WorldWideScience
1

Human resources handbook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

2

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

3

Wrangling Electronic Resources: A Few Good Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several freely available tools today that fill the needs of librarians tasked with maintaining electronic resources, that assist with tasks such as editing MARC records and maintaining web sites that contain links to electronic resources. This article gives a tour of a few tools the author has found invaluable as an Electronic Resources Librarian.

Brandy Klug

2010-03-01

4

Science behind human saliva  

OpenAIRE

Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side ef...

Tiwari, Manjul

2011-01-01

5

Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

Grogg, Jill E.

2008-01-01

6

Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

2012-10-01

7

Saliva and dental erosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-10-01

8

Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

9

Principles of Selection for Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability in electronic format of scholarly and scientific literatures and other forms of information has altered challenges faced by library collection managers. Drawing on ideas of the multi-library consortia, which have grown up partly in response to the advent of electronic resources, librarians have devised new criteria and means of…

Metz, Paul

2000-01-01

10

Saliva: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inherent and yet profound aspect of our well-being is dependent on a humble, unassuming fluid called saliva. This unpretentious secretion is indispensable, contributing to quality of life and the simple joy of living; its absence has been described as an aggravating constant misery. Therefore, understanding how saliva contributes to good oral health and general well-being is essential to assisting oral health professionals in their care for patients. A comprehensive literature search of publications relating to saliva was undertaken in order to assemble an overview of the current knowledge of this multifaceted, multipurpose bodily fluid. This paper revises the anatomical, histological and physiological aspects of saliva production and its functions. Dry mouth and its associated risk factors are described, together with consideration of its clinical significance. PMID:25265747

Benn, A M L; Thomson, W M

2014-09-01

11

Sensitivity enhancement in the determination of volatile biomarkers in saliva using a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose with a programmed temperature vaporizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

With a view to improving the sensitivity of direct coupling of a headspace sampler (HS) with a mass spectrometer (MS), here we propose the use of a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) in solvent-vent injection mode before the sample is introduced into the MS. This preconcentration scheme has been used for some time in many methods based on gas chromatography (GC), but to the best of our knowledge it has not yet been used in an electronic nose based on MS. The increase in the S/N ratio with the proposed instrumental configuration (HS-PTV/MS) lies between 6.9- and 22-fold. The main advantage of using this injector lies in the fact that it does not involve time-consuming steps. To check the possibilities of this methodology, saliva samples from healthy volunteers and patients with different types of illnesses (including some types of cancer) were analyzed. None of the compounds studied was detected in the samples corresponding to the healthy volunteers. One or more biomarkers, at levels ranging from 13 to 500 ?g/L, were found in five of the samples from the patients. Additionally, separative analysis by HS-PTV-GC/MS was performed for confirmatory purposes and both methods provided similar results. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that no prior chromatographic separation and no sample manipulation are required. PMID:24992644

del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Callejo Gómez, Pedro Ángel; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo; Crisolino Pozas, Angel Pedro; Sánchez Rodríguez, Angel

2014-08-01

12

Oestrogens in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matched plasma and saliva samples were obtained from a non-pregnant and pregnant group (last trimester) of female caucasians. Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay, 17?-oestradiol was measured, and the gingival index system of Loe (1967) was used to assess the gingival condition of each patient. The results showed that 17?-oestradiol could be measured in saliva but that the levels were extremely low and a very sensitive immunoassay was necessary. In the pregnant group, saliva represented 3 per cent of the plasma level. This was not the case in the non-pregnant group, probably because of the constantly changing free: bound plasma ratio. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that oestrogens are known to bind to the oral epithelium

13

Alcohol saliva strip test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has been put forward for the detection of alcohol in saliva for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). PMID:24783167

Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

2014-03-01

14

Saliva and dental erosion  

OpenAIRE

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the re...

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-01-01

15

Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb...

Smith Barry; David Wong T; Ai Jiye

2010-01-01

16

Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

Doži? Ivan

2005-01-01

17

Human saliva proteome: an overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2014-06-01

18

IRENA Resource [electronic resource] : your source for renewable energy information.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future, and serves as the principal platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence, and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy.

19

Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

20

Marine Environment Laboratories Monaco [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A central facility for the collection, synthesis and interpretation of data on marine radioactivity in the world ocean. It stores all available data on marine radioactivity of seawater, sediments and biota. Please note: To access this resource contact the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratories Monaco.

21

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

22

Using Zapier with Trello for Electronic Resources Troubleshooting Workflow  

OpenAIRE

Troubleshooting access problems is an important part of the electronic resources management workflow. This article discusses an opportunity to streamline and track troubleshooting using two web-based services: Trello and Zapier.

Meghan Finch

2014-01-01

23

Neutralizing Activity of Saliva against Cytomegalovirus?  

OpenAIRE

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is the leading cause of permanent disability in neonates in the United States. Neutralizing antibodies in saliva may protect against maternal CMV infection by blocking viral entry into oral epithelial cells, but the antibody response to CMV in the saliva following natural infection is not well characterized. Saliva specimens from naturally infected individuals were tested for CMV-neutralizing activity using epithelial and fibroblast cells. Saliva from ...

Saccoccio, Frances M.; Gallagher, Mary K.; Adler, Stuart P.; Mcvoy, Michael A.

2011-01-01

24

Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time poin...

Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

2004-01-01

25

Resource letter EPA-1: Electronic polymers and their applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on electronic polymers and their potential applications. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: (i) theories of the electronic structure and excited states of conjugated polymers, the role of electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in determining these states, the mechanisms of charge transport, and the insulator-metal transition; (ii) information on the synthesis, structure, and morphology of representative polymers; (iii) results of transport, optical, and magnetic measurements on both conductive and semiconducting/insulating materials; and (iv) solid state device and other applications for conjugated polymers.

Blatchford, J. W.; Epstein, A. J.

1996-02-01

26

Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Document Server

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

27

The proteome of human saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

28

Evaluation of saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring plasma Zidovudine, Lamivudine and nevirapine concentrations in Rwanda  

OpenAIRE

Saliva may provide interesting advantages as matrix for compliance measurements, pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring in resource limited countries. We investigated the feasibility of using saliva for compliance monitoring of zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) in 29 HIV-1 infected patients from Rwanda. ZDV, 3TC and NVP drug levels were quantified by an LC/MS-MS method in plasma and stimulated saliva samples and compared using Bland-Altman analysis. Seve...

