WorldWideScience
 
 
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Electronic Resource Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

Mark Ellingsen

2004-09-01

2

Fundamentals of Electronics Educational Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from UBM Tech provides links to a variety of technical papers, webinars, videos and tutorials pertaining to fundamental electronics. At the top of the page, users will find current spotlight resources.

2013-07-10

3

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-12-01

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Wrangling Electronic Resources: A Few Good Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several freely available tools today that fill the needs of librarians tasked with maintaining electronic resources, that assist with tasks such as editing MARC records and maintaining web sites that contain links to electronic resources. This article gives a tour of a few tools the author has found invaluable as an Electronic Resources Librarian.

Brandy Klug

2010-03-01

5

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

6

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

7

Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

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Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

2012-01-01

9

Science behind human saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side ef...

Tiwari, Manjul

2011-01-01

10

Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and informative…

Tijerina, Bonnie

2008-01-01

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Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the fall of 2002, Ohio State University along with the University of Washington, the University of Western Australia, Washington State University, and Glasgow University entered into a development partnership with Innovative Interfaces. The goal was to develop a module to manage electronic resources, integrated into Innovative’s Millennium library system. The product, Electronic Resource Management (ERM), became available in 2004 and is based on the work of the Digital Library Federation...

Tull, Laura

2013-01-01

12

Saliva and dental erosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-10-01

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Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

14

Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize th...

Blansit, B. D.; Connor, E.

1999-01-01

15

Saliva and wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24862594

Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I

2014-01-01

16

FORMATION AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????-???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of a study of one of the components of typical scientific electronic libraries – electronic information resources. The structure of electronic scientific information and educational resources allocated to their structure. The distribution of electronic information resources for the essential attributes: their properties, typology, for the creation, formation and storage technology. Based on the fact that the most promising way of information support of s...

????????, ?. ?.

2010-01-01

17

Oestrogens in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matched plasma and saliva samples were obtained from a non-pregnant and pregnant group (last trimester) of female caucasians. Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay, 17?-oestradiol was measured, and the gingival index system of Loe (1967) was used to assess the gingival condition of each patient. The results showed that 17?-oestradiol could be measured in saliva but that the levels were extremely low and a very sensitive immunoassay was necessary. In the pregnant group, saliva represented 3 per cent of the plasma level. This was not the case in the non-pregnant group, probably because of the constantly changing free: bound plasma ratio. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that oestrogens are known to bind to the oral epithelium

1981-01-01

18

Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva...

Ai Jiye; Smith Barry; David Wong T

2010-01-01

19

You Have "How Many" Spreadsheets? Rethinking Electronic Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

As libraries face a veritable explosion of electronic resources and as the interconnectedness of print and online resources becomes increasingly complicated, many librarians are challenged to find efficient and cost-friendly ways to manage these resources. In this article, the authors describe how a team of people from various library departments…

Rux, Erika; Borchert, Theresa

2010-01-01

20

The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

Pomerantz, Sarah B.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process using ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a UK wide study attempting to assess the impact libraries have on the work and study of their members, Edinburgh University Library (EUL) decided to “measure the impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process”, using the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.

Love-rodgers, Christine; Stewart, Rowena

2006-01-01

22

Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

23

Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overvie...

2004-01-01

24

Genomic Targets in Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva, the most accessible and noninvasive biofluid of our body, harbors a wide spectrum of biological analytes informative for clinical diagnostic applications. While proteomic constituents are a logical first choice as salivary diagnostic analytes, genomic targets have emerged as highly informative and discriminatory. This awareness, coupled with the ability to harness genomic information by high-throughput technology platforms such as genome-wide microarrays, ideally positions salivary ge...

Zimmermann, Bernhard G.; Park, Noh Jin; Wong, David T.

2007-01-01

25

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

26

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

27

Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

Doži? Ivan

2005-01-01

28

Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

29

Developing an Electronic Resource Management System: Verde from Ex Libris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid growth in the number of electronic resources and the complexity of managing e-collections has posed new challenges for libraries and hence requires the development of new tools. To meet this need, Ex Libris is developing a new product, an electronic resource management (ERM system. The development process began in 2002 and has benefited from the company's 25 years of experience in providing libraries with various products - an integrated library system, digital asset management system, library portal, and link server. Working with an international focus group and development partners and interacting with the Digital Library Federation's Electronic Resource Management Initiative (DLF ERMI committee, Ex Libris explored the various aspects of the e-resource life cycle. As a result, the Ex Libris ERM system was designed to address the issues raised through this collaboration and the DLF requirements. The interface of the system represents all of its components; it includes navigation options and facilitates workflows that support the various activities that librarians perform when dealing with electronic resources. This paper describes the development process of the Ex Libris ERM system. The emphasis is on the particular functionality required for managing e-resources and the ways in which existing systems in the library arena can handle specific tasks.

Tamar Sadeh

2004-09-01

30

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

31

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

32

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

33

Enhancing the use of electronic resources on a university library's website : herding electronic resources into subject groupings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of five separate websites from the campus libraries at Texas A&M University in 2002 resulted in the creation of a unified listing of all electronic resources, with well over 20,000 entries. This was the first time we were able to provide library users with a single, comprehensive list of electronic resources. But it quickly became clear that it was not very usable. In June 2002 the University Libraries Web Implementation Team (WIT) identified a diverse group of library staff t...

Carrigan, Esther; Sewell, Robin; Wilson, Mary Dabney; Highsmith, Anne L.

2005-01-01

34

Saliva tannin interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plant foods contain tannins, compounds that bind proteins, such as mammalian enzymes. Although described as tasteless, tannins can be detected orally by their astringency. However, the actual mechanism of oral detection and the effect of tannins on mastication and swallowing have been little investigated. Here, we show from in vitro tests that tannic acid, a common standard in tests used to detect tannins, significantly reduces the lubricating qualities of human saliva both by decreasing its viscosity and increasing friction, both factors lending support to the notion that astringency is a tactile phenomenon. From the literature, it is clear that this effect depends on the presence of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP). In a mammalian context, ingestion of tannin-rich foods in a species with salivary PRP will be signalled by interference with bolus formation during mastication while the increase in friction may also be detectable and lead to increased tooth wear if the signal is ignored. In a human context, cross-cultural preferences for tannin-rich beverages such as tea, coffee and red wine at the end of meals may be explained by reduction in adhesion of food particles to the oral mucosa allowing their rapid oral clearance. PMID:11106991

Prinz, J F; Lucas, P W

2000-11-01

35

Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO2 and Cr2O3 forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

2009-11-13

36

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

37

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

38

An electronic approach to evaluating healthcare Web resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information literacy skills, which include the ability to evaluate electronic healthcare sites, are critical to the decision-making responsibilities of students and professionals. The authors describe the experiences of nursing and library services faculty in the development and implementation of a Web-delivered module for the evaluation of healthcare Web resources. A range of electronic tools was used for both the collaborative creation of the module as well as the instructional delivery of the content. Evaluation of the module revealed its usefulness to the students and the potential of the collaborative development model for other content areas. PMID:10795251

Hodson-Carlton, K; Dorner, J L

1999-01-01

39

Open Source Electronic Resource Management System: A Collaborative Implementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Librarians and strategists at Simon Fraser University (SFU) have collaborated with a team of middle-sized libraries to expand the open-source CUFTS Researcher suite of tools to include an Electronic Resources Management (ERM) system. This paper focuses on: the development and implementation of the CUFTS ERM; interoperability between CUFTS ERM and integrated library systems (Millennium); impact of the ERM on acquisitions, serials, and collections workflows and staffing at SFU Library and the U...

Taylor, Donald; Dodd, Frances; Murphy, James

2010-01-01

40

Biopterin and neopterin in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presence of biopterin and neopterin in human saliva was investigated by HPLC after iodine oxidation in acidic medium. Concentrations of biopterin and neopterin (M +/- SEM) were 1.271 +/- 0.254 and 0.358 +/- 0.075 ng per ml, respectively, in saliva of apparently healthy young male adults, ages 20 to 22 years (n = 9). Nearly identical value of the neopterin/biopterin ratio (0.29 +/- 0.07) was obtained for each of these specimens. Monapterin, the L-threo-isomer of neopterin (0.084 +/- 0.022 ng per ml saliva), and other unconjugated pterins such as xanthopterin, 6-hydroxymethylpterin and pterin were also found in the saliva. These pterins were all detectable in saliva of young female adults with similar levels to those of male saliva. Another fluorescent compound which was identical with 7-iso biopterin in retention time on HPLC was observed in all specimens of normal saliva examined. PMID:2615555

Katoh, S; Sueoka, T; Matsuura, S; Sugimoto, T

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

?.?. ????????

2011-02-01

42

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

43

White Light Generation in Human Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

2011-07-01

44

TENDENCIES OF CREATION AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATIION RESOURCES AND SERVICES ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article there are considered the most essential tendencies of creation and use of electronic information resources and services in the field of information providing of science and education, namely: modern libraries, publishing houses, control system by information resources.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?...

????, ?. ?.; ???????, ?. ?.

2010-01-01

45

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

46

Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid specific radioimmunoassay for progesterone in mixed, unstimulated saliva is described. Column chromatography is not necessary. One single extraction with petroleum ether provides a fractional recovery of 75-95%. The assay sensitivity is 9 pg progesterone/tube. The intra- and interassay variation for low, medium, and highly concentrated progesterone pools is 13.1-9.5 and 17.4-13.9%, respectively. Analytical recovery documents excellent correlation between expected and detected progesterone concentrations (r = 0.994). Data from salivary progesterone of a regularly menstruating girl and of a patient with XO Turner's syndrome are provided. PMID:6852777

Sorgo, W; Manella, B; Zachmann, M

1983-01-01

47

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

48

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

49

Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model  

CERN Document Server

A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

Elguindi, Anne

2012-01-01

50

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

51

Progesterone metabolism in human saliva in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human salivary glands are known to be able to metabolize progesterone as well as other steroid hormones. The rate of progesterone metabolism in the salivary glands is so low that it is not thought to affect salivary progesterone concentrations. On the other hand it is usually recommended that saliva should be frozen quickly after the collection to prevent any kind of metabolism in saliva. When saliva is collected at home e.g. delayed freezing or partial thawing during to transport to laboratory may create circumstances where progesterone metabolism may occur. However, it is not known to which extent progesterone metabolism continues in saliva and whether this continued metabolism of progesterone affects salivary hormone levels. Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from female (N = 6) and male (N = 6) dental students and perimenopausal women (N = 8). The salivary samples were incubated with 14C-progesterone for 2 h at 37 degrees C in a shaking water bath. Metabolites were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Human saliva was found to be able to metabolize progesterone, but its metabolic activity was very low, 9.3 and 6.8 pmol/ml/h in young adults and perimenopausal women, respectively. Metabolic activity was higher in whole saliva than in the corresponding activities of the supernatant or sonicated fraction of the same saliva. The supernatant fraction, which was thought to be mainly representative of glandular saliva, was metabolically least active. The polar metabolites of progesterone predominated in all incubations. The metabolic activity of saliva is probably mainly due to its cellular content and the contribution of this activity to salivary progesterone concentrations is not significant. PMID:10529009

Laine, M A; Ojanotko, A O

1999-01-01

52

????????????????????--?????????????? | Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

???85-97

?????????????????????88???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????www???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The Project of Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan was subsidized by Ministry of Education and carried out by National Taichung Library. The Project started in January of 1999. Its purposes are to establish an electronic database system through WWW for all the public libraries in Taiwan to provide the public to use, and to form a public library cooperation mechanism to foster resource sharing among the libraries.

This paper introduces the brief history, current status, and achievement o

??? Li-Hsiang Lai

2001-04-01

53

CREATION OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES IN STATE SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL LIBRARY BY V.A.SUHOMLINSKIY ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????-???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?. ?. ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main directions of development of the work of SSPL of Ukraine by V.A. Suhomlinskiy on creation of electronic information resources on psychology-pedagogical questions: the electronic directory, the database, the electronic library are considered in the article.?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??. ?. ?. ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ??????: ??????????? ???????, ???? ?????, ?????????? ??????????

?.?. ?????????

2010-08-01

54

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

55

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek® was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97% for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

Abraham Jean E

2012-05-01

56

Assessment of the utilisation of Makerere University electronic information resources by academic staff; challenges and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the utilization of electronic information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined academic staff awareness of the resources’ availability, the types of resources provided by the University Library , factors affecting their utilization, problems faced, and it offers recommendations for the way forward. The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, employing questionnaire, interview and content analysis methods. Finding...

Agaba, Didace Mulamira

2005-01-01

57

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G

2012-10-01

58

Interactive Printouts Integrating Multilingual Multimedia and Sign Language Electronic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we outline our previous implementations of multilingual multimedia dictionaries and discuss possibilities for adding new functionalities and expanding their coverage. Independently developed sign language dictionary resources are further explored and considered for inclusion in an integrated multilingual multimedia dictionary with…

Kanev, Kamen; Barneva, Reneta P.; Brimkov, Valentin E.; Kaneva, Dimitrina

2010-01-01

59

Diagnostic Value of Saliva in Oral and Systemic Diseases: A Literature Rewiew  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The value of saliva as a diagnostic resource of oral and systemic diseases has been object of study of several researchers that intend to add a possible complementary examination. The analysis of saliva, as analyses based on the use of blood, has two goals: first, to identify individuals with disease, and second, to follow the evolution of the affected individual, evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. Among the advantages of the use of this resource, it may be mentioned ease of material collection and handing, which are important points in the technical operationalization of this type of examination. Saliva can be useful in the evaluation of caries risk as well as in the diagnosis of other diseases by means of syalometric and syalochemical methods (flow salivary. These methods allow that substances are dosed and thus contribute to the diagnosis of diseases from the assessment of the levels of inorganic and organic elements, such as hormonal dosages, analysis of biological, viral, bacterial and fungal agents, in addition to bacterial markers that are useful in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. It is necessary to consider a hierarchical model used for diagnostic evaluation of the technology, which consists in five basic levels of analysis in which the efficacy of the entire diagnostic test should be evaluated: the analytical, which considers the accuracy and exactness; the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; the efficacy of the result for the patient based on the medical decision making; the operational evaluation, which considers the predictive value and the test efficiency; and the cost/benefit.Purpose: To perform an ample literature review on the use of saliva as a diagnostic resource of diseases and monitoring of oral and systemic health.Conclusion: The advances in the studies of diagnostic methods that use saliva as a biological mean for diagnosis and surveillance of oral and systemic conditions present promising results, which could constitute an examination resource used in routine practice.

Sérgio Adriane Bezerra de MOURA

2007-05-01

60

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

2003-12-09

 
 
 
 
61

Detection of feline leukemia virus infection in saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question was investigated whether feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection may be diagnosed by testing saliva in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva was collected with commercially available swabs, eluted from the swabs, and tested in the ELISA. A comparison of results with saliva and serum samples from 60 specific-pathogen-free cats, 9 experimentally infected cats, and 1,117 field cats led to the following conclusions. False-positive saliva results, if any occurred, were r...

Lutz, H.; Jarrett, O.

1987-01-01

62

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

2002-10-15

63

Marks' standard handbook for mechanical engineers [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully updated to reflect current industry standards and practices, this edition of the classic handbook known simply as "Marks" offers more than 100 essential mechanical engineering topics - from the mechanics of solids and fluids to machine elements, from electrical and electronics engineering to environmental control, and from industrial engineering to instruments and controls.

1996-01-01

64

Radioimmunological method for determination of testosterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method proposed is applied for testosterone concentrations determination in plasma and saliva of 64 subjects. The plasma and saliva values showed no statistically significant differeces which is an evidence that testosterone concentrations may as well be measured in saliva whenever clinical indications exist. 2 tabs.; 7 refs

1990-01-01

65

MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

Aaron August Lupton

2012-01-01

66

Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leishmaniasis, caused by parasitic protozoa Leishmania, is transmitted by bites of female sand flies that, during blood-feeding, inject humans with parasites and saliva. Sand fly saliva has been investigated as a potential vaccine candidate. It was previously shown that immunization with Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary proteins protects against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study, we evaluated if immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or DNA plasmid coding fo...

Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, Jose? C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2011-01-01

67

Role of saliva in oral food perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is the first fluid that comes into contact with food during oral processing. Because saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors, is the fluid through which taste and aroma compounds are released into the oral cavity and is mixed continuously with food during bolus formation, it is an essential actor in oral chemosensory perception. The complexity of saliva composition, with compounds originating from different salivary glands, from gingival crevicular fluid, from micro-organisms and from food debris, together with its variable nature increases the possibilities for interactions with food compounds and for different roles in perception. These factors are increasingly being taken into account in current research on food perception. The aim of this paper is to review the principal roles of saliva in oral perception, with particular focus on chemosensory perception. These include the protection of taste buds, the effects of flow rates, salivary hormones, electrolytes and organic compounds, and finally the impact of perception on salivary secretions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24862595

Neyraud, Eric

2014-01-01

68

Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and a...

Wenxian Zhang

1997-01-01

69

Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

Wenxian Zhang

1997-03-01

70

Evaluating a scalable model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current models for implementing electronic health records (EHRs) in resource-limited settings may not be scalable because they fail to address human-resource and cost constraints. This paper describes an implementation model which relies on shared responsibility between local sites and an external three-pronged support infrastructure consisting of: (1) a national technical expertise center, (2) an implementer's community, and (3) a developer's community. This model was used to implement an op...

Were, Martin C.; Emenyonu, Nneka; Achieng, Marion; Shen, Changyu; Ssali, John; Masaba, John P. M.; Tierney, William M.

2010-01-01

71

Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs. PMID:22023919

Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

2011-01-01

72

Disseminating context-specific access to online knowledge resources within electronic health record systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinicians' patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians' questions and provide automated links to relevant information in knowledge resources. This paper describes OpenInfobutton (www.openinfobutton.org): a standards-based, open source Web service that was designed to disseminate infobutton capabilities in multiple EHR systems and healthcare organizations. OpenInfobutton has been successfully integrated with 38 knowledge resources at 5 large healthcare organizations in the United States. We describe the OpenInfobutton architecture, knowledge resource integration, and experiences at five large healthcare organizations. PMID:23920641

Del Fiol, Guilherme; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J; Iskander, Andrew; Kalluri, Aditya S D; Jing, Xia; Hulse, Nathan C; Long, Jie; Overby, Casey L; Schardt, Connie; Douglas, David M

2013-01-01

73

Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-?. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-? expression. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those transmitted by a different vector.

Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, Jose C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2011-01-01

74

Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

2007-12-01

75

The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

Xiaohua Zhu

2011-06-01

76

The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?  

Science.gov (United States)

As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

2010-01-01

77

Innovative's Electronic Resource Management as catalyst for change at Glasgow University Library  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In March 2003 Glasgow University Library joined with Innovative and several other Innovative customers to develop a new Electronic Resource Management (ERM) module. This paper will outline the ways in which the development and implementation of ERM has acted as a catalyst and facilitator for further enhancements and developments in the area of e-journals at Glasgow University Library.

2006-01-01

78

Use of Saliva for Early Dengue Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of laboratory diagnosis of dengue cannot be undermined. In recent years, many dengue diagnostic tools have become available for various stages of the disease, but the one limitation is that they require blood as a specimen for testing. In many incidences, phlebotomy in needle-phobic febrile individuals, especially children, can be challenging, and the tendency to forgo a dengue blood test is high. To circumvent this, we decided to work toward a saliva-based assay (antigen-captu...

Yap, Grace; Sil, Bijon Kumar; Ng, Lee-ching

2011-01-01

79

Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

2009-05-01

80

Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research.

