reactions. The objective of this study was to determine if iron interacts with paracetamol and reduces paracetamol absorption. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction of paracetamol and ferrous ion. Paracetamol (1.0 g was co-ignested alone or with (300 mg ferrous sulphate by ten healthy male volunteers, using saliva drug levels as a parameter. Concomitant administration of ferrous sulphate and paracetamol, decreased AUC8 from 42.88±3.8-34.25±2.8 μg h mL-1 (p = 0.04 and Cmax from 18.75±1.9 to 15.9±1.7 μg mL-1 (p = 0.11, while no change in tmax (p = 0.5 was originated. A significant difference was found in the paracetamol pharmacokinetic parameter oral clearance (Cl/F (p = 0.02 and slightly increased in volume of distribution (Vd/F (p = 0.10. Co-administration of iron and paracetamol results in decreased paracetamol absorption due to an interaction between iron and paracetamol.

  19. Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

    Antequera Desiree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of β amyloid (Aβ using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva Aβ42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of Aβ42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva Aβ40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva Aβ42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva Aβ42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva for its use in forensic identification

    Parul Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has long been known for its diagnostic value in several diseases. It also has a potential to be used in forensic science. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from saliva with those extracted from blood in order to assess the feasibility of extracting sufficient DNA from saliva for its possible use in forensic identification. Materials and Methods: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers and DNA extraction was performed through Phenol Chloroform technique. The quantity and quality of isolated DNA was analyzed by spectrophotometery and the samples were then used to amplify short tandem repeat (STR F13 using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mean quantity of DNA obtained in saliva was 48.4 8.2 ?g/ml and in blood was 142.5 45.9 ?g/ml. Purity of DNA obtained as assessed by the ratio of optical density 260/280, was found to be optimal in 45% salivary samples while remaining showed minor contamination. Despite this positive F13 STR amplification was achieved in 75% of salivary DNA samples. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that saliva may prove to be a useful source of DNA for forensic purpose.

  1. Growth of Candida albicans in human saliva is supported by low-molecular-mass compounds.

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; van't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-12-01

    Saliva plays a key role in the maintenance of a stable oral microflora. It contains antimicrobial compounds but also functions as a substrate for growth of bacteria under conditions of low external nutrient supply. Besides bacteria, yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, commonly inhabit the oral cavity. Under immunocompromised conditions, instantaneous outgrowth of this yeast occurs in oral carriers of C. albicans, suggesting that this yeast is able to survive in the oral cavity with saliva as sole source of growth substrate. The aim of the present study was to identify the salivary constituents that are used by C. albicans for growth and survival in saliva. In addition, we have explored the effect of growth in saliva on the susceptibility of C. albicans to histatin 5, a salivary antifungal peptide. It was found that C. albicans was able to grow in human saliva without addition of glucose, and in the stationary phase could survive for more than 400 h. Candida albicans grown in saliva was more than 10 times less susceptible for salivary histatin 5 than C. albicans cultured in Sabouraud medium. PMID:26392045

  2. Pengaruh Kontaminsi Saliva terhadap Kekuatan Tarik antara Resin Komposit dengan Jaringan Dentin

    Andi Soufyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite resin are restorative materials having color similar to teeth and have been widely used in dentistry. The successful application of composite resin influences the duration of the restoration in the oral cavity. The aim of this research is to describe the influence of artificial saliva contamination and the application of re-conditioning on tensile bond strength of composite resin to dentin. In the control group, the dentin were etched, bonding were applied and composite resin were restored on the dentin. In the group with artificial saliva contamination without re-conditioning, the dentin were etched, bonding were applied and then contaminated with artificial saliva, dried and then restired with composite resin. While the group with artificial saliva contamination with re-conditioning, the dentin were etched, bonding were applied and contaminated with artificial saliva, and then etched and applied bonding agent and restored composite resin.Bond strength test used “Universal testing machine, AG 5000. The results showed that highest value of tensile bond strength of composite resin to dentin was at the control group. It can be concluded that artificial saliva contamination decreased tensile bond strength while  re-conditioning application increased it.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.69dentin

  3. Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings

    F. Agha Hosseini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 ?g/ml before and 0.16404 ?g/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677, sex, number of fillings (P=0.055, number of surface of filling (P=0.059 and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072, with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036.Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

  4. Saliva Characteristics, Diet and Carioreceptivity in Dental Students

    Ioana Chifor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The use of sugar by dental plaque microorganisms leads to acid formation from the bacteria metabolism, which determines a decrease of pH onto teeth surfaces. The value of the critical pH is 5.2-5.5. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of patients to change their diet towards caries prevention after acknowledging the values of saliva parameters (pH, buffer capacity.Material and methods. A group of 52 subjects were clinically examined according to the International Caries Assessment and Detection System protocol. They were required to complete a diet questionnaire and salivary tests were made for the oral mucosa hydration level, pH, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate at rest and upon stimulation. 4 pre-calibrated 6th year students and 2 dentists performed the tests and the ICDAS examination. One week after the tests, the subjects were asked to complete the diet questionnaire again. The studied group consisted of students aged between 23-26 th years, randomly selected among 6 year students of the Faculty of Dentistry from Cluj- Napoca.Results and Discussion. The mean DMF-S index was 18.39. Most of the patients (65% had a DMF-S index between 9 and 21. Just 2.5% had an index of 3, which was the lowest value recorded. 5% of the patients had a DMFS of 35, which was the maximal value recorded. The distribution of DMF-S was normal. 50% of the patients had no active caries. Even though most subjects (19.23% had a pH within the normal interval, most of them were at the bottom value of the interval (6.8. Most subjects had a pH of 6.4, which is moderately acid. The mean pH was 6.7, therefore, a moderately acid one. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DMFS and pH was 0.255.A mild negative correlation (-0.275 was found between the cariogenic food and buffer capacity. A week later we noticed a statistically significant decrease of cariogenic foods and drinks in students with acid pH and with low buffer capacity.Conclusions. A regular intake of cakes, bonbons and chocolate was reported by subjects who had a high DMF-S value and a low saliva buffer capacity. Only after the patients were aware of their caries risk, did they change their diet towards a non- cariogenic one, even though they had had the theoretical knowledge regarding caries prevention for at least 3 years. We conclude that the use of the chair-side salivary test should be highly recommended for cario-receptive patients.

  5. Metabolomics analysis of saliva from patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome.

    Kageyama, G; Saegusa, J; Irino, Y; Tanaka, S; Tsuda, K; Takahashi, S; Sendo, S; Morinobu, A

    2015-11-01

    The recent development of salivary proteomics has led to the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosing patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome (pSS). Here we sought to identify differentially produced salivary metabolites from pSS patients and healthy controls (HCs) that might be used to characterize this disease. We obtained salivary samples from 12 female pSS patients (mean age 44.2 13.01) and 21 age-matched female HCs. The metabolite profiles of saliva were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total metabolite levels in each of the samples were calculated and compared across the study participants. A total of 88 metabolites were detected across the study samples, 41 of which were observed at reduced levels in the samples from pSS patients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a loss in salivary metabolite diversity in the pSS patient samples compared to the HC samples. The reduced presence of glycine, tyrosine, uric acid and fucose, which may reflect salivary gland destruction due to chronic sialoadenitis, contributed to the loss of diversity. Comparative PCA of the pSS patients revealed the presence of two subpopulations based on their metabolite profiles, and these two subpopulations showed a significant difference in the prevalence of major salivary glanditis (P = 0.014). In this study, we found that the salivary metabolite profile of pSS patients was less diverse than that of HCs and that the metabolite profiles in pSS patients were affected by the presence of major salivary glanditis. PMID:26201380

  6. The Microbial Flora of Saliva and Faeces in Individuals with Selective IgA Deficiency and Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Norhagen, G.; Engström, P. -E.; Hammarström, L.; Smith, C.I.E.; Nord, C E

    2011-01-01

    The microflora was determined in saliva and faecal samples from 36 individuals with selective IgA deficiency and 28 individuals with common variable immunodeficiency. Most microbial species in both saliva and faeces in individuals with selective IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency remained unchanged compared to healthy normal individuals. In saliva statistically significant increased numbers of Actinomyces species and decreased numbers of Staphylococcus epidermidis were noted ...

  7. Methanol levels in saliva--a non-invasive parameter that may be useful in detection of alcohol intoxication.

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Degner, Detlef; Kornhuber, Johannes; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive screening parameters proving alcohol intoxication are necessary especially in forensic contexts. Results obtained by common measurement methods like the ethanol breath analyzer may be falsified by several parameters like hypoventilation. Therefore, we undertook a pilot study investigating the usefulness and applicability of methanol levels measured in saliva. Our results show that methanol levels in saliva are closely linked to ethanol levels in saliva (r = 0.971, P breath analyzer. PMID:20093712

  8. Effect of Prophylactic Valacyclovir on the Presence of Human Herpesvirus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals after Dental Treatment

    MILLER, Craig S.; Avdiushko, Sergei A.; Kryscio, Richard J,; DANAHER, Robert J.; Jacob, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Human herpesviruses (HHVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that intermittently reactivate from latency. Transmission is believed to be facilitated by their frequent appearance in saliva. This study sought to understand the factors that influence the appearance of these viruses in saliva by examining the prevalence, pattern, and quantity of all eight HHVs in saliva of immunocompetent adults with a history of recurrent oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections following dental treatment and antiviral...

  9. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  10. A Qualitative Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics in Saliva: Implications on Clinical Pharmacokinetic Monitoring in Humans.

    Kiang, Tony K L; Ensom, Mary H H

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a systematic search to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the utility of saliva for clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring (CPM) of antibiotics. Although the majority of identified studies lacked sufficient pharmacokinetic data needed to assign an appropriate suitability classification, most aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, penicillins/cephalosporins, and tetracyclines are likely not suitable for CPM in saliva. No clear pattern of correlation was observed between physiochemical properties that favor drug distribution into saliva and the likelihood of the antibiotic being classified as suitable for CPM in saliva (and vice versa). Insufficient data were available to determine if pathophysiological conditions affected salivary distribution of antibiotics. Additional confirmatory data are required for drugs (especially in patients) that are deemed likely suitable for CPM in saliva because only a few studies were available and many focused only on healthy subjects. All studies identified had relatively small sample sizes and exhibited large variability. Very few studies reported salivary collection parameters (e.g., salivary flow, pH) that could potentially have some impact on drug distribution into saliva. The available data are heavily weighted on healthy subjects, and insufficient data were available to determine if pathophysiology had effects on saliva drug distribution. Some studies also lacked assay sensitivity for detecting antibiotics in saliva. Overall, this review can be useful to clinicians who desire an overview on the suitability of saliva for conducting CPM of specific antibiotics, or for researchers who wish to fill the identified knowledge gaps to move the science of salivary CPM further. PMID:26346776

  11. A comparison of the effects of added saliva, alpha-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids

    Engelen, L; Wijk, R.A., de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A. M.; Van Der Bilt, A.; Weenen, H

    2003-01-01

    The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip¿tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject received his/her own saliva. Sixteen subjects from a trained panel assessed 17 flavour and texture attributes of soy- and milk-based custard desserts. Immediately prior to administration, two different v...

  12. Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

  13. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy

    Fernanda Borowsky da Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-nave patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The subjects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3% subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6% of 19 paucibacillary (PB patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

  15. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-15

    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. PMID:26725934

  16. A targeted proteomic strategy for the measurement of oral cancer candidate biomarkers in human saliva.

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Bollinger, James G; Rivera, César; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Paes Leme, Adriana F; MacCoss, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), are the sixth most common malignancy in the world and are characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Saliva is oral fluid with intimate contact with OSCC. Besides non-invasive, simple, and rapid to collect, saliva is a potential source of biomarkers. In this study, we build an SRM assay that targets fourteen OSCC candidate biomarker proteins, which were evaluated in a set of clinically-derived saliva samples. Using Skyline software package, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher abundance of the C1R, LCN2, SLPI, FAM49B, TAGLN2, CFB, C3, C4B, LRG1, SERPINA1 candidate biomarkers in the saliva of OSCC patients. Furthermore, our study also demonstrated that CFB, C3, C4B, SERPINA1 and LRG1 are associated with the risk of developing OSCC. Overall, this study successfully used targeted proteomics to measure in saliva a panel of biomarker candidates for OSCC. PMID:26552850

  17. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante SOUZA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38 were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  18. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    To compare the frequency of E. faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure in the same patient. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry Department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-37 degree C for 48 hrs. E. faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, gramstain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E. faecalis in saliva was 34% and in root canal it was 58%. Frequency between the presence of E. faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of E. faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  19. Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress

    Kršljak Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

  20. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    To compare the frequency of E.faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure Study. Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Duration of this study was one year. Patients and Method: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-370 C for 48 hours. E.faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E.faecalis in saliva was 34% and 58% in root canal samples. Frequency of the presence of E.faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p=0.000). Conclusion: The presence of E.faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  1. XTT assay of ex vivo saliva biofilms to test antimicrobial influences

    Ina Koban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many dental diseases are attributable to biofilms. The screening of antimicrobial substances, in particular, requires a high sample throughput and a realistic model, the evaluation must be as quick and as simple as possible. For this purpose, a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-[(phenylamino-carbony]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene-sulfonic acid hydrate converted by saliva biofilms is recommended. Cleavage of XTT by dehydrogenase enzymes of metabolically active cells in biofilms yields a highly colored formazan product which is measured photometrically. Materials and method: The suitability of the XTT assay for detecting the vitality of ex vivo saliva biofilms was tested to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine and ozone versus saliva biofilms grown on titanium discs. Results: The XTT method lends itself to testing the vitality of microorganisms in saliva biofilms. The sensitivity of the arrays requires a specific minimum number of pathogens, this number being different for planktonic bacteria and those occurring in biofilms. The antibacterial effect after treatment with chlorhexidine or ozone was measured by XTT conversion that was significantly reduced. The antimicrobial efficacy of 60 s 0.5% and 0.1% chlorhexidine treatment was equal and comparable with 60 s ozone treatment. Conclusion: The XTT assay is a suitable method to determine the vitality in saliva biofilms, permitting assessment of the efficacy of antimicrobial substances. Its quick and easy applicability renders it especially suitable for screening.