Gras, A.; Schneider, S.; Karasi, Jean Claude; Ternes, A. M.; Sauvageot, N.; Karasi-omes, C.; Henry, A. P.; Schmit, J. C.; Seguin-devaux, C.; Arendt, V.

2011-01-01

29

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

30

The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

Chung-Yen Yu

2014-10-01

31

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

32

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

33

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

34

Electronic Resources for Selecting and Using Children's Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated list of electronic resources suggests materials for selecting and using children's literature. Highlights include children's classics, beginning reader lists, lists by genre and/or grade level, multicultural booklists, annual lists of noted children's literature, children's book awards, extending children's literature, book…

Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

2001-01-01

35

Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin  

OpenAIRE

Upon consumption of emulsions, mixing with saliva occurs. This article shows that whole saliva and a model mucin (pig gastric mucin, PGM) are able to induce extensive droplet flocculation. Saliva samples collected from several subjects at different times of the day always showed flocculation. However, there was a clear variation between samples from different individuals with respect to the structure of the flocs and reversibility of flocculation upon dilution. Several aspects of PGM-induced...

Vingerhoeds, M. H.; Blijdenstein, T. B. J.; Zoet, F. D.; Aken, G. A.

2005-01-01

36

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

OpenAIRE

This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of disc...

Sanna Torma; Pertti Vakkari

2004-01-01

37

ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

Hoffman, Marci.

2003-01-01

38

Peroxidase antimicrobial system of human saliva: hypothiocyanite levels in resting and stimulated saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial oxidizing agent hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-) was measured in resting (drooling) and stimulated (expectorated) whole saliva. Stimulation of the saliva flow rate resulted in a rapid decrease in OSCN- concentration, whereas the thiocyanate ion (SCN-) concentration and peroxidase activity were increased. The decrease in OSCN- levels was greater than could be accounted for by dilution of the whole saliva volume. Assuming that the antimicrobial activity of the salivary peroxidase system is proportional to OSCN- concentration, this system may be more effective in resting saliva than in stimulated saliva. PMID:6955343

Tenovuo, J; Pruitt, K M; Thomas, E L

1982-08-01

39

Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.

Qing Qu

2014-07-01

40

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

41

Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing the linking framework, papers in the electronic research journals, data and abstracts will be incorporated into the system in a routine manner. The astronomical community now has an ever-growing, operational integrated information system which fulfills today, the dream of the digital library. It remains to be seen how this electronic resource will affect the progress of research.

Boyce, P.

1996-12-01

42

Saliva parameters and erosive wear in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between several parameters of saliva and erosive wear in adolescents. (Un-)stimulated saliva was collected from 88 adolescents with erosion and 49 controls (age 16 ± 1 years). Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were determined immediately. Total protein content, carbonic anhydrase VI, amylase, albumin, calcium, phosphate, urea, sodium, chloride and potassium were measured at a later time. Unstimulated flow rate was found to be significantly lower in subjects with erosive wear (p = 0.016). The chloride concentration in unstimulated saliva was found to be significantly higher in the erosion group (p = 0.019). PMID:23774653

Zwier, N; Huysmans, M C D N J M; Jager, D H J; Ruben, J; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J

2013-01-01

43

Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

Shao, Fang

44

Isolation of Helicobacter pylori from saliva.  

OpenAIRE

Helicobacter pylori was grown in low numbers from the saliva of one of nine patients who were positive for gastric H. pylori. The saliva-derived isolate from this patient was identical to the antral biopsy-derived isolate from the same patient and differed from isolates cultured from the antral biopsies of all other patients by soluble-protein electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease DNA analysis, and Southern blot hybridization. This is the first observation, to our knowledge, of the recove...

Ferguson, D. A.; Li, C.; Patel, N. R.; Mayberry, W. R.; Chi, D. S.; Thomas, E.

1993-01-01

45

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-11-01

46

Specific assays for peroxidases in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peroxidase activity in human whole saliva is due to salivary peroxidase and, in some cases, myeloperoxidase; it is usually determined by spectrophotometric methods based on the rate of oxidation of chromogen substrates. Thiocyanate ion, a normal component of saliva, interferes with these kinetic assays by competing with the chromogen for the available oxidizing equivalents; this results in underestimation of peroxidase activity. Both salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase will catalyse the peroxidation of the thiocyanate ion; the product, hypothiocyanite ion, is a reactive oxidizing agent. We have developed an assay for total peroxidase activity in saliva, based on the rate of formation of hypothiocyanite, which is not affected by the concentrations of thiocyanate found in saliva. Myeloperoxidase will catalyse the peroxidation of the chloride ion but salivary peroxidase will not; the product of this in neutral solution is the hypochlorite ion, which is also a reactive oxidizing agent. The specific contribution was determined of myeloperoxidase to total peroxidase activity in saliva by measuring the rate of both hypochlorite and hypothiocyanite formation. Because the thiocyanate ion will compete with the chloride ion, the concentration of thiocyanate in saliva samples must be reduced below 0.05 mM prior to measurements of the rate of hypochlorite formation. PMID:3477210

Mansson-Rahemtulla, B; Baldone, D C; Pruitt, K M; Rahemtulla, F

1986-01-01

47

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

48

Glucan-binding factor in saliva.  

OpenAIRE

High-molecular-weight polymers of alpha-1,6-linked D-glucans are insoluble in alcohol solutions. Whole, but not parotid, saliva prevented the precipitation of D-glucans by 80% (vol/vol) ethanol, showing that the whole saliva contained a factor which complexed with the glucan to render it alcohol soluble. The glucan-binding factor was retained on a column of Sephacryl S-200 which had been preequilibrated with 80% ethanol. The factor was then eluted with water. Passive hemagglutination assays r...

Cowan, M. M.; Parrish, K.; Kessler, R. E.; Pyle, C.; Taylor, K. G.; Ciardi, J. E.; Doyle, R. J.