Renwick, Shamin

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M; Raynor, Peter C; Pui, David Y H

2014-05-01

82

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro

2005-03-01

83

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva / Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería ú [...] til para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with [...] oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

Gutiérrez De Ferro, M.I.; Ruiz De Valladares, R.E.; Benito De Cárdenas, I.L..

84

Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for...

Kinney, J. S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C. A.; Herr, A. E.; Sugai, J. V.; Shelburne, C. E.; Rayburn, L. A.; Singh, A. K.; Giannobile, W. V.

2011-01-01

85

Genetic contributions to saliva protein concentrations in adult human twins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heritability of saliva protein concentrations was investigated in stored samples of clarified stimulated whole saliva from adult twins participating in a study of periodontal disease genetics. Saliva was obtained from 29 monozygous and 20 dizygous twin pairs. Visits were scheduled so that both twins in a pair donated saliva at the same time of day. Flow rate was determined, and frozen samples later assayed for lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory IgA, total peroxidase, myeloperoxidase and total protein. Pairs were always assayed together. Within- and between-pair variances were used to estimate twin intraclass correlations. Pearson correlations were used to estimate associations between saliva variables and clinical indices of gingivitis, dental plaque, periodontal attachment loss, and probing depth. Significant genetic contributions to variance were seen for total protein, lactoferrin, and total peroxidase. Total protein showed a significant positive correlation with gingivitis. There were no other correlations with clinical indices, and intraclass correlations for saliva variables did not change after adjustment for gingivitis. Dizygous twin correlations were higher than monozygous twin correlations for flow rate, lysozyme, and secretory IgA. That may be an artefact due to small numbers of pairs. It seems unlikely that a common environmental factor would strongly affect saliva in twins living apart as adults. Present findings, taken as sib correlations, support a genetic contribution to saliva protein concentrations. Problems with the twin model in saliva might be resolved by longitudinal studies of large numbers of twins. PMID:8067921

Rudney, J D; Michalowicz, B S; Krig, M A; Kane, P K; Pihlstrom, B L

1994-06-01

86

Use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is a secretion of the salivary and mucous glands and is of major importance in the maintainance of oral health. Over the last few decades, saliva has been evaluated as a diagnostic fluid in medicine for determining systemic disease markers as well as for monitoring numerous drugs, narcotics, and hormones. The biochemical analysis of saliva is particularly important in dentistry. The estimation of the risk of appearance and diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progression, evaluation of therapy efficacy for caries, periodontitis, premalignant and malignant oral lesions, as well as infectious diseases of the oral cavity, can be assessed by analyzing different constituent: of saliva, individuals at risk of caries can be identified using test: that determine saliva flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, and colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic bacteria. Today, these rapid and simple diagnostic tests are used routinely in caries risk determination. The study and use of saliva-based diagnostics have increased over the last few decades. Clinical testing of saliva shows much promise. However, there is a need for much additional research in this area, before the true clinical value of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry can be determined.

Todorovi? Tatjana

2005-01-01

87

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

88

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Deutschland - Stand und Entwicklung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) ist seit ein paar Jahren ein neuer Trend im Personalmanagement. Viele Unternehmen sind auf dem Weg, ihre Personalarbeit zu ?elektronisieren?. Dabei geht es allerdings nicht nur um die Veränderung der eingesetzten Medien, es geht vielmehr um die Verbesserung und Beschleunigung der Personalprozesse. Da zum E-HRM (synonym werden häufig die Begriffe ?E-HR? beziehungsweise ?elektronische Personalarbeit? verwendet) bislang...

2005-01-01

89

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded). Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per c...

Romanov Kalle; Aarnio Matti

2006-01-01

90

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and ...

2010-01-01

91

Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates â?¼ 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p <0.001). However, significantly lower unstimulated (p <0.05)and stimulated (p <0.01) saliva flow rates were obtained after radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p <0.01) and in a period after sucking the candies (p <0.01). HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p <0.001 and p <0.05). Conclusions. Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; Buchwald, Christian

2013-01-01

92

Resources  

...Education I am new to teaching physics Resources I am new to teaching physics Student teachers Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) Established teachers who are new to teaching physics Resources Blogs Events Resources Teaching Supporting Physics Teachers (SPT)A valuable source of inspiration for lessons for 11-16-year-olds. SPT is packed full of interactive animations and tips to help you plan your teaching approach and spot when your pupils are on the wrong ...

93

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

94

Lead levels in saliva and in blood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

P' an, A.Y.S.

1981-02-01

95

Cell-derived vesicles exposing coagulant tissue factor in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

On vascular damage, coagulation is initiated by extravascular tissue factor (TF). Intravascular TF, which is present on circulating cell-derived vesicles, is noncoagulant under physiologic conditions but prothrombotic under pathologic conditions. Human saliva triggers coagulation, but the mechanism and physiologic relevance are unknown. Because saliva is known to contain TF, we hypothesized that this TF may also be associated with cell-derived vesicles to facilitate coagulation when saliva directly contacts blood. The saliva-induced shortening of the clotting time of autologous plasma and whole blood from healthy subjects (n = 10) proved TF-dependent. This TF was associated with various types of cell-derived vesicles, including microparticles and exosomes. The physiologic function was shown by adding saliva to human pericardial wound blood collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Addition of saliva shortened the clotting time from 300 ± 96 to 186 ± 24 seconds (P = .03). Our results show that saliva triggers coagulation, thereby reducing blood loss and the risk of pathogens entering the blood. We postulate that our reflex to lick a wound may be a mechanism to enable TF-exposing vesicles, present in saliva, to aid in the coagulation process and thus protect the organism from entering pathogens. This unique compartmentalization may be highly conserved because also animals lick their wounds. PMID:21248061

Berckmans, René J; Sturk, Auguste; van Tienen, Laurens M; Schaap, Marianne C L; Nieuwland, Rienk

2011-03-17

96

Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis. PMID:20174703

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2010-03-01

97

Isolation and Identification of Bifidobacteriaceae from Human Saliva?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bifidobacteriaceae were isolated from saliva and infected dentine by using a mupirocin-based selective medium. Of the saliva samples, 94% harbored bifids. The mean concentration (± the standard error) was 4.46 (±0.12) log10(CFU per ml + 1), and the predominant isolates were Bifidobacterium dentium, B. longum, Scardovia inopinata, Parascardovia denticolens, and Alloscardovia omnicolens.

2008-01-01

98

Isolation and identification of bifidobacteriaceae from human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifidobacteriaceae were isolated from saliva and infected dentine by using a mupirocin-based selective medium. Of the saliva samples, 94% harbored bifids. The mean concentration (+/- the standard error) was 4.46 (+/-0.12) log(10)(CFU per ml + 1), and the predominant isolates were Bifidobacterium dentium, B. longum, Scardovia inopinata, Parascardovia denticolens, and Alloscardovia omnicolens. PMID:18723652

Beighton, David; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Mantzourani, Maria; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Ali, Farida; Ransome, Elizabeth; Hodson, Nicholas; Fenlon, Michael; Zoitopoulos, Liana; Gallagher, Jennifer

2008-10-01

99

Simple direct assays for measuring oestradiol and progesterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and rapid assays for measuring progesterone and oestradiol in saliva are reported. These assays utilize 125I-labelled hormones and appear to be of adequate specificity and reproducibility for use in clinical practice. Assays may be performed directly on samples of saliva. Oestradiol levels were around 3, 13 and 7 pmol/L in the follicular phase, periovulatory period and mid-luteal phase, respectively. Progesterone concentrations were around 110 pmol/L in the periovulatory period and 440 pmol/L in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent numerical correlation between concentrations of steroid in serum and saliva but changes in saliva concentration reflected those seen in plasma or serum. Oestradiol levels in saliva appeared to be related to the dialysable ('free') levels in serum. (author)

1982-06-21

100

Librarians' perceptions on the use of electronic resources at Catalan academic libraries: results of a focus group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to expand on previous quantitative and qualitative research into the use of electronic information resources and its impact on the information behaviour of academics at Catalan universities.

Olle?, Candela; Borrego, A?ngel

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

2011-01-01

102

Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

2014-01-01

103

Biochemical markers in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome characterized by disorder in metabolism of carbon hydrates, lipids and proteins. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by measuring the blood glucose level using standardized methods. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose level could be inconvenient for patients because of possible pain during blood sample taking. In the last few years biological materials with non invasive sampling, like saliva, have been analyzed. Research has confirmed that some organic and inorganic components of saliva are modified in diabetic patients (glucose, lipid and protein components, oxidative stress markers, electrolytes. Beside other markers, the analysis of glucose in saliva is an attempt to find a non-invasive and painless way for frequent monitoring of glucose concentration in diabetic patients. Collecting saliva is simple and economical, it neither requires expensive equipment nor specially trained staff. Saliva can be taken many times and in unlimited quantity. In regards to the data about the possibilities for using saliva as biological sample in monitoring diabetes mellitus, which could be alternative to blood serum or plasma, the conclusion is that saliva becomes more important in this context.

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana

2012-01-01

104

Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples.

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.

2014-01-01

105

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-06-01

106

Detection of nitric oxide and its derivatives in human mixed saliva and acidified saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrate is secreted into the human oral cavity as a salivary component. The nitrate is transformed to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) by oral bacteria. NO is oxidized by O(2) producing NO(2) and N(2)O(3) and also by O(2)(-) producing ONOO(-). Salivary peroxidase can oxidize nitrite and NO to NO(2) or its equivalent in the oral cavity. Nitrite dissolved in saliva is mixed with gastric juice, generating nitrous acid that is transformed to NO and NO(2) via N(2)O(3) by self-decomposition. In addition, nitrous acid can react with ascorbic acid and phenolics producing NO and with H(2)O(2) producing ONOOH. This chapter deals with the detection of reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), especially NO, N(2)O(3), NO(2), and ONOO(-)/ONOOH, in mixed whole saliva and acidified saliva using fluorescent probes and spin-trapping reagents. It is also shown that measurements of nitration and oxygen consumption are useful in studying the formation and scavenging of RNOS in the aforementioned systems. PMID:18423231

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko; Takayuki, Oniki

2008-01-01

107

Immunomodulators in tick saliva and their benefits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks are significant bloodsucking ectoparasites. Apart from causing blood loss and host skin damage, ticks are important vectors of tick-borne pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals as well as significant economic loss. For biological success, ticks evolved these substances with immunomodulatory activities capable of inhibiting host defence reactions (haemostasis, inflammation and immunity reactions), and which have a radical significance for their survival. The resulting feeding site represents a favourable environment and many pathogens began exploiting ticks to facilitate their transmission to the host. The structural-functional relationships of some salivary compounds have been outlined; however research on tick sialomas indicates that further extensive exploration is required on the subject. Also, tick saliva is a complex pharmacological component with great therapeutic potential for the treatment for some diseases. PMID:23600877

Stibrániová, I; Lahová, M; Bartíková, P

2013-01-01

108

Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. Method Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. Conclusions Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells.

Gabrielsson Susanne

2011-01-01

109

HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

2014-05-01

110

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

111

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

112

RELIABILITY OF SALIVA LITHIUM LEVEL—A PROSPECTIVE STUDY  

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140 synchronous samples of serum and saliva, collected from 28 patients undergoing lithium therapy, were studied. The mean saliva/serum lithium ratio calculated for the first 120 synchronous samples from 24 patients was found to be 2.68 (population mean ratio). Regression line equation calculated for the same population came out to be Y=0.325 + 0.22X. Predictive value of saliva lithium level was tested by applying this regression equation and the population mean ratio on 20 samples from the n...

Nataraj, G. S.; Bhat, V. K.

1981-01-01

113

La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH  

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Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

Ricardo Medina Madrid

2000-12-01

114

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

115

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

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Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

Claudio Maranhão Pereira

2004-12-01

116

Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

2013-01-01

117

Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study  

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Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method) or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method) were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling) of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva...

Aristidis Arhakis; Vassilis Karagiannis; Sotirios Kalfas

2011-01-01

118

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Itunu Bamidele

2012-06-01

119

Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... 496-7243 Saliva is effective in screening for CMV infection in newborns, says NIH-funded research Swabbing ... used to quickly and effectively screen for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a leading cause of hearing loss in ...

120

Tick saliva in anti-tick immunity and pathogen transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

When feeding on vertebrate host ticks (ectoparasitic arthropods and potential vectors of bacterial, rickettsial, protozoal, and viral diseases) induce both innate and specific acquired host-immune reactions as part of anti-tick defenses. In a resistant host immune defense can lead to reduced tick viability, sometimes resulting in tick death. Tick responds to the host immune attack by secreting saliva containing pharmacologically active molecules and modulating host immune response. Tick saliva-effected immunomodulation at the attachment site facilitates both tick feeding and enhances the success of transmission of pathogens from tick into the host. On the other hand, host immunization with antigens from tick saliva can induce anti-tick resistance and is seen to be able to induce immunity against pathogens transmitted by ticks. Many pharmacological properties of saliva described in ticks are shared widely among other blood-feeding arthropods. PMID:15259776

Kovár, L

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Saliva metabolomics by NMR for the evaluation of sport performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports preliminary results of a study in order to verify that saliva is a bio-fluid sensitive to metabolite variations due to stress and fatigue in soccer athletes, and possibly, to identify potential markers of test of performance. Saliva samples of fourteen professional soccer players were collected before and after the stressful physical activity of the level 1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and, also, physiological parameters were evaluated. The NMR spectra of saliva offer a metabolites profiling which was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis as a blind test. The results of NMR pre and post test shows that it was possible to cluster the best and the worst performing athletes and that the role of the actual player may be diagnosed by a different cluster of metabolites profile. Thus saliva can be considered a biofluid metabolically sensitive to the induced physical stress and, in the future, deeper investigated to monitor the performances in athletes. PMID:24176749

Santone, C; Dinallo, V; Paci, M; D'Ottavio, S; Barbato, G; Bernardini, S

2014-01-01

122

HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days. Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS, right eye (OD, and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198 and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396. The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers?±?the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773?±?2019 and 2294?±?869 for tears (no statistical difference. Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits.

Hill James M

2012-09-01

123

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

Richards Julie

2009-10-01

124

Thiocyanate as a marker of saliva in gastric juice?  

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One source of error in gastric secretion studies is swallowed saliva. The possibility that salivary thiocyanate might be used to measure this contamination has been investigated. Thiocyanate concentration was measured in saliva and gastric juice collected simultaneously in 22 duodenal ulcer patients undergoing routine insulin and histamine secretion studies. On stimulation, despite the increase in the rate of gastric secretion this was not matched by an appropriate fall in the concentration o...

Boulos, P. B.; Whitfield, P. F.; Dave, M.; Faber, R. G.; Hobsley, M.

1980-01-01

125

Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and ?-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting ...

Lamanda, Andreas; Cheaib, Zeinab; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian

2007-01-01

126

Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases  

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The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different dise...

Lee, Yu-hsiang; Wong, David T.

2009-01-01

127

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

128

Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.  

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Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120?min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2?hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

2014-01-01

129

Saliva as a diagnostic tool for assessment of dental caries  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salivary testing in dental caries assessment. The role of saliva flow rate, pH, viscosity and buffering capacity in subjects with high caries (DMFT>5 (group 1 against subjects with low caries (DMFT=0 (control group were evaluated. 40 subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old were selected (20 subjects control group and 20 subjects group 1. By using a salivary testing kit (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd, Japan, each subject underwent test such as hydration status of the oral mucosa, viscosity and pH of resting saliva, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva. The results showed that the flow rate, viscosity, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects of group 1 (DMFT>5 was significantly lower (p<0.01 compared to control group (DMFT=0. Therefore saliva may protect the tooth from demineralizing. Hence we recommended this saliva test to be done in patients with high caries risk.

V.K. Gopinath

2006-09-01

130

Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates  

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Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

1982-01-01

131

Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

1982-01-01

132

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive clinical examination to identify potential female carriers of HED. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

133

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

134

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi. Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5 and four in saliva (pH 6.5 containing fluoride (2 g/l, all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN. Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5 e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5 contendo flúor (2g/l, todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão.

Mônica Pereira Saporeti

2012-12-01

135

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

???89-93

Nerisa Kamar

2008-04-01

136

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

137

Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5–15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented.

Taylor, John J.

2014-01-01

138

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

139

Saliva de animais hematófagos: fonte de novos anticoagulantes / Saliva of hematophagous animals: source of new anticoagulants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar os anticoagulantes e inibidores da agregação plaquetária que foram encontrados em animais hematófagos. Esses animais precisam inibir as reações hemostáticas no local onde se alimentam no hospedeiro para realizar a refeição sangüínea e também para manter o sa [...] ngue fluido nos seus próprios tratos digestivos. Devido a essa necessidade, eles desenvolveram ao longo da evolução uma grande diversidade de substâncias que são injetadas no hospedeiro através da saliva e que permitiram o sucesso de seu parasitismo. Tais recursos farmacológicos podem ser utilizados como ferramentas em pesquisa da fisiologia vascular e hemostática, e têm potencial uso terapêutico em doenças cardiovasculares. Abstract in english In this review, we present anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation isolated from hematophagous animals. These animals have to inhibit, at the site of injury, the host hemostasis in order to blood-feed and maintain the blood fluid inside their digestive tract. During evolution, hematoph [...] agous animals developed a diversity of anti-homeostatic substances that are injected into the host through their saliva and that are crucial to successful parasitism. These anti-homeostatic substances could be used as tools in vascular physiology investigation and they also have potential therapeutic applications.

Alessandra, Ciprandi; Fabiana, Horn; Carlos, Termignoni.

140

Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter. Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001; however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

Bayat Movahed S.

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Streptococcus pneumoniae in Saliva of Dutch Primary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

While nasopharyngeal sampling is the gold standard for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, historically seen, saliva sampling also seems highly sensitive for pneumococcal detection. We investigated S. pneumoniae carriage in saliva from fifty schoolchildren by conventional and molecular methods. Saliva was first culture-enriched for pneumococci, after which, DNA was extracted from all bacterial growth and tested by quantitative-PCR (qPCR) for pneumococcus-specific genes lytA and piaA. Next, serotype composition of the samples was determined by serotype-specific qPCRs, conventional-PCRs (cPCR) and sequencing of cPCR amplicons. Although only 2 (4%) of 50 samples were positive by conventional diagnostic culture, 44 (88%) were positive for pneumococci by qPCR. In total, we detected the presence of at least 81 pneumococcal strains representing 20 serotypes in samples from 44 carriers with 23 carriers (52%) positive for multiple (up to 6) serotypes. The number of serotypes detected per sample correlated with pneumococcal abundance. This study shows that saliva could be used as a tool for future pneumococcal surveillance studies. Furthermore, high rates of pneumococcal carriage and co-carriage of multiple pneumococcal strains together with a large number of serotypes in circulation suggests a ubiquitous presence of S. pneumoniae in saliva of school-aged children. Our results also suggest that factors promoting pneumococcal carriage within individual hosts may weaken competitive interactions between S. pneumoniae strains.

Wyllie, Anne L.; Chu, Mei Ling J. N.; Schellens, Marielle H. B.; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Jansen, Marc D.; van der Ende, Arie; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Trzcinski, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

142

Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

2009-09-01

143

La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodef [...] iciencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® ) aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

Ricardo, Medina Madrid; Elena, Morán López; María Antonia, Regalado; Briceida, Bergado.

144

Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates. PMID:15535586

Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

2000-05-01

145

Immunoglobulin A antibody levels in human tears, saliva, and serum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence and level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to the oral microorganism Streptococcus mutans were determined in human tears, parotid saliva, and serum by a modified, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgA antibodies were found in the tears of all 15 subjects, although S. mutans is a nonocular bacterium. The IgA antibody levels in tears and saliva were not significantly different. This finding suggests that the level of IgA antibody activity per volume is independent of ...