  2. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoaşă, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

  3. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  4. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses.

    Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada

    2007-04-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field. PMID:17111091

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva

    John Murren

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given.

  6. Collection and determination of nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Al-Shehri, S; Henman, M; Charles, B G; Cowley, D; Shaw, P N; Liley, H; Tomarchio, A; Punyadeera, C; Duley, J A

    2013-07-15

    Saliva contains a number of biochemical components which may be useful for diagnosis/monitoring of metabolic disorders, and as markers of cancer or heart disease. Saliva collection is attractive as a non-invasive sampling method for infants and elderly patients. We present a method suitable for saliva collection from neonates. We have applied this technique for the determination of salivary nucleotide metabolites. Saliva was collected from 10 healthy neonates using washed cotton swabs, and directly from 10 adults. Two methods for saliva extraction from oral swabs were evaluated. The analytes were then separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limits of detection for 14 purine/pyrimidine metabolites were variable, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0?M. Recovery of hydrophobic purine/pyrimidine metabolites from cotton tips was consistently high using water/acetonitrile extraction (92.7-111%) compared with water extraction alone. The concentrations of these metabolites were significantly higher in neonatal saliva than in adults. Preliminary ranges for nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva are reported. Hypoxanthine and xanthine were grossly raised in neonates (49.325.4; 30.919.5?M respectively) compared to adults (4.33.3; 4.64.5?M); nucleosides were also markedly raised in neonates. This study focuses on three essential details: contamination of oral swabs during manufacturing and how to overcome this; weighing swabs to accurately measure small saliva volumes; and methods for extracting saliva metabolites of interest from cotton swabs. A method is described for determining nucleotide metabolites using HPLC with photodiode array or MS/MS. The advantages of utilising saliva are highlighted. Nucleotide metabolites were not simply in equilibrium with plasma, but may be actively secreted into saliva, and this process is more active in neonates than adults. PMID:23792366

  7. Species identification of blood and saliva stains by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibody.

    Fletcher, S M; Dolton, P; Harris-Smith, P W

    1984-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method for the identification of human blood and saliva stains is reported. The method uses a monoclonal antibody which reacts with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in extracts of blood and saliva stains up to 16 months old. Semen stain extracts gave weak or negative results. For routine screening purposes dilutions of 1:1000 for bloodstain extracts and 1:100 for saliva stain extracts would be suitable. Of 32 other animal species tested, only chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and eel cross-reacted significantly, and the presence of the last three was clearly indicated by appropriate controls. The monoclonal antibody gave poor results in the crossover and gel diffusion techniques. PMID:6699607

  8. Saliva as an analytical matrix: state of the art and application for biomonitoring.

    Caporossi, Lidia; Santoro, Alessia; Papaleo, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Analytical tests to measure chemicals in saliva can be employed for numerous analytes, endogenous compounds or xenobiotics. The objective was to determine which chemicals can be analysed with this matrix, which analytical methods are applicable, and what application is possible for biomonitoring. We reviewed the literature using three databases, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, collecting articles on different kinds of analysis in saliva. Studies were principally about molecules of clinical interest, xenobiotics, especially drugs of abuse, and chemicals used at workplaces; some substances show no relevant correlation with exposure data while others seems to be of particular interest for systematic use for biomonitoring. Currently, saliva is used far less than other biological fluids but its use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals might open up new areas for research and would certainly simplify the collection of biological samples. PMID:20450335

  9. The sensitivity and specificity of red-starch paper for the detection of saliva.

    Martin, N C; Clayson, N J; Scrimger, D G

    2006-01-01

    The detection of saliva in forensic casework is extremely important in many types of cases. This study describes a relatively sensitive method, based on a red dye bound to starch, for the detection of amylase. The sensitivity and specificity of the method has been examined by testing over 50 household products, various body fluids and five laboratory chemicals. This study demonstrated for the first time that positive results can be obtained from certain washing powders as well as other household products. As well as detecting amylase in saliva, positive Red-Starch results were obtained from faeces and urine. The method was found to be suitable for the detection of mixtures of saliva and semen in conjunction with the Brentamine test for the detection of acid phosphatase. PMID:17002212

  10. Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA

    In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

  11. Secretion of saliva by the rabbit mandibular gland in vitro: the role of anions

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Hunter, M; Novak, I; Thompson, C H; Young, J A

    1981-01-01

    yet allow us to distinguish between an electroneutral Na+-Cl- cotransport model or a double countertransport (Na+-H+ plus Cl--HCO-3) model as the basis of primary salivary secretion, or to propose any more suitable alternative model. With respect to ductal modification of the primary saliva, HCO-3...... omission inhibits ductal Na+ absorption (i.e. salivary Na+ concentration rises). This inhibition is probably related to an effect of pH on the postulated Na+-H+ exchanges mechanism in the luminal duct membrane since it can also be induced by lowering perfusate pH, and reversed by substitution of perfusate...... HCO-3 with acetate (which enters saliva) but not HEPES (which does not enter the saliva). Substitution of perfusate Cl- with other anions seems not to inhibit ductal Na+ and K+ transport markedly....

  12. Effect of ruminations on the saliva cortisol response to a social stressor.

    Young, E A; Nolen-Hoeksema, S

    2001-04-01

    Depression is generally precipitated by stressful life events, which suggests that there could be differences in response to stress in individuals at risk for depression compared to normal subjects. To test this hypothesis, we compared individuals who scored high on ruminative coping, a risk factor for depression, to individuals low on ruminative coping. We used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a mock job interview in front of a panel of judges, and collected saliva cortisol to assess neuroendocrine response. While we observed a clear effect of the stressor on saliva cortisol secretion, we observed no differences in this response between high and low ruminators. However, the task itself failed to cause a significant increase in rumination in either group, suggesting the task itself may not be optimal for testing the hypothesis. Finally, a modified version of the TSST in which the subjects were allowed a longer preparatory period resulted in a markedly diminished saliva cortisol response to the TSST. PMID:11166494

  13. Ultra-deep and quantitative saliva proteome reveals dynamics of the oral microbiome

    Grassl, Niklas; Kulak, Nils Alexander; Pichler, Garwin; Geyer, Philipp Emanuel; Jung, Jette; Schubert, Sören; Sinitcyn, Pavel; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    , disruptions in saliva secretion and changes in the oral microbiome contribute to conditions such as tooth decay and respiratory tract infections. Here we set out to quantitatively map the saliva proteome in great depth with a rapid and in-depth mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflow. METHODS: We used...... next-generation sequencing data from the Human Microbiome Project as well as a comparison to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on microbial cultures revealed strong agreement. The oral microbiome differs between individuals and changes drastically upon eating and tooth brushing. CONCLUSION: Rapid shotgun and...... robust technology can now simultaneously characterize the human and microbiome contributions to the proteome of a body fluid and is therefore a valuable complement to genomic studies. This opens new frontiers for the study of host-pathogen interactions and clinical saliva diagnostics....

  14. La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH

    Ricardo Medina Madrid

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

  15. Influence of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of adhesives on enamel

    Tatiana Feres Assad-Loss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength of 3 adhesive systems (Single Bond, TransbondTM MIP and TransbondTM XT applied on bovine enamel under saliva contamination condition. METHOD: One hundred and twenty enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 20 according to the adhesive system used (TransbondTM XT, TransbondTM MIP and Single Bond with or without saliva contamination. For each adhesive system, there were two groups defined as no contamination group (NC: 37% H3PO4 conditioning for 30 seconds and two layers of adhesive systems; saliva contamination group (SC: After the first adhesive layer application, the examined areas were contaminated with saliva. Samples were mounted appropriately for testing and stored in deionized water at 37 ºC for 7 days. Samples were then submitted to shear bond strength trials at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI was evaluated under stereomicroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to compare mean values (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Groups XT (NC = 26.29 ± 7.23; MIP (NC = 24.47 ± 7.52 and SB (NC = 32.36 ± 4.14 XT (SC = 19.59 ± 6.76; MIP (SC = 18.08 ± 6.39 and SB (SC = 18.18 ± 7.03 MPa. ARI 0 and 1 were the most prevalent scores in all study groups examined. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination significantly decreased bond strength of the three adhesive systems examined (p <0.05. However, the comparison of groups with and without saliva contamination did not reveal any significant differences, and, therefore, the three systems may be considered equivalent.

  16. Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women

    Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were not selected on any specific condition. Quality control (QC) samples were created from pooled serum and saliva. Twenty protein markers were measured on five multiplexing array panels. Sample pretreatment conditions were optimized for each panel. Recovery, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and imprecision were determined for each analyte. Statistical adjustment at the plate level was used to reduce imprecision estimates and increase the number of usable observations. Sample pre-treatment improved recovery estimates for many analytes. The LLOQ for each analyte agreed with manufacturer specifications except for MMP-1 and MMP-2 which were significantly higher than reported. Following batch adjustment, 17 of 20 biomarkers in serum and 9 of 20 biomarkers in saliva demonstrated acceptable precision, defined as <20% coefficient of variation (<25% at LLOQ). The percentage of cohort samples having levels within the reportable range for each analyte varied from 10% to 100%. The ratio of levels in saliva to serum varied from 1∶100 to 28∶1. Correlations between saliva and serum were of moderate positive magnitude and significant for CRP, MMP-2, insulin, adiponectin, GM-CSF and IL-5. Multiplex arrays exhibit high levels of analytical imprecision, particularly at the batch level. Careful sample pre-treatment can enhance recovery and reduce imprecision. Following statistical adjustments to reduce batch effects, we identified biomarkers that are of acceptable quality in serum and to a lesser degree in saliva using Multiplex arrays. PMID:23577067

  17. Human saliva as route of inter-human infection for mouse mammary tumor virus

    Armogida, Ivana; Zavaglia, Katia; Franceschi, Sara; Al Hamad, Mohammad; Roncella, Manuela; Ghilli, Matteo; Boldrini, Antonio; Aretini, Paolo; Fanelli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Ivo; Scatena, Cristian; Hochman, Jacob; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2015-01-01

    Etiology of human breast cancer is unknown, whereas the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) is recognized as the etiologic agent of mouse mammary carcinoma. Moreover, this experimental model contributed substantially to our understanding of many biological aspects of the human disease. Several data strongly suggest a causative role of MMTV in humans, such as the presence of viral sequences in a high percentage of infiltrating breast carcinoma and in its preinvasive lesions, the production of viral particles in primary cultures of breast cancer, the ability of the virus to infect cells in culture. This paper demonstrates that MMTV is present in human saliva and salivary glands. MMTV presence was investigated by fluorescent PCR, RT-PCR, FISH, immunohistochemistry, and whole transcriptome analysis. Saliva was obtained from newborns, children, adults, and breast cancer patients. The saliva of newborns is MMTV-free, whereas MMTV is present in saliva of children (26.66%), healthy adults (10.60%), and breast cancer patients (57.14% as DNA and 33.9% as RNA). MMTV is also present in 8.10% of salivary glands. RNA-seq analysis performed on saliva of a breast cancer patient demonstrates a high expression of MMTV RNA in comparison to negative controls. The possibility of a contamination by murine DNA was excluded by murine mtDNA and IAP LTR PCR. These findings confirm the presence of MMTV in humans, strongly suggest saliva as route in inter-human infection, and support the hypothesis of a viral origin for human breast carcinoma. PMID:26214095

  18. Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva

    In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

  19. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  20. A simple collection method for saliva in children: potential for home monitoring of carbamazepine therapy.

    Chee, K Y; Lee, D.; Byron, D; Naidoo, D.; Bye, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method of monitoring plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs which uses salivary samples, and is suitable for home monitoring in children. To validate the method, paired plasma and saliva samples from 39 children aged between 2 and 15 years were assayed for carbamazepine and its active metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide by h.p.l.c. The method uses a gauze-wrapped cotton ball with attached string, to absorb saliva which is then separated using a syringe and plunge...

  1. Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Astrup, Arne; Petersson, Birgit; Holst, Jens Juul; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa...... saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a...

  2. Effect of Saliva pH on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim; Elham Khanpayeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of salivary pH on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to tooth surface.Materials and Methods: Eighty intact premolars were randomly divided into four groups of 20.  After bonding a bracket on each tooth, the groups one to four were stored in artificial saliva at a pH of 3.8, 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8, respectively for two months. The artificial saliva solutions were refreshed weekly. Each tooth was then embedded in an ...

  3. The Majority of MicroRNAs Detectable in Serum and Saliva Is Concentrated in Exosomes

    Gallo, Alessia; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. They are easily accessible in many body fluids but it is controversial if they are circulating freely or are encapsulated in microvesicles, particularly exosomes. We investigated if the majority of miRNas in serum and saliva are free-circulating or concentrated in exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fresh and frozen human serum and saliva. The amount of selected miRNAs ext...

  4. Comparison of two chair-side tests for enumeration of Mutans Streptococci in saliva

    Twetman, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2014-01-01

    selective MSB agar. RESULTS: The prevalence of ≥ 5 × 10(5) CFU was 21%, 62%, and 73% with the SCM, DSM and MSB-cultivation, respectively. The correlation between DSM and SCM tests was r = 0.49 (p < 0.05) but the agreement on the high levels was fair. In comparison with the MSB agar, DSM provided acceptable......, referred to a maxillofacial hospital clinic with a caries history. Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and the number of MS was assessed with the Dentocult-SM Strip Mutans (DSM) and the Saliva-Check Mutans (SCM). The outcome was compared with conventional anaerobic laboratory cultivation on...

  5. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  6. Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin

    Mauren Bitencourt Depr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20 according to bonding material and contamination: G1 bonded with Transbond XT with no saliva contamination, G2 bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3 bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4 bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey. RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa were: G110.15 3.75; G2 6.8 2.54; G3 9.3 3.36; G4 8.3 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influncia da contaminao por saliva na resistncia de unio de braquetes metlicos colados ao esmalte com um compsito resinoso hidroflico. MTODOS: oitenta pr-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20, de acordo com o material de colagem e a presena de contaminao - G1 colagem com Transbond XT na ausncia de contaminao; G2 colagem com Transbond XT na presena de contaminao; G3 colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na ausncia de contaminao; G4 colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presena de contaminao. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey. RESULTADOS: as mdias e desvios-padro (MPa foram G1 = 10,15 3,75; G2 = 6,8 2,54; G3 = 9,3 3,36; G4 = 8,3 2,95. O ndice de adesivo remanescente (IAR variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomnio do escore 0 e distribuio similar no G3. CONCLUSO: a contaminao por saliva reduziu a resistncia de unio no grupo que usou a resina hidrofbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidroflica Transbond Plus Color Change no foi influenciada pela contaminao.