1988-01-01

49

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

50

Bioactivity of novel self-assembled crystalline Nb2O5 microstructures in simulated and human salivas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crystalline, self-assembled niobium oxide microstructures formed in situ via potentiostatic anodization of niobium foil in an HF(aq) electrolyte solution are proposed as exceptional nucleators of Ca-P minerals, including hydroxyapatite. This material was tested for bioactivity through immersion in simulated and pooled human salivas. The simulated saliva formulation was based on mineral content found in stimulated human saliva and has a molar Ca/P ratio of 1:3.7. Oxide microstructures and mineral morphologies were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Differences in the mineral phase and morphology were attributed to the contrasting complexities of the two supersaturated solutions, with proteins and enzymes in human saliva most likely imparting a significant role. Dimensions of the niobium oxide microstructures and mineral deposits were characterized using profilometry. Energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis were utilized in identifying the nucleated mineral phases. Nucleation from human saliva resulted in mixed-phase mineral formations including amorphous calcium phosphate and poorly crystalline apatites. On the other hand, mineral nucleation from simulated saliva was more specific to hydroxyapatite. Based on these results, we demonstrate that a crystalline, self-assembled metal oxide is a unique and efficient nucleator of hydroxyapatite and other Ca-P minerals in supersaturated salivary solutions. PMID:18458381

Karlinsey, Robert L; Hara, Anderson T; Yi, Keewook; Duhn, Clif W

2006-03-01

51

Influence of human saliva on the development of artificial erosions.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was hypothesized that saliva from patients with erosion exhibits lower protective efficacy compared to saliva from patients without erosion, based on in vitro enamel softening studies. A total of 645 enamel specimens were distributed among seven experimental groups. Saliva was gathered from each of 10 volunteers without clinical signs of dental erosion and from 10 patients exhibiting severe erosive defects. Aliquots of 50 ml of saliva from each patient were mixed with sour drops or citric acid, respectively. Pooled saliva, sour drops and citric acid mixed with water served as controls. The enamel specimens were soaked in the respective mixture for 5 min and were subsequently incubated in pure saliva for 2 min. This cycle was repeated three times, then the specimens were kept in 100 ml of saliva for 8 h. Surface microhardness was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and after each cycle. During the experiments, microhardness decreased significantly in all groups except for the pure saliva group. For sour drops and citric acid mixed with saliva from patients without erosion, the final microhardness was higher compared to the mixture of the two erosive compounds with saliva from patients with erosion. The storage of saliva for 8 h resulted in a certain amount of rehardening, with the highest level of rehardening being observed in the group that was least demineralized (sour drops plus saliva from patients without erosion). It is concluded that salivary components play a crucial role in the development of dental erosion. PMID:23838437

Hellwig, E; Lussi, A; Goetz, F

2013-01-01

52

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

OpenAIRE

This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G; Ghante P. B.

2012-01-01

53

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

54

The effects of salivas on occlusal forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contacting surfaces of opposing teeth produce friction that, when altered, changes the contact force direction and/or magnitude. As friction can be influenced by several factors, including lubrication and the contacting materials, the aim of this study was to measure the occlusal load alterations experienced by teeth with the introduction of different salivas and dental restorative materials. Pairs of molar teeth were set into occlusion with a weighted maxillary tooth mounted onto a vertical sliding assembly and the mandibular tooth supported by a load cell. The load components on the mandibular tooth were measured with three opposing pairs of dental restorative materials (plastic denture, all-ceramic and stainless steel), four (human and three artificial) salivas and 16 occlusal configurations. All lateral force component measurements were significantly different (P dry (control) surface regardless of the crown material or occlusal configuration, while the effects of the artificial salivas compared to each other and to human saliva depended on the crown material. PMID:25484034

McCrea, E S; Katona, T R; Eckert, G J

2014-12-01

55

Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

2011-01-01

56

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

57

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

58

Sistema internacional sobre contaminates y residuos en alimentos [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISICRA the Spanish version of INFOCRIS provided an ideal Internet tool to improve awareness of successful case studies. SICRA uses a common set of Divisional resources to address issues from production to consumption.

59

DIR-SIT search form (36 facilities) [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sterile Insect Mass Rearing Facilities Directory is being developed with the objective of aiding the retrieval of information on all mass rearing facilities of sterile pest insects, ticks and mites. DIR-SIT is part of IDIDAS resources.

60

Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview  

OpenAIRE

The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17?-OH pr...

Lewis, John G.

2006-01-01

61

Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

62

Characterization of thymosin ?4 in mammals' saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thymosin ?4 (T?4) is a low molecular weight peptide found in several mammalian tissues and is known mainly by its ability to bind cytoskeletal actin, influencing cell migration and differentiation, and promoting tissue repair. Considering the functional role of this peptide, the main goal of this work was to characterize T?4 in mammals' saliva by using evolutionary and proteomic tools. For this, mammalian T?4 sequences were retrieved from NCBI, SwissProt and Ensembl databases. The alignment of T?4 amino acid sequences showed a high degree of conservation between species. The gene seems to be evolving under negative selection as indicated by a dN/dS ratio of 0.05. Whole saliva was collected from dog, human, rabbit, cow, horse and sheep and the salivary peptides were isolated through filtration and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Spectra was processed against the database constructed with the retrieved T?4 sequences. For the first time, the identification of this peptide was achieved in rat, dog, horse and bovine saliva. Detection in these mammal species and its amino acid conservation suggest an important role of T?4 in the homeostasis of the mammalian oral cavity. PMID:23262355

de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Abrantes, Joana; Colaço, Bruno; Castagnola, Massimo; Amado, Francisco; Esteves, Pedro J; Vitorino, Rui

2013-02-01

63

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva. [Tritium tracer techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-..mu..l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone.

Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

1978-09-01

64

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

65

Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L

2012-11-15

66

Electronic Resources and the Education of History Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

The transforming effects of the tremendous advances in technology that have reshaped the economy and many other elements of American society have had an equally profound impact on historical agencies. The personal computer, the Internet, and associated electronic communications developments have already transformed the museum and historical agency…

Mulligan, William H., Jr.

2001-01-01

67

Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

2000-01-01

68

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva / Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería ú [...] til para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with [...] oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I., Gutiérrez De Ferro; R.E., Ruiz De Valladares; I.L., Benito De Cárdenas.

2005-03-01

69

Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

OpenAIRE

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify ba...

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; Mcmillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.

2014-01-01

70

Hypothiocyanite ion: detection of the antimicrobial agent in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The median concentration of hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) in freshly collected whole saliva was 10 microM. The OSCN- concentration increased to a median value of 36 microM during incubation for one h at 37 degrees in vitro. This increase was partially inhibited by adding certain sugars (especially sucrose). The results suggest that OSCN- is a naturally occurring component of human saliva. Also, dietary carbohydrate may inhibit OSCN- accumulation and antimicrobial action in saliva. PMID:6931123

Thomas, E L; Bates, K P; Jefferson, M M

1980-09-01

71

Comparison of Biomarkers in Blood and Saliva in Healthy Adults  

OpenAIRE

Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines) in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter pap...