Burns, C. A.; Ebersole, J. L.; Allansmith, M. R.

1982-01-01

146

Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers.

Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

2007-01-01

147

Influence of saliva on aggregation and adherence of Streptococcus gordonii HG 222.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of saliva on the aggregation and adherence of Streptococcus gordonii HG 222 was studied. The aggregation was measured spectrophotometrically, and the adherence of S. gordonii to microtiter plate wells was measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system. The aggregation of HG 222 was induced primarily by mucous saliva, whereas the adherence of HG 222 to microtiter plates was mediated by both mucous and serous saliva. Fractions of submandibular saliva, obtained by gel filt...

Ligtenberg, A. J.; Walgreen-weterings, E.; Veerman, E. C.; Soet, J. J.; Graaff, J.; Amerongen, A. V.

1992-01-01

148

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I co...

Michelle Peneluppi Silva; José Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva Machado; Luciane Dias de Oliveira; Juliana Campos Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

2012-01-01

149

Bacterial 16S rRNA/rDNA Profiling in the Liquid Phase of Human Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human saliva can be separated by centrifugation into cell pellet and cell-free supernatant, which are called cellular phase and liquid phase in this study. While it is well documented that the cellular phase of saliva contains hundreds of oral bacteria species, little is known whether the liquid phase of saliva contains any information related to oral microbiota. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial nucleic acid contents of the liquid phase of saliva. Using primers universal to most eubac...

Gu, F.; Li, Y.; Zhou, C.; Wong, D. T. W.; Ho, C. M.; Qi, F.; Shi, W.

2009-01-01

150

Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodiu...

Esser, Diederik; Alvarez-llamas, Gloria; Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Vonk, Roel J.; Roelofsen, Han

2008-01-01

151

MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

2008-01-01

152

Reduced inhibition of Candida albicans adhesion by saliva from patients receiving oral cancer therapy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of saliva on the adhesion of Candida albicans to epithelial cells was examined in vitro by using saliva from healthy controls and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The adhesion of C. albicans to established epithelial tumor cells was reduced by 40% by salivary treatment of the C. albicans or epithelial cells. The inhibitory activity of saliva was almost completely abolished by anti-secretory immunoglobulin A antibody, concanavalin A, and mannose. Compared with saliva from...

Umazume, M.; Ueta, E.; Osaki, T.

1995-01-01

153

Determination of ABO blood groups from saliva and saliva stains by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of A, B and H blood group substances (ABH-BGS) in saliva and in saliva stains has been investigated quantitatively by an indirect ELISA using a horseradish peroxidase conjugate in combination with the use of monoclonal antibodies. Through this method, the reaction specificity to BGS in the saliva was very high and its detection sensitivity was found to be approximately 1,000 times greater than has been achieved in a hemagglutination-inhibition test. The monoclonal anti-A and anti-B reagents reacting with both secretor and non-secretor saliva in a hemagglutination-inhibition test and in this ELISA method were selected from among commercial monoclonal antibodies. However, no monoclonal anti-H reagent was found to react with non-secretor saliva. The BGS level was determined by the use of calibration curves of A, B and H standard BGS from human gastric mucosa and was expressed in units, based on the inhibition titer of the standard BGS. In 230 saliva samples, ABH-BGS were detectable, except for H BGS in non-secretor saliva. The BGS levels in saliva stains experimentally prepared were found to be approximately proportional to the levels in the original saliva. As for actual and aged stains, it was possible to detect BGS in most cigarette butts and in aged stains, however, such detection proved impossible in saliva samples from postage stamp. PMID:2479789

Takizawa, N; Ohba, Y; Mukoyama, R; Komuro, T; Mukoyama, H; Takei, T

1989-08-01

154

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (Pzoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

155

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artifici...

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz; Leandro Freitas Silva; José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira; Gomes, Jose? Anto?nio Da Cunha P.; Lúcio Sathler

2007-01-01

156

Intention to Use and Actual Use of Electronic Information Resources: Further Exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following up a previous study that examined public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structu...

Tao, Donghua

2009-01-01

157

The unique correlation between anti-mutagenicity of human saliva and change in body weight  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction on the anti-mutagenicity of human saliva. Subjects were 16 male college judo players. The anti-mutagenicity of the saliva was measured using the umu test. There was an inhibiting effect of the saliva on the mutagenicity of AF-2. However, a modifying effect of the saliva on Trp-P-1 was not observed. On the day before a competition and 7 days after the competition, the inhibiting capacity of the saliva for the mutagenic...

Toda, Masahario; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kazuo

2001-01-01

158

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

159

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

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Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Ali Shaqour; Daher, Wajeeh M.

2010-01-01

160

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

A Survey of Some Factors Related to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Free radicals are molecules or atoms with single electron that results in reactions thus causing severe damages to the body’s macromolecules. By preventing the formation of free radicals, repairing damages caused by radical’s activities, increasing the excretion of the damaged molecules and minimizing the cellular mutation, the antioxidant defense system contrasts the damages caused by free radicals. Different lifestyles and nutrition, environmental and genetic factors can lead to the unusual increase in free radicals formation or weakening the antioxidant defense system and can cause the imbalance between the production and excretion of free radicals. They have not only a significant role in aging but also in causing and aggravating many diseases. Accordingly, some factors related to total antioxidant capacity of saliva were studied. Methods: This study was descriptive and the sampling was performed in multi stages. The subjects consisted of 720 students (male: 325, female: 395 in Arak. Individuals filled a questionnaire approved by experts and included the demographic factors and dietary habits. Then the total antioxidant capacity in saliva of these students were measured by FRAP method. The results were analyzed with descriptive analysis (such as Mean, Deviation standard and also analytical analysis (such as T-test and Spirman Correlation Coefficient. Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ? SD of total antioxidant capacity of saliva in males was higher than the females and so there was a positive and meaningful correlation between total capacity antioxidant of saliva and milk consumption, father’s education and mother’s education. P and R in this manner were (0.02, 0.04, 0.045-0087, 0.11, 0.076 while there was no significant correlation between social and economic status, consumption of fats, red and white meat and the antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Parents level of education and dietary habits have a significant and positive correlation with the antioxidant capacity. It seems that giving necessary information and nutrition instruction can help decrease oxidative stress and prevent different diseases.

A Eisabadi Bozchelouei

2009-01-01

162

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

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Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

???89-102

???????????

2007-04-01

163

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

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The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Itunu Bamidele; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

2012-01-01

164

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

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Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods T...

Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2008-01-01

165

‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

2007-01-01

166

Understanding Intention to Use Electronic Information Resources: A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceiv...

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

167

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

168

PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

M.G. Nada

2013-01-01

169

PCR applications in identification of saliva samples exposed to different conditions (streptococci detection based).  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples) were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen) and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples) included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples). DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan). Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius. PMID:24494527

Ali, M M; Shokry, D A; Zaghloul, H S; Rashed, L A; Nada, M G

2013-06-15

170

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

2013-05-06

171

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

172

Solubility of Three Luting Cements in Dynamic Artificial Saliva  

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Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the solubility of three luting cements in artificial saliva.Materials and Methods: Twenty disks (10×4 mm of polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements were prepared according to manufactures’ instructions. After setting, they were desiccated and each ten specimens were immersed in artificial saliva with special pH (3 or 5, circulated with magnetic field for 10 days. Then disks were again desiccated and weighed. Solubility values were deduced from these different measures.Results: For the two pH, solubility were significantly lower in glass ionomer luting ce-ment, and polycarboxylate showed the most weight loss of all the materials tested (P<0.05. The solubility values were more in acidic environment (P<0.05.Conclusion: The pH of the environment strongly affected the solubility of the materials. Cement type also has significant effects on solubility values.

S. Nikzad

2008-09-01

173

When saliva meets acid: chemical warfare at the oesophagogastric junction  

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In the Western world at least, most upper gastrointestinal cancers now arise from the mucosa near to the oesophagogastric junction. Research into the mechanism of the development of adenocarcinoma at the oesophagogastric junction has mainly focused on the noxious effects of acid and bile. There is however an alternative concept for explaining the location of adenocarcinomas: the cancers are occurring at the anatomical site where saliva encounters acidic gastric juice and their interaction gen...

2005-01-01

174

Excretion of Levofloxacin into Saliva in Renal Failure Rat Model  

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To clarify effects of renal failure on salivary distribution of Levofloxacin (LOFLX), a quinolone antibiotics, blood and saliva were collected from the double-step 5/6th-nephrectomized and sham-operated (control) rats after bolus i.v., administration of Levofloxacin (10 mg kg-1). The concentrations of Levofloxacin in these samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Renal failure induced by the partial nephrectomy significantly elevated plasma levels and cumu...

Sheikh, N. W.; Tripathi, A. S.; Chitra, V.; Choudhury, A.; Dewani, S. P.

2010-01-01

175

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Luciana Borges Retamoso

2009-06-01

176

Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity  

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Background: The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a mea...

2012-01-01

177

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated ...

Luciana Borges Retamoso; Fabrício Mezzomo Collares; Eduardo Silveira Ferreira; Susana Maria Werner Samuel

2009-01-01

178

Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva  

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Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study wa...

Bayat Movahed S.; Soleymani Shayesteh Y.; Mehrizi H.; Rezayi Sh.; Mohammadi M; Bamdad Mehrabani K.; Koohkan M.; Golestan B

2007-01-01

179

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

Science.gov (United States)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

2014-01-01

180

Microbial Diversity in Saliva of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

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In oral cavity chronic inflammation has been observed at various stages of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). This inflammation could result from persistent mucosal or epithelial cell colonization by microorganisms. There is an increasing evidence of the involvement of oral bacteria in inflammation and warrant further studies on the association of bacteria in the progression of OSCC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of bacteria in the saliva ...

Pushalkar, Smruti; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Ji, Xiaojie; Li, Yhiong; Evans, Clive; Crasta, Oswald R.; Morse, Douglas; Meagher, Robert; Singh, Anup; Saxena, Deepak

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Antonio Valadão, Cardoso; Marcos Horácio, Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de, Araújo.

182

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood and the other that does not present aggregation (bovine blood. One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Antonio Valadão Cardoso

2007-03-01

183

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS) of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on cytokine production and surface molecule expression of LPS-stimulated human monocytes uninfected or infected with L. braziliensis. Results Pre-treatment of non-infected human monocytes with L. intermedia SGS followed by LPS-stimulation led to a significant decrease in IL-10 production accompanied by a significant increase in CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR expression. Pre-treatment with SGS followed by LPS stimulation and L. braziliensis infection led to a significant increase in TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-8 production without significant alterations in co-stimulatory molecule expression. However, pre-treatment with L. intermedia SGS did not result in significant changes in the infection rate of human monocytes. Conclusion Our data indicate that L. intermedia saliva is able to modulate monocyte response, and, although this modulation is dissociated from enhanced infection with L. braziliensis, it may be associated with successful parasitism.

Menezes, Maria Jose; Costa, Dirceu J; Clarencio, Jorge; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia; de Oliveira, Camila I

2008-01-01

184

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on cytokine production and surface molecule expression of LPS-stimulated human monocytes uninfected or infected with L. braziliensis. Results Pre-treatment of non-infected human monocytes with L. intermedia SGS followed by LPS-stimulation led to a significant decrease in IL-10 production accompanied by a significant increase in CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR expression. Pre-treatment with SGS followed by LPS stimulation and L. braziliensis infection led to a significant increase in TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-8 production without significant alterations in co-stimulatory molecule expression. However, pre-treatment with L. intermedia SGS did not result in significant changes in the infection rate of human monocytes. Conclusion Our data indicate that L. intermedia saliva is able to modulate monocyte response, and, although this modulation is dissociated from enhanced infection with L. braziliensis, it may be associated with successful parasitism.

Barral Aldina

2008-04-01

185

Serum and saliva sex hormone levels in !Kung San men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol 17 beta (E2), and free testosterone in saliva (Tsal) were determined by means of the radioimmunoassay method in 114 !Kung San men living in the Bushmanland district of Namibia. The healthy men (mean age 26.4 years) were asked about their dietary habits over the last two months and their acute alcohol intake during the 24 hours preceding the blood and saliva sampling. Although the sex hormone status of the !Kung lies within the range of normal men reported for Caucasoid samples, both Tser and Tsal exhibit relatively low concentrations in comparison to the great majority of published mean values. On the other hand, comparatively high DHT levels point to an elevated 5 alpha-reduction of testosterone to DHT in our sample. Estradiol concentrations show no deviation from normal values reported elsewhere for healthy young men. Different dietary habits of the !Kung lead to significant differences in their sex hormone status: both levels of Tsal and the androgen ratio Tsal/Tser decrease with increasing supplement of the traditional hunter-gatherer diet with domestic and Western food products. The amount of alcohol consumed during the day before the blood and saliva sampling shows a significant effect on the DHT metabolism, and the shorter the time after drinking, the greater decrease of DHT and DHT/E2 can be observed. PMID:1951659

Christiansen, K H

1991-09-01

186

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

Denaxas, S. C.; George, J.; Herrett, E.; Shah, A. D.; Kalra, D.; Hingorani, A. D.; Kivimaki, M.; Timmis, A. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hemingway, H.

2012-01-01

187

Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

Denaxas, Spiros C.; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D.; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D.; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-01-01

188

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

189

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

190

Linking Basic Skills to Entry-Level Electronics Test Technician Tasks. Instructional Resources. Assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project first identified the specific mathematics, reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills required of an entry-level electronics testing technician (ETT), using a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analysis process. This approach involves a panel of expert workers from the electronics industry who analyze and…

Gaillard, Don; Mostaghel, Debbie

191

Integrated Electronic Warfare System Advanced Development Model (ADM); Appendix 9 - RMP Resource Management Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resource management function shall determine whether each emitter constitutes a threat, and if so, a response shall be determined. This function shall assign a lethality to each threat emitter based on the degree of threat to the IEWS airframe. The em...

1977-01-01

192

Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

Rahman, Md Anisur

2011-01-01

193

HPV and methylation indicators in paired tumor and saliva in HNSCC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16 is a causative agent for some head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC  and an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal SCC. The goal of this study was to examine HPV16 associated gene methylation in paired saliva and tumor DNA with assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive value for saliva HPV as a test for HNSCC. HPV16 status was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR in 35 primary HNSCC paired tumor and saliva specimens. Tumor cut points >=0.03 and >=0.1 and saliva cut points >0 and ?0.001 were used to classify results as HPV positive or negative. Aberrant methylation was determined by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA assay. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation in tumor samples was 66% (23/35 versus 17% (6/35 in saliva. Two of 35 paired tumor and saliva samples had commonly methylated genes. HPV and methylation were correlated for IGSF4 (p=0.01 in tumor samples (cut point ?0.03 and for ESR1 in saliva samples (cut point >0. Although the sensitivity of HPV detection in saliva was significantly reduced when saliva cut points were increased from >0 to >=0.001, the specificity and positive predictive values were 100% at saliva cut point of >=0.001, regardless of tumor cut points. Within clearly defined parameters, HPV detection in saliva DNA shows promise as a non invasive approach for tumor HPV status. Methylated genes detected in saliva may be useful in early detection and as potential predictive markers of HNSCC. Further confirmation and validation in larger cohorts is required.

Josena K. Stephen

2013-07-01

194

Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen in Dog Saliva Using a Latex Agglutination Test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive test based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from 238 dogs, the LA test using saliva was 99% specific and 95% sensitive compared to the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) o...

Kasempimolporn, S.; Saengseesom, W.; Lumlertdacha, B.; Sitprija, V.

2000-01-01

195

Tick saliva is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report for the first time that saliva of the hard tick and Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Saliva (? 1:500 dilutions) or salivary gland (0.1–0.5 pairs/assay) dose-dependently inhibits microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) proliferation. Inhibition was also detected with the saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus but not with the salivary gland of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensiae, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Aedes ...

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Mather, Thomas N.; Ribeiro, Jose? M. C.

2005-01-01

196

Evaluation Chemical Composition of Unstimulated Saliva, in Patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Diabetes will result in change in qualitative and quantitative function of saliva. The purpose of the study was to determine the chemical composition (combination) of unstimulated saliva in patients with type I diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, unstimulated saliva of 25 patients with type I controlled diabetes (20-30 years) and 25 healthy person who matched with the case group in respect of age and gender was gathered and analyzed in order to eva...

2013-01-01

197

Proteomic Analysis of Saliva: 2D Gel Electrophoresis, LC-MS/MS, and Western Blotting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva harbors a wide spectrum of proteins that may reflect the health/disease status in the human body. Profiling of the proteins in saliva from a disease population can potentially yield valuable clinical parameters to be used for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Advances in proteomic technologies have enabled comprehensive profiling of protein expression in cells, tissue, and body fluids. When applied to readily accessible saliva samples from disease patients for biomarker study, su...

Hu, Shen; Jiang, Jiang; Wong, David T.

2010-01-01

198

Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at...

Kozaki Tomoaki; Lee Soomin; Nishimura Takayuki; Katsuura Tetsuo; Yasukouchi Akira

2011-01-01

199

Concentrations of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Saliva: Implications for Preexposure Prophylaxis of Oral HIV Acquisition?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To prevent acquisition of HIV through oral sex, drugs used for preexposure prophylaxis (Prep) need to diffuse in saliva. We measured tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) concentrations simultaneously in the plasma and saliva of 41 HIV-infected patients under stable antiretroviral treatment. Mean ratios of saliva/plasma concentration were 3% (±4%) and 86.9% (±124%) for TFV and FTC, respectively. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) should be used in combination with FTC to prevent oral acq...

Lastours, Victoire; Fonsart, Julien; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Gourmel, Bernard; Molina, Jean-michel

2011-01-01

200

Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Whole Saliva Reveals a Distinct Phosphorylation Pattern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In-depth knowledge of bodily fluid phosphoproteomes, such as whole saliva, is limited. To better understand the whole saliva phosphoproteome, we generated a large-scale catalog of phosphorylated proteins. To circumvent the wide dynamic range of phosphoprotein abundance in whole saliva, we combined dynamic range compression using hexapeptide beads, strong cation exchange HPLC peptide fractionation, and immobilized metal affinity chromatography prior to mass spectrometry. In total, 217 unique p...

Stone, Matthew D.; Chen, Xiaobing; Mcgowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Cheng, Bin; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Griffin, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Xerostomia. Development, properties and application of a mucin-containing saliva substitute  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physiological importance of saliva in human becomes obvious when saliva is secreted to a too large(hypersalivation) or a too small(hyposalivation) extent. The reduced salivary secretion results in a wide scale of complaints such as a dry and burning sensation of the mouth, and difficulties in chewing, swallowing, speaking and sleeping. To combat these complaints, the lack of saliva has to be compensated. ... Zie: Summary

Vissink, Arjan

1985-01-01

202

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

1982-01-01

203

Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: comparisons of bacterial species and strains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of agg...

1981-01-01

204

Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fl uid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

Han Roelofsen

2008-01-01

205

Saliva as a source of feline leukemia virus antigen for diagnosis of disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 in saliva was tested for its accuracy and sensitivity in diagnosing FeLV infections. Saliva and serum samples from 564 clinical cases were tested with a 99.2% specificity. The overall accuracy of the saliva ELISA reactive to the serum ELISA was 97.9%. Experimentally, the ELISA saliva was the least sensitive in diagnosing early FeLV infections. However, the overall accuracy, ease of use, and simplici...

Lewis, M. G.; Wright, K. A.; Lafrado, L. J.; Shanker, P. J.; Palumbo, N. E.; Lemoine, E. D.; Olsen, R. G.