  7. A potentiometric disposable sensor strip for measuring pH in saliva

    Zuliani, Claudio; Matzeu, Giusy; Diamond , Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of a potentiometric strip for pH monitoring in saliva samples is reported. The potentiometric strip consists of a solid contact pH-selective and of a solidcontact ionogel reference electrode prepared on a dual screen printed substrate. The screen printing protocols, i.e., type of inks and number of deposits, were adjusted to relatively improve the batch reproducibility and the stability of the pH sensor. The pH of real saliva samples was monitored using the o...

  8. A validation study of the Facial-Oral Tract Therapy Swallowing Assessment of Saliva

    Mortensen, Jesper; Jensen, Ditte; Kjaersgaard, Annette

    2015-01-01

    a one-hour time interval. MAIN MEASURES: The Swallowing Assessment of Saliva is a seven-item scale with a combination of swallowing and non-swallowing items. It is based on the Facial-Oral Tract Therapy approach. RESULTS: The Swallowing Assessment of Saliva had a sensitivity of 91%, 95% confidence...... interval (CI) (59; 100), a specificity of 88% %, 95% CI (71; 97) and a kappa coefficient of 0.87 0.17 in detection of aspiration risk. Furthermore, analyses showed that experienced and inexperienced occupational therapists performed equally in detection of aspiration risk. CONCLUSION: The Swallowing...

  9. A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE FACIAL-ORAL TRACT THERAPY SWALLOWING ASSESSMENT OF SALIVA

    Mortensen, Jesper; Jensen, Ditte; Kjærsgaard, Annette

    Introduction Facial-Oral Tract Therapy (F.O.T.T.) (1) is an approach that provides both clinical assessment and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. In the F.O.T.T. approach, a prerequisite for the initiation of oral intake is safe swallowing of saliva. A recent randomized controlled trial (2......) showed that patients assessed for initiation of oral intake with an F.O.T.T. based clinical assessment, hereinafter referred to as the Swallowing Assessment of Saliva (SAS), were no more likely to develop aspiration pneumonia that patients who were assessed with an endoscopic evaluation. The objective of...

  10. Sialic acid content in human saliva and anti-influenza activity against human and avian influenza viruses.

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2016-03-01

    It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses. PMID:26671828

  11. The indices of mineral exchange in saliva and blood of participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up

    It has been established that in the liquidators, the amount of calcium in the saliva and blood is increased while the concentration of inorganic phosphate in the both media in decreased. Saliva pH is shifted to acid which can suggest the shift in the processes in the mineralized body tissues to active demineralization (including tooth tissue)

  12. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?...

  13. Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos

    Eliana Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal Souza; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Nicolau

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight, obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free s...

  14. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  15. Organizing Internet Resources

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-01-01

    Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading sys...

  16. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  17. Saliva-based immunoassay of waterborne pathogen exposure

    Water is our most important resource and ensuring its safety, security and sustainability is a global priority. Of almost equal importance is the protection of the global community from microbiological and chemical contaminants in our drinking and recreational water sources. Meth...

  18. Electronics

    Bishop, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

  19. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colarado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both ...

  20. Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study

    Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

  1. Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha activity in Ixodes ricinus saliva

    Koník, Peter; Slavíková, Veronika; Salát, Jiří; Řezníčková, Jana; Dvorožňáková, E.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2006), s. 649-656. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick saliva * TNF Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2006

  2. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  3. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  4. PERBEDAAN SEKRESI SALIVA SEBELUM DAN SESUDAH BERKUMUR MENGGUNAKAN BAKING SODA PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS

    Arif Budiman Putra Pratama, Moh.

    2014-01-01

    Latar Belakang: Diabetes Melitus (DM) adalah penyakit metabolik dengan karakteristik utamanya hiperglikemia, yaitu tingkat kadar glukosa dalam darah yang tinggi akibat kelainan sekresi insulin, kelainan kerja insulin, ataupun keduanya. Salah satu manifestasi DM dalam rongga mulut yang dapat dilihat secara kasat mata adalah mulut kering (serostomia) akibat berkurangnya aliran saliva dalam rongga mulut. Salah satu bahan yang dapat menstimulasi aliran ...

  5. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat; Hormdee, Doodsadee; Sittisomwong, Sapatporn; Nakaresisoon, Sirinun; Samson, Mie Hessellund; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Giraud, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The ...

  6. The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.

    Durdiakov, Jaroslava; Fbryov, Helena; Koborov, Ivana; Ostatnkov, Daniela; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-20

    Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, pcontamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

  7. Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children

    Zahir S; Sarkar S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements in mixed saliva. It was observed that Cu, Pb, Na showed significant variation in case of one surface as compared to caries free group. Between the non-caries and multiple caries group Cu, Pb, K showed no significant variation Zn showed highly significant variation.

  8. Activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes

    Beata Zalewska-Szajda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, by measurement of the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase (HEX in their saliva.Material/Methods: The study was performed in 65 children with type 1 diabetes and 39 healthy children. Salivary HEX activity was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Zwierz et al. in the modification of Marciniak et al. Protein was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method (BCATM Assay Protein Kit. Concentration of the HEX activity was expressed in pKat/mL and HEX specific activity in pKat/?g of protein.Results: A significant increase in the concentration and the specific activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, compared to healthy children, was found.Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes increases salivary catabolism of glycoconjugates reflected by the significant increase in the activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy children. The salivary HEX activity may be used in the diagnosis of children with type 1 diabetes after confirmation of our results on a larger cohort of children with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Induction of Fas Mediated Caspase-8 Independent Apoptosis in Immune Cells by Armigeres subalbatus Saliva

    Liu, Shanshan; Kelvin, David J.; Leon, Alberto J.; Jin, Liqun; Farooqui, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that the introduction of saliva of bloodsucking arthropods at the site of pathogen transmission might play a central role in vector-borne infections. However, how the interaction between salivary components and the host immune system takes place and which physiological processes this leads to has yet to be investigated. Armigeres subalbatus is one of the prominent types of mosquitoes involved in the transmission of parasitic and viral diseases in humans and animals. Methodology/Principal Findings Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis. Conclusions Our study shows for the first time that saliva-induced apoptosis is the leading phenomenon exerted by Ar. subalbatus that impede immune cells leading to the suppression of their effecter mechanism. PMID:22815944

  10. Neutron activation analysis of saliva. Application in clinical chemistry, environmental and occupational toxicology

    The contents of 21 chemical elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Zn) in mixed non-stimulated saliva of 52 relatively healthy people were assessed by activation using 14 MeV neutrons and nuclear reactor neutrons. The study included 45 women and 7 men, aged 18 to 35. the dependence of salivary compositions upon sex, age, time-of-day and time-of-year was studied. The saliva of 22 men, involved in the clean-up operation after the Chernobyl accident, was also studied. There existed clear circadian variations in the amount of Na, Sc and Cr contained in the saliva and a tendency to circadian variations for the amount of Cl, Co, Br and Rb. Neither sex, age, nor time-of-year influenced the contents of 21 chemical elements examined. The only exception to this finding was with Hg, whose content increases with age. the analysis of the cleaners' saliva made it possible to find considerable metabolic changes of Ca and some other chemical elements. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

  11. High Prevalence of TT Virus DNA in Human Saliva and Semen

    Inami, Tomoko; Konomi, Nami; Arakawa, Yasuyuki; ABE, KENJI

    2000-01-01

    Using the PCR assay, we found a high prevalence of TT virus (TTV) DNA in saliva and semen from patients who were seropositive for TTV. This finding suggests that the presence of TTV in body fluids other than serum may affect the routes of viral transmission.

  12. The blistering of a viscoelastic filament of a droplet of saliva

    Wagner, Christian; Eggers, Jens

    2009-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video of the break up of a droplet of saliva is shown. First a viscoelastic filament is formed and than the blistering of this filament is shown. Finally, a flow induced phase separation takes place nanometer sized solid fiber remains that consist out of the biopolymers.

  13. The effect of two remineralizing agents and natural saliva on bleached enamel hardness

    Heshmat, Haleh; Ganjkar, Maryam Hoorizad; Miri, Yasaman; Fard, Mohamad Javad Kharrazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to compensate the adverse consequences of bleaching agents, the use of fluoride-containing remineralizing agents has been suggested by many researchers. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of applying two remineralizing materials on bleached enamel hardness and in comparison to natural saliva. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 enamel samples of sound human permanent molars were prepared for this study. Microhardness (MH) of all specimens was measured and 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied 3 times to the specimens. After completion of the bleaching process, MH of samples was measured and then enamel specimens were divided into three groups each of 10, specimens of groups 1 and 2 were subjected to daily application of hydroxyl apatite (Remin Pro) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) (MI Paste Plus) pastes, respectively, for 15 days. In group 3, the specimens were stored in the operators' natural saliva at room temperature in this period of time. Final MH of all groups was measured. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (? = 0.05). Results: The hardness significantly decreased in all groups following bleaching. Application of either Remin Pro, CPP-ACPF or natural saliva increased the hardness significantly. The hardness of the three test groups after 15 days were statistically similar to each other. Conclusion: The hardness of enamel increases eventually after exposure to either MI Paste Plus, Remin Pro or natural saliva.

  14. Tick saliva suppresses IFN signalling in dendritic cells upon Borrelia afzelii infection

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2012), s. 32-39. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cells * interferon signalling * tick saliva Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2012

  15. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu; Keevil, Brian; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0......-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol....../L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva....

  16. Tick saliva inhibits dendritic cell migration, maturation and function, while promoting development of Th2 responses

    Skallová, Anna; Iezzi, G.; Ampenberger, F.; Kopf, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 9 (2008), s. 6186-9192. ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : dendritic cell * tick saliva * Th2 * immune responses Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  17. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  18. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), s. 229. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  19. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2011), s. 591-594. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  20. Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.

    Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

    2011-06-01

    Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

  1. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

  2. A rapid and non-invasive method to determine toxic levels of alcohols and γ-hydroxybutyric acid in saliva samples by gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry.

    Criado-García, L; Ruszkiewicz, D M; Eiceman, G A; Thomas, C L P

    2016-03-01

    A polydimethylsiloxane oral sampler was used to extract methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, 1,3-propandiol and γ-hydroxybutyric acid from samples of human saliva obtained using a passive drool approach. The extracted compounds were recovered by thermal desorption, isolated by gas chromatography and detected with differential mobility spectrometry, operating with a programmed dispersion field. Complex signal behaviours were also observed that were consistent with hitherto unobserved fragmentation behaviours in differential mobility spectrometry. These yielded high-mobility fragments obscured within the envelope of the water-based reactant ion peak. Further, compensation field maxima shifts were also observed which were attributable to transport gas modification phenomena. Nevertheless, the responses obtained indicated that in vivo saliva sampling with thermal desorption gas chromatography may be used to provide a semi-quantitative diagnostic screen over the toxicity threshold concentration ranges of 100 mg dm(-3) to 3 g dm(-3). A candidate method suitable for use in low resource settings for the non-invasive screening of patients intoxicated by alcohols and volatile sedatives has been demonstrated. PMID:26744364

  3. Inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by saliva of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Franco, Paula F; Silva, Naylene C S; Fazito do Vale, Vladimir; Abreu, Jéssica F; Santos, Vânia C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Gomes, Alessandra P S; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the complement system during and after haematophagy is of utmost importance for tick success in feeding and tick development. The role of such inhibition is to minimise damage to the intestinal epithelium as well as avoiding inflammation and opsonisation of salivary molecules at the bite site. Despite its importance, the salivary anti-complement activity has been characterised only in species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex which saliva is able to inhibit the alternative and lectin pathways. Little is known about this activity in other species of the Ixodidae family. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by the saliva of Amblyomma cajennense at different stages of the haematophagy. The A. cajennense saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) were able to inhibit the complement classical pathway through haemolytic assays with higher activity observed when saliva was used. The anti-complement activity is present in the salivary glands of starving females and also in females throughout the whole feeding process, with significant higher activity soon after tick detachment. The SGE activity from both females fed on mice or horses had no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with tick body weight. The pH found in the intestinal lumen of A. cajennense was 8.04 ± 0.08 and haemolytic assays performed at pH 8.0 showed activation of the classical pathway similarly to what occurs at pH 7.4. Consequently, inhibition could be necessary to protect the tick enterocytes. Indeed, the inhibition observed by SGE was higher in pH 8.0 in comparison to pH 7.4 reinforcing the role of saliva in protecting the intestinal cells. Further studies should be carried out in order to identify the inhibitor molecule and characterise its inhibition mechanism. PMID:26948715

  4. Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression.