Elswick, R. K.; Mary Jo Grap; Rita Pickler; Cindy Munro; Sarah Williamson

2012-01-01

72

Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva  

OpenAIRE

Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by...

Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mo?nica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Morenocruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

2012-01-01

73

Saliva carbamazepine levels in children before and during multiple dosing.  

OpenAIRE

1 Saliva carbamazepine (CBZ) pharmacokinetics were determined in six children aged 7-11 years at the start and after 5 weeks of CBZ therapy. 2 A single oral dose of CBZ, 14.7 +/- 2.3 mg kg -1, was administered and mixed saliva was collected at intervals during the next 36 h. CBZ therapy was then continued using the same total daily dose divided into two equal doses. After 5 weeks of therapy saliva samples were collected once more as on day 1. 3 The mean (+/- s.d.) saliva CBZ clearance increas...

Moreland, T. A.; Priestman, D. A.; Rylance, G. W.

1982-01-01

74

Saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva can reach mineralized surfaces in the oral cavity; however, the relationship between saliva and bone resorption is unclear. Herein, we examined whether saliva affects the process of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We used murine bone marrow cultures to study osteoclast formation. The addition of fresh sterile saliva eliminated the formation of multinucleated cells that stained positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). In line with the histochemical staining, saliva substantially reduced gene expression of cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and TRAP. Addition of saliva led to considerably decreased gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and, to a lesser extent, that of c-fms. The respective master regulators of osteoclastogenesis (c-fos and NFATc1) and the downstream cell fusion genes (DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2) showed decreased expression after the addition of saliva. Among the costimulatory molecules for osteoclastogenesis, only OSCAR showed decreased expression. In contrast, CD40, CD80, and CD86-all costimulatory molecules of phagocytic cells-were increasingly expressed with saliva. The phagocytic capacity of the cells was confirmed by latex bead ingestion. Based on these in vitro results, it can be concluded that saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis and leads to the development of a phagocytic cell phenotype. PMID:25297116

Caballé-Serrano, J; Cvikl, B; Bosshardt, D D; Buser, D; Lussi, A; Gruber, R

2015-01-01

75

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

76

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu

2008-03-01

77

IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, a professional group on nuclear science within the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, formed in 1949. The NPSS is composed of nine technical committees with a common interest in advancing nuclear and plasma sciences and engineering, including instrumentation, detection and measurement, particle accelerators, reactor systems, effects of radiation on materials and components, and applications. Its website provides information on the history of the society, lists its meetings and conferences, links to NPSS and IEEE publications and newsletters.

78

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

79

Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates ? 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p <0.001). However, significantly lower unstimulated (p <0.05)and stimulated (p <0.01) saliva flow rates were obtained after radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p <0.01) and in a period after sucking the candies (p <0.01). HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p <0.001 and p <0.05). Conclusions. Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian

2013-01-01

80

Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles. PMID:22550109

Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

2012-05-01

81

Proteomics analysis of rice seedling responses to ovine saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grazing is accompanied by a multitude of processes including wounding, saliva deposition, and defoliation. Previous studies have focused on the effects of the grazing or clipping intensity on plant regrowth, survival, and composition in the grassland. However, the impact of saliva deposition on plants is poorly understood. In this study, rice was used as a model plant to study the differentially expressed proteins after ovine saliva treatment. The shoots of 2-week-old seedlings were crosscut and the lower parts were daubed with ovine saliva at the cut surface. After 2, 6, 12 and 24h, proteomics analysis was performed using proteins extracted from the saliva-treated shoots. The results showed that proteins involved in multiple pathways were differentially expressed in response to ovine saliva, including catalase (CAT), peroxiredoxin (Prx), ATP synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) data showed that most of the genes were also regulated at the transcript level. Our results indicate the ovine saliva induces an early response in the rice seedling by stress-related pathways. This study provides information about the response of rice seedlings to ovine saliva at the protein level. PMID:20950890

Fan, Weihong; Cui, Weitong; Li, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe; Shen, Shihua

2011-03-15

82

Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

Maharaj, Payal D; Widen, Steven G; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G; Thangamani, Saravanan

2015-01-01

83

Simple direct assays for measuring oestradiol and progesterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and rapid assays for measuring progesterone and oestradiol in saliva are reported. These assays utilize 125I-labelled hormones and appear to be of adequate specificity and reproducibility for use in clinical practice. Assays may be performed directly on samples of saliva. Oestradiol levels were around 3, 13 and 7 pmol/L in the follicular phase, periovulatory period and mid-luteal phase, respectively. Progesterone concentrations were around 110 pmol/L in the periovulatory period and 440 pmol/L in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent numerical correlation between concentrations of steroid in serum and saliva but changes in saliva concentration reflected those seen in plasma or serum. Oestradiol levels in saliva appeared to be related to the dialysable ('free') levels in serum. (author)

84

Marshmallows used as saliva stimulant do not affect cortisol concentrations: finally a palatable alternative for toddler saliva collection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies were conducted to validate marshmallows as a saliva stimulant for use with toddlers. First, cortisol concentrations from 14 subjects (ages 6-46 years) were compared using three saliva collection methods: (1) plain cotton dental roll, (2) dental roll with one mini-marshmallow, and (3) expectorating into a collection tube using no cotton or stimulant. EIA was used for analyses. There were no significant differences among cortisol concentrations. Second, saliva collection compliance rate was compared for 21-month-olds (n = 51) using either flavored drink crystal- (compliance rate = 16.7%) or marshmallow-flavored (compliance rate = 60%) dental rolls for saliva collection (chi(2) (1) = 4.02, p = .045). These studies indicate that marshmallow is a viable option for saliva stimulation to determine toddler cortisol concentrations using EIA. PMID:17943982

Clements, Andrea D; Parker, C Richard; Dixon, Wallace E; Salley, Brenda

2007-11-01

85

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

OpenAIRE

Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

Claudio Maranhão Pereira; Fábio Ramôa Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti Corrêa; Osvaldo di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de Almeida

2004-01-01

86

Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource  

OpenAIRE

Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

Rusbridge, Chris

2000-01-01

87

HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

2014-05-01

88

We're All in This Together: Library Faculty and Staff and Their Reporting of Electronic Resource Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Libraries continue to shift budgets toward obtaining more electronic resources. Electronic resources can develop problems at any time when a library offers access. Staff collaboration is vital in ensuring availability to those resources. Partnering with areas in the library that work most closely with patrons can help share the load of the…

Foster, Anita; Williams, Sarah C.