1987-01-01

206

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is:

Dicarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

207

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

208

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

209

Mycobacterium leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin smears of leprosy patients / Mycobacterium leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de sujeitos com hanseníase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: verificar através da baciloscopia e da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) a presença do M. leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de pacientes com hanseníase. METODOLOGIA: Realizou-se um estudo transversal do tipo detecção de casos numa instituição referência de hanseníase [...] no Amazonas. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 48 pacientes, sendo 15 multibacilares (MB) e 33 paucibacilares (PB). Os pacientes MB tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado pela baciloscopia e PCR dos raspados intradérmicos, enquanto que 16 (48,5%) dos PB foram positivos apenas na PCR. Quatro pacientes PB negativos na PCR de raspados intradérmicos foram positivos no periodonto e na saliva, 1 positivo na saliva e 2 no periodonto. Nenhuma amostra do periodonto e da saliva foi positiva na baciloscopia. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre a doença periodontal e a presença do M. leprae; a baciloscopia não mostrou ser uma técnica eficiente para análise da saliva e periodonto; a técnica de PCR de raspado dérmico mostrou ser um método mais eficaz no diagnóstico dos PB do que a baciloscopia; a positividade da PCR para detecção do M. leprae nos PB pode ser aumentada coletando raspado intradérmico, periodonto e saliva. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the presence of M. leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin slit smears of leprosy patients. To correlate bacteriological and molecular findings with clinical data and compare laboratory techniques. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to use bacteriological (bacilosco [...] py) and molecular (PCR) parameters to detect M. leprae in exudates of the gingival sulcus/periodontium pocket, saliva and skin slit smears from multiple clinical forms of leprosy patients without previous treatment. RESULTS: The study included 48 leprosy patients with 15 multibacillary (MB) cases and 33 paucibacillary (PB) cases. The diagnosis of MB was confirmed through bacteriological examination and PCR results from skin slit smears. A total of 16 (48.5%) PB patients were PCR positive only. Four PB patients with negative PCR skin smears were PCR positive for the periodontium and saliva, with 2 cases and 1 case, respectively. No periodontium or saliva samples had positive bacteriological results. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between periodontal disease and the presence of M. leprae. Bacteriological examination did not prove to be an efficient technique for the analysis of saliva and periodontium samples. PCR analysis of skin smears was more efficient at diagnosing PB patients than bacteriological examination. PCR positive results for the detection of M. leprae in PB patients can be increased by collecting slit skin smears, periodontium and saliva samples.

Ligia Fernandes, Abdalla; João Hugo Abdalla, Santos; Carolina Souza Cunha, Collado; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

210

Protein-Sequence Polymorphisms and Post-translational Modifications in Proteins from Human Saliva using Top-Down Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can result in protein sequence polymorphisms (PSPs) when codon translations are altered. Both top-down and bottom-up proteomics strategies can identify PSPs, but only if databases and software are used with this in mind. A 14319 Da protein from human saliva was characterized using the top-down approach on a hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped for both collisionally-activated (CAD) and electron-captu...

Whitelegge, Julian P.; Zabrouskov, Vlad; Halgand, Frederic; Souda, Puneet; Bassilian, Sara; Yan, Weihong; Wolinsky, Larry; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T. W.; Faull, Kym F.

2007-01-01

211

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

2011-01-01

212

Biochemical analysis of saliva of subjects with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most common diseases of periodontal tissues are inflammatoryprocesses of gum and insertion of teeth normality associated to the local accumulation of teeth biofilm. The objective of this search is evaluating if the periodontal diseases are able to induce qualitative and quantitative alteration in saliva of subjects with periodontal diseases. Forty subjects,divided in 2 groups of 20, being one the control group (CG and the other the test group (TG, based on age and sex were evaluated. There were analyzed the following salivary parameters: capacity of buffer, salivary flow speed, pH, calcium, urea and total proteins concentrations. The medium values and standard directions were: pH: CG 7.43 (± 0.62,TG 8.1 (± 0.49; salivary flow CG 1.21 (± 0.23; TG 1.01 (± 0.75;calcium CG 4.7 (± 1.2, TG 5.4 (± 0.85; urea CG 30.7 (± 9.6, TG 38.6(± 19.9; total proteins CG 355.5 (± 256.7, TG 299.2 (± 132.4.Significant rise in the amount of urea and calcium in the saliva of the periodontal disease individuals was observed whereas the amount of total proteins in the saliva of these individuals diminished, suggesting a change in microbiota. Salivary pH in the individuals of the TG is slightly higher of that of the CG. Salivary flow and capacity of buffer have been considered normal in both groups.

João Armando BRANCHER

2007-05-01

213

Comparison of plasma and saliva levels of diazepam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Salivary, unbound and total plasma levels of diazepam have been compared in nineteen subjects. 2. Salivary diazepam levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than, but closely related to the corresponding unbound levels (r = 0.97) at 2.5-3 h after administration of the drug. 3. The results presented suggest that saliva levels can be used to predict the corresponding plasma levels at a given time, but there is no 1:1 relation between the unbound diazepam concentration in plasma and the s...

Gier, J. J.; T Hart, B. J.; Wilderink, P. F.; Nelemans, F. A.

1980-01-01

214

Antipyrine clearance in children from single saliva samples.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The saliva clearance of antipyrine was measured in 18 children from four samples taken about 9, 13, 22 and 25 h after ingestion of 20 mg kg-1. Antipyrine clearance determined from each of the samples using a volume of distribution estimated from age (A) and body weight (BW) and height (BH) (V = 1.535 X A + 0.339 X BW + 0.300 X BH - 35.63 (1] correlated closely with clearance determined from the total elimination curve (r greater than 0.94). Random variation and systematic deviation were minim...

Loft, S.; Haxholdt, O.; Døssing, M.

1985-01-01

215

Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpa...

2003-01-01

216

Electrochemical behavior of titanium in artificial saliva: influence of pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium is the most common material chosen for dental implants because it is highly corrosion resistant because it constantly reforms a protective passive film layer. The formation and composition of the passive film layer is dependent on the environmental conditions. If the stable oxide layer is damaged, the titanium surface underneath can corrode. The purpose of this study was to determine if basic corrosion of commercially pure titanium (CpTi) alloy in artificial saliva was affected by pH and to understand the corrosion kinetics/mechanisms of CpTi as a function of pH. In this study, titanium alloy discs were subjected to corrosion tests. Before the tests, all samples were cleaned and polished using standard metallographic preparation methods. Artificial saliva was used as the testing medium. The following pH values were tested: 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.5, and 9.0. Different pH values were achieved by adding lactic acid (acidic) or NaOH (basic) in appropriate amounts. Potentiodynamic curves indicated behavior change at each pH. In addition, the corrosion current density value determined from the potentiodynamic curve exhibited the poorest corrosion resistance for pH 7.5. The Nyquist plot (from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results) indicated that pH 7.5 had the poorest resistance. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that pH levels of 6.5, 7.5, and 9.0 had considerable surface corrosion. The results showed that the media's pH significantly influenced the corrosion behavior of CpTi. The poor corrosion behavior at the neutral pHs invites some concerns and highlights the need for further study. PMID:22103963

Abey, Savithri; Mathew, Mathew T; Lee, Damian J; Knoernschild, Kent L; Wimmer, Markus A; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-02-01

217

Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

2012-06-01

218

Validation and quality control of ELISAs for the use with human saliva samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have proven to be a powerful tool for fast and reliable sample analysis, in both clinical diagnostics and in research. Most assays are now available for use with a range of different analytical fluids, including serum, plasma or urine. In recent years, saliva has drawn attention as a potentially valuable diagnostic fluid; however few ELISAs have been validated for use with saliva, or their validation is often incomplete. Saliva has a number of different physical characteristics than, for example, cell culture medium or serum and assuming an ELISA which works well with serum samples will also do so with saliva potentially could lead to erroneous data and conclusions. In this report, we provide a detailed protocol to validate any ELISA for use with saliva samples and show the results of validation procedures for 13 ELISAs for using saliva. Our findings suggest that the majority of ELISAs work reliably with saliva, even if the assay was not specifically designed for this biological fluid. However, we also report a few cases where recovery or intra-and inter-assay variations were unexpectedly high, emphasising the importance of performing a validation procedure for each assay before using it with saliva to ensure accurate and reliable data. PMID:22306358

Jaedicke, Katrin M; Taylor, John J; Preshaw, Philip M

2012-03-30

219

Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2009-01-01

220

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

2012-01-01

222

Applicability of ELISA detection of statherin for forensic identification of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statherin is a low molecular-weight phosphoprotein secreted from the parotid gland. Statherin mRNA was previously reported to be a useful marker for mRNA-based saliva identification. In this study, applicability of ELISA detection of statherin for forensic identification of saliva was investigated. The specificity and sensitivity of ELISA for detection of statherin were compared with those of ELISA for ?-amylase and the Phadebas® amylase test. Statherin was specifically detected in saliva but not in other body fluids. In addition, statherin was successfully detected in aged saliva stains, mixed body fluids-saliva stains, and simulated casework samples. On the other hand, although ELISA for ?-amylase showed higher sensitivity than ELISA for statherin, it was not specific enough to identify saliva. The Phadebas® amylase test also showed positive results in other body fluids that are known to have ?-amylase activity; however, it is easy to use for screening forensic casework samples. In conclusion, ELISA for detection of statherin developed in this study could be an effective tool for the forensic identification of saliva because of its specificity for saliva among other body fluids. Forensic casework samples should be tested by ELISA detection or mRNA-based analysis for statherin, depending on the condition of the sample, to supplement presumptive tests for ?-amylase, such as the Phadebas® amylase test. PMID:19953261

Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Sakurada, Koichi

2010-09-01

223

Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

A Abarghooyi

2012-10-01

224

Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.  

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This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in 16 healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics. PMID:23933006

Yuki, Dai; Kikuchi, Akira; Miura, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Onozawa, Masahiro

2013-11-01

225

Increasing saliva (free) oestriol to progesterone ratio in late pregnancy: a role for oestriol in initiating spontaneous labour in man?  

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Oestriol and progesterone concentrations were measured in samples of saliva obtained daily from six normal women during the final four weeks before the spontaneous onset of labour. Progesterone concentrations were found to plateau whereas oestriol concentrations continued to rise so that the mean ratio of saliva oestriol to progesterone increased from 0.80 to 1.43 between 29 days and one day before labour. Saliva oestriol concentrations were 15 times higher than saliva oestradiol concentratio...

Mcgarrigle, H. H.; Lachelin, G. C.

1984-01-01

226

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

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Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan

2009-12-01

227

Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

Kidd, T.

2009-01-01

228

Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. PMID:21316077

Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

2011-06-01

229

Five minute analysis of chemotherapy drugs in saliva  

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Cancer treatment often includes chemotherapy drugs that prevent cancer cell growth through a variety of biochemical mechanisms, but are not target specific and kill other cells. Consequently, the dosage has a narrow range of safe and effective use. Furthermore, because of the dangerous side-effects of these drugs, clinical trials are not performed, and dosage is based on the limited statistics of the response of previously treated patients and administered according to body surface area. Monitoring dosage during administration would clearly improve patient outcome. Unfortunately current practices require 10-20 milliliters of blood per analysis, and multiple samples to profile pharmacokinetics may further jeopardize the patient's health. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative, but the large sample volumes are difficult to obtain. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable pipette format, and generally no more than two drops (100 microL) of sample are required to perform analysis. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of nanomolar concentrations. Measurements of chemotherapy drugs at relevant concentration are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

2006-11-01

230

AZITHROMYCIN DECREASE SALIVA CALPROTECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASES.  

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Full Text Available Objective: Calprotectin is a calcium binding heterocomplex protein which appear to have regulatory functions in the inflammatory process. Epithelial cells which expressing calprotectin are more resistant to bacterial invasion . In acute phase inflammatory reactions calprotectin is detectable in elevated levels. The aim of the present study is to detect the calprotectin level in saliva in patients with periodontal disease (chronic and aggressive periodontitis and gingivitis and to follow calprotectin level during azithromycin treatment. Methods and materials: In nine healthy patients without systemic disease and malignancy whole unstimulated saliva was investigated. Salivary calprotectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent using a commercial kit (ELISA Hycult Biotech. Azithromycin treatment was taken as 500 mg (2 x 250 mg tabls. once daily at 10.00 am for 4 consecutive days. Results: At baseline Day levels of calprotectin ranged between 1.45 and 2.97; median 2.19. On Day 5 (first day after azithromycin treatment the salivary calprotectin levels decreased in 6 of the patients. The measured values at Day 10 were more similar to those at Day 5, than those at Day zero. This was confirmed by the values of the average median of calprotectin. Conclusion: We present the first study with the application of antibiotic and measurement the calprotectin levels before, during and after azithromycin intake with no side effects reported. Measuring calprotectin levels could benefit the monitoring of antibiotic treatment efficacy in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis.

Vladimir E. Panov

2014-03-01

231

Caterpillar labial saliva alters tomato plant gene expression.  

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We examined the effects of Helicoverpa zea caterpillar labial saliva on tomato plant gene expression. Caterpillars with labial salivary glands (mock-ablated) and without (ablated) were fed on tomato plants for 24 hr; then, the leaf mRNA was analyzed with tomato microarrays. Analysis of the transcript profiles revealed 384 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that were significantly altered due to herbivory compared to the non-wounded plants. The majority of the ESTs were quantitatively altered more so by mock-ablated caterpillars with labial salivary glands than ablated caterpillars. Particularly notable, ESTs encoding acid phosphatase, arginase, acidic endochitinase, dehydrin, polyphenol oxidase, protease inhibitors, and threonine deaminase were more highly stimulated by mock-ablated caterpillars than ablated caterpillars. In addition, tomato leaves were mechanically wounded with scissors and painted with labial salivary gland extract, autoclaved salivary gland extract, or water, and compared to non-wounded tomato plants. After 4 hr, these leaves were collected and a tomato microarray analysis of the mRNA revealed correlation of the gene expression of these leaves altered by mechanical wounding and painted with salivary gland extract to the gene expression of leaves fed on by mock-ablated caterpillars. We show that caterpillar labial saliva is an important component of herbivory that can alter plant gene expression. PMID:23065106

Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Lee, Henry K; DesRochers, Brittany L; Williams, Spencer A; Vogel, Heiko

2012-11-01

232

Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not pr [...] omote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corrosion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

Mariano, N.A.; Oliveira, R.G.; Fernandes, M.A.; Rigo, E.C.S..

233

Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations.  

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The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no 'caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were 'caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

2012-01-01

234

Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were i [...] ncluded in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.

Gisele Barreto Lopes, Menezes; Fernanda Albuquerque, Pereira; César Augusto Barros, Duarte; Theomira Mauadie Azevedo, Carmo; Hermes Pedreira da, Silva Filho; Maria Alice, Zarife; Marco Aurélio, Krieger; Eliana Almeida Gomes, Reis; Mitermayer G, Reis.

235

Mosquito saliva serine protease enhances dissemination of dengue virus into the mammalian host.  

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Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease. PMID:24131723

Conway, Michael J; Watson, Alan M; Colpitts, Tonya M; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B; Anderson, John F; Fikrig, Erol

2014-01-01

236

Mycobacterium leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin smears of leprosy patients =Mycobacterium leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de sujeitos com hanseníase  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar através da baciloscopia e da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR a presença do M. leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de pacientes com hanseníase. Metodologia: Realizou-se um estudo transversal do tipo detecção de casos numa instituição referência de hanseníase no Amazonas. Resultados: Foram avaliados 48 pacientes, sendo 15 multibacilares (MB e 33 paucibacilares (PB. Os pacientes MB tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado pela baciloscopia e PCR dos raspados intradérmicos, enquanto que 16 (48,5% dos PB foram positivos apenas na PCR. Quatro pacientes PB negativos na PCR de raspados intradérmicos foram positivos no periodonto e na saliva, 1 positivo na saliva e 2 no periodonto. Nenhuma amostra do periodonto e da saliva foi positiva na baciloscopia. Conclusão: Não houve relação entre a doença periodontal e a presença do M. leprae; a baciloscopia não mostrou ser uma técnica eficiente para análise da saliva e periodonto; a técnica de PCR de raspado dérmico mostrou ser um método mais eficaz no diagnóstico dos PB do que a baciloscopia; a positividade da PCR para detecção do M. leprae nos PB pode ser aumentada coletando raspado intradérmico, periodonto e saliva.

Abdalla, Ligia Fernandes et al.

2010-01-01

237

Quantitative detection of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria patients in the Philippines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a global health priority with a heavy burden of fatality and morbidity. Improvements in field diagnostics are needed to support the agenda for malaria elimination. Saliva has shown significant potential for use in non-invasive diagnostics, but the development of off-the-shelf saliva diagnostic kits requires best practices for sample preparation and quantitative insight on the availability of biomarkers and the dynamics of immunoassay in saliva. This pilot study measured the levels of the PfHRP2 in patient saliva to inform the development of salivary diagnostic tests for malaria. Methods Matched samples of blood and saliva were collected between January and May, 2011 from eight patients at Palawan Baptist Hospital in Roxas, Palawan, Philippines. Parasite density was determined from thick-film blood smears. Concentrations of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria-positive patients were measured using a custom chemiluminescent ELISA in microtitre plates. Sixteen negative-control patients were enrolled at UCLA. A substantive difference between this protocol and previous related studies was that saliva samples were stabilized with protease inhibitors. Results Of the eight patients with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria, seven tested positive for PfHRP2 in the blood using rapid diagnostic test kits, and all tested positive for PfHRP2 in saliva. All negative-control samples tested negative for salivary PfHRP2. On a binary-decision basis, the ELISA agreed with microscopy with 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. Salivary levels of PfHRP2 ranged from 17 to 1,167 pg/mL in the malaria-positive group. Conclusion Saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid for malaria when protein degradation and matrix effects are mitigated. Systematic quantitation of other malaria biomarkers in saliva would identify those with the best clinical relevance and suitability for off-the-shelf diagnostic kits.

Fung Andrew O

2012-05-01

238

MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

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Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1 ± 1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3 ± 8.5, FTND 7.1 ± 1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regression to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r = .84, p < .001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t = 3.03, p < .01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t = ?1.93, p = .058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms.

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2008-01-01

239

Measuring nicotine intake among highly-dependent adolescent smokers: comparability of saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, the research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1+/-1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3+/-8.5, FTND 7.1+/-1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regressions to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r=0.84, p<0.001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t=3.03, p<0.01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t=-1.93, p=0.058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:18199474

Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H; Moolchan, Eric T

2008-04-01

240

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

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Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ e ácido valproico (VPA em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (idades 1-14 anos em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado.

C. Maldonado

2008-06-01

242

Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

Chen Gang

2012-10-01

243

Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study  

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Full Text Available Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva volumes (2.9 ml, 1.5 ml, and 0.8 ml were tested on cotton rolls and two (0.03 ml, and 0.015 ml on cotton pellets. The sample sAA activity was determined from the hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside. In comparison with the original drooling sample, no sAA loss was observed in 1.5 ml samples tested with Salivette, while a significant decrease of activity was recorded with smaller volumes. VSM collected samples showed a non-volume dependent decrease of sAA activity of about 25%. Salivette requires large saliva volumes to allow an accurate sAA estimation. With cases of limited saliva access, VSM may be a suitable sampling device.