    Agarwal, Ankita; Joshi, Gaurav; Nagar, Durga P; Sharma, Ajay K; Sukumaran, D; Pant, Satish C; Parida, Man Mohan; Dash, Paban Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic and adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis and hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IFN-β in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 and IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum and peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration and degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration and associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better understanding of CHIKV pathobiology and promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV. PMID:26925703

  5. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations

    Lázaro Alessandro Soares Nunes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic fluid in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and α-amylase as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones. It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

  6. An electrochemical immunoassay for the screening of celiac disease in saliva samples.

    Adornetto, Gianluca; Fabiani, Laura; Volpe, Giulia; De Stefano, Alessia; Martini, Sonia; Nenna, Raffaella; Lucantoni, Federica; Bonamico, Margherita; Tiberti, Claudio; Moscone, Danila

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for the initial diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) in saliva samples that overcomes the problems related to its high viscosity and to the low concentration of anti-transglutaminase antigen (tTG) IgA in this medium has been developed for the first time. The system uses magnetic beads (MBs) covered with tTG, which reacts with the anti-tTG IgA antibodies present in positive saliva samples. An anti-human IgA, conjugated with alkaline phosphate (AP) enzyme, was used as the label and a strip of eight magnetized screen-printed electrodes as the electrochemical transducer. In particular, two different immunoassay approaches were optimized and blindly compared to analyze a large number of saliva samples, whose anti-tTG IgA levels were independently determined by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The obtained results, expressed as Ab index, were used to perform a diagnostic test evaluation through the construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The approach, involving a pre-incubation between the anti-human IgA-AP and saliva samples prior to the addition of MBs-tTG, showed a cutoff of 0.022 with 95% clinical sensitivity and 96% clinical specificity. The area under the ROC curve is equal to 1, a result that classifies our test as "perfect." This study demonstrates that it is possible to perform the screening of CD with a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive method able to detect anti-tTG antibodies in saliva samples, which are easily obtained by non-invasive techniques. This aspect is of fundamental importance to screen a large number of subjects, especially in the pediatric age. PMID:26168969

  7. The membrane free sonoelectroanalytical determination of trace levels of lead and cadmium in human saliva.

    Hardcastle, Joanna L; West, Camilla E; Compton, Richard G

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), synergistically coupled with an ultrasonically enhanced preconcentration step has been shown to yield a quantitative determination of lead and cadmium in human saliva at a membrane free in situ plated mercury thin film glassy carbon electrode. The sensitivity was facilitated by acoustic streaming which promoted efficient mass transport to the electrode thus reducing sampling times. Cavitation was responsible for cleaning and activating the electrode surface, this was essential in order to obtain a reproducible and representative signal. In silent conditions electrode fouling leading to fluctuations in the baseline current and signal depression, precluded accurate quantitative analyses. The results presented herein provide an extension to the proof of concept given in the authors' earlier work, with the analysis of lead in human saliva as opposed to artificial saliva reported. We also address the hitherto unreported detection and determination of cadmium in this medium. Results for both were independently verified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Close agreement between lead concentration determined by sono-SWASV and independent and blind ICP-MS is reported for human saliva samples having a total lead content of 0.92 microg L(-1) and 5 microg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.5 microg L(-1). Microaddition calibration data for cadmium additions of 0.0125 microg L(-1) to samples spiked with 2.5 microg L(-1) and 5.0 microg L(-1) (reflecting levels in workers occupationally exposed) exhibited close agreement with the known total cadmium in the samples. A detection limit of 1 microg L(-1) cadmium in saliva has been established. PMID:12475041

  8. Chrono-proteomics of human saliva: variations of the salivary proteome during human development.

    Messana, Irene; Cabras, Tiziana; Iavarone, Federica; Manconi, Barbara; Huang, Liling; Martelli, Claudia; Olianas, Alessandra; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Pisano, Elisabetta; Sanna, Monica; Arba, Morena; D'Alessandro, Alfredo; Desiderio, Claudia; Vitali, Alberto; Pirolli, Davide; Tirone, Chiara; Lio, Alessandra; Vento, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cordaro, Massimo; Manni, Armando; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Fiorita, Antonella; Scarano, Emanuele; Cal, Lea; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Paludetti, Gaetano; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    An important contribution to the variability of any proteome is given by the time dimension that should be carefully considered to define physiological modifications. To this purpose, whole saliva proteome was investigated in a wide age range. Whole saliva was collected from 17 preterm newborns with a postconceptional age at birth of 178-217 days. In these subjects sample collection was performed serially starting immediately after birth and within about 1 year follow-up, gathering a total of 111 specimens. Furthermore, whole saliva was collected from 182 subjects aged between 0 and 17 years and from 23 adults aged between 27 and 57 years. The naturally occurring intact salivary proteome of the 316 samples was analyzed by low- and high-resolution HPLC-ESI-MS platforms. Proteins peculiar of the adults appeared in saliva with different time courses during human development. Acidic proline-rich proteins encoded by PRH2 locus and glycosylated basic proline-rich proteins encoded by PRB3 locus appeared following 180 days of postconceptional age, followed at 7 months (2 weeks) by histatin 1, statherin, and P-B peptide. The other histatins and acidic proline-rich proteins encoded by PRH1 locus appeared in whole saliva of babies from 1 to 3 weeks after the normal term of delivery, S-type cystatins appeared at 1 year (3 months), and basic proline-rich proteins appeared at 4 years (1 year) of age. All of the proteinases involved in the maturation of salivary proteins were more active in preterm than in at-term newborns, on the basis of the truncated forms detected. The activity of the Fam20C kinase, involved in the phosphorylation of various proteins, started around 180 days of postconceptional age, slowly increased reaching values comparable to adults at about 2 years (6 months) of age. Instead, MAPK14 involved in the phosphorylation of S100A9 was fully active since birth also in preterm newborns. PMID:25761918

  9. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  10. Soluble HLA measurement in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid in Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Featherston Liubov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of soluble HLA in body fluids has a potential role in assessing disease activity in autoimmune disorders. Methods We applied a solid phase, enzyme-linked immunoassay to measure soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I and class II (sHLA-II molecules in the saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in 13 untreated patients with relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS. For comparison purposes, we also studied saliva from 53 healthy subjects. Results Saliva from normal controls had detectable sHLA-I levels in 41 of 53 individuals studied, with values ranging from 9100 ng/ml (mean = 41 2.8 ng/ml. sHLA-I was undetectable in the saliva in 11 of 13 MS patients, and in none of the CSF specimens. In contrast, mean sHLA-II concentration in the saliva of MS patients was significantly increased compared to controls (386 52 unit/ml vs. 222 18.4 unit/ml, t = 8.68, P Conclusion Our data suggest that the measurement of soluble HLA in saliva, specifically sHLA-II, correlates with the level found in the CSF. Therefore, if sHLA correlates with disease activity in MS, as has been proposed, saliva measurements provide a noninvasive correlate of CSF measurement.

  11. Radiation-induced parotid gland changes in oral cancer patients. Correlation between parotid volume and saliva production

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether saliva production reflects the parotid volume during the course of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Twenty patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas, who were treated with preoperative chemo-RT, underwent morphological assessment with CT or MRI and functional assessment with the Saxon test. For the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a gauze pad before and 2 min after chewing without swallowing; the low-normal value is 2 g. Saliva production and parotid volumes before and 2 weeks after RT were compared with the paired t-test, the Spearman rank correlation test and the Fisher exact test. After 30 Gy irradiation, mean saliva production was decreased from 4.2 to 1.0 g (P3 (P<0.01); the post-RT: pre-RT parotid volume ratio ranged from 54% to 85% (mean 71%). Although the initial parotid volume was correlated with initial saliva production (r=0.47, P=0.04), no significant correlation was noted after RT (r=0.08, P=0.71), and there were considerable individual variations. The parotid volume ratio was inversely correlated with the saliva-reduction amount (r=-0.79, P<0.01). There was a correlation between decreased parotid gland volume and decreased saliva production in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing RT. Parotid volume reduction may predict parotid gland function. (author)

  12. Detection of Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in the Saliva of Healthy Adults: Comparison with Blood Levels

    Michael C. Dillon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and cardiovascular disease are associated with elevated serum levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP and homocysteine. The presence of both molecules in saliva provides an opportunity for development of non-invasive assessments of disease risk. However, salivary CRP and homocysteine reference ranges and their correlation with serum levels are unknown. This study investigated if CRP and homocysteine could be routinely detected in the saliva of healthy adults and the relationship between salivary and blood levels. CRP and homocysteine concentrations were determined using ELISA and enzymatic assays respectively. Homocysteine was detected in only two saliva samples (n = 55. CRP was measurable in all saliva samples (range: 0.05 to 64.3 µg/L; median = 1.2 µg/L and plasma samples (range: 0.14 to 31.1 mg/L; median = 2.0 mg/L. Regression analysis demonstrated no relation- ship between CRP concentration in saliva and plasma (R2 = 0.001. Generalized linear models including variables such as saliva flow rate and time since eating or drinking also did not pass lack of fit testing. Therefore, a relationship between CRP concentration in saliva and blood could not be established in this group of subjects. More sensitive detection methods are needed to determine if a correlation between salivary and serum homocysteine levels exists.

  13. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211. HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes. Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94% anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4% had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

  14. Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva.

    Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R; Hill, Sandra E; Wolf, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the microstructure and rheology of xanthan solutions. In this work the effect of saliva on the rheology of CMC and xanthan solutions was compared. Solutions of molecularly dissolved xanthan gum and CMC mixed with water or human whole saliva at a ratio of 5:1 showed little impact of the presence of saliva on steady shear or dynamic viscosity for the two hydrocolloids. In filament thinning experiments saliva addition significantly increased filament break-up time for xanthan gum while it had little effect on the break-up time of the CMC filament. Also, filament thinning appeared a lot less even and was not as reproducible in the case of xanthan gum. Addition of CMC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to xanthan gum solutions showed a similar increase in break-up time to saliva, but to see this effect the viscosity of the added CMC or HPMC solution had to be very much higher than the viscosity of saliva. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of xanthan gum and the reported extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:25284950

  15. Improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel by nanocrystalline and electrochemical nitridation in artificial saliva solution

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2015-12-01

    The fluoride ion in artificial saliva significantly changed semiconductor characteristic of the passive film formed on the surface of 316L stainless steels. The electrochemical results showed that nanocrystalline α‧-martensite improved corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in a typical artificial saliva compared with coarse grained stainless steel. Moreover, comparing with nitrided coarse grained stainless steel, corrosion resistance of the nitrided nanocrystalline stainless steel was also improved significantly, even in artificial saliva solution containing fluoride ion. The present study showed that the cryogenic cold rolling and electrochemical nitridation improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel for the dental application.

  16. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves; Carla B. Cunha; Busek, Solange C. U.; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV p...

  17. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy / Avaliao clnica e bioqumica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia

    Cssio de Barros, Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli, Polizello; Augusto Csar Cropanese, Spadaro.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clnicos e algumas propriedades bioqumicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e aps o tratamento radioterpico para cncer de cabea e pescoo (grupo experimental) e de 21 pacientes sem cncer (grupo controle). O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessrio (segun [...] dos) para produo estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente utilizao de um mtodo colorimtrico simples. A concentrao de protena total salivar foi determinada pelo mtodo de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada atravs dos acares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo mtodo do cido dinitrossaliclico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletrofortico foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12%) para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de protena. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, reduo estatisticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring t [...] he time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentration was determined by the Bradford4 method. Amylase activity was measured by reducing sugars released from a soluble starch substrate, quantified by the dinitrosalicylic method. The electrophoretic profile was evaluated in polyacrylamid gel (12% SDS-PAGE) using samples of 5 mg of salivary protein. A statistically significant reduction (p

  18. Biomarcadores de cncer oral en saliva / Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers

    M.V., Madera Anaya.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisin muestra los principales biomarcadores de cncer oral en saliva. El aspecto clnico y el grado de displasia de las lesiones precancerosas de la cavidad bucal sugieren su capacidad de malignidad; sin embargo, stas generalmente son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados, disminuyendo la pr [...] obabilidad de supervivencia, lo que justifica el diseo de nuevas pruebas diagnsticas que determinen el grado de alteracin celular, permitan comprender el proceso degenerativo en el cncer y establezcan diagnsticos precoz. Esta bsqueda para mejorar los mtodos diagnsticos, apunta a que sean sensibles, especficos y menos invasivos, por lo cual el estudio de diferentes biomarcadores en saliva que desde una perspectiva molecular proporcionan informacin adicional al examen clnico e histopatolgico, es considerada como una alternativa eficaz y ms cmoda con respecto a los ensayos en sangre. Los biomarcadores que se han descrito en saliva algunos mostrando mayor relacin con la carcinognesis oral son: Ciclina D1, cyfra 21-1, endotelina-1, galectinas 1, 3 y 7, Ki67, lactato deshidrogenasa, metaloproteinasas 2 y 9, protena p53, protena de unin a calcio (S100P) y telomerasa. Abstract in english This review shows the main oral cancer biomarkers in saliva. The clinical appearance and the degree of dysplasia, precancerous lesions of the oral cavity suggests its ability to malignancy, but these are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, decreasing the likelihood of survival, justifying the desi [...] gn of new diagnostic tests to determine the degree of cell alteration as to understand the degenerative process in cancer diagnosis and establish early. This search for improved diagnostic methods, aims to be sensitive, specific and less invasive, so the study of biomarkers in saliva from a molecular perspective provide additional information to clinical and histopathological examination is considered as a more comfortable and effective to establish a diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been described in saliva some showing more related to oral carcinogenesis are cyclin D1, Cyfra 21-1, Endothelin-1, Galectins 1, 3 and 7, Ki67, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, p53 protein, protein calcium-binding (S100P) and Telomerase.

  19. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  20. La saliva en el mantenimiento de la salud oral y como ayuda en el diagnstico de algunas patologas / The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis

    Carmen, Llena Puy.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La saliva es una secrecin compleja proveniente de las glndulas salivales mayores en el 93% de su volumen y menores en el 7% restante. El 99% de la saliva es agua mientras que el 1% restante est constituido por molculas orgnicas e inorgnicas. Si bien la cantidad de saliva es importante, tambin [...] lo es la calidad de la misma. Se revisar los componentes de la saliva y sus funciones en el mantenimiento de la salud oral los principales factores causales que alteran la secrecin salival, se comentar la importancia de la saliva en el desarrollo de la enfermedad de caries y en la formacin de la placa bacteriana, y se analizar su papel como material de ayuda para el diagnstico de algunas patologas. Las variaciones en el flujo salival pueden verse afectadas por mltiples factores fisiolgicos y patolgicos, de forma reversible o irreversible. Juega un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento de la integridad de las estructuras bucales, en la vida de relacin, en la digestin y en el control de infecciones orales. El papel de la saliva en la proteccin frente a la caries podemos concretarlo en cuatro aspectos, dilucin y eliminacin de los azcares y otros componentes, capacidad tampn, equilibrio entre la desmineralizacin / remineralizacin y accin antimicrobiana. La saliva como alternativa para el diagnstico, de algunas enfermedades, como elemento para monitorizar la evolucin de determinadas patologas o la dosificacin de medicamentos o drogas proporciona una va prometedora. La accesibilidad en su obtencin y la correlacin positiva entre mltiples parmetros en el suero y en la saliva son algunas de las ventajas que ofrece como instrumento diagnstico. Abstract in english Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of sali [...] va, its functions in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion will be reviewed, the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation will be discussed and its rle as an aid to diagnosing certain pathologies will be examined. Variations in salivary flow can be affected, reversibly or irreversibly, by numerous physiological and pathological factors. Saliva plays an essential rle in maintaining the integrity of the oral structures, in personal relationships, in the digestion and in controlling oral infection. The part that saliva plays in protecting teeth from caries can be summarised under four aspects: diluting and eliminating sugars and other substances, buffer capacity, balancing demineralisation / remineralisation and antimicrobial action. Saliva is a promising option for diagnosing certain disorders and monitoring the evolution of certain pathologies or the dosage of medicines or drugs. Its advantages as a diagnostic tool include its being easy to obtain and the positive correlation between many parameters in serum and saliva.