2010-01-01

89

Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

90

Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

91

La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

Ricardo Medina Madrid

2000-12-01

92

Tritium in saliva measurements used for monitoring of exposed workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous measurement of tritium in urine and saliva in exposed workers reveals differences in the kinetic fate of this radioelement in these two bodily fluids. During two years, four cases of accidental exposure, affecting seven workers, were used for these bioassays. Since the concentration of tritium increases much faster in saliva than in urine, a ratio estimated at 1 to 30 at about 30 minutes after contamination occurs, it is possible to consider saliva assay as an alternative to urine assay, which is more common practice today. (authors)

93

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

2004-12-01

94

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

Claudio Maranhão Pereira

2004-12-01

95

Crystal growth on bioactive glass sputter-coated alumina in artificial saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a bioactive glass was deposited on the alumina disk specimens by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study crystal formation ability in artificial saliva. Bioactive glass-coated specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and 6 months. The specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystals that formed on the specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopic analysis and Micro-X-ray diffraction. SEM photomicrographs showed the formation of needle-like structures after immersion for 1 week, and tabular structures formed on the surface of the specimen for 6 months. EDS showed that both the needle-like and tabular structures were enriched with Ca and P. Raman and Micro-XRD spectra for the tabular structure showed peaks that may correspond to calcium phosphate. Thus, when immersed in artificial saliva, bioactive glass-coated alumina produced a crystal which might be calcium phosphate. PMID:24088833

Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Kohda, Naohisa; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

2013-01-01

96

The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?  

Science.gov (United States)

As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

2010-01-01

97

Implementation of an Electronic Resource Assessment System in an Academic Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a library with useful information about selection criteria for an electronic resource assessment system and practical assistance on how to implement efficiently such a system. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on literature review, desk research, and implementation experience.…

Xu, Fei

2010-01-01

98

Chondroitin sulfate and kallikrein in saliva: markers for glossodynia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome is a multifunctional disorder. The oral mucosa is apparently normal but patients report burning and dried mouth and painful tongue and lips. The present study reports biochemical and physiological markers in saliva of patients presenting glossodynia compared to normal subjects. Saliva-buffering capacity and contents of protein and hyaluronic (HA) acid were similar in both groups. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentration was decreased in the saliva of patients with glossodynia when compared to control group (p=0.0036). On the other hand glandular kallikrein showed increased activity in the saliva of patients compared to normal subjects (p<0.0001). The data suggest involvement of the kinin system, possibly related to the low levels of CS. Depression could explain the low level of serotonin in patient serum (p=0.0478). PMID:18486918

Loeb, L M; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, M G; Porcionatto, M A; Martins, J R M; Kouyoumdjian, M; Weckx, L M; Nader, H B

2008-07-01

99

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Kinani, Latifa; Najih, Rachida; Chtaini, Abdelilah

2008-01-01

100

Tick saliva in anti-tick immunity and pathogen transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

When feeding on vertebrate host ticks (ectoparasitic arthropods and potential vectors of bacterial, rickettsial, protozoal, and viral diseases) induce both innate and specific acquired host-immune reactions as part of anti-tick defenses. In a resistant host immune defense can lead to reduced tick viability, sometimes resulting in tick death. Tick responds to the host immune attack by secreting saliva containing pharmacologically active molecules and modulating host immune response. Tick saliva-effected immunomodulation at the attachment site facilitates both tick feeding and enhances the success of transmission of pathogens from tick into the host. On the other hand, host immunization with antigens from tick saliva can induce anti-tick resistance and is seen to be able to induce immunity against pathogens transmitted by ticks. Many pharmacological properties of saliva described in ticks are shared widely among other blood-feeding arthropods. PMID:15259776

Kovár, L

2004-01-01

101

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

Richards Julie

2009-10-01

102

Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics  

OpenAIRE

Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

Yeh, Chih-ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; Mcdevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

2010-01-01

103

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats' saliva  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were...

Sj, Aledavood; Zahraei-salehi, T.; Oskouizadeh, K.

2010-01-01

104

Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and ?-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting ...

Lamanda, Andreas; Cheaib, Zeinab; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian

2007-01-01

105

Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and...

Ahmadi-motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2013-01-01

106

Thiocyanate concentration in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients.  

OpenAIRE

Thiocyanates (SCN-) are ubiquitous in nature. There are indispensable part of host defense system that act as a substrate for lactoperoxidase (LPO). In our study we present initial data on SCN- concentration in saliva of CF patients in comparison to healthy non-smokers and healthy smokers. 5 ml of saliva was collected from each subject to a sterile tube and thiocyanate concentration was measured in each sample. The results of the measurements are presented on Fig. 1. Mean concentration of SCN...

Marek Gacko; Anetta Sulewska; Alicja Karwowska; Alina Minarowska; Dorota Sands; ?ukasz Minarowski; Elzbieta Chyczewska

2008-01-01

107

Evidence for thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase activity in human saliva.  

OpenAIRE

A procedure was developed for determining the relative levels of lactoperoxidase, leukocyte myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase in human saliva. With this procedure, most of the peroxidase activity in whole saliva from normal (those without cancer) subjects was found to be associated with lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase, with only a minor contribution from leukocyte myeloperoxidase. In contrast, thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase and leukocyte myeloperoxid...

Cowman, R. A.; Baron, S. S.; Obenauf, S. D.; Byrnes, J. J.

1983-01-01

108

Identification and Characterization of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase from Human Saliva  

OpenAIRE

Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST), the enzyme responsible for the sulfation of tyrosine residues, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands previously (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 338: 90-96). Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase catalyses the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins and is believed to be present only in the cell. In the present study, this enzyme was identified for the first time in human saliva. Analysis of human saliva ...

Kasinathan, C.; Ramaprasad, P.; Sundaram, P.