Aristidis Arhakis

2011-08-01

244

Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

2009-11-01

245

Thiocyanate levels in human saliva: quantitation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new quantitative method, based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was developed to evaluate the thiocyanate concentration in human saliva. Saliva samples were collected following a typical protocol and infrared spectra obtained from very small volumes (5 microl) deposited on a barium fluoride substrate. Exogenous potassium thiocyanate was used for calibration of the endogenous thiocyanate. This methodology does not require separation or extraction procedures. Human saliva spectra contain a characteristic marker band, due to thiocyanate, at 2058 cm-1. The integrated area of this band can be used for linear regression analysis and provides a good correlation between band area and thiocyanate concentration. Recovery of thiocyanate added to saliva was 100%. Centrifugation and dialysis experiments demonstrated that thiocyanate in saliva exists as a free or loosely bound ion. Saliva collected in the afternoon from 25 different subjects had a thiocyanate concentration of 0.83 +/- 0.42 (mean +/- SD) mmol/liter. In 4 subjects whose circadian pattern was investigated there was evidence of a higher thiocyanate concentration in saliva samples collected in the morning hours. PMID:8811872

Schultz, C P; Ahmed, M K; Dawes, C; Mantsch, H H

1996-08-15

246

Saliva and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with colorectal cancer : a prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and aims. A prospective cross-sectional study was designed to test if total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva and plasma correlated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population with symptoms consistent with this disease. Materials and methods. Stimulated whole saliva and blood samples were collected from 161 individuals referred to colonoscopy with symptoms associated with CRC. The results of the examination, as well as previous and/or current other diseases were recorded. In a blinded study, the authors used an in-house TIMP-1 ELISA previously validated for use in saliva and plasma to determine total levels of TIMP-1. Results. Fifty-six of the patients (35%) were diagnosed with CRC. Plasma TIMP-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with patients with other, non-malignant diseases and individuals without disease. Significant differences in saliva TIMP-1 levels between CRC patients and individuals without CRC could not be demonstrated. In addition, no correlation was found between levels of TIMP-1 in plasma and saliva. Conclusion. Total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva do not reflect the presence of CRC, and TIMP-1 saliva measurements thus cannot substitute plasma TIMP-1 measurements in detection of CRC.

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Ib Jarle

2012-01-01

247

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

248

Selenium and glutathione peroxidase in human saliva and other human body fluids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human body fluids such as mixed saliva, erythrocyte, plasma and mature breast milk were analysed for selenium (Se) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which is the only active form of Se known in man. Selenium-dependent GSH-Px activity was detected for the first time in human mixed saliva. Body fluid GSH-Px, Se and protein contents expressed in terms of volume increased in the order, saliva less than milk less than plasma less than erythrocyte. However, the sequence of increase for GSH-Px (U/mg protein) and GSH-Px-bound Se (%) was plasma less than milk less than erythrocyte less than saliva, and that for Se (ng/mg protein) was erythrocyte less than saliva less than plasma less than milk. Significant positive correlations were found between GSH-Px and Se contents and between protein and Se contents expressed per volume for human saliva, erythrocyte and the whole human fluids investigated. Positive correlations between erythrocyte and plasma Se (ng/mg protein) and between plasma and saliva GSH-Px-bound Se (%) were also significant. PMID:3685943

Hojo, Y

1987-09-01

249

Saliva Proteins of Vector Culicoides Modify Structure and Infectivity of Bluetongue Virus Particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.). The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, ‘VP2’, can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent / non-vector species). Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ?10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2–6 fold. Treatment of an ‘eastern’ strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a ‘western’ strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to increased infectivity specifically for Culicoides cells and, in turn, efficiency of transmission to the insect vector.

Darpel, Karin E.; Langner, Kathrin F. A.; Nimtz, Manfred; Anthony, Simon J.; Brownlie, Joe; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2011-01-01

250

Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1 at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10 using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 ?g/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 ?g/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 ?g/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

?or?evi? Snežana

2009-01-01

251

Calcium antagonists cause dry mouth by inhibiting resting saliva secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ca2+ antagonists cause dry mouth by inhibiting saliva secretion. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism by which Ca2+ antagonists cause dry mouth. Since the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is closely related to saliva secretion, [Ca2+]i was measured with a video-imaging analysis system by using human submandibular gland (HSG) cells as the material. The Ca2+ antagonist, nifedipine, inhibited the elevation in [Ca2+]i induced by 1-10 microM carbachol (CCh), but had no inhibitory effect on that induced by 30 and 100 microM CCh. The other kinds of Ca2+ antagonists, verapamil (10 microM), diltiazem (10 microM), and the inorganic Ca2+ channel blocker, CdCl2 (50 microM), also inhibited the [Ca2+]i elevation induced by 10 microM CCh. The Ca2+ channel activator, Bay K 8644 (5 microM), significantly enhanced the CCh (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Endothelin-1 and norepinephrine also increased the CCh (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. SKF-96365 reversed the enhancement of the CCh (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation caused by AlF4- and phenylephrine. The phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) inhibitor, U-73122 (5 microM), significantly inhibited the [Ca2+]i elevation induced by 100 microM CCh compared with that induced by 10 microM CCh, while the PLCbeta activator, m-3M3FBS (20 microM), significantly increased the [Ca2+]i elevation induced by 100 microM CCh compared with that induced by 10 microM CCh. We therefore conclude that non-selective cation and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are involved in resting salivation and that Ca2+ antagonists depress H2O secretion by blocking the Ca2+ channels and thereby cause dry mouth. PMID:17688889

Hattori, Toshimi; Wang, Pao-Li

2007-08-01

252

High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-Keto acids in human mixed saliva collected without stimulation were analysed by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several alpha-keto acids were found in saliva and their concentrations were: alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KGA), 221 +/- 142; pyruvic acid (PA), 7490 +/- 5600; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), 61 +/- 23; alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA), 137 +/- 79; alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), 41 +/- 19 nmol/dl (mean +/- SD, n = 40). Their levels proved to be lower than those in plasma, except that of PA. Their concentrations in saliva showed individual variation compared with those in blood. PMID:6581765

Tsuchiya, H; Hashizume, I; Tokunaga, T; Tatsumi, M; Takagi, N; Hayashi, T

1983-01-01

253

Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 ?g DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses.

Nemoda Zsofia

2011-12-01

254

Saliva promotes survival and even proliferation of Candida species in tap water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. They may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. This study deals with the growth ability of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in tap water with saliva (0-20% v/v). Results show that C. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. Furthermore, saliva promotes both survival and proliferation of the three studied Candida species in tap water. PMID:22092759

Barbot, Vanessa; Migeot, Virginie; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Deborde, Marie; Imbert, Christine

2011-11-01

255

Distribution of H type 1 and H type 2 antigenic determinants in human sera and saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A radioimmunoassay specific for the H type 1 antigenic determinant demonstrated that the H type 1 antigen is under the strict control of the Se gene in both serum and saliva. Similar amounts of H type 1 antigenic determinants were found in saliva from Se/-, le/le donors and in saliva from Se/-, Le/- donors. However, sera from Se/-, le/le donors were about 100 times more efficient in inhibiting the H type 1 assay than were sera from Se/-, Le/- donors. A radioimmunoassay, based on the binding o...

Le Pendu, J.; Lemieux, R. U.; Lambert, F.; Dalix, A. M.; Oriol, R.

1982-01-01

256

The free fraction of valproic acid in tears, saliva, and cerebrospinal fluid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valproic acid (VPA) was determined by EMIT assay in plasma, tears, saliva, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with epilepsy. Closer correlation was shown between tear/plasma and tear/CSF ratios than between saliva/plasma and saliva/CSF ratios. The VPA CSF/serum ratio was in good agreement with data in the literature. Salivary levels were extremely erratic, while those for tears were much more reliable. Determination of VPA in tears is therefore the best method of studying the VPA free ...

Mutani, Roberto

1982-01-01

257

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

258

Relación entre niveles de carbamazepina en saliva y plasma: Estudio piloto Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine have a poor correlation: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Carbamazepine is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy and its plasma concentrations must be monitored periodically to obtain a useful and safe clinical effect. There is not a good relationship between the dose of the carbamazepine and their effects in humans, but the effects of this drug have been well correlated with its plasma levels. Aim: To measure the correlation between plasma and saliva levels of carbamazepine in children with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine were measured by using instrumental planar chromatography in 11 epileptic children aged 8 to 15 years treated with the drug for at least six months. Results: The mean saliva/plasma ratio was 0.18±0.05 and the mean of carbamazepine concentration in saliva, expressed as a percentage of concentrations in plasma, was 17.97±5.40. There was a poor linear correlation (r =0.37 between the concentrations of carbamazepine in both fluids. Conclusions: In this group of epileptic children the correlation between saliva and plasma carbamazepine levels was weak

Sigrid Mennickent C

2007-03-01

259

LA SALIVA Y SISTEMAS ADHESIVOS ALTERNATIVOS PARA PRÓTESIS TOTAL / SALIVA AND ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS FOR COMPLETE DENTURES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las prótesis totales pueden presentar problemas biomecánicos relacionados con la retención y la estabilidad, que pueden originarse a partir de errores del profesional durante la toma de impresión funcional de los tejidos, diseño y confección de las prótesis; además de errores durante la fase de labo [...] ratorio a cargo de los técnicos o simplemente a cambios biológicos que experimentan los tejidos subyacentes como la reabsorción ósea, atrofia de los maxilares y disminución del flujo salival. Esta última circunstancia es de principal preocupación, ya que la saliva tiene un papel importante en la retención de las prótesis como "adhesivo natural", por lo que durante años se han propuesto diversos métodos alternativos de retención, especialmente sistemas adhesivos complementarios cuyas propiedades se han perfeccionado con la inclusión de otros compuestos como algunos polímeros sintéticos, agentes antimicrobianos, colorantes, aditivitos y preservativos; además se encuentran disponibles en diferentes presentaciones comerciales. El objetivo de esta revisión es exaltar las propiedades de la saliva como adhesivo natural y la posibilidad de mejorar la retención de las prótesis, cuando estas no poseen la capacidad de asegurar resultados deseados mediante sistemas adhesivos complementarios, que son una alternativa segura y efectiva, siempre que el odontólogo asuma la responsabilidad y la competencia de prescribir el tipo de adhesivo en relación con condiciones específicas del paciente para evitar situaciones indeseables como efectos sistémicos por la ingesta excesiva y prolongada de sales de zinc incluidas en algunas presentaciones comerciales de adhesivos para prótesis. Abstract in english Complete dentures may present biomechanical problems related to retention and stability, which can arise from professional errors during functional tissue impression, as well as during prostheses design and manufacturing, in addition to errors during the laboratory phase by technicians or simply by [...] biological changes of adjacent tissues, such as bone resorption, maxillaries atrophy, and decreased salivary flow. The latter is a circumstance of major concern because saliva plays an important role in prosthesis retention as a "natural adhesive"; therefore, various alternative retention methods have been suggested over time, especially in terms of complementary adhesive systems whose properties have been improved by including other compounds such as synthetic polymers, antimicrobial agents, colorants, additives, and preservatives, which are available in different commercial presentations. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties of saliva as a natural adhesive and the possibility of improving denture retention when it lacks the ability to guarantee the desired results by additional adhesive systems, which are a safe and effective alternative, provided that the dentist is responsible and competent enough to prescribe the right adhesive in relation to specific patient conditions to avoid undesirable situations such as systemic effects due to prolonged excessive intake of zinc salts included in some commercial presentations of denture adhesives.

Javier Enrique, Méndez Silva; Cristhian Camilo, Madrid Troconis; Lesbia Rosa, Tirado Amador.

260

Electronics  

... Electronics Electronics, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Electronics Submit to Electronics Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Electronics Electronics Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Electronics — Editors Journal Contact Electronics Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: electronics@mdpi.com ...

 
 
 
 
261

Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C).  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By light and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-specific P4-5C as primary antibody, it was shown that P4-5C reacted specifically and exclusively with mucus from the mucous gland cells of human salivary glands. P4-5C reacted neither with the mucous gland cells of other primates (hamadryas baboon, Japanese monkey and Rhesus monkey) and four mammals (dog, cat, rabbit and mouse) nor with other human tissues. The epitope on the core portion of the ABO(H)-carrying protein was defined by P4-5C and could be discriminated from the epitope of ABO(H) blood group antigens using immunoelectronmicroscopy, although these 2 epitopes were localized relatively close to each other. The P4-5C monoclonal antibody can be also used for morphological species identification of tissue specimens from submandibular glands. PMID:1716968

Ohshima, T; Nagano, T; Kimura, A; Matsumura, F; Sodesaki, K; Tsuji, T; Maeda, H

1991-01-01

262

A sensitive and selective HPLC method for estimation of lamotrigine in human plasma and saliva: application to plasma-saliva correlation in epileptic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for estimation of lamotrigine (CAS 84057-84-1) in human plasma and saliva. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed phase column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 6.5 (30:70) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The calibration curve was linear within the working range for both plasma and saliva. The validated method has been successfully applied for a study of lamotrigine in human plasma and saliva to establish the correlation between these two matrices. A scatter plot of plasma versus salivary lamotrigine concentrations showed a gold linear relationship between them (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.6832, p < 0.001). PMID:21125809

Mallayasamy, Surulivel Rajan; Arumugamn, Karthik; Jain, Tarun; Rajakannan, Thiyagu; Bhat, Krishnamurthy; Gurumadhavrao, Padma; Devarakonda, Ramakrishna

2010-01-01

263

Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

264

Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both patients were subjected to real time RT-PCR for DENV detection and quantification. Dengue RNA was detected in serum, urine and saliva samples of both patients. Patient 1 was infected with DENV-2 and patient 2 with DENV-3. Data presented in this study suggest that urine and saliva could be used as alternative samples for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection when blood samples are difficult to obtain, e.g., in newborns and patients with hemorrhagic syndromes.

Aquino Victor H

2010-01-01

265

Reducing Activity of Human Whole Saliva as Related to Dental Caries Experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole saliva reducing determinations were carried out on 402 systemically healthy young adult males. A diazoresorcinol test was employed in these measurements. Results were compared to DMFS scores and the number of carious surfaces present. There was a tr...

I. L. Shannon W. A. Gibson H. H. Chauncey

1964-01-01

266

UCLA study finds primary component of turmeric kicks off cancer-killing mechanisms in human saliva:  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin, the main component in the spice turmeric, suppresses a cell signaling pathway that drives the growth of head and neck cancer, according to a pilot study using human saliva by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

267

[Saliva as an alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone--advantages and limitations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva can be an excellent alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone concentration substituting the routinely used serum, plasma and urine. Particularly useful is the measurement of nonconjugated steroid hormones and cyclic amines (melatonin), the concentration of which is not dependent on saliva production, and correlates well with hormone concentration in blood. In routine laboratory diagnostic saliva is mainly used for multiple measurement of hormone concentration (establishing of diurnal cycle, monitoring the function of endocrine system with dynamic tests ex. Synacthen and dexamethasone), monitoring the concentration and metabolism of hormones used as a drugs (hormone replacement therapy) or when the determination of free (bioactive) fraction of hormone is required. Noninvasive saliva collection at patient's home, which does not need medical staff assistance, may reduce the costs of hormonal diagnostics in specialty clinics and hospitals. PMID:22026276

Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew P; Kondracka, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

268

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas / Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO) y el [...] telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX), medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g), SHAM (n=12) y ovariectomizadas (OVX) (n=12). Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca) y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría). En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml) como FAO (UI/l) en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p Abstract in english Bone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopept [...] ide (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g) [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml) by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark) and b-AP (IU/L) (Wiener, colorimetrically). Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p

Pellegrini, Gretel; Macarena, Gonzáles Cháves; Julia, Somoza; Silvia, Friedman; Susana N., Zeni.

269

The effects of gum chewing, four oral hygiene procedures, and two saliva collection techniques, on the output of bacteria into human whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six healthy dentate individuals collected a 5-min sample of unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and dilutions were plated out on blood agar and grown anaerobically for 48 h. The output of bacteria into saliva (counts/min) was calculated as the product of counts/ml and ml/min. The individuals repeated the collections at intervals of up to 7 h after (1) rinsing with water, (2) eating a meal plus tooth brushing, (3) a thorough dental prophylaxis, or (4) tongue brushing and scraping. They also collected saliva at intervals while chewing gum for 20 min, as did 10 individuals who chewed gum for 2 h. The original six individuals also collected UWS under "drooling" (no oral movements) and "spitting" conditions. Six edentulous individuals not wearing their dentures collected UWS before and after a water rinse. With the four oral hygiene procedures, bacterial outputs fell initially and then rose again, but a repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the effects of the four procedures. Gum chewing caused initial marked increases in the outputs of bacterial and epithelial cells, but these fell with time and reached a plateau after about 10 min at outputs above those in UWS. Samples collected by spitting contained up to 14 times more bacteria than those collected by drooling. Bacterial output by edentulous individuals did not differ from that in those with teeth. It is concluded that bacteria from the teeth and gingival crevices normally make only a small contribution to those in saliva, that various oral hygiene procedures have similar effects on bacterial output into saliva, and that saliva collection conditions should be standardized and specified. PMID:11369317

Dawes, C; Tsang, R W; Suelzle, T

2001-07-01

270

HIV surveillance by testing saliva from injecting drug users: a national study in New Zealand.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drug users in New Zealand has remained low since the introduction of a needle and syringe exchange scheme in May 1988. DESIGN--Anonymous survey of intravenous drug users attending outlets of the exchange scheme, based on questionnaires and saliva testing. SETTING--Twelve pharmacies and community outreach organisation in six cities. SUBJECTS--Altogether 620 people provided saliva specimens and completed questionnai...

Dickson, N. P.; Austin, F. J.; Paul, C.; Sharples, K. J.; Skegg, D. C.

1994-01-01

271

Phlebotomus papatasi Saliva Inhibits Protein Phosphatase Activity and Nitric Oxide Production by Murine Macrophages  

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Leishmania parasites, transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, are obligate intracellular parasites of macrophages. The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector of Leishmania major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World, and its saliva exacerbates parasite proliferation and lesion growth in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here we show that P. papatasi saliva contains a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A of murine macrophages. W...

Waitumbi, John; Warburg, Alon

1998-01-01

272

Evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase levels in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions - a biochemical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva can be used as diagnostic fluid in medicine and dentistry. Components of saliva proposed as disease markers include enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, esterase, aspartate aminotransferase, ? glucoronidase, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and steroid hormones (cortisol. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between aspartate aminotransferase (AST in different periodontal conditions indicated by community periodontal index treatment needs (CPITN, as salivary AST test is non-invasive and cost effective diagnostic adjunct for assessing periodontal destruction.

Aravind Kumar P

2012-04-01

273

Enhanced Leishmania braziliensis Infection Following Pre-Exposure to Sandfly Saliva  

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Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of diseases known as leishmaniasis, that are transmitted by bites of female sand flies that, during blood-feeding, inject humans with parasites and saliva. It was shown that, in mice, immunity to sand-fly saliva is able to protect against the development of leishmaniasis. We have investigated, in the present study, whether this finding extends the sand fly species Lutzomyia intermedia, which is responsible for transmission of Leishmania brazil...

Moura, Tatiana R.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Novais, Fernanda O.; Miranda, Jose? Carlos; Clare?ncio, Jorge; Follador, Ivonise; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral-netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Brodskyn, Cla?udia; Oliveira, Camila I.

2007-01-01

274

Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum, saliva, and skin blister fluid of healthy volunteers.  

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The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin were determined in six healthy volunteers after oral administration of 200 mg twice daily for 3.5 days. To study the pharmacokinetic behavior at the target site in bacterial infection of the skin, drug concentrations were determined in suction blister fluid (SBF) and cantharides blister fluid (CBF), as well as in serum and saliva. Ofloxacin was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. Ofloxacin concentrations in saliva amounted to 61 +/- 3...

Warlich, R.; Korting, H. C.; Scha?fer-korting, M.; Mutschler, E.