  1. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    Evelyn Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata; Fabio Daumas Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani; Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected ...

  2. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  3. Diagnosis of Periodontal Disease from Saliva Samples Using Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy Coupled with Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis.

    Fujii, Satoshi; Sato, Shinobu; Fukuda, Keisuke; Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Usui, Michihiko; Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of periodontal disease by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopic technique was achieved for saliva samples. Twenty-two saliva samples, collected from 10 patients with periodontal disease and 12 normal volunteers, were pre-processed and analyzed by FT-IR microscopy. We found that the periodontal samples showed a larger raw IR spectrum than the control samples. In addition, the shape of the second derivative spectrum was clearly different between the periodontal and control samples. Furthermore, the amount of saliva content and the mixture ratio were different between the two samples. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for the discrimination of periodontal samples based on the second derivative spectrum. The leave-one-out cross-validation discrimination accuracy was 94.3%. Thus, these results show that periodontal disease may be diagnosed by analyzing saliva samples with FT-IR microscopy. PMID:26860570

  4. Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva

    Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos; Antnio Eduardo Spara, Salles; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Cludia Helena da, Silva-Lovato; Valria Oliveira, Pagnano; Evandro, Watanabe.

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou os nveis de biofilme em prteses totais maxilares e mandibulares, e analisou o nmero de unidades formadoras de colnias de leveduras, aps o uso de agentes auxiliares da escovao e saliva artificial. Vinte e trs usurios de prteses totais com hipossalivao e xerostomia for [...] am orientados a escovar as dentaduras 3 vezes ao dia durante 3 semanas com os seguintes produtos: Corega Brite (dentifrcio para prtese), sabonete lquido neutro, Corega Brite associado com o uso do Oral Balance (saliva artificial) ou gua de torneira. Para a quantificao do biofilme, as superfcies internas das prteses totais foram evidenciadas, fotografadas e o biofilme quantificado com o auxlio de um software. Para a anlise microbiolgica, o biofilme foi removido por escovao, coletado, diludo, semeado em meio seletivo CHROMagar Candida e incubado a 37C por 48?h. A anlise de varincia para dois fatores (p Abstract in english This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to br [...] ush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar Candida and incubated at 37C for 48?h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (=26.90 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (=18.0 15.0) (p

  5. Pengaruh Kontaminsi Saliva terhadap Kekuatan Tarik antara Resin Komposit dengan Jaringan Dentin

    Andi Soufyan; Decky J. Indrani; M. Erlinda

    2013-01-01

    Composite resin are restorative materials having color similar to teeth and have been widely used in dentistry. The successful application of composite resin influences the duration of the restoration in the oral cavity. The aim of this research is to describe the influence of artificial saliva contamination and the application of re-conditioning on tensile bond strength of composite resin to dentin. In the control group, the dentin were etched, bonding were applied and composite resin were r...

  6. Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci

    2012-01-01

    Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron defici...

  7. Disposable screen printed sensor for the electrochemical detection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in undiluted saliva

    Wanklyn, Ceri; Burton, Dan; Enston, Emma; Bartlett, Carrie-Ann; Taylor, Sarah; Raniczkowska, Aleksandra; Black, Murdo; Murphy, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis has an adverse effect on the ability to drive safely, therefore a rapid disposable test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, is highly desirable for roadside testing. Results A screen printed carbon electrode is used for the N-(4-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-methanesulfonamide mediated detection of Δ9-THC in saliva. Mediator placed in an overlayer was galvanostatically oxidized and reacted with Δ9-THC to give an electrochemically active a...

  8. Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants

    Kanady, Jesica A.; Aruni, A.Wilson; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Blood, Jamie D.; Byrd, Benjamin L.; Holley, Leighton R.; Staker, Michael R.; Hutson, Shandee; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2012-01-01

    The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from the plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate redu...

  9. Action of mouthwashes on Staphylococcus spp: isolated in the saliva of community and hospitalized individuals

    Denise de Andrade; Paula Regina de Souza; Carolina Contador Beraldo; Evandro Watanabe; Mery Elen Lima; Vanderlei Jos Haas

    2009-01-01

    The use of mouthwashes in critical patients has been a source of concern for health professionals due to the diverse range of products, causing uncertainty about which is the most indicated. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolated in the saliva of individuals from the community and patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) as to antiseptic mouthwashes. The following oral antiseptics were assessed: cetylpyridinium chloride solution, Listerine and Neen. Calc...

  10. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript rev...

  11. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement.

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J; Smith, Jordan N

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject's true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations. PMID:26074822

  12. LACK OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HERPESVIRUS DETECTION IN SALIVA AND GINGIVITIS IN HIV?INFECTED CHILDREN

    Renata A. OTERO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and cytomegalovirus (CMV by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4% HIV-infected children and 13 (27% control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%, followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%. The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104 or healthy control children (p = 0.251, or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447. Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001. These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.

  13. LACK OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HERPESVIRUS DETECTION IN SALIVA AND GINGIVITIS IN HIV?INFECTED CHILDREN.

    Otero, Renata A; Nascimento, Flvia N N; Souza, Ivete P R; Silva, Raquel C; Lima, Rodrigo S; Robaina, Tatiana F; Cmara, Fernando P; Santos, Norma; Castro, Gloria F

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis. PMID:26200962

  14. Pengaruh Pemakaian Baking Soda Dalam Pasta Gigi Terhadap pH Saliva

    Magdalena Siregar

    2008-01-01

    Baking soda sebagai bahan dasar pernbuat pasta gigi, mempunyai kemampuan sebagai buffer dalam menetralisir asam mulut sehingga dapat mencegah kerusakan pada gigi. Saat ini banyak beredar di pasaran bermacam-macam pasta gigi dengan berbagai merk dan jenis bahan kimia yang terkandung didalamnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan dan pengaruh pemakaian pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda terhadap pH saliva sebelum dilakukan penyikatan gigi dan setelah dilakukan penyikatan...

  15. Impact Behavior of Three Notched All-Ceramic Restorations after Soaking in Artificial Saliva

    Min Yan; Chung-Kai Wei; Yuh-Yih Lin; Suh-Woan Hu; Shinn-Jyh Ding

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanics play a critical role in influencing the clinical applications of all-ceramic dental restorations. The restorative biomaterials have to demonstrate mechanical durability in the oral environment because they are always exposed to a variety of oral environments. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of soaking time, notch and saliva pH values on the impact energy of three commonly used all-ceramic materials for CAD/CAM. The leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (ProCAD), lithiu...

  16. Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries

    Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Theorell, Töres; Pershagen, Göran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Järup, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 ...

  17. Speech, eating and saliva control in rare diseases - a database study.

    Sjgreen, L; Mogren, ; Andersson-Norinder, J; Bratel, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to study the background to and the manifestations of affected intelligibility of speech and reported difficulty with eating and saliva control in rare diseases. In Sweden, a disease or disorder is defined as rare when it affects no more than 100 individuals per million population and leads to a marked degree of disability. In 1996-2008, 1703 individuals with 169 rare diseases (3-67 years) answered a questionnaire about oral health and oro-facial function and 1614 participated in a clinical examination. A control group of 135 healthy children was included. Oromotor impairment was a frequent finding (43%) and was absent among the controls. Half the children in the youngest age group (3-6 years) had moderate/severely affected intelligibility or no speech compared with one-third in the other age groups. The most frequent eating difficulties were related to chewing and were found in approximately 20% of the individuals in the study group. Artificial nutrition was most common in children aged 3-6 years (92%), followed by children aged 7-12 years (49%), adolescents aged 13-19 years (33%) and adults (14%). Impaired saliva control was common (312%) and strongly and significantly correlated with oromotor dysfunction, intellectual disability, open mouth at rest and epilepsy. In conclusion, oromotor impairment and oro-facial dysfunctions, such as affected intelligibility, eating difficulties and impaired saliva control, are frequent in individuals with rare diseases. There is a strong correlation between oromotor impairment and affected intelligibility, eating difficulties and impaired saliva control in individuals with rare diseases. PMID:26094963

  18. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany.

    Pesch, A; Wilhelm, M; Rostek, U; Schmitz, N; Weishoff-Houben, M; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    2002-07-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8-10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 microg/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 microg/l or 0.25 microg/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in microg/l and microg/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the variance of mercury levels in urine: the number of teeth with amalgam fillings (23.2%) and the number of defective amalgam fillings (2.1%). The mercury content in hair ranged from <0.06 to 1.7 microg/g (GM 0.18 microg/g; median 0.18 microg/g). The frequency of fish consumption, the smoking habits of the parents, and the age of the children accounted for 20.4% of the variance of mercury levels in hair. The correlation between the hair mercury content and urine mercury concentration was low (r=0.297). Mercury levels in saliva ranged between <0.32 and 4.5 microg/l (median 0.16 microg/l). The mercury concentration in saliva was below the limit of quantification of 0.32 microg/l in more than 70% of the samples. Mercury analysis in urine is suitable to estimate mercury exposure due to amalgam fillings, whereas hair mercury better reflects mercury intake by fish consumption. Up to now, saliva does not seem to be a suitable tool to monitor the mercury burden, at least not at low exposure levels. PMID:12087431

  19. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na131I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 131I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na131I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  20. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  1. Saliva Levels of IL-4 and IFN gamma in patients with Oral Lichen Planus

    Nafarzadeh SH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:     Background and Aim : Saliva levels of IL-4 and IFN gamma have been reported to show discrepancies in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. The purpose of this study was to assess the saliva levels of these markers with the aim to facilitate the diagnosis and understanding of the pathogenesis of Lichen Planus.   Materials and Methods : This Case-control study was conducted on 84 samples consisting 30 patients with (OLP and 54 healthy samples who showed no mucosal lesions on clinical examination. The saliva specimens were analyzed by ELIZA test for evaluation of IL4 And IFN γ levels. Data were analyzed by Mann-U-Whitney test, Spearman and Pearson coefficient tests.   Results : The saliva levels of IFN-gamma in samples with Lichen Planus was 4.48 + 4.3 compared to 3.54 + 2.7 in healthy samples. The IL-4 alevels were found to be 3.28 +11.07 in patients with Lichen Planus whereas in healthy subjects it was reported to be 2.86 + 6.3. No significant differences were found between the levels of IFN gamma and IL-4 in patients with (OLP compared to control group. (P = 0.8 (P = 0.06 There is not any differences between reticular and erosive form of OLP in IL-4 and IFN γ levels. (P = 0.2   Conclusion : Our findings indicate that these two factors are not involved in pathogenesis of lichen planus, however but more studies. are recommended.

  2. Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women

    Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Lamonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; CEKICI, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were...

  3. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

  4. Intravitam diagnosis of human rabies by PCR using saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Crepin, P; Audry, L; Rotivel, Y; Gacoin, A; Caroff, C; Bourhy, H

    1998-04-01

    An optimized reverse transcription (RT)-PCR protocol for the intravitam detection of rabies virus genomic RNA was tested with clinical samples obtained from 28 patients suspected of having rabies, 9 of whom were confirmed to have had rabies by postmortem examination. RT-PCR using saliva combined with an immunofluorescence assay performed with skin biopsy samples allowed detection of rabies in the nine patients. PMID:9542950

  5. Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti

    Drahota, J.; Lipoldová, Marie; Volf, P.; Rohoušová, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 12 (2009), s. 766-770. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021620828; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti- saliva IgG * cellular response * Phlebotomus sergenti Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2009

  6. The Release of Elements from Dental Casting Alloy into Cell-Culture Medium and Artificial Saliva

    Can, Gülşen; Akpınar, Gül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of dental casting alloys is a critical issue because these alloys are in long-term intimate contact with oral tissues. Since the biocompatibility of alloys is not completely known; the release of elements from the alloys has been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the elemental release from dental casting alloy during exposure to artificial saliva and cell-culture medium. Materials and Methods Twenty specimens made from Ni-Cr alloy were provided in t...

  7. Comparison of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles from Sheep and Goat Parotid Saliva

    E. Lamy; Da Costa, G.; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Potes, J.C.; A.V. Coelho; Sales Baptista, E

    2008-01-01

    Saliva provides a medium for short-term adaptation to changes in diet composition, namely, the presence of plant secondary metabolites. Salivary proteins have biological functions that have particular influence on oral homeostasis, taste, and digestive function. Some salivary proteins, such as proline-rich proteins, are present in browsers but absent in grazers. Despite the significance of salivary proteins, their expression patterns in many herbivores are unknown. We investigated the sodium ...

  8. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    Peacocke Julia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the worlds worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4?M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20 and HIV positive (n=20 donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay.

  9. Inhibition of the interaction of Streptococcus sanguis with hexadecane droplets by 55- and 60-kilodalton hydrophobic proteins of human saliva.

    Babu, J P; Beachey, E H; Simpson, W A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of salivary secretions on the hydrophobicity of Streptococcus sanguis was investigated. Pretreatment of the bacteria with paraffin-stimulated whole saliva resulted in a 79% inhibition of adhesion to hexadecane droplets. Column chromatography on Sepharose 4B and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoretic analysis indicated that the inhibitory activity of saliva resided in a fraction containing material of approximately 60,000 molecular weight. The active components, which we have te...

  10. The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito saliva is associated with modulation of the host immune response

    Schneider, Bradley S.; Higgs, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses have emerged as a major human health concern. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are the cause of the most serious and widespread arbovirus diseases worldwide and are ubiquitous in both feral and urban settings. Arboviruses, including dengue and West Nile virus are injected into vertebrates within mosquito saliva during mosquito feeding. Mosquito saliva contains anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that facilitate the acquisition of a blood...