2005-01-01

109

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

Science.gov (United States)

An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

2015-01-01

110

Antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of human infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial factors were analyzed in samples of whole saliva from 31 children, aged 0.8 to 3.8 years. When compared with the adult reference group, the children displayed similar levels of lysozyme, salivary peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), whereas the amounts of immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G, and M), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate (SCN-), amylase, and protein were significantly lower than the adult values. The child's behavior during the collection period noticeably influenced the composition of the saliva. Children who were restless and crying during the collection had significantly more immunoglobulins, lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and protein in their saliva samples, obviously due to the contamination of saliva mixed with nasal or lacrimal secretions. Therefore, the normal values for saliva could be determined for the noncrying children only. These salivary defense systems did not show any relation to the length of breast-feeding or to the previous history of antibiotic treatment. Thus, with the exception of lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase, the nonimmunoglobulin antimicrobial saliva systems studied here seem to be already at the adult level during early childhood, when the protective antibody systems are still immature. PMID:2416690

Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Aaltonen, A S; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P

1986-01-01

111

Saliva as a diagnostic tool for assessment of dental caries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salivary testing in dental caries assessment. The role of saliva flow rate, pH, viscosity and buffering capacity in subjects with high caries (DMFT>5 (group 1 against subjects with low caries (DMFT=0 (control group were evaluated. 40 subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old were selected (20 subjects control group and 20 subjects group 1. By using a salivary testing kit (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd, Japan, each subject underwent test such as hydration status of the oral mucosa, viscosity and pH of resting saliva, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva. The results showed that the flow rate, viscosity, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects of group 1 (DMFT>5 was significantly lower (p<0.01 compared to control group (DMFT=0. Therefore saliva may protect the tooth from demineralizing. Hence we recommended this saliva test to be done in patients with high caries risk.

V.K. Gopinath

2006-09-01

112

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi. Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5 and four in saliva (pH 6.5 containing fluoride (2 g/l, all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN. Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5 e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5 contendo flúor (2g/l, todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão.

Mônica Pereira Saporeti

2012-12-01

113

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

2012-12-01

114

Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva as a vehicle for horizontal transmission of HBV among children.

Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette

2010-01-01

115

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

OpenAIRE

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for dat...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

2003-01-01

116

Saliva transit in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is an important factor in the neutralization of the acidity of the refluxed material that comes from the stomach to the esophagus. The impairment of saliva transit from oral cavity to distal esophagus may be one of the causes of esophagitis and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the scintigraphic method, the transit of 2?mL of artificial saliva was measured in 30 patients with GERD and 26 controls. The patients with GERD had symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation, a 24-hour pH monitoring with more than 4.2% of the time with pH below four, 26 with erosive esophagitis, and four with non-erosive reflux disease. Fourteen had mild dysphagia for solid foods. Twenty-one patients had normal esophageal manometry, and nine had ineffective esophageal motility. They were 15 men and 15 women, aged 21-61 years, mean 39 years. The control group had 14 men and 12 women, aged 19-61 years, mean 35 years. The subjects swallowed in the sitting and supine position 2?mL of artificial saliva labeled with 18?MBq of (99m) Technetium phytate. The time of saliva transit was measured from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, and the transit through proximal, middle, and distal esophageal body. There was no difference between patients and controls in the time for saliva to go from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, and from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, in the sitting and supine positions. In distal esophagus in the sitting position, the saliva transit duration was shorter in patients with GERD (3.0 ± 0.8 seconds) than in controls (7.6 ± 1.7 seconds, P = 0.03). In conclusion, the saliva transit from oral cavity to the esophageal-gastric transition in patients with GERD has the same duration than in controls. Saliva transit through the distal esophageal body is faster in patients with GERD than controls. PMID:25082357

Cassiani, R A; Mota, G A; Aprile, L R O; Dantas, R O

2014-08-01

117

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

118

Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

1996-01-01

119

Children's noncompliance during saliva collection predicts measures of salivary cortisol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary cortisol has been useful for evaluating children's physiological responses to stress and for identifying factors that predict their magnitude and duration. However, results have been somewhat equivocal across studies, and this has motivated researchers to identify sources of variance and error. Here, we examined the prevalence of preschoolers' noncompliance during saliva collection and aimed to learn about noncompliant children in terms of their hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function, behavior in other situations, and symptoms of behavioral problems. Results were based on measures of cortisol, children's behavior during saliva collection and a mother-child teaching interaction, and ratings of problem behavior by teachers and parents. Results show that 12% (21/174) of the sample was noncompliant on at least one of the collection trials. Children, who were noncompliant but did not outright refuse saliva collection, had higher cortisol than did compliant children. Children who were noncompliant during saliva collection were likely to be noncompliant during the teaching episode, and they were perceived as having more internalizing symptoms than compliant children. These results suggest that children's noncompliance during saliva collection can be a source of nonrandom missing data or extreme cortisol values, which should be considered in future studies. PMID:21761405

Kaitz, Marsha; Sabato, Reut; Shalev, Idan; Ebstein, Richard; Mankuta, David

2012-03-01

120

Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

2014-01-01

121

Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

2014-06-11

122

Elemental ion release from fixed restorative materials into patient saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the elemental ion release from the fixed gold alloy and ceramic crowns into patient saliva. Twenty patients who participated in the study were divided into two equal groups; 1) full coverage type IV gold crowns and 2) full coverage CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns. Saliva collection and clinical evaluation of marginal integrity and gingival health were performed before crowns preparation, 3 months and 6 months after crowns placement. Clinical evaluations were conducted using California Dental Association criteria. Collected saliva samples were analysed for element release using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The zinc, copper, palladium, gold and silver were released from type IV gold crowns into saliva, while the silicon and aluminium were released from ceramic crowns. A clinically significant number of subjects had increased release of zinc from baseline to three-month recall and increased silicon release from baseline to both three-month and six-month recalls. For all elements, the subjects' counts for the case of three-month recall to six-month recall were never higher than that of the case of baseline to three-month recall except for palladium. No obvious adverse effects on marginal integrity or gingival health were noticed. Significant increased releases of zinc from cast gold crowns and silicon from CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns into the saliva were evident after 3 months of clinical service. PMID:23438065

Elshahawy, W; Ajlouni, R; James, W; Abdellatif, H; Watanabe, I

2013-05-01

123

Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

124

La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodef [...] iciencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® ) aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

Ricardo, Medina Madrid; Elena, Morán López; María Antonia, Regalado; Briceida, Bergado.