1990-01-01

275

SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  

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Full Text Available

Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 35 healthy children as control group and 71 thalassemia major, 10 thalassemia intermedia and 15 thalassemia trait patients were involved. Their saliva  and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured.  There was no statistically difference between age and gender in all groups and control group (p>0.05.  In all groups saliva iron levels are higher than serum iron levels(p<0.05. Furthermore there was a positive correlation betwen serum and saliva  iron levels in thalassemia major, intermedia and trait groups ( p=0.000, r=0.972, r=0.720, r=0.955 and also there was a positive correlation between serum and saliva iron levels in control and iron deficiency group (p= 0.000, r= 0.885, r= 0.368.  In conclusion,  Saliva iron and ferritin levels increase  as well as serum in patients with thalassemia and decrease in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Saliva can be used for diagnosis routinely  to shows the iron overload  and deficiency of the body and its easy applicability and also a non-invasive procedure is important advantage.

Duran Canatan

2012-01-01

276

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

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Abstract Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS) of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on ...

2008-01-01

277

The effect of saturation by artificial saliva on the effectiveness of denture adhesives  

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Full Text Available Purpose: of this examination was to evaluate the impact of saturation of adhesive materials by artificial saliva upon the generated bonding force.Design/methodology/approach: Four selected types of denture adhesives have been chosen. Measurements of bonding forces of the materials of different degree of saturation by artificial saliva have been carried out by dynamometer. The stamp covered by denture adhesive was pressed against the glass with force of 30 - 40 N and then keeping perpendicular movement against the glass, the stamp was pulled off and the joining was broken. It has been assumed that the bonding force was the equivalent of maximal pulling off force obtained in the test. The samples of different degree of saturation by artificial saliva have been exposed to tests of extensibility in a device of own design. The final denture adhesives have been put on the complete denture. It was pressed down against the denture bearing area model and next the values of retention forces were determined on a universal testing machine.Findings: Proper saturation of the samples by artificial saliva makes it possible to obtain approximate values of retention force for the majority of denture adhesives. However excessive saturation of adhesive materials can result in considerable reduction of their effectiveness.Research limitations/implications: The samples are handmade as well as part of the measurements are carried out manually and this is justified by the specific clinical conditions.Practical implications: Analysis of the impact of the level of saturation of denture adhesives by artificial saliva upon the generated bonding force highlights the need for individual selection of adhesive creams. The choice of material should be related to individual features such as secretion of saliva. It is advisable to introduce into clinical practice the option of adjusting the optimum saturation of particular denture adhesives by artificial saliva materials.Originality/value: The presented research work results allow to combine the secretion of saliva with the effectiveness of denture adhesives.

J. Kasperski

2011-09-01

278

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and c [...] ontrolling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Michelle Peneluppi, Silva; José, Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda, Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva, Machado; Luciane Dias de, Oliveira; Juliana Campos, Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

279

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

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Full Text Available Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method was used to obtain data about the time of consuming refined carbohydrates and oral hygiene. Oral hygiene level was determined using the Silness-loe plaque index and saliva was analyzed by measuring the flow rate of stimulated saliva, as well as measuring pH of non-stimulated and stimulated saliva. Results: Examining the correlation of seven analyzed characteristics it was possible to determine the presence of 14 (66,7% correlations out of 21 possible, with statistical significance and various p-values starting from p=0.038 (tau-b=0.229 up to p<0.001 (r=0.667. Out of seven analyzed characteristics, the time of carbohydrate consumption, the presence of caries (group and pH of non-stimulated saliva are predominantly correlated with other characteristics. Conclusion: The results of this examination show caries appearance in children to be in highly significant correlation with frequency of carbohydrate consumption, plaque index and pH values of non-stimulated saliva. In other words, children with caries consume carbohydrates often between meals, have high plaque index and lower pH values of non-stimulated saliva.

Cvetkovi? Andrijana

2006-01-01

280

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

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Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05.

Michelle Peneluppi Silva

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic Heterogeneity in Saliva from Patients with Oral Squamous Carcinomas: Implications in Molecular Diagnosis and Screening  

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We performed microsatellite analysis at chromosomal regions frequently altered in head and neck squamous carcinoma on matched saliva and tumor samples from 37 patients who had oral squamous carcinoma. The results were correlated with the cytologic findings and traditional clinicopathologic factors to assess the diagnostic and biological potential of these markers. Our data showed that 18 (49%) of the saliva samples and 32 (86%) of the tumors had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in at least one of...

El-naggar, Adel K.; Mao, Li; Staerkel, Gregg; Coombes, Madelene M.; Tucker, Susan L.; Luna, Mario A.; Clayman, Gary L.; Lippman, Scott; Goepfert, Helmuth

2001-01-01

282

Rapid determination of natural steroidal hormones in saliva for the clinical diagnoses  

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Abstract Background Saliva samples are easily collectable and non-invasive, and the monitoring of natural steroidal hormones, such as estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T), in saliva has attracted much attention due to its numerous potential clinical and health-related applications. Because E1, E2, E3, P and T are useful indicators in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses, there is a need for simultaneous determinatio...

Oh Jin-Aa; Shin Ho-Sang

2012-01-01

283

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours bl [...] ood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Natalia Cadaxo, Rochael; Luize Goncalves, Lima; Sandra Maria Pereira de, Oliveira; Marcello Andre, Barcinski; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Robson Queiroz, Monteiro; Lucia Helena, Pinto-da-Silva.

284

Stimulating whole saliva affects the response of antimicrobial proteins to exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the salivary secretion rates of antimicrobial proteins in response to prolonged, exhaustive exercise in both stimulated (STIM) and unstimulated (UNSTIM) saliva flow sample methods. Twenty-four trained men cycled for 2.5?h at 60% V ? O 2 m ? a x and then to exhaustion at 75% V ? O 2 m ? a x . Timed collections of whole saliva were made before exercise, mid-exercise, at the end of the moderate exercise bout and post-exhaustive exercise. After each UNSTIM collection, a STIM sample was collected following chewing flavored gum for 1?min. Saliva was analysed for lysozyme, ?-amylase and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and secretion rates were calculated. Saliva flow was 156% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?STIM only (P?STIM compared with UNSTIM for lysozyme and ?-amylase, respectively (all P?STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?STIM saliva flow collection during exercise by chewing flavored gum increased the quantity of saliva and the secretion of lysozyme and ?-amylase, but had a limited impact on the secretion of s-IgA. PMID:23506418

Allgrove, J E; Oliveira, M; Gleeson, M

2013-03-19

285

Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of ? amyloid (A? using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva A?42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of A?42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva A?40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva A?42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva A?42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

Antequera Desiree

2010-11-01

286

An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 ?L of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5 h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device's potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines noninvasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

Nie, Shuai; Henley, W Hampton; Miller, Scott E; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M; Dennis, Patty J; Oblath, Emily A; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G; Little, Frédéric F; Uluer, Ahmet Z; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J Michael; Walt, David R

2014-03-21

287

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures / Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte [...] amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discus [...] s the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

Evelyn, Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki, Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo, Hirata; Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff, Melani; Rogério Nogueira, Oliveira.

288

Compuscience [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bibliographic computer science database produced by FIZ Karlsruhe covering literature in the field of computer science and technology with over 412,000 citations from 1972 to the present. It is updated monthly with about 500 citations drawn from more than 320 journals, books, conference proceedings and non-conventional literature from all areas of computer science.

289

Astronomy thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesaurus aims to standardise the terminology in the field of astronomy for the purposes of aiding unambiguous library cataloguing and more precise recall of data from computer databases. Intended for use by astronomy librarians and scientists.

290

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value.

Herrmann, T.; Adamski, K.; Stefan, M. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

1984-01-01

291

Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using "3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

1981-01-01

292

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

1984-01-01

293

Microbial diversity in saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the oral cavity, chronic inflammation has been observed at various stages of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Such inflammation could result from persistent mucosal or epithelial cell colonization by microorganisms. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of oral bacteria in inflammation, warranting further studies on the association of bacteria with the progression of OSCC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of bacteria in the saliva of subjects with OSCC. Using 454 parallel DNA sequencing, ?58,000 PCR amplicons that span the V4-V5 hypervariable region of rRNAs from five subjects were sequenced. Members of eight phyla (divisions) of bacteria were detected. The majority of classified sequences belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (45%) and Bacteroidetes (25%). Further, 52 different genera containing approximately 860 (16.51%) known species were identified and 1077 (67%) sequences belonging to various uncultured bacteria or unclassified groups. The species diversity estimates obtained with abundance-based coverage estimators and Chao1 were greater than published analyses of other microbial profiles from the oral cavity. Fifteen unique phylotypes were present in all three OSCC subjects. PMID:21205002

Pushalkar, Smruti; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Ji, Xiaojie; Li, Yihong; Evans, Clive; Crasta, Oswald R; Morse, Douglas; Meagher, Robert; Singh, Anup; Saxena, Deepak

2011-04-01

294

Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 ?g/ml before and 0.16404 ?g/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677, sex, number of fillings (P=0.055, number of surface of filling (P=0.059 and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072, with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036.Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

F. Agha Hosseini

2004-09-01

295

Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

1977-01-01

296

Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva  

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This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash disea...

Solange Artimos de Oliveira; Marilda Mendonça Siqueira; Brown, David W. G.; Pamella Litton; Camacho, Lui?s Antonio B.; Sílvia Thees Castro; Cohen, Bernard J.

2000-01-01

297

Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

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Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Me?lika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-01-01

298

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid / Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (i [...] dades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 [...] years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.

Maldonado, C.; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, M.; Rey, A.; Olano, I.; Eiraldi, R.; Scavone, C..

299

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

1990-01-01

300

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru): a prospective evaluation  

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Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Me...

Huaman Moises A; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Soto Giselle; Neyra Joan M; Quispe Jose A; Fernandez Miguel F; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2009-01-01

302

Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

2009-12-01

303

Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Saliva: A Comparison between Partially and Fully Engorged Females  

Science.gov (United States)

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship.

Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, Joao Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Fox, Jay W.; Yates, John R.; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antonio F. M.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

2014-01-01

304

Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

305

Measurement of HER2 in saliva of women in risk of breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

HER2 amplification can be present in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of measuring soluble HER2 in the saliva of patients at risk of breast cancer towards early diagnosis and prognosis. Women with lesions classified as 4 according to BIRADS and women with spontaneous nipple discharge (NAF) were recruited for this study. Quantification of soluble HER2 in saliva was performed using the enzyme immunoassay ELISA. Median values of HER2 were quantified in saliva of the control groups and in the patient groups. The statistical test nonparametric Mann-Whitney was applied for the evaluation of median differences. Although the medians increased with the severity of the clinical status, no significant difference was found in all possibilities (p?>?0.05) when comparing the medians among the patients groups. Interestingly, inter-individual HER2 quantity variations in the saliva were detected in this study in some subjects from each group. Considering possible inter-individual variations, research on saliva-based circulating HER2 has to be reinforced to ensure its correct application in diagnosis, treatment and in follow-up of breast cancer patients. Older and current issues surrounding the controversy about the appropriate methods for HER2 evaluation are discussed. PMID:23479082

de Abreu Pereira, Denise; Areias, Vivian Rabello; Franco, Marco Felipe; Benitez, Manuel Carlos Moreira; do Nascimento, Cristina Moreira; de Azevedo, Carolina Maria; Alves, Gilda

2013-07-01

306

Interferon-? and interleukin-4 detected in serum and saliva from patients with oral lichen planus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous salivary study had demonstrated an apparent T helper 2 (Th2)-predominance in saliva of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and suggested a potential of salivary interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a biomarker for monitoring disease severity. To further determine the consistency of Th1/Th2 bias of OLP, this study investigated the expression profile of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-4 in serum and the relationship of the serum levels of these cytokines with their saliva partners. Sixty ethnic Chinese patients with OLP (40 of the erythematous/ulcerative form and 20 of the reticular form) were recruited for this study, with 40 age-sex-matched healthy volunteers as control group. IFN-? and IL-4 levels in serum and paired saliva samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OLP patient showed a low-level IFN-? but high-level IL-4 expression profile in both serum and saliva, with a lower IFN-?/IL-4 ratio. Serum IL-4 level in the erythematous/ulcerative group was significantly higher than that in the reticular group. Serum levels of IFN-? and IL-4 were significantly and positively correlated with their saliva partners. These results provided more evidence for Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance in OLP, as well as the potential of IL-4 as the biomarker for monitoring severity of OLP. PMID:24158143

Liu, Wen-Zhao; He, Ming-Jing; Long, Long; Mu, Dong-Liang; Xu, Ming-Shu; Xing, Xue; Zeng, Xin; Liao, Ga; Dan, Hong-Xia; Chen, Qian-Ming

2014-03-01

307

Analysis of intracellular enzymes in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal tissue. It is more commonly found in young adults. Analysis of biochemical markers in saliva is very important to monitor the level of periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the intracellular enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Material and Methods. The study included 22 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 28 healthy subjects (control group. Enzyme activity was measured in mixed non-stimulated saliva using kinetic methods in a spectrophotometer and expressed in international units per litre (U/L. Results. The activity of enzymes ALT and ALP was significantly higher in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis compared to healthy subjects, while AST activity was not significantly different. Also, there was no correlation between the activity of intracellular enzymes in saliva and clinical parameters such as gingival index, bleeding index, probing depth in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion. Obtained results indicate that salivary enzymes AST, ALT and ALP can be used as biochemical markers to aid in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

Popovi? Žana

2013-01-01

308

XTT assay of ex vivo saliva biofilms to test antimicrobial influences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Many dental diseases are attributable to biofilms. The screening of antimicrobial substances, in particular, requires a high sample throughput and a realistic model, the evaluation must be as quick and as simple as possible. For this purpose, a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-[(phenylamino-carbony]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene-sulfonic acid hydrate converted by saliva biofilms is recommended. Cleavage of XTT by dehydrogenase enzymes of metabolically active cells in biofilms yields a highly colored formazan product which is measured photometrically. Materials and method: The suitability of the XTT assay for detecting the vitality of ex vivo saliva biofilms was tested to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine and ozone versus saliva biofilms grown on titanium discs. Results: The XTT method lends itself to testing the vitality of microorganisms in saliva biofilms. The sensitivity of the arrays requires a specific minimum number of pathogens, this number being different for planktonic bacteria and those occurring in biofilms. The antibacterial effect after treatment with chlorhexidine or ozone was measured by XTT conversion that was significantly reduced. The antimicrobial efficacy of 60 s 0.5% and 0.1% chlorhexidine treatment was equal and comparable with 60 s ozone treatment. Conclusion: The XTT assay is a suitable method to determine the vitality in saliva biofilms, permitting assessment of the efficacy of antimicrobial substances. Its quick and easy applicability renders it especially suitable for screening.

Ina Koban

2012-04-01

309

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. Th [...] e subjects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Rosa, Fernanda Borowsky da; Souza, Victor Costa de; Almeida, Tatiana Amaral Pires de; Nascimento, Valdinete Alves do; Vasquez, Felicien Goncalves; Cunha, Maria da Graca Souza; Naveca, Felipe Gomes.

2013-08-01

310

Investigation of Zinc Concentrations in Saliva of Patients with Thyroid Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that thyroid hormone disorders can influence homeostasis of trace elements in the body, such as zinc (Zn. The aim of this study was to evaluate saliva Zn levels in patients with thyroid diseases. Material and Method: The study was performed on 126 patients (21 male, 105 female with thyroid diseases (31 hyperthyroid, 30 hypothyroid, 31 subclinical hyperthyroid and 34 subclinical hypothyroid and 38 healthy control subjects (7 male, 31female. Saliva was collected from all participants and Zn levels were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Results: Our results demonstrated that saliva Zn (p=0.007 for hypothyroid patients and p=0.023 for subclinical hypothyroid patients levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients than in control subjects. Discussion: This is the first study investigating saliva Zn levels in patients with thyroid diseases. Our results show that saliva Zn levels are affected by hypothyroid disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 1-4

Sevil Kurban

2013-03-01

311

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

Kršljak Elena

2008-01-01

312

[The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking. PMID:21542250

Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

313

Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

Sato, Hiroki; Obata, Akiko N.; Moda, Ichiro; Ozaki, Kazutaka; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamamoto, Yukari; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-04-01

314

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Document Server

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

315

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

316

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

317

Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

2013-04-01

318

Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p

Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes

2007-01-01

319

Electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast electrons are used to produce isotopes for studying the cooper metabolism: Cu-64 in a cyclotron and Cu-67 in a linear accelerator. Localized electrons are responsible for the chemical and physiological characteristics of the trace elements. Studied are I, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe, Se, Mg. The Cu/Mo and Cu/Zn interactions are investigated. The levels of molybdenum, sulfate and zinc in the food are analysed. The role of the electrons in free radicals is discussed. The protection action of peroxidases and super oxidases against electron dangerous effect on normal physiology is also considered. Calculation of radiation damage and radiation protection is made. (author)

1994-09-12

320

A simple saliva-based test for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to determine the feasibility of using saliva as a diagnostic medium for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 under nonlaboratory conditions and to evaluate the performance characteristics of such a test. We developed for this purpose a self-contained kit (Saliva. Strip [ST]), which combines the collection and processing, as well as the analysis, of the specimen. The kit's performance was evaluated in a blinded study. Saliva collection was facilitated with a specially designed device that contains a sample adequacy indicator, and immunochromatography test strips were used for the analysis. A total of 1,336 matched serum and saliva specimens (684 reactive and 652 nonreactive specimens) were tested. We tested sera using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a rapid strip test. Sera reactive in one of the assays were also analyzed by Western blotting. Sensitivity and specificity were 99.4 and 99.4%, respectively, for ST, 100 and 99.1%, respectively, for EIA, and 99.7 and 100%, respectively, for the serum strip test. The saliva test performed well when HIV-2-positive sera or a low-titer performance panel (HIV-1) of serum or plasma specimens were diluted (1:2,000) in nonreactive saliva. Because the methodology we present here uses a noninvasively obtained medium, the methodology may be suitable for use in the field where laboratory support and personnel are limited, such as community outreach programs, doctors' offices, surveillance studies, and community hospitals. PMID:10391866

Schramm, W; Angulo, G B; Torres, P C; Burgess-Cassler, A

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

[The ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of cellular elements from saliva traces left on cigarette butts].  

Science.gov (United States)

Specimens for cytological studies prepared from the traces of saliva left on cigarette butts using an ultrasound bath contained 5-7 times more epithelial cells than samples obtained by the traditional method. The new technique requires much less material for the analysis. It was validated during forensic medical examination of saliva traces left on cigarette. PMID:20821992

Starovo?tova, R A; Druchinina, I N

2010-01-01

322

COMPARATIVE DETECTION OF MEASLES SPECIFIC IGM ANTIBODY IN SERUM AND SALIVA BY AN ANTIBODY-CAPTURE IGM ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (EIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of acute measles is usually achieved by serology assays for measle-specific IgM antibody. For comparison of measle-specific IgM antibody in saliva and serum, 95 paired blood and saliva samples were collected 1-14 days after the onset of rash. The specimens were tested for specific IgM antibody by an IgM antibody-capture Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA. Measles IgM antibody was detected in 89 (93.7% of serum samples and in 85(89.5% of saliva specimens. Of the 6(6.3% serum samples that were IgM antibody-negative, 2 (2.1 % of the paired saliva samples were IgM antibody-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of saliva testing compared with serum was 95.5% and 66.7% respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of saliva testing were 97.7% and 50.0% respectively and the accuracy of saliva testing was 93.7%. Our results indicate that saliva samples provided Enzyme Immunoassay results that were in good agreement with results from serum samples. Salivary IgM antibody detection is a suitable non-invasive method for diagnosing recent measles infections and epidemiological studies, especially in children.