  11. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Feng, Shan; Wang, Qingtao; MALAMUD, Daniel; Deng, Haiteng

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial pr...

  12. Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva

    Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R.; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R; Hill, Sandra E.; Wolf, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the mic...

  13. Quantitation of SPLUNC1 in saliva with an xMAP particle-based antibody capture and detection immunoassay

    Kohlgraf, Karl G; Ackermann, Abbey R.; Burnell, Kindra K.; Srikantha, Rupasree N.; Joly, Sophie A.; Bartlett, Jennifer; Gakhar, Lokesh; Johnson, Georgia K.; Mccray, Paul B.; Guthmiller, Janet M.; Kim A. Brogden

    2011-01-01

    The short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein may be differentially expressed in oral infections, oral inflammatory disorders, or oral malignancies and may be involved in innate immune responses in the oral cavity. However, the actual concentration of SPLUNC1 in saliva has not previously been determined. In this study, we determined the concentrations of SPLUNC1 in saliva using a particle-based antibody capture and detection immunoassay. A commercial goat anti-rhSPLUNC1...

  14. XPS study of Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo dental alloys treated in artificial saliva

    Complete text of publication follows. Importance of the usage of non-allergic alloys Co-Cr-Mo relative to the more allergic Ni- Cr-Mo alloys well known in the field of biomedical science. The aim of the present study was to compare the surface layers by XPS (Al Kα X-ray excited Photoelectron Spectroscopy) method from the point of view of corrosion and passivation of the mentioned alloys. Sample preparation were made in Bucharest in a NIPNE cooperation: Co-Cr- Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo discs of diameter of 8 mm with a thickness of about 1.3 mm were treated in artificial saliva solutions. XPS measurements were made in Debrecen in ATOMKI by a home made electron spectrometer based on a hemispherical analyzer in fixed retardation ratio mode using the retardation ratios of k=4 for survey scan and k=8 (k=Ekinetic/Epass) for more detailed narrow scan spectra. In this way the relative energy resolution was 0.125 % at k=4 and 0.0625 % at k=8, respectively. Survey and detailed XPS spectra were taken as a function of depth of a few times 10 nm measured from the top surface by the help of Ar+ ion etching (AG21 ion source, VG Microtech). Elemental composition and chemical states were studied. The angle of incidence of the ions were 40 degrees relative to the surface normal of the specimen to increase the ion sputtering yield and the same time to decrease the matrix effects caused by the ion beam, that is as much as possible to decrease the preferential sputtering. The data evaluation was made by a home-made computer software of EWA. The XPS peak components of different chemical states of Cr and the relative atomic concentrations of the different components (oxide and metal) were determined from the peak area of XPS using the Voight peak shape. The survey scan spectra showed not only the main components of the alloys, but the chemical components characteristic for the chemical treatment of the alloys, like Na, Cl, etc. The main conclusions are: the Cr was in the form of Cr3+ in the top surface. The metal to oxide ratios from Cr 2p XPS spectra vs. Ar+ etching for all the samples changed very much. The other two main components of the alloys, Co and Ni were in metallic form except in the as received spectra. As a function of the alloy composition and the saliva solution treatment (time, temperature, concentration of NaCl, etc.) the Cr-oxide layer thickness changed dramatically

  15. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Test and Surface Characterization of CoCrW Alloy in Artificial Saliva Solution for Dental Applications.

    Souza, Klester Santos; Jaimes, Ruth Flavia Vera Villamil; Rogero, Sizue Otta; Nascente, Pedro Augusto de Paula; Agostinho, Silvia Maria Leite

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate its application as a dental prosthesis material, a CoCrW alloy was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity test, surface characterization and electrochemical studies performed in artificial saliva and 0.15 mol.L-1 NaCl medium. The used techniques were: anodic polarization curves, chronoamperometric measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cytotoxicity test was also performed. The electrochemical behavior of CoCrW alloy was compared in both studied media, from corrosion potential (Ecorr) to a 600 mV anodic overvoltage. From the electrochemical measurements it was observed that the CoCrW alloy in both media presents only generalized corrosion. SEM and EDS analysis showed that the alloy presents carbide niobium and silicon and manganese oxides as nonmetallic inclusions. XPS results indicated that cobalt does not significantly contribute to the passivating film formation. Cytotoxicity test showed no cytotoxic character of CoCrW alloy. These results suggest that the CoCrW alloy can be used as biomaterial to be applied as prosthesis in dental implants. PMID:27058381

  16. Shared and unique proteins in human, mouse and rat saliva proteomes: Footprints of functional adaptation

    Karn, Robert C.; Chung, Amanda G.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with salivas collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6) and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi). Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals. PMID:24926433

  17. Pros and cons of benzodiazepines screening in human saliva by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Armenta, S; Blanco, M

    2011-10-01

    The usefulness of ion mobility spectrometry as a screening methodology for the on-site benzodiazepine analysis in saliva samples has been critically evaluated. The procedure involved the injection of clear supernatant extracts after centrifugation and provided limit of detection values ranging from 2.0 to 18 μg L(-1), and a precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, from 2.9% to 16%, depending on the different benzodiazepines studied. Those values are appropriate for their positive identification in saliva samples in which benzodiazepine concentration, after a chronic or acute dose, is in the range of 2-30 μg L(-1). Problems related with overlapped benzodiazepine signals have been successfully overcome by application of multivariate curve resolution, which is a helpful tool to improve the resolution of the technique, without sacrificing the method simplicity and frequency of analysis. The possibility of false positives caused by the presence of interferents with the same drift time as the benzodiazepines and the possibility of false negatives due to the presence of interferents by competitive ionization have been critically evaluated. The satisfactory results obtained for the analysis of real saliva samples after an acute dose of diazepam through sublingual and oral intakes confirm the capability of the technique to be used as a screening methodology in the analysis of benzodiazepines in oral fluids. PMID:21805317

  18. Members of the salivary gland surface protein (SGS) family are major immunogenic components of mosquito saliva.

    King, Jonas G; Vernick, Kenneth D; Hillyer, Julin F

    2011-11-25

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675

  19. Analysis of saliva from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) species from Brazil by NAA

    The Amblyomma cajennense tick species is considered one of the most important and widespread species in Brazil. It salivary secretion has been a target of several studies in biocenology, as the vector of diseases and in investigations related to antihemostatic properties and antitumor. To complement this investigation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to determine concentrations of elements in saliva samples of this tick species. The saliva samples (50-554 μL) were collected at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and they were investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data were compared with the values established for Amblyomma americanum and Amblyomma variegatum species emphasizing agreement only for Cl, K and Na with the A. americanum species, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms that regulate the osmotic pressure in this hematophagous animal. The knowledge of these limits contributes for tick saliva characterization as well as for the understanding of the many physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  20. Standard-free method for body fluid samples such as saliva, sweat, snivel and tear

    We have developed standard-free methods for PIXE analysis of hair, nail, urine and serum, and they have widely been applied to studies on human exposure to some toxic elements caused by pollution in many countries. Although these samples are known to be quite suited for evaluating human exposure to toxic elements, there is a cause where it is required to quantitatively analyze other samples taken from people. We have examined sweat, saliva, snivel and tear, which are expected to be useful for estimating concentration of various elements in a human body. However, sufficient quantities of them are difficult to be taken from a human body and it is required to establish standard-free methods for these samples. In the present work, standard-free methods for sweat and saliva were established and its accuracy and reproducibility are confirmed. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze only a drop of sweat and saliva by means of this method. For snivel and tear, potassium concentration is obtained by the internal-standard method for a small-spot sample and the conversion coefficient required for the standard-free method was evaluated. It is found that analyses of these samples give us useful information about some specific elements. As the standard-free methods are free from dryness of samples, which becomes a serious problem in the case where the internal-standard method is applied, it is expected to give more essential information about elemental concentration in a human body. (author)

  1. Evaluation of physical properties of enamel after microabrasion, polishing, and storage in artificial saliva

    This study evaluated the effect of microabrasion and polishing on the microhardness and roughness of bovine enamel, and the effect of artificial saliva on the hardness of enamel. Bovine enamel blocks were used, forming the groups (n = 48): GI-37% phosphoric acid and pumice, GII--Opalustre, and GIII--Whiteness RM. The groups were divided into different subgroups: (a) diamond paste, (b) fluoride prophylactic paste, and (c) without polishing. Hardness tests were carried out at the following set times: (T1) initial, (T2) after microabrasion and polishing, (T3) after immersion in artificial saliva for 24 h; and (T4) after seven days of immersion. Surface roughness tests were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance of 5%. Microhardness increased in T2; without polishing, only groups GII and GIII showed an increased microhardness. T3 did not differ from T4; GI, GII and GIII did not provide surface roughness that differed from each other; and all microabrasive systems followed by polishing showed a higher surface smoothness compared with the control groups. It is concluded that microabrasion followed by polishing provided higher hardness and better surface smoothness of the enamel. However, immersion in artificial saliva was not able to increase the enamel hardness.

  2. Estimated risks of water and saliva contamination by phthalate diffusion from plasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    Corea-Tllez, Kira S; Bustamante-Montes, Patricia; Garca-Fbila, Magdalena; Hernndez-Valero, Mara A; Vzquez-Moreno, Flavio

    2008-10-01

    Phthalates are additives commonly used to convert hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins into flexible and workable plastics employed in the production of chewable rubber toys and other soft-plastic products. In theory, phthalates can diffuse in small quantities to the surface of a product, and from there they can enter the environment and the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the diffusion of phthalates from plasticized PVC in water and artificial saliva; to determine the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) phthalate in human saliva using gas chromatography; to compare the experimental values with theoretical values calculated using a model based on the principles of molecular diffusion in fluids; and to use the experimental values to estimate daily doses of DEHP received by Mexican children and infants using plastic and soft-plastic products (e.g., pacifiers, chewable toys, and bottles). Our findings indicated phthalate diffusion of 0.36 microg/cm2 per hour and 4.10 microg/cm2 per hour, respectively, in water and artificial saliva. The average value of phthalate diffusion in vivo was 6.04 microg/cm2 per hour. The daily oral phthalate exposure in Mexican infants and toddlers from oral use of rubber toys and soft-plastic products is 18.12 microg/kg. These daily doses are considerably lower than the maximum daily phthalate intake recommended by an international public health committee. PMID:18990931

  3. Evaluation of physical properties of enamel after microabrasion, polishing, and storage in artificial saliva

    Fragoso, L S M; Lima, D A N L; De Alexandre, R S; Bertoldo, C E S; Aguiar, F H B; Lovadino, J R, E-mail: deboralima@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, PO BOX 52 University of Campinas-UNICAMP 13414-903, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the effect of microabrasion and polishing on the microhardness and roughness of bovine enamel, and the effect of artificial saliva on the hardness of enamel. Bovine enamel blocks were used, forming the groups (n = 48): GI-37% phosphoric acid and pumice, GII--Opalustre, and GIII--Whiteness RM. The groups were divided into different subgroups: (a) diamond paste, (b) fluoride prophylactic paste, and (c) without polishing. Hardness tests were carried out at the following set times: (T1) initial, (T2) after microabrasion and polishing, (T3) after immersion in artificial saliva for 24 h; and (T4) after seven days of immersion. Surface roughness tests were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance of 5%. Microhardness increased in T2; without polishing, only groups GII and GIII showed an increased microhardness. T3 did not differ from T4; GI, GII and GIII did not provide surface roughness that differed from each other; and all microabrasive systems followed by polishing showed a higher surface smoothness compared with the control groups. It is concluded that microabrasion followed by polishing provided higher hardness and better surface smoothness of the enamel. However, immersion in artificial saliva was not able to increase the enamel hardness.

  4. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible. (author)

  5. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  6. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Recognition: Considerations about the Role of Saliva

    Tibor Kroly Fbin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences and food intake, in addition to nutritive, energy and electrolyte balance. Fine tuning of the gustatory system is also crucial in this respect. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are as of yet poorly defined, but it is clear that various effects of saliva on taste recognition are also involved. Specifically those metabolic polypeptides present in the saliva that were classically considered to be gut and appetite hormones (i.e., leptin, ghrelin, insulin, neuropeptide Y, peptide YY were considered to play a pivotal role. Besides these, data clearly indicate the major role of several other salivary proteins, such as salivary carbonic anhydrase (gustin, proline-rich proteins, cystatins, alpha-amylases, histatins, salivary albumin and mucins. Other proteins like glucagon-like peptide-1, salivary immunoglobulin-A, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein, salivary lactoperoxidase, salivary prolactin-inducible protein and salivary molecular chaperone HSP70/HSPAs were also expected to play an important role. Furthermore, factors including salivary flow rate, buffer capacity and ionic composition of saliva should also be considered. In this paper, the current state of research related to the above and the overall emerging field of taste-related salivary research alongside basic principles of taste perception is reviewed.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of taste recognition: considerations about the role of saliva.

    Fbin, Tibor Kroly; Beck, Anita; Fejrdy, Pl; Hermann, Pter; Fbin, Gbor

    2015-01-01

    The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences and food intake, in addition to nutritive, energy and electrolyte balance. Fine tuning of the gustatory system is also crucial in this respect. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are as of yet poorly defined, but it is clear that various effects of saliva on taste recognition are also involved. Specifically those metabolic polypeptides present in the saliva that were classically considered to be gut and appetite hormones (i.e., leptin, ghrelin, insulin, neuropeptide Y, peptide YY) were considered to play a pivotal role. Besides these, data clearly indicate the major role of several other salivary proteins, such as salivary carbonic anhydrase (gustin), proline-rich proteins, cystatins, alpha-amylases, histatins, salivary albumin and mucins. Other proteins like glucagon-like peptide-1, salivary immunoglobulin-A, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein, salivary lactoperoxidase, salivary prolactin-inducible protein and salivary molecular chaperone HSP70/HSPAs were also expected to play an important role. Furthermore, factors including salivary flow rate, buffer capacity and ionic composition of saliva should also be considered. In this paper, the current state of research related to the above and the overall emerging field of taste-related salivary research alongside basic principles of taste perception is reviewed. PMID:25782158

  9. Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non-invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases.