2000-12-01

125

Thiocyanate concentration in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiocyanates (SCN- are ubiquitous in nature. There are indispensable part of host defense system that act as a substrate for lactoperoxidase (LPO. In our study we present initial data on SCN- concentration in saliva of CF patients in comparison to healthy non-smokers and healthy smokers. 5 ml of saliva was collected from each subject to a sterile tube and thiocyanate concentration was measured in each sample. The results of the measurements are presented on Fig. 1. Mean concentration of SCN- in saliva of CF patients was 0.031 +/- 0.0052 g/l, in healthy non-smokers 0.039 +/- 0.0048 g/l and in healthy smokers 0.048 +/- 0.0161 g/l. The differences between each group were statistically significant. Studies on larger group of patients and probably on different material (BALF or induced sputum should present interesting data complementing the in vitro studies.

Marek Gacko

2008-06-01

126

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

127

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

128

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

OpenAIRE

Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is...

DANIEL MARECI; CATALIN BOCANU; GHEORHE NEMTOI; DELIA AELENEI

2005-01-01

129

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded with Transbond Plus ...

Mauren Bitencourt Deprá; Josiane Xavier de Almeida; Taís de Morais Alves da Cunha; Luis Filipe Siu Lon; Luciana Borges Retamoso; Orlando Motohiro Tanaka

2013-01-01

130

Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid  

OpenAIRE

Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodiu...

Han Roelofsen; Vonk, Roel J.; Desiree Weening; Gloria Alvarez-Llamas; Vries, Marcel P.; Diederik Esser

2008-01-01

131

MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

OpenAIRE

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2007-01-01

132

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I co...

Michelle Peneluppi Silva; José Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva Machado; Luciane Dias de Oliveira; Juliana Campos Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

2012-01-01

133

Evaluation of Whole Saliva Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Periodontal Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose: Periodontitis is the inflammation of the supporting tissues of teeth. In this disease, overproduction of free radicals by polymorphonuclears (PMNs will result in the imbalance between saliva’s oxidants and antioxidants. Therefore, due to insufficient levels of anti-oxidants, free radicals can start chain reactions that eventually will lead to destruction of periodontal tissues. The purpose of this research is to compare the amount of whole saliva’s antioxidant capacity in people with major periodontitis with that of healthy people. Methods and materials: In this case-control study, the amount of antioxidants capacity and saliva antioxidants were measured in 43 cases with periodontitis, as well as in 43 healthy people (controls; and the measurements were compared between the two groups. The amount of antioxidants capacity and their saliva antioxidants capacity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma and with the help of a Spectrophotometer. Findings: Average and Standard deviation of saliva’s antioxidants was 184.25 ± 63.209 in subject group and 399.419 ± 90.298 micro moles in control group. Using the T-TEST revealed that the difference in capacity of whole saliva’s antioxidants in two groups is significant. Conclusion: whole saliva’s antioxidants capacity is less among patients with periodontitis compared to control group.

Arash Azizi

2014-04-01

134

Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary temperature fields to improve the reliability of the forecast operating life of power semiconductor devices.

Kravchenko Evgeny V.

2014-01-01

135

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-06-01

136

The Internet: A Resource in the Teaching of Economics and Beyond. [and] Promoting Interaction and Teamwork with Electronic Mail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boldt et al. describe economic resources available on the Internet and illustrate ways to integrate the information into introductory courses. Baker shows how to use electronic mail to expand student-teacher involvement and group interaction/teamwork. (SK)

Boldt, David J.; And Others

1994-01-01

137

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment wpes of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

138

Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine  

Science.gov (United States)

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...

139

Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... is effective in screening for CMV infection in newborns, says NIH-funded research Swabbing a newborn’s mouth for saliva can be used to quickly ... most effective screening test for CMV infection in newborns. In an earlier study , the scientists had concluded ...

140

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110 from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110, and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

SJ Aledavood

2010-09-01

141

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

142

Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

2012-01-01

143

Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to uncoated and saliva-coated glass-ceramics and composites.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to investigate the surface roughness and the S ence of Streptococcus mutans (in the presence and absence of saliva) to ceramics and composites. The early dental biofilms formed in situ on the materials were illustrated, using scanning electron ascopy (SEM). Feldspathic and leucite/feldspathic ceramics and microhybrid and microfilled composites were evaluated. Human dental enamel was used as the control. Standardized specimens of the miaterials were produced and surface roughness was analyzed. The dhesion tests were carried out in 24-well plates and colony forming units (CFU/mL) were evaluated. Values of roughness (microm) ,adherence (CFU/mL) were analyzed statistically. Of all the surfaces tested, enamel was the roughest. Leucite/feldspathic ceramics were rougher than the feldspathic ceramic, while composites were similar statistically. Enamel offered the highest level of adherence to uncoated and saliva-coated specimens, while the leucite/feldspathic ceramic demonstrated greater adherence than the feldspathic ceramic and the composites were similar statically. The rougher restorative materials increased the adherence of S. mutans on the material surfaces. PMID:19014037

Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Scotti, Roberto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo

2008-01-01

144

Effect of cleansing methods on saliva-contaminated zirconia-an evaluation of resin bond durability.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the influence of cleansing methods after saliva contamination and 2) aging conditions (thermocycling and water storage) on zirconia shear bond strength (SBS) with a resin cement. One hundred and eighty zirconia specimens were sandblasted with 50 ?m aluminum oxide particles, immersed in saliva for one minute (with the exception of the control group, [C]), and divided into groups according to the cleansing method, as follows: water rinse (W); 37% phosphoric acid gel (PA); cleaning paste (ie, Ivoclean®) containing mainly zirconium oxide (IC); and 70% isopropanol (AL). Scanning electron microscopy was done to qualitatively evaluate the zirconia surface after each cleansing method. For the SBS test, resin cement buttons were bonded to the specimens using a dedicated jig. SBS was evaluated according to standard protocols after 24 hours, 5000 thermal cycles (TC), or 150 days of water storage. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (pSBS ranged from 10.4 to 21.9 MPa (24 hours), from 6.4 to 14.8 MPa (TC), and from 2.9 to 7.0 MPa (150 days). Failure analysis revealed a greater percentage of mixed failures for the majority of the specimens and a smaller percentage of adhesive failures at the ceramic-resin cement interface. Our findings suggest that Ivoclean® was able to maintain adequate SBS values after TC and 150 days of storage, comparable to the uncontaminated zirconia. PMID:25136900