Zahra Safar Pour

2003-07-01

323

HPV and methylation indicators in paired tumor and saliva in HNSCC  

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Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) is a causative agent for some head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)  and an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal SCC. The goal of this study was to examine HPV16 associated gene methylation in paired saliva and tumor DNA with assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive value for saliva HPV as a test for HNSCC. HPV16 status was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 35 primary HNSCC paired tum...

Stephen, Josena K.; Kang Mei Chen; Meredith Mahan; George Divine; Tamer Ghanem; Worsham, Maria J.

2013-01-01

324

Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

1980-01-01

325

Biochemical indicators of dental caries in saliva: an in vivo study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, copper and zinc levels in saliva of caries-active and caries-free individuals. Eighty healthy adults were divided according to WHO criteria: caries-free (DMFT = 0) and caries-active (DMFT >10). Saliva collected was estimated for SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels using the atomic nitro blue tetrazolium chloride reduction method and absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The Student t test was applied. In conclusion, SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels increased in the caries-active group and showed statistically significant results. PMID:24504381

Hegde, M N; Hegde, N D; Ashok, A; Shetty, S

2014-01-01

326

The choice of conditions for cathepsin D activity determination in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was the demonstration and choice of conditions for the determination of cathepsin D activity in human mixed saliva. The 6% solution of hemoglobin, denatured with hydrochloric acid, was used as the substrate. The ratio of saliva volume to hemoglobin was 4:1 w/v. The reaction was interrupted by adding 10% trichloroacetic acid, after 6 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. The increase in degradation products was determined with the use of Folina and Ciocalteau method with copper modification. PMID:17458087

Roszkowska-Jakimiec, W; Dabrowska, E; Gacko, M; Karwowska, A; Chlabicz, M

2006-01-01

327

Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

1994-01-01

328

Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No significant differences were recorded in the amount of culturable bacteria in all studied conditions; however, from microscopy images, the saliva/HEMA combining effect induced a significant bacterial aggregation and adhesion on HGFs. HEMA treatment decreased viable eukaryotic cell number with a parallel increment of necrotic cells, but when saliva was added to the co-culture, the viable cells percentage increased to a value comparable to the control sample. PMID:23670604

Di Giulio, Mara; di Giacomo, Viviana; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Zara, Susi; Pasquantonio, Guido; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina

2013-08-01

329

Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight, obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free ...

Eliana Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal Souza; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Nicolau

2010-01-01

330

Colonization of Phlebotomus papatasi changes the effect of pre-immunization with saliva from lack of protection towards protection against experimental challenge with Leishmania major and saliva.  

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BACKGROUND: Sand fly saliva has been postulated as a potential vaccine or as a vaccine component within multi component vaccine against leishmaniasis. It is important to note that these studies were performed using long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi. The effect of sand flies colonization on the outcome of Leishmania infection is reported. RESULTS: While pre-immunization of mice with salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of long-term colonized (F5 and beyond) female Phlebotomus papatasi induce...

Ben Hadj Ahmed, Sami; Kaabi, Belhassen; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifeddine; Derbali, Mohamed; Laouini, Dhafer; Zhioua, Elyes

2011-01-01

331

Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children / Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar se alguns parâmetros da saliva total estimulada são influenciados pelo aumento do Índice de Massa Corporal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado com 90 escolares, de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 10 anos incompletos de Bragança Paulista, SP, formando três grupos: sobrepeso, obeso e co [...] ntrole. Avaliou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (P/E2) e a ingestão dietética pelo registro alimentar. Na saliva foram avaliados o fluxo, pH, capacidade tampão e concentrações de proteína, fósforo, cálcio, flúor, ácido siálico livre e total e atividade da peroxidase. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve maior consumo de energia e lipídios (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight [...] , obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free sialic acid, and peroxidase activity were determined. RESULTS: The overweight and obese groups showed greater energy and lipid intake (P

Eliana, Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio, Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal de, Souza; Fausto Medeiros, Mendes; José, Nicolau.

332

Detección de arn de virus hepatitis c en la saliva de un grupo de pacientes con hepatitis c crónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Hepatitis C constituye un problema de salud pública y su transmisión está claramente asociada con la ruta parenteral. Sin embargo su agente causal, Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC), también ha sido aislado de otros fluidos incluyendo la saliva, aunque la relación existente entre VHC y la patología buca [...] l no está completamente dilucidada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con Hepatitis C crónica. En la presente investigación se evaluaron 24 pacientes provenientes del Departamento de Hepatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad Central de Venezuela, con infección por VHC. 5 ml de saliva no estimulada fue tomada de cada paciente. ARN-VHC fue detectada por la técnica de Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en cadena de la Polimerasa (TR-RCP). En 29%, (7/24) pacientes VHC+, se observó la presencia de ARN-VHC en saliva. En este estudio, observamos la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC. Es necesario realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala, para clarificar el significado biológico de la presencia de este agente viral en la saliva, incluyendo la potencial vía de transmisión por la exposición con este fluido. Abstract in english Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmisión is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids, including saliva, although the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. The aim of thi [...] s study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva from patients with chronic C hepatitis. In the present investigation 24 patients, attended at the Hepatology Department, at the the Clinical Hospital University, Central University of Venezuela, with HCV infection were evaluated . 5ml of unstimulated saliva were taken of each patient. Saliva HCV-RNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 29% (7/24) of HCV+ patients showed HCV-RNA in saliva. In this study, we observed the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients infected with HCV. Further large-scale epidemiological studies are required to clarify the clinical significance of HCV in the saliva, including the potencial for viral transmisión through exposure to these fluids.

Luna, M; De Guglielmo; Garassini, M; Perrone, M; Correnti, M.

333

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) Virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva

1984-02-02

334

Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A saliva de artrópodes hematófagos é rica em moléculas com funções diversas que mediam uma alimentação sangüínea bem sucedida. Estas moléculas agem não apenas como armas contra a resposta hemostática, inflamatória e imunológica do hospedeiro funcionando também como ferramentas para o estabelecimento [...] de patógenos. Parasitas, vírus e bactérias aproveitando-se deste arsenal dos vetores adaptaram-se facilitando seu estabelecimento no hospedeiro. Hoje, várias moléculas salivares foram identificadas e caracterizadas como novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de vacinas futuras. Neste trabalho, centramos em informação recente sobre a saliva de vetores e as moléculas responsáveis por modificar a resposta hemostática e imunológica assim como seu papel na transmissão de doenças. Abstract in english The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Paras [...] ites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

Bruno B., Andrade; Clarissa R., Teixeira; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto.

335

THE EXCRETION OF PESTICIDES IN SALIVA AND ITS VALUE IN ASSESSING EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that pesticides are secreted in the saliva and that this secretion can be used to assess exposure to pesticides is discussed. Both Kepone and carbaryl were tested through a series of in vitro studies and in vivo experiments including both acute and subchronic stud...

336

rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by using human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rK39 rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) is now being widely used in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using serum. We evaluated the presence of anti-rK-39 antibody in human saliva being noninvasive to replace the invasive procedures of diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ICT assays were performed in 300 subjects: 114-confirmed VL patients, 95 and 47 healthy controls from endemic and nonendemic regions, respectively, and 44 subjects with different diseases. Sensitivity in saliva was 83.3% by ELISA and 82.5% by ICT, compared with 100% for both ICT and ELISA in serum. Specificity in saliva was 100%, 90.5%, and 88.6% with ELISA, and 91.48%, 91.57%, and 84.06% using ICT, in nonendemic, endemic, and different diseases, respectively. In serum, specificity was 97%, 88.5%, and 89% by ELISA and 100%, 94.7%, and 95.5% by ICT in nonendemic, endemic, and different diseases, respectively. Saliva is not suitable for diagnosis of VL because of low sensitivity. PMID:22492142

Vaish, Manisha; Singh, Om Prakash; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

2012-04-01

337

Welfare assessment in the Indian rhino and Asian elephant through cortisol measurement in saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At Estación Biológica Terra Natura (University of Alicante, Spain), we are developing a stress assessment program in the Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) at Terra Natura’s Theme Park. We are attempting to test the effect of environmental enrichment techniques applied in their enclosures, through cortisol measurement in saliva.

Menargues Marcilla, Mari?a Asuncio?n; Urios Moliner, Vicente; Navarrete, Jose? Mari?a; Lo?pez Gonza?lez, Manuel

2005-01-01

338

Monitoring of /sup 125/I in saliva of workers internally contaminated with /sup 125/I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sum peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of /sup 125/I in saliva ranged 4.65 +- 2.1cBq (1.26 +- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +- 1.9cBq (5.62 +- 0.51pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +- 0.64) x 10/sup -9/ to (3.6 +- 0.073) x 10/sup -8/ and the average was (8.1 +- 1.1) x 10/sup -9/. The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 x 10/sup -5/ to 5.4 x 10/sup -6/. The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 ..mu..Gy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 ..mu..Gy (474mrad). Monitoring of /sup 125/I in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination.

Nishizawa, Kunihide; Hamada, Nobuyoshi; Sakuma, Sadayuki (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

1983-08-01

339

Diagnostic model of saliva protein finger print analysis of patients with gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To explore the method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer by screening the expression spectrum of saliva protein in gastric cancer patients using mass spectrometry for proteomics.METHODS: Proportional peptide mass fingerprints were obtained by analysis based on proteomics matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. A diagnosis model was established using weak cation exchange magnetic beads to test saliva specimens from gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects.RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the mass to charge ratio (m/z peaks of four proteins (1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da between gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: The finger print mass spectrum of saliva protein in patients with gastric cancer can be established using gastric cancer proteomics. A diagnostic model for distinguishing protein expression mass spectra of gastric cancer from non-gastric-cancer saliva can be established according to the different expression of proteins 1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da. The method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer is of certain value for screening special biological markers.

Zheng-Zhi Wu, Ji-Guo Wang, Xiao-Li Zhang

2009-02-01

340

Natural defense by saliva and mucosa against oral infection by Leptospira.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis caused by drinking water has not been as frequently reported as percutaneous infection. Resistance to oral infection by pathogenic Leptospira was examined in an experimental hamster infection model. The results suggested some natural defenses against oral infection by Leptospira. First, we found that characteristic linear agglutination of Leptospira rapidly occurs when mixed with human saliva. That human saliva attenuated the infectivity of the treated leptospires by its agglutination activity suggested saliva to be the first line of defense against oral infection by leptospires. Second, only 10(1) Leptospira organisms caused death after submucosal injection into oral mucosa in hamsters, but oral infection with drinking water containing 10(5) organisms/mL did not cause death. This result showed that the mucosa plays the role of a physical barrier. Third, hamsters intragastrically infected by leptospires, with doses lethal to hamsters in oral infection, showed no signs of illness, which suggested that gastric acid plays an important role in preventing oral infection. Based on these results, saliva, mucosa, and gastric acid make up a natural defense, which confers high resistance to hosts against oral infection by leptospires. PMID:24861456

Asoh, Tatsuma; Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, by measurement of the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase (HEX in their saliva.Material/Methods: The study was performed in 65 children with type 1 diabetes and 39 healthy children. Salivary HEX activity was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Zwierz et al. in the modification of Marciniak et al. Protein was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method (BCATM Assay Protein Kit. Concentration of the HEX activity was expressed in pKat/mL and HEX specific activity in pKat/?g of protein.Results: A significant increase in the concentration and the specific activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, compared to healthy children, was found.Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes increases salivary catabolism of glycoconjugates reflected by the significant increase in the activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy children. The salivary HEX activity may be used in the diagnosis of children with type 1 diabetes after confirmation of our results on a larger cohort of children with type 1 diabetes.

Beata Zalewska-Szajda

2013-09-01

342

Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand flies are bloodsucking insects transmitting parasites of genus Leishmania, the causative agents of diseases in humans and dogs. Experimental hosts repeatedly exposed to sand fly saliva can control Leishmania infection. Cell-mediated anti-saliva immune response is most likely responsible for this protective effect; however, there is no study so far concerning its antigenic specificity towards different sand fly vectors. In this study, splenocytes from BALB/c mice repeatedly exposed to the bites of Phlebotomus sergenti were challenged ex vivo with salivary gland homogenates from three different sand fly vectors -P. sergenti, P. papatasi, or P. arabicus. Mice bitten by P. sergenti had higher proliferative response to homologous antigen than splenocytes from naive mice. Splenocytes from P. sergenti bitten mice as well as anti-P. sergenti antibodies partially cross-reacted with P. papatasi saliva. In contrast, no cross-reactivity was found with P. arabicus saliva. Our data indicate that both arms of the immune system, cellular and humoral, react in a species-specific manner. Therefore, the presence of antibodies against salivary components of a certain species indicates the specificity of cell-mediated immune response as well. The data suggest that unique transmission-blocking vaccine would be required for each vector -Leishmania combination. PMID:19891614

Drahota, J; Lipoldová, M; Volf, P; Rohousová, I

2009-12-01

343

Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Surface Roughness of Glass-Ionomer Cements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The glass ionomer cements are used clinically in different areas of restorative dentistry. The life span of dental restorations depends on the properties of the material such as durability, wear resistance and type of damage to the tooth. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of arficial saliva with different pH on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cements (GIC. The factors under study are three types of glass ionomer cements(one conventional glass ionomer cement, one resin modified glass ionomer and one polyacid-modified composite and artificial saliva at three different pHs (3, 7, 9. The association between GICs and storage media resulted in four groups. The analysis surface roughness was quantitatively carried out by means of a surface roughness measuring instrument (A Perthograph R100. The measurement procedure were repeated for 1, 7, 14, 28 days. No significant difference in surface roughness existed between distilled deionizer water and artificial saliva with pH 5 or 9. At 28 days, Ketac Molar was found to have suffered the greatest increase in surface roughness, after immersion in artificial saliva with pH3. As long as the material is being tolerated and protected by the dental structure, its resistance to abrasion will be satisfactory. All the materials have increasing trends of surface roughness as the immersion time increased.

Gabriela Beresescu

2011-11-01

344

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

1996-03-01

345

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

1996-03-01

346

Remineralization of enamel by a saliva substitute designed for use by irradiated patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A saliva substitute, VA-OraLube, was evaluated for ability to reharden dental enamel and to relieve intraoral soft tissue symptoms in patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatments of 15, 30, and 60 minutes rehardened enamel by 3.1%, 4.0%, and 5.5%, respectively. In the second experiment, treatment for 60 minutes with the complete solution rehardened enamel by 5.2%. Omitting calcium, phosphorous and/or fluoride from the formulation greatly decreased this rehardening potential. Treatment of enamel with fresh whole saliva induced rehardening at a 7.3% level in comparison to the 5.5% and 5.2% derived by using the saliva substitute. Since the xerostomic patient usually uses the product very frequently, there is a remineralization potential of significant consequence. A total of 125 xerostomic patients used the saliva substitute on an ad lib basis over a period of 4 months. Patient responses indicated a very high level of acceptance and the virtual elimination of troublesome problems previously associated with the dry mouth state

1978-01-01

347

High Prevalence of TT Virus DNA in Human Saliva and Semen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the PCR assay, we found a high prevalence of TT virus (TTV) DNA in saliva and semen from patients who were seropositive for TTV. This finding suggests that the presence of TTV in body fluids other than serum may affect the routes of viral transmission.

2000-01-01

348

Thickened Saliva after Effective Management of Drooling with Botulinum Toxin A  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of saliva after submandibular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections. Method: We enrolled 15 children (11 males and six females; age range 3-17y, mean age 9y 10mo) diagnosed with spastic (n=9) or dyskinetic (n=6) quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP); Gross Motor Function…

Erasmus, Corrie E.; van Hulst, Karen; van den Hoogen, Frank J. A.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Roeleveld, Nel; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Jongerius, Peter H.

2010-01-01

349

An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

Jensen, Marie A; Hansen, Ã?se Marie

2014-01-01

350

Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except sodium studied in the diabetic group with periodontal disease in comparison to the non-diabetic groups without periodontal disease. It is concluded in this study these salivary parameters may be considered as a valuable aid in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

2012-07-01

351

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

1990-01-01

352

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários / Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciê [...] ncia da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science [...] are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Guilherme Ataíde, Dias.

353

Pharmacokinetics of pradofloxacin and doxycycline in serum, saliva, and tear fluid of cats after oral administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetic properties of pradofloxacin and doxycycline were investigated in serum, saliva, and tear fluid of cats. In a crossover study design, six cats were treated orally with a single dose of pradofloxacin (Veraflox Oral Suspension 2.5%) and doxycycline (Ronaxan 100 mg) at 5 mg/kg body weight. Following administration, samples of serum, saliva, and tear fluid were taken in regular intervals over a period of 24 h and analysed by turbulent flow chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. All values are given as mean +/- SD. Pradofloxacin reached a mean maximum serum concentration (C(max)) of 1.1 +/- 0.5 microg/mL after 1.8 +/- 1.3 h (t(max)). In saliva and tear fluid, mean C(max) was 6.3 +/- 7.0 and 13.4 +/- 20.9 microg/mL, respectively, and mean t(max) was 0.5 +/- 0 and 0.8 +/- 0.3 h, respectively. Doxycycline reached a mean C(max) in serum of 4.0 +/- 0.8 microg/mL after 4.3 +/- 3.2 h. Whilst only at two time-points doxycycline concentrations close to the limit of quantification were determined in tear fluid, no detectable levels were found in saliva. The high concentrations of pradofloxacin in saliva and tear fluid are promising to apply pradofloxacin for the treatment of conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract infections in cats. As doxycycline is barely secreted into these fluids after oral application the mechanisms of its clinical efficacy remain unclear. PMID:18307499

Hartmann, A; Krebber, R; Daube, G; Hartmann, K

2008-04-01

354

Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S

2004-01-01

355

Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da...

Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel Et Al

2010-01-01

356

Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100% of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; P<.001. This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

Gökhan Aç?kgöz

2009-01-01

357

Detection of Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in the Saliva of Healthy Adults: Comparison with Blood Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammation and cardiovascular disease are associated with elevated serum levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP and homocysteine. The presence of both molecules in saliva provides an opportunity for development of non-invasive assessments of disease risk. However, salivary CRP and homocysteine reference ranges and their correlation with serum levels are unknown. This study investigated if CRP and homocysteine could be routinely detected in the saliva of healthy adults and the relationship between salivary and blood levels. CRP and homocysteine concentrations were determined using ELISA and enzymatic assays respectively. Homocysteine was detected in only two saliva samples (n = 55. CRP was measurable in all saliva samples (range: 0.05 to 64.3 µg/L; median = 1.2 µg/L and plasma samples (range: 0.14 to 31.1 mg/L; median = 2.0 mg/L. Regression analysis demonstrated no relation- ship between CRP concentration in saliva and plasma (R2 = 0.001. Generalized linear models including variables such as saliva flow rate and time since eating or drinking also did not pass lack of fit testing. Therefore, a relationship between CRP concentration in saliva and blood could not be established in this group of subjects. More sensitive detection methods are needed to determine if a correlation between salivary and serum homocysteine levels exists.