    Lamy, Elsa; Mau, Marcus

    2012-07-19

    Saliva is an extraordinary fluid in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. Its composition in electrolytes, hormones and especially its proteome contains information about feeding status, nutritional requirements and adaptations to diet and environment, and also about health status of animals. It is easy to collect on a non-invasive and routine basis without any need for special training. Therefore, the analysis of salivary proteomes is going to emerge into a field of high interest with the future goal to maintain and improve livestock productivity and welfare. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis and identification of salivary proteins and peptides in whole and glandular saliva is a necessary pre-requisite to identify animal disease biomarkers and a powerful tool to better understand animal physiology. This review focuses on the different approaches used to study the salivary proteomes of farm animals, in respect to the physiology of nutrition and food perception in relation to food choices. The potential of animal saliva as a source of disease biomarkers will also be pointed out. Special emphasis is laid on the 'ruminating triad' - cattle, goat and sheep - as well as swine as major species of animal production in Western and Southern Europe. PMID:22583933

  10. Analysis of protein compounds in old persons whole saliva with parodontal diseases

    Muković Silvija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the protein composition of whole saliva in 50 year-old patients an d older with manifested and terminal stages of periodontal disease, in correlation with control group of young healthy persons. Experimental and control group consisted of 30 patients. The periodontal status was determinate by using appropriate periodontal index (Sillness-Loe. Investigations were led by electrophoretic method on aragose gel which was used as a routine method for investigation of human serum proteins. Investigating in very alkaline conditions (pH-H as well as acid conditions (pH=5.9 resulted in separating alkaline and acid glycoprotein fractions in whole saliva. Results showed that there were more separated fractions within basic conditions than within acid conditions. The fraction identification was done by using relative molecule mass determination method by Weber and Osborne. Molecule mass fractions at basic conditions in comparison with the healthy sample (Sz indicated the destruction of big molecular weight alkaline proteins as well as a significant presence of acid fractions, of little molecule masses up to 60 000 (St, consequences due to aging processes in human organism. It can be concluded that changes in protein composition of whole saliva could point out to the direction and development of periodontal disease as well as changes concerning aging of human organism.

  11. The effect of bonding agents on the microleakage of sealant following contamination with saliva

    Askarizadeh Nahid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims : An issue of concern in dentistry is the inadequacy of adhesion and proper sealing following restoration of a tooth, which can lead to marginal leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bonding agent on the microleakage of a sealant material following contamination with saliva. Materials and Methods : In this experimental research, 48 sound premolars were divided into two groups. The first group received sealant without bonding and the other group was given sealant with bonding. After prophylaxis, the occlusal surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel and the teeth were then placed in fresh human saliva for l0 s. Following this, in the first group fissure sealant (Kerr was applied directly and cured; for the second group sealant was placed and cured after bonding (Single Bond; 3M. All samples were thermocycled (500 cycles; between 5°C and 55°C; dwell time of 30 s. Silver nitrate was used as the leakage tracer. The teeth were sectioned. Microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 40x magnification and the results were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results : In the group that received sealant without bonding extensive microleakage was seen; placement of sealant with bonding significantly reduced microleakage. Conclusion : In the presence of contamination with saliva, use of bonding under the fissure sealant can reduce microleakage

  12. Biochemical evaluation in human saliva with special reference to ovulation detection

    Alagendran S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of salivary sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans with reference to salivary hormones during the normal menstrual cycle. Settings and Design: Fifty women volunteers were selected for the present study. Materials and Methods : Saliva was collected from 50 women and ovulation was detected in women with normal menstrual cycles through basal body temperature (BBT, ultrasound and salivary ferning. Samples were divided into five categories, as prepubertal (6-9 years, pre-ovulatory phase (6-12 days, ovulatory phase (13-14 days, postovulatory phase (15-26 days and menopause (above 45 years. Each sample was subjected to evaluation of the sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans along with salivary hormones. Results : The result revealed that the ovulatory phase has increased sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans during the menstrual cycle when compared with that of the other phases. Consequently, an increased level of hormones such as luteinizing hormone and estrogen during the ovulatory period when compared to that of the pre-ovulatory and postovulatory periods appeared to be noteworthy. Statistically, analysis was performed using one way-ANOVA (LSD; post hoc method to determine the significance as P < 0.001, 0.01, 0.05 in between the reproductive phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion : This study concluded that saliva-specific carbohydrates in the ovulatory saliva make the possibility to develop a biomarker for detection of ovulation by non-invasive methods.

  13. Electrophoresis Profile of Total Peroxidases in Saliva and Sera of Patients with Different Oral Tumors.

    Hathama Razooki Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxidase system (EC 1.11.1.X activity is known to play a key role in a number of human diseases, where the activity of these species can be both beneficial & detrimental. In our previous work (submitted for publication a remarkable increase have been noticed in the activity of this system in saliva of patients with oral tumors (Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma OSCC, & Oral Ossifying Fibroma, OF. The present project aimed to highlight the variations in the different forms of this system in saliva & serum samples among patients with above mentioned tumors, in comparison to that of corresponding healthy individuals, using the electrophoresis as the analytical tool. Salivary peroxidase gave faint bands with a poor separation when the analysis was carried out using basic PAGE electrohoresis while good clear bands, as well as better resolutions of these bands were obtained when acidic PAGE electrophoresis was used for the analysis. An additional band, moved further toward the anode, was observed to be present, as the electrozymogram indicated, in the saliva samples of the patients with malignant tumors (Squamous cell carcinoma. The results also showed that using benzidine, or o-dianisidine, as the substrate in staining of the polyacrylamide gels , in order to localize the bands that exhibit peroxidase activity, seems to be better than using 3, 3’, 5, 5’-Tetramethylbenzidine( TMBZ as the substrate for this purpose.

  14. Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation

    Robert C. Karn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6 and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi. Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals.

  15. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  16. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean ± SD age of these women was 29.37 ± 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean ± SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 ± 1.38 μg/g in hair and 4.14 ± 4.08 μg/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's ρ = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  17. Effect of the Aedes fluviatilis saliva on the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum infection in Gallus (gallus domesticus

    Ana CVM da Rocha

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Aedes fluviatilis saliva on the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum experimental infection in Gallus (gallus domesticus was studied in distinct aspects. Chickens subcutaneously infected with sporozoites in the presence of the mosquito salivary gland homogenates (SGH showed higher levels of parasitaemia when compared to those ones that received only the sporozoites. However, the parasitaemia levels were lower among chickens previously immunized by SGH or non-infected mosquito bites compared to the controls, which did not receive saliva. High levels of anti-saliva antibodies were observed in those immunized chickens. Moreover, 53 and 102 kDa saliva proteins were recognized by sera from immunized chickens. After the sporozoite challenge, the chickens also showed significant levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies. However, the ability to generate anti-sporozoites antibodies was not correlated to the saliva immunization. Our results suggest that mosquito saliva components enhance P. gallinaceum parasite development in naive chickens. However, the prior exposure of chickens to salivary components controls the parasitemia levels in infected individuals.

  18. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006): 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-01-01

    Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Par...

  19. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antnio F M; Moresco, James; Yates, John R; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick feeding phases. These data set the foundation for in depth I. scapularis tick feeding physiology and TBD transmission studies. PMID:26751078

  20. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick feeding phases. These data set the foundation for in depth I. scapularis tick feeding physiology and TBD transmission studies. PMID:26751078

  1. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

  2. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva, dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples

    Meysam Sarshar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare genotype of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori isolated from saliva, dental plaques, gastric biopsy, and stool of each patient in order to evaluate the mode of transmission of H. pylori infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 300 antral gastric biopsy, saliva, dental plaque and stool samples which were obtained from patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy referred to endoscopy centre of Hajar hospital of Shahrekord, Iran from March 2010 to February 2011. Initially, H. pylori strains were identified by rapid urease test (RUT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied to determine the presence of H. pylori (ureC and for genotyping of voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA and cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA genes in each specimen. Finally the data were analyzed by using statistical formulas such as Chi-square and Fishers exact tests to find any significant relationship between these genes and patients diseases. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 300 gastric biopsy samples, 77.66% were confirmed to be H. pylori positive by PCR assay while this bacterium were detected in 10.72% of saliva, 71.67% of stool samples. We were not able to find it in dental plaque specimens. The prevalence of H. pylori was 90.47% among patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD, 80% among patients with gastric cancer, and 74.13% among patients with none ulcer dyspepsia (NUD by PCR assay. The evaluation of vacA and cagA genes showed 6 differences between gastric biopsy and saliva specimens and 11 differences between gastric and stool specimens. 94.42% of H. pylori positive specimens were cagA positive and all samples had amplified band both for vacA s and m regions. There was significant relationship between vacA s1a/m1a and PUD diseases (P = 0.04, s2/m2 genotype and NUD diseases (P = 0.05. No statically significant relationship was found between cagA status with clinical outcomes and vacA genotypes (P = 0.65. The evaluation of vacA and cagA genes showed 6 differences between gastric biopsy and saliva specimens and 11 differences between gastric and stool specimens. CONCLUSION: Regard to high similarity in genotype of H. pylori isolates from saliva, stomach and stool, this study support the idea which fecal- oral is the main route of H. pylori transmission and oral cavity may serve as a reservoir for H. pylori, however, remarkable genotype diversity among stomach, saliva and stool samples showed that more than one H. pylori genotype may exist in a same patient.

  3. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches were seen at least once during the 20-minute base period. None of the controls had supragastric belches. In the control group, the ingestion of yogurt caused no significant alteration in the number of air swallows, saliva swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches. In the patient group, there was an increase in the number of air swallows. If the subjects were chewing gum during this 20-minute period, there was an increase in the number of saliva swallows in both groups, without alterations of the number of air swallow, gastric belches and supragastric belches. There was no alteration in the number of the saliva swallows, air swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches in both groups for subjects who did not chew gum in the 20-40 minute period after yogurt ingestion. When the subjects were chewing the gum, there was an increase in saliva swallows in the control and patients groups and in air swallows in the patients group.ConclusionGum chewing causes an increase in saliva swallowing in both patients with excessive belching and in controls, and an increase in air swallowing in patients with excessive belching 20 minutes after yogurt ingestion. Gum chewing did not increase or decrease the frequency of gastric or supragastric belches.

  4. Effect of Different Saliva Decontamination Procedures on Bond Strength to Dentin in Single Bottle Systems

    M. Ghavam

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Following the increasing use of composites in restoring anterior and posterior teeth, problems due to its technique sensitivity have become a major concern.One of these problems is the possibility of contamination of dentin with saliva, blood and/or gingival fluid in different stages of bonding procedure, even with application of different methods of isolation. However, by introduction of Single-bottle dentin adhesives,the contamination possibility reduced to two stages. Scientific documents show that saliva contamination reduces bond strength of composites to dentin. Application of simple and efficient methods for reducing or eliminating saliva contamination enables clinicians to carry out dental treatment without any concern about deterioration of clinical longevity of restoration.Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effect of different decontamination methods on the shear bond strength of composite to dentin using a “Single-bottle” adhesive.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two extracted sound human molars and premolars were selected. Enamel of buccal surface was ground flat to expose dentin. The teeth were divided into 9 groups of 8 each. In control group (1 the adhesive “Excite” was used according tothe manufacturer, without any contamination. Conditioned and saliva contaminated dentin was (2 rinsed and blot dried, (3 rinsed, dried and re-etched. In groups 4, 5, 6 uncured adhesive was saliva contaminated and then: (4 only blot dried (5 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication and (6 resurfaced with bur, rinsed, dried and followed by repeating the whole process. In groups 7, 8, 9 cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva and then:(7 rinsed and dried (8 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication (9 same as group (6.Then “Tetric Ceram” composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces. Samples were thermo cycled in 5°C and 55°C water, 30 seconds in each bath with a dowel time of 10 seconds for 500 cycles. Finally, samples were sheared using Instron testing machine andshear bond strength data were subjected to one way ANOVA analysis, and Tukey HSD PostHoc. Mode of failure of samples was examined under Stereomicroscope (×40 and using Log-rank survival data analysis.Results: No statistically difference between mean shear bond strength of groups 1,2,3 was observed (P=0.543. Comparison of groups 4,5,6 with group 1 showed that shear bond strength of group 4 was significantly lower (P<0.001. Mean shear bond strength of groups1,7,8,9 were not significantly different (P=0.150. The major mode of failure was cohesive either in composite or dentin bonding.Conclusion: Blot- drying of saliva-contaminated uncured Single-bottle adhesive significantly decreased shear bond strength of composite to dentin. In other contamination protocols, the effect of treatments applied did not differ.

  5. Levels of Immunoglobulin A1 in Peri-Implant Fluid and Saliva from Patients with Mucositis: A Preliminary Study

    Camilla Christian Gomes, Moura; Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira, Soares; Andreia Espindola, Vieira; Maria Aparecida de, Souza; Paula, Dechichi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No existem estudos que avaliem a utilizao de imunoglobulina A1 (IgA1) como marcador precoce da inflamao peri-implantar. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os nveis de IgA1 do fluido sulcular peri-implantar (PISF) e saliva de pacientes parcialmente desdentados como indicador da mucosite. Vinte [...] e sete pacientes foram examinados para determinar a condio peri-implantar com base na profundidade de sondagem e sangramento sondagem. Saliva e PISF ao redor de implantes dentrios foram coletados e os nveis IgA1 foram avaliados pelo teste Elisa. IgA1 na saliva e PISF destes pacientes foram comparados e suas correlaes com parmetros clnicos foram avaliados. No foram observadas diferenas nos nveis de IgA1 (821,1 290,6; 779,8 401,5) na saliva e PISF (26,6 20,7; 25,1 20,5) de grupos saudveis e mucosite, respectivamente (p>0,05). Correlao entre os parmetros clnicos e IgA1 na saliva ou PISF no foi observada em grupos saudveis ou mucosite (p=0,607; p=0,826, respectivamente). Estes resultados demonstraram que IgA1 no pode ser utilizada como marcador imunolgico da mucosite. Abstract in english There are no studies evaluating the possible use of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) as an early marker for peri-implant inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the IgA1 levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) and saliva of partially edentulous patients as an indicator of mucositis. Twenty- [...] seven patients were examined to determine the peri-implant status based on probing depth and bleeding on probing. Saliva and PISF around dental implants were collected and the IgA1 levels were evaluated by Elisa assay. IgA1 in saliva and PISF of these patients were compared and their correlations with clinical parameters were evaluated. Differences in IgA1 levels in saliva (821.1 290.6; 779.8 401.5) and PISF (26.6 20.7; 25.1 20.5) of healthy and mucositis groups, respectively were not observed (p>0.05). Correlation between clinical parameters and IgA1 in saliva or PISF was not observed in healthy or mucositis groups (p=0.607; p=0.826, respectively). These results suggest that IgA1 cannot be used as an immunological marker of mucositis.