Michael C. Dillon

2010-07-01

358

Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

1982-10-01

359

Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF

2007-03-01

360

Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of radiation therapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of blood and saliva in oral cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapy is reported to induce oxidative stress in oral cancer patients. Saliva as a diagnostic tool has received increasing attention in recent years. Saliva analysis is proposed to be a noninvasive, sensitive tool for the evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy in oral cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of radiation therapy on malondialdehyde, the marker of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity in blood and saliva of oral cancer patients. We also aimed to assess the correlation between blood and saliva with respect to malonaldehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Thirty, clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients visiting the Oncology Department were the subjects. Thirty age- and sex-matched normal, healthy controls were included. Blood and saliva samples were collected from controls, and from oral cancer patients before and after radiation therapy. The samples were analyzed for MDA and TAC by standard spectrophotometric methods. Oral cancer patients showed significantly higher MDA level and lower TAC in blood and saliva when compared to controls. One week after radiation therapy, there was significant increase in MDA and decrease in TAC in oral cancer patients. After the completion of radiation therapy of six weeks, MDA level decreased and TAC increased, restoring the values near-to-controls. The pattern of change in MDA and TAC was similar between blood and saliva. There was significant correlation between blood and saliva with respect to MDA and TAC in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients showed increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capacity. After radiation therapy of one week, oxidative stress increased further, and after six weeks of radiation therapy there was amelioration of antioxidant status. Saliva could be a sensitive and convenient laboratory tool for diagnosis of oral cancer and evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy. (author)

2012-01-01

362

Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell / Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell?s palsy patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persiste [...] ntes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR), diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante se comparado ao grupo controle, no qual não foi obtido nenhum caso de positividade. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a presença do HSV-1 na saliva de pacientes portadores de PFP de Bell indica que a reativação viral pode ser a etiologia desta doença. A detecção do vírus na saliva destes pacientes não influencia o prognóstico da doença. Abstract in english The first herpes virus to be described was types 1 and 2, whose denomination is herpes simplex 1 and 2 or HSV -1 and HSV -2. These viruses have specific biological characteristics, such as the ability to cause different kinds of diseases, as well as to establish host?s latent or persistent lifetime [...] infections and also of being reactivated, causing lesions that can be located at the same site of the initial primary infection or close to it. It is suggested that this virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be related to Bell?s palsy. In this situation, the viruses that would be latent in this ganglion, would suffer reactivation and replication, then be diffused through the facial nerve and its branches, among them the chorda tympani nerve, which by stimulating salivary secretion would enable the identification of the viral DNA in the patients? saliva. Until recently, a great number of patients was diagnosed as holders of this kind of paralysis, named idiopathic or Bell?s palsy. With the introduction of the technique studying the viral DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), several authors have found herpes simplex virus type I DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in the lachrymal secretion, in the saliva and in the geniculate ganglia of patients with Bell?s palsy. AIM: observe the occurrence of herpes simplex type I virus using PCR technique in the saliva of patients with Bell?s palsy and relating it to the clinical evolution of these cases. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated 38 patients with Bell?s palsy submitted to anamnesis, clinical and ENT examination and saliva sampling for viral DNA detection by PCR technique. The control

Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Vianna, Melissa Ferreira; Alcantara, Mônica Porto Alves; Scalia, Rodolfo Alexander; Caiaffa Filho, Hélio Hehl.

363

Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell’s palsy patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persistentes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR, diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante se comparado ao grupo controle, no qual não foi obtido nenhum caso de positividade. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a presença do HSV-1 na saliva de pacientes portadores de PFP de Bell indica que a reativação viral pode ser a etiologia desta doença. A detecção do vírus na saliva destes pacientes não influencia o prognóstico da doença.The first herpes virus to be described was types 1 and 2, whose denomination is herpes simplex 1 and 2 or HSV -1 and HSV -2. These viruses have specific biological characteristics, such as the ability to cause different kinds of diseases, as well as to establish host’s latent or persistent lifetime infections and also of being reactivated, causing lesions that can be located at the same site of the initial primary infection or close to it. It is suggested that this virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be related to Bell’s palsy. In this situation, the viruses that would be latent in this ganglion, would suffer reactivation and replication, then be diffused through the facial nerve and its branches, among them the chorda tympani nerve, which by stimulating salivary secretion would enable the identification of the viral DNA in the patients’ saliva. Until recently, a great number of patients was diagnosed as holders of this kind of paralysis, named idiopathic or Bell’s palsy. With the introduction of the technique studying the viral DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, several authors have found herpes simplex virus type I DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in the lachrymal secretion, in the saliva and in the geniculate ganglia of patients with Bell’s palsy. AIM: observe the occurrence of herpes simplex type I virus using PCR technique in the saliva of patients with Bell’s palsy and relating it to the clinical evolution of these cases. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated 38 patients with Bell’s palsy submitted to anamnesis, clinical and ENT examination and saliva sampling for viral DNA detection by PCR technique. The control group was ten normal adults. RESULTS: We found positive viral DNA in 11 cases out of the

Paulo Roberto Lazarini

2006-02-01

364

The Influence of Various Mucoadhesive Polymers on In Vitro Performance of the Resulting Artificial Saliva Pump Spray Formulations  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological behavior and mucoadhesive nature of saliva substitutes, by incorporating various mucoadhesive polymers into an artificial saliva pump spray formulation. For this purpose various mucoadhesive polymers including cellulosic polymers in the range of 0.1-1.0% and Carbomers such as C974p, C971, C934p and C971 in the range of 0.01-0.1% were added to a formulated aqueous-based artificial saliva pump spray formulation, containing fixed amounts of some essential electrolytes. The pH of the formulations was between 6.3-7.4. The formulations were examined in terms of appearance, taste, odor, spray-ability, short-term thermal and mechanical stability, pH, viscosity and rheological behavior, particle size distribution, as well as invitro mucoadhesive strength (MS. The mucoadhesivity ratio (MR was also calculated as follows: MR=MStest/MScontrol, using natural saliva as the control. Natural saliva showed a pseudoplastic rheological behavior, with a viscosity in the range of 12.85-28.15cP. Hence, artificial saliva samples having viscosities within this range were selected. The rheological behavior and viscosity of the test samples as well as the natural saliva were subsequently determined. Similar to that found for the natural saliva, all the prepared formulations showed a pseudoplastic rheological behavior. Among the polymers, C974p had the highest viscosity (25.97±0.11 cPp and mucoadhesive strength (34.84±0.21 mN/cm2 followed by hydroxypropylmethylcellulose which had a viscosity of 25.48±0.11 cPp and a mucoadhesive strength of 34.03±0.24 mN/cm2. Furthermore, the mucoadhesivity of C974p containing artificial saliva was 1.186 times greater than natural saliva and 1.387 times more than water. In conclusion, it seems that the presence of mucoadhesive polymers within the artificial saliva pump spray formulations could help to improve the adhesive nature of the formulation to mucosal surfaces, making it even more effective than the natural saliva.

Nooshin Mehravaran

2009-01-01

365

Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies  

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We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV ...

Gonc?alves, Patri?cia L.; Cunha, Carla B.; Busek, Solange C. U.; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; El, Fausto Pereira

2005-01-01

366

Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria  

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Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

2010-01-01

367

La saliva en el mantenimiento de la salud oral y como ayuda en el diagnóstico de algunas patologías / The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La saliva es una secreción compleja proveniente de las glándulas salivales mayores en el 93% de su volumen y menores en el 7% restante. El 99% de la saliva es agua mientras que el 1% restante está constituido por moléculas orgánicas e inorgánicas. Si bien la cantidad de saliva es importante, también [...] lo es la calidad de la misma. Se revisará los componentes de la saliva y sus funciones en el mantenimiento de la salud oral los principales factores causales que alteran la secreción salival, se comentará la importancia de la saliva en el desarrollo de la enfermedad de caries y en la formación de la placa bacteriana, y se analizará su papel como material de ayuda para el diagnóstico de algunas patologías. Las variaciones en el flujo salival pueden verse afectadas por múltiples factores fisiológicos y patológicos, de forma reversible o irreversible. Juega un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento de la integridad de las estructuras bucales, en la vida de relación, en la digestión y en el control de infecciones orales. El papel de la saliva en la protección frente a la caries podemos concretarlo en cuatro aspectos, dilución y eliminación de los azúcares y otros componentes, capacidad tampón, equilibrio entre la desmineralización / remineralización y acción antimicrobiana. La saliva como alternativa para el diagnóstico, de algunas enfermedades, como elemento para monitorizar la evolución de determinadas patologías o la dosificación de medicamentos o drogas proporciona una vía prometedora. La accesibilidad en su obtención y la correlación positiva entre múltiples parámetros en el suero y en la saliva son algunas de las ventajas que ofrece como instrumento diagnóstico. Abstract in english Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of sali [...] va, its functions in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion will be reviewed, the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation will be discussed and its rôle as an aid to diagnosing certain pathologies will be examined. Variations in salivary flow can be affected, reversibly or irreversibly, by numerous physiological and pathological factors. Saliva plays an essential rôle in maintaining the integrity of the oral structures, in personal relationships, in the digestion and in controlling oral infection. The part that saliva plays in protecting teeth from caries can be summarised under four aspects: diluting and eliminating sugars and other substances, buffer capacity, balancing demineralisation / remineralisation and antimicrobial action. Saliva is a promising option for diagnosing certain disorders and monitoring the evolution of certain pathologies or the dosage of medicines or drugs. Its advantages as a diagnostic tool include its being easy to obtain and the positive correlation between many parameters in serum and saliva.

Carmen, Llena Puy.

368

Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy / Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clínicos e algumas propriedades bioquímicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e após o tratamento radioterápico para câncer de cabeça e pescoço (grupo experimental) e de 21 pacientes sem câncer (grupo controle). O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessário (segun [...] dos) para produção estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente à utilização de um método colorimétrico simples. A concentração de proteína total salivar foi determinada pelo método de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada através dos açúcares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo método do ácido dinitrossalicílico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletroforético foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12%) para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de proteína. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, redução estatisticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring t [...] he time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentration was determined by the Bradford4 method. Amylase activity was measured by reducing sugars released from a soluble starch substrate, quantified by the dinitrosalicylic method. The electrophoretic profile was evaluated in polyacrylamid gel (12% SDS-PAGE) using samples of 5 mg of salivary protein. A statistically significant reduction (p

Cássio de Barros, Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli, Polizello; Augusto César Cropanese, Spadaro.

369

Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight, obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free sialic acid, and peroxidase activity were determined. RESULTS: The overweight and obese groups showed greater energy and lipid intake (POBJETIVO: Verificar se alguns parâmetros da saliva total estimulada são influenciados pelo aumento do Índice de Massa Corporal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado com 90 escolares, de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 10 anos incompletos de Bragança Paulista, SP, formando três grupos: sobrepeso, obeso e controle. Avaliou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (P/E2 e a ingestão dietética pelo registro alimentar. Na saliva foram avaliados o fluxo, pH, capacidade tampão e concentrações de proteína, fósforo, cálcio, flúor, ácido siálico livre e total e atividade da peroxidase. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve maior consumo de energia e lipídios (P<0,001. Não houve diferença no fluxo salivar entre todos os grupos, mas somente o controle mostrou valor médio considerado normal. O pH salivar do grupo sobrepeso foi maior do que o do controle (P<0,001. Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve decréscimo na concentração de fosfato (P<0,001 e na atividade da peroxidase (P<0,001. No grupo obeso houve aumento nas concentrações de ácido siálico livre (P= 0,004 e proteína (P= 0,003. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças com sobrepeso e obesas apresentam alterações nas concentrações salivares de fosfato, ácido siálico livre e proteínas e na atividade da peroxidade, as quais favorecem a formação de cárie dentária.

Eliana Pannunzio

2010-01-01

370

Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain  

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Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos parâmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG, com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas.The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG parameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

H. N. Yoshimura

2009-06-01

371

Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida / Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos par [...] âmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG), com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas. Abstract in english The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) par [...] ameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

H. N., Yoshimura; M. M., Pinto; C. C., Gonzaga; P. F., Cesar.

372

Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva / Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta revisión muestra los principales biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. El aspecto clínico y el grado de displasia de las lesiones precancerosas de la cavidad bucal sugieren su capacidad de malignidad; sin embargo, éstas generalmente son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados, disminuyendo la pr [...] obabilidad de supervivencia, lo que justifica el diseño de nuevas pruebas diagnósticas que determinen el grado de alteración celular, permitan comprender el proceso degenerativo en el cáncer y establezcan diagnósticos precoz. Esta búsqueda para mejorar los métodos diagnósticos, apunta a que sean sensibles, específicos y menos invasivos, por lo cual el estudio de diferentes biomarcadores en saliva que desde una perspectiva molecular proporcionan información adicional al examen clínico e histopatológico, es considerada como una alternativa eficaz y más cómoda con respecto a los ensayos en sangre. Los biomarcadores que se han descrito en saliva algunos mostrando mayor relación con la carcinogénesis oral son: Ciclina D1, cyfra 21-1, endotelina-1, galectinas 1, 3 y 7, Ki67, lactato deshidrogenasa, metaloproteinasas 2 y 9, proteína p53, proteína de unión a calcio (S100P) y telomerasa. Abstract in english This review shows the main oral cancer biomarkers in saliva. The clinical appearance and the degree of dysplasia, precancerous lesions of the oral cavity suggests its ability to malignancy, but these are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, decreasing the likelihood of survival, justifying the desi [...] gn of new diagnostic tests to determine the degree of cell alteration as to understand the degenerative process in cancer diagnosis and establish early. This search for improved diagnostic methods, aims to be sensitive, specific and less invasive, so the study of biomarkers in saliva from a molecular perspective provide additional information to clinical and histopathological examination is considered as a more comfortable and effective to establish a diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been described in saliva some showing more related to oral carcinogenesis are cyclin D1, Cyfra 21-1, Endothelin-1, Galectins 1, 3 and 7, Ki67, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, p53 protein, protein calcium-binding (S100P) and Telomerase.

Madera Anaya, M.V..

373

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

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OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patient...

Maldonado, C.; Pietro Fagiolino; Va?zquez, M.; Rey, A.; Olano, I.; Eiraldi, R.; Scavone, C.

2008-01-01

374

A population-based study of how children are exposed to saliva in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa: implications for the spread of saliva-borne pathogens to children  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Objectives In sub-Saharan Africa, many viral infections, including Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and hepatitis B are acquired in childhood. While saliva is an important transmission conduit for these viruses, little is known about how saliva is passed to African children. We endeavoured to identify the range and determinants of acts by which African children are exposed to saliva. Methods To identify the range of acts by which African children are exposed to saliva, we conducted focus groups, semi-structured interviews and participant observations in an urban and a rural community in South Africa. To measure the prevalence and determinants of the identified acts, we administered a questionnaire to a population-based sample of caregivers. Results We identified 12 caregiving practices that expose a child’s oral–respiratory mucosa, cutaneous surfaces or anal–rectal mucosa to saliva. Several acts were heretofore not described in the contemporary literature (e.g., caregiver inserting finger lubricated with saliva into child’s rectum to relieve constipation). Among 896 participants in the population-based survey, many of the acts were commonly practised by all respondent types (mothers, fathers, grandmothers and siblings). The most common were premastication of food, sharing sweets and premastication of medicinal plants that are spit onto a child’s body. Conclusions African children are exposed to saliva through a variety of acts, practised by a variety of caregivers, with no single predominant practice. This diversity poses challenges for epidemiologic work seeking to identify specific saliva-passing practices that transmit viruses. Most acts could be replaced by other actions and are theoretically preventable.

Butler, L. M.; Neilands, T. B.; Mosam, A.; Mzolo, S.; Martin, J. N.

2014-01-01

375

In vitro study of a saliva substitute (Saliva natura) and several modifications on mineral content and lesion depth of bovine enamel and dentin after brushing with or storage in fluoride-containing toothpaste (Duraphat)  

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Statement of problem: Saliva substitutes are able to demineralize enamel and dentin. Objectives: For this in vitro study, the effects of experimental modifications (with respect to calcium, phosphate and fluoride) of Saliva natura and simultaneous application of high-concentrated fluoride toothpaste (5000 ppm, Duraphat) were examined. Materials and methods: One hundred each of both demineralized bovine enamel and dentin specimens (subsurface lesions; 37 °C, enamel: 14 d, dentin 7 d) were sto...

2010-01-01

376

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

377

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell

2001-12-01

378

A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release  

CERN Document Server

After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

2013-01-01

379

Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics of Maraviroc in Saliva, Semen, and Rectal Tissue of Healthy HIV-negative Men  

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Background.?Antiretroviral pharmacology in seminal plasma (SP) and rectal tissue (RT) may provide insight into antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Saliva may be of utility for noninvasively measuring adherence.

Brown, Kevin C.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Malone, Stephanie A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Asher Prince, Heather M.; Dumond, Julie B.; Spacek, Melissa B.; Heidt, Paris E.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

2011-01-01

380

Methanol levels in saliva--a non-invasive parameter that may be useful in detection of alcohol intoxication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive screening parameters proving alcohol intoxication are necessary especially in forensic contexts. Results obtained by common measurement methods like the ethanol breath analyzer may be falsified by several parameters like hypoventilation. Therefore, we undertook a pilot study investigating the usefulness and applicability of methanol levels measured in saliva. Our results show that methanol levels in saliva are closely linked to ethanol levels in saliva (r = 0.971, P < 0.0001, t = 5.622, P = 0.000) as well as to ethanol levels in serum (r = 0.786, P = 0.001, t = -1.106, P = 0.058). Therefore, methanol levels measured in saliva might be applicable in order to increase the validity of other non-invasive measurement methods like the ethanol breath analyzer. PMID:20093712

Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Degner, Detlef; Kornhuber, Johannes; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Fabrication of a functional palatal saliva reservoir by using a resilient liner during processing of a complete denture.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major problems associated with xerostomic patients is the poor tolerance and retention of removable dental prostheses because of thin dry atrophic mucosa and lack of a saliva film. The use of salivary substitutes can improve lubrication, provide irrigation for dry mucosa, provide significant relief from symptoms, and also improve the retention of removable prostheses. These substitutes can be delivered over prolonged periods by using saliva reservoirs in the prosthesis itself. This report describes a novel technique for the fabrication of a functional palatal saliva reservoir in edentulous xerostomic patients. The technique uses a resilient liner in the floor of the reservoir. The tongue presses against the liner during swallowing, resulting in flow of saliva substitute through a hole in the anterior part of the floor of the reservoir. PMID:23107242

Upadhyay, Snehal Rashmikant; Kumar, Lakshya; Rao, Jitendra

2012-11-01

382

Use of Saliva for assessment of Stress and Its Effect On the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a study investigating the effects of sequential tests on the immune system. The study was conducting on occupational therapy students via saliva. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

S. Reid Lester (University of Mississippi Medical Center Periodontics and Preventive Sciences); Jason Brown (University of Mississippi Medical Center Periodontics and Preventive Sciences); Roger Johnson (University of Mississippi Medical Center Anatomy)

2010-07-06

383

Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is a readily accessible and informative biofluid, making it ideal for the early detection of a wide range of diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases, viral and bacterial infections and, importantly, cancers. Saliva-based diagnostics, particularly those based on metabolomics technology, are emerging and offer a promising clinical strategy, characterizing the association between salivary analytes and a particular disease. Here, we conducted a comprehensive metab...

2010-01-01

384

Detection of Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in the Saliva of Healthy Adults: Comparison with Blood Levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inflammation and cardiovascular disease are associated with elevated serum levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and homocysteine. The presence of both molecules in saliva provides an opportunity for development of non-invasive assessments of disease risk. However, salivary CRP and homocysteine reference ranges and their correlation with serum levels are unknown. This study investigated if CRP and homocysteine could be routinely detected in the saliva of healthy adults and the relationship betwe...

Dillon, Michael C.; Opris, Daniel C.; Kopanczyk, Rafal; Lickliter, Jackie; Cornwell, Hayley N.; Bridges, Edward G.; Nazar, Andrea M.; Bridges, Kristie Grove

2010-01-01

385

Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

1979-04-06

386

Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients by using weak cation exchange magnetic beads  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva diagnostics has become an attractive field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies for pSS (primary Sjögren's syndrome). However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of the saliva peptide finger print for the early detection of pSS, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in pSS patients by using mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS) combined with magnetic ...

Pan Wei; Patrick Kuo, Winston X. A.; Feng Chen; Hong Hua

2013-01-01

387

Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Ty...