  6. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion of quebracho at 50 g/kg DM for 64 d does not appear to alter saliva production in sheep and goats. PMID:23296827

  7. Activity of α-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours

    The activity of α-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the α-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the α-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of α-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the α-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of α-amylase in the serum. (author)

  8. Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil

    Oliveira Solange Artimos de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig M by antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA. Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4% saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

  9. Resistncia de unio dentina: efeito da umidade e da contaminao com saliva Effects of moist and saliva contamination on bond strength to dentin

    Mriam Lacalle TURBINO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou, por meio de teste de trao in vitro, a resistncia de unio dentina de 2 sistemas adesivos (SBMP-Plus/3M e Prime & Bond 2.0/Dentsply, que foram utilizados de 3 formas diferentes: 1 secando com ar aps a lavagem do condicionamento cido; 2 re-umedecendo com gua destilada aps a secagem, e 3 contaminando com saliva fresca aps a secagem. Sessenta dentes molares humanos extrados foram includos em resina acrlica incolor, desgastados com lixa de papel at exposio de dentina no sentido longitudinal e divididos em 6 grupos. Sobre esses dentes foram confeccionados cones de resina composta Z-100 (3M aderidos com os 2 diferentes sistemas adesivos nas 3 condies descritas anteriormente. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos a testes de trao numa mquina de ensaios Universal Wolpert a uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. Os resultados obtidos foram transformados em MPa de acordo com a rea de adeso e submetidos a anlise estatstica pela ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os resultados mostraram que os 2 sistemas adesivos no apresentaram diferena estatisticamente significante entre si (p>0,05; os dentes que foram secos (7,312,91 apresentaram a menor resistncia trao e aqueles que foram umedecidos com gua destilada (12,746,59 apresentaram a maior resistncia, sendo a diferena entre eles estatisticamente significante no nvel de 1%. Os dentes que foram contaminados com saliva fresca (10,624,75 apresentaram um valor intermedirio entre os dois anteriores, no sendo este estatisticamente diferente de nenhum dos outros dois tratamentos realizadosThis in vitro study examined dentin bond strength to dentin of two adhesive systems (SBMP-Plus/3M and Prime & Bond2.0/Dentsply that were used in three different ways: 1 drying with compressed air after washing the etching solution used; 2 moistening with distilled water after drying; and 3 contaminating the dentin surface with fresh saliva after drying. Sixty extracted human molar teeth were embedded in acrylic resin, the buccal surface was ground with 400grit abrasive disks until dentin exposure and divided into 6 groups. The samples were obtained by bonding conical-shaped specimens made of composite resin to dentin (Z-100 - 3M and submitted to tensile tests performed by a Wolpert Universal machine, at 0.5mm/min speed. The data obtained were transformed into MPa and submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Tukey test. The results showed that the two adhesive systems were not statistically different one from the other (p>0.05 and that Group 1 (7.312.91 showed lower tensile strength; those moistened with distilled water (12.746.59 had the greatest tensile bond strength, being the difference between them statistically significant at 1% level. The teeth that were contaminated with fresh saliva (10.624.75 showed an intermediate value between the two other groups, and there was no statistical difference when compared to both of them

  10. Library resources on the Internet

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  11. Targeted profiling of oral bacteria in human saliva and in vitro biofilms with quantitative real-time PCR.

    Price, R R; Viscount, H B; Stanley, M C; Leung, K-P

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro plaque model based on the use of human salivary bacteria and tooth-like surfaces was previously developed for studying the formation of oral biofilm and its use for pre-clinical testing of candidate antimicrobial or antiplaque agents. In this study, a quantitative Taqman PCR assay (QPCR) was developed to compare the bacterial compositions of in vitro biofilms to parent saliva samples, and to determine the relative contributions of different species in the formation of the oral biofilm. In addition, the growth inhibition of saliva-derived plaque was evaluated by chlorhexidine. With this assay, which consisted of primer/probe sets targeting either 16S rDNA sequences present in public databases or cloned ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ISR) sequences, 15 oral bacteria derived from saliva as well as those that were responsible for biofilm formation in an in vitro plaque model were rapidly identified and quantified. Among the target organisms were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micromonas micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Tannerella forsythensis, and Veillonella parvula. Primer and probe sets developed were both sensitive and specific. The relative profiles of a number of bacteria in 45-h-old biofilms were determined and, when compared to saliva samples, it was found that most of the bacteria identified in saliva also populated the in vitro plaque, including some anaerobes. Brief exposure of biofilms to chlorhexidine resulted in significant losses in viability. This new broad spectrum QPCR assay in combination with the in vitro plaque model will be of significant value in the quantitative study of the microbial composition of human saliva, saliva-derived plaque, and pre-clinical evaluation of potential antimicrobial and antiplaque molecules. PMID:17653931

  12. Human saliva as a source of anti-malarial antibodies to examine population exposure to Plasmodium falciparum

    West Sheila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method would provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia. Methods In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed. IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-119 and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1 were measured by ELISA in paired saliva and blood samples from both sites. Antibody levels were compared as continuous optical density (OD values and by sero-positivity. Results Significant correlations between saliva and plasma antibody levels were seen in Tanzania for both antigens, AMA-1(r2 range 0.93 to 0.89, p 19 (r2 range 0.93 to 0.75, p 2range 0.64 to 0.63, p 19 (sensitivity range 64-77% and specificity range 91-100% & 47-67% and 90-97% respectively over the different sample sets. Conclusions These data demonstrate anti-malarial antibodies can be detected in saliva and correlate strongly with levels in plasma. This non-invasive relatively simple collection method will be potentially useful for general population surveys, and particularly in migratory populations or those with infrequent contact with health services or opposed to blood withdrawal. Further studies will be needed to optimize collection methods, standardize volumes and content and develop controls.

  13. Change from mixed diet to lactovegetarian diet: influence on IgA levels in blood and saliva.

    Johansson, G; Widerström, L

    1994-12-01

    IgA concentrations in human plasma, and whole and parotid saliva were measured before and 3 months after a shift to a lactovegetarian diet in 20 volunteers (four men and 16 women mean age 44 yr, range 27-61). The major dietary trends observed were an increased intake of berries and other fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, and a decreased intake of fish, eggs, and meat; biscuits and buns; sweets; alcoholic beverages; coffee; and tea. The consumption of meat, fish, and eggs decreased to zero, showing that the participants had adopted a lacto-vegetarian diet. There was a decrease in fat, protein, sucrose, and alcohol intake and an increase in total carbohydrate and fiber intake. There was no significant change in energy, retinol equivalent, or zinc intake. Despite this change in diet, no significant changes were observed between the mixed diet period and the vegetarian diet period in IgA in plasma, 253 +/- 52 and 264 +/- 55; whole saliva, 2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; or parotid saliva, 0.88 +/- 0.22 and 0.90 +/- 0.20 (mg/100 ml, mean values, 95% confidence interval). Moreover, the diet change did not alter the secretion rate in whole and parotid saliva, the secretion rate of IgA in whole and parotid saliva, or the protein content of whole saliva. However, the protein content of parotid saliva increased significantly. Thus, this major diet change was apparently not drastic enough or sustained long enough to cause a change in IgA levels. PMID:7871358

  14. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media

    Madsen, Katrine D.; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    employed as bioadhesive formulations. Chewing-stimulated human whole saliva was collected and characterized for use in retention studies in comparison with four artificial irrigation media; phosphate buffer, Saliva Orthana(®), porcine gastric mucin base media (PGM3), and xanthan gum based media (XG2...... gum possessed a higher viscosity than phosphate buffer, which led to longer retention of the drug due to better hydration of the mucosa and the spray dried microparticles. Metformin retention profiles were comparable when human saliva, Saliva Orthana(®), or PGM3 were used as irrigation media. Moreover...

  15. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  16. Licensing principles for electronic resources

    Kyrillidou, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Copyright law provisions have traditionally protected reproduction of materials for the purposes of research and teaching in universities and libraries through library exceptions and the fair use provisions. Technological developments, however, have introduced yet easier ways for reproducing information, making the owners of copyrightable material more sensitive to reproduction technologies. There is a fervor of activity at the international level, through international treaties and European ...

  17. Electronic medical record systems, data quality and loss to follow-up: survey of antiretroviral therapy programmes in resource-limited settings

    Mathieu Forster

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the electronic medical databases used in antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes in lower-income countries and assess the measures such programmes employ to maintain and improve data quality and reduce the loss of patients to follow-up. METHODS: In 15 countries of Africa, South America and Asia, a survey was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007 on the use of electronic medical record systems in ART programmes. Patients enrolled in the sites at the time of the survey but not seen during the previous 12 months were considered lost to follow-up. The quality of the data was assessed by computing the percentage of missing key variables (age, sex, clinical stage of HIV infection, CD4+ lymphocyte count and year of ART initiation. Associations between site characteristics (such as number of staff members dedicated to data management, measures to reduce loss to follow-up (such as the presence of staff dedicated to tracing patients and data quality and loss to follow-up were analysed using multivariate logit models. FINDINGS: Twenty-one sites that together provided ART to 50 060 patients were included (median number of patients per site: 1000; interquartile range, IQR: 72-19 320. Eighteen sites (86% used an electronic database for medical record-keeping; 15 (83% such sites relied on software intended for personal or small business use. The median percentage of missing data for key variables per site was 10.9% (IQR: 2.0-18.9% and declined with training in data management (odds ratio, OR: 0.58; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.37-0.90 and weekly hours spent by a clerk on the database per 100 patients on ART (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99. About 10 weekly hours per 100 patients on ART were required to reduce missing data for key variables to below 10%. The median percentage of patients lost to follow-up 1 year after starting ART was 8.5% (IQR: 4.2-19.7%. Strategies to reduce loss to follow-up included outreach teams, community-based organizations and checking death registry data. Implementation of all three strategies substantially reduced losses to follow-up (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.15-0.20. CONCLUSION: The quality of the data collected and the retention of patients in ART treatment programmes are unsatisfactory for many sites involved in the scale-up of ART in resource-limited settings, mainly because of insufficient staff trained to manage data and trace patients lost to follow-up.

  18. Identification of histatins as tannin-binding proteins in human saliva.

    Yan, Q; Bennick, A

    1995-01-01

    Tannins have a number of detrimental biological effects and these include interference with normal growth and metabolism if they are present in the feed of various animals. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in saliva have been shown to provide protection against tannin, but little is known about the mechanism of protection and interaction of other salivary proteins with tannin. To identify tannin-binding human salivary proteins, parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were adsorbed with tannin. PRPs, and in particular a group of low-M(r) proteins, were readily precipitated by tannin. The low-M(r) proteins were purified from parotid saliva and demonstrated to be histatins, a family of well-characterized histidine-rich salivary proteins. The ability of synthetic histatin 5, as well as an acidic PRP (PRP-1) and gelatin to precipitate quebracho condensed tannin and tannic acid was determined. At pH 7.4 histatin 5 was the most effective precipitant of both condensed tannin and tannic acid and it also precipitated the largest amount of condensed tannin at pH 3.0, but the smallest amount of tannic acid at that pH. In contrast PRP-1 showed a greater ability to precipitate both condensed tannin and tannic acid at pH 3.0 than at pH 7.4. Under most circumstances histatin 5 was therefore more effective in precipitating tannins than proteins with high proline content which generally have been recognized as strong precipitants of tannin. Pre-incubation of tannic acid with alpha-amylase inhibited the enzyme, but addition of histatin 5 or the acidic PRP PIF-s protected amylase from inhibition by tannin. Similarly salivary proteins may protect other biological activities in the digestive tract from inhibition by dietary tannin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7575474

  19. Influence of periodontal disease on Th1/Th2-type cytokines in saliva of HIV-positive individuals.

    Vastardis, S; Leigh, J E; Wozniak, K; Yukna, R; Fidel, P L

    2003-04-01

    Cytokines present during immune responses have a tremendous influence on resistance/susceptibility to oral diseases including periodontal disease and oral opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised individual, as seen by altered Th cytokines in saliva with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and oropharyngeal candidiasis. This study was designed to evaluate whether the presence of severe periodontal disease has any influence on Th cytokines in saliva of HIV-positive persons. For this, saliva from a cohort of HIV-positive persons with mild or severe periodontitis was evaluated for Th cytokines. A dominant Th2-type cytokine profile in saliva was validated in HIV-positive subjects with considerable immune suppression, irrespective of periodontal disease status. However, no significant differences in concentrations of Th1- or Th2-type cytokines in saliva were observed when stratified by periodontal status. Thus, the lack of salivary influences by periodontitis eliminates periodontal disease as a variable in interpretations regarding correlates of local cytokines during oral manifestations of HIV. PMID:12654096

  20. The corrosion behaviour of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in artificial saliva with the addition of fluoride

    Research highlights: → The corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L and 2205 DSS in orthodontics. → The increased passive range for DSS 2205 compared to AISI 316L in artificial saliva. → Higher Rp values of DSS compared to AISI 316L in artificial saliva. → The main constituent of the passive layers on DSS at the OCP in saliva was Cr-oxide. → DSS 2205 is suitable for orthodontic applications in artificial saliva. - Abstract: The evolution of the passive films on 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 DSS) and AISI 316L stainless steel in artificial saliva, and with the addition of fluoride, was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic measurements. The extent of the passive range increased for the 2205 DSS compared to the AISI 316L in both solutions. The formation of the passive film was studied by EIS at the open-circuit potential (OCP). The passive layers were studied at the OCP by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The passive films on both materials predominantly contained Cr-oxides, whereas the Fe species were markedly depleted.