Feitosa, Sa; Patel, D; Borges, Als; Alshehri, Ez; Bottino, Ma; Özcan, M; Valandro, Lf; Bottino, Mc

2015-01-01

145

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment. PMID:21683566

Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

2011-01-01

146

Caring for children and adolescents with epilepsy: creating an innovative electronic educational resource.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy are managed in the community setting by general paediatricians. However, there is a paucity of practical, relevant information and standardised management documents assisting paediatricians. In the era of sub-specialisation, an electronic educational resource developed by specialists in epilepsy and paediatrics enhances the interface between tertiary and secondary/primary care. We aimed to create a website (www.pennsw.com.au) designed to optimise the care of all children and adolescents living with epilepsy and to assess its clinical usefulness. The site provides clinicians and families an aligned resource, including key information on epilepsy syndromes, medication usage and adverse effects, safety (sleep deprivation, water sports), driving, pregnancy, psychosocial impact of epilepsy and coping skills. General paediatricians and carers completed a questionnaire, utilising rating scales and open ended questions, to evaluate design, content and clinical usefulness. Forty-nine general paediatricians with a median 12 years of paediatric practice participated. Thirty-two carers participated. Epilepsy syndrome was focal in 59% of the children and generalised in 41%. The majority of participants (paediatricians: 84-100%, families: 69-100%) rated the website as well designed, practical, informative and clinically useful. General paediatricians considered the "Medication" pages and "Epilepsy Management Documents" as practically useful. Carers recorded the "Family Resources", seizure recording documents, the support information on mental health, and the "Coping with Epilepsy" segment as most informative. General paediatricians and carers highly valued the website, reflected by 120,000 page views in 12 months since its launch. PMID:24906210

Connolly, Anne M; Slade, Rob; Uppal, Preena; Bye, Ann M E

2014-10-01

147

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

148

PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

M.G. Nada

2013-01-01

149

Pregnancy-related changes in human whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, viscosity, sialic acid, selected proteins (amylase, lysozyme, peroxidase, lactoferrin) and anions (thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite) were analysed in paraffin-stimulated whole saliva of 16 women during the three trimesters of pregnancy and post partum. Salivary pH and buffer capacity decreased towards late pregnancy, followed by a rapid and significant (p less than 0.01) increase after delivery. The specific activity of salivary peroxidase increased significantly (p less than 0.05) during the third trimester, thus supporting the concept of oestrogen-dependency of this enzyme. None of the other parameters changed significantly during pregnancy or lactation. The results suggest that the composition of human saliva is influenced by female sex steroids during pregnancy. PMID:3256298

Laine, M; Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Ojanotko-Harri, A; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P

1988-01-01

150

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is high and could be comparedwith that of a passive layer resulting from electrochemical treatment. The replacement of vanadium with niobium or iron favours the passivation, thus increasing the corrosion resistance.

DANIEL MARECI

2005-06-01

151

Effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate on saliva cortisol concentrations.  

OpenAIRE

Serial saliva cortisol measurements were used to assess pituitary-adrenal function in a group of asthmatic children treated with beclomethasone dipropionate (400 micrograms daily). Asthmatic children who were not being treated with steroids and normal children were also studied for comparison. A diurnal cortisol rhythm was observed in all three groups. Early morning cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the group treated with beclomethasone dipropionate than in the normal child...

Williams, H.; Read, G. F.; Verrier-jones, E. R.; Hughes, I. A.

1984-01-01

152

Optical protein sensor for detecting cancer markers in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

A surface immobilized optical protein sensor has been utilized to detect Interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein, an oral cancer marker, and can reach limit of detection (LOD) at 1.1 pM in buffer without using enzymatic amplification. Only after applying enzymatic amplification to increase the signal level by a few orders of magnitude, ELISA can reach the LOD of 1 pM level. We then develop the confocal optics based sensor for further reducing the optical noise and can extend the LOD of the surface immobilized optical protein sensor two orders in magnitude. These improvements have allowed us to detect IL-8 protein at 4.0 fM in buffer. In addition, these sensitive LODs were achieved without the use of enzymatic signal amplification, such that the simplified protocol can further facilitate the development of point-of-care devices. The ultra sensitive optical protein sensor presented in this paper has a wide number of applications in disease diagnoses. Measurements for detecting biomarkers in clinical sample are much more challenging than the measurements in buffer, due to high background noise contributed by large collections of non-target molecules. We used clinical saliva samples to validate the functionality of the optical protein sensor. Clinical detection of disease-specific biomarkers in saliva offers a non-invasive, alternative approach to using blood or urine. Currently, the main challenge of using saliva as a diagnostic fluid is its inherently low concentration of biomarkers. We compare the measurements of 40 saliva samples; half from oral cancer patients and half from a control group. The data measured by the optical protein sensor is compared with the traditional Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) values to validate the accuracy of our system. These positive results enable us to proceed to using confocal optical protein sensor to detect other biomarkers, which have much lower concentrations. PMID:18479906

Tan, Winny; Sabet, Leyla; Li, Yang; Yu, Tianwei; Klokkevold, Perry R; Wong, David T; Ho, Chih-Ming

2008-10-15

153

Antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of human infants.  

OpenAIRE

Antimicrobial factors were analyzed in samples of whole saliva from 31 children, aged 0.8 to 3.8 years. When compared with the adult reference group, the children displayed similar levels of lysozyme, salivary peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), whereas the amounts of immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G, and M), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate (SCN-), amylase, and protein were significantly lower than the adult values. The child's behavior during the collection period noticeably inf...

Tenovuo, J.; Lehtonen, O. P.; Aaltonen, A. S.; Vilja, P.; Tuohimaa, P.

1986-01-01

154

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Luciana Borges Retamoso

2009-06-01

155

Diagnóstico da raiva canina: I. comparação entre amostras de saliva e de encéfalo Diagnosis of canine rabies: I. comparison of saliva and encephalon samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram examinadas mediante as técnicas de inoculação em camundongos e de imunofluorescência, 30 amostras de saliva e 30 amostras de encéfalo, colhidas de 30 cães raivosos. Todas as amostras, tanto de saliva como de encéfalo, apresentaram resultados positivos frente às duas técnicas usadas, demonstrando uma perfeita correlação entre os métodos e os espécimens utilizados. Foi ressaltada a importância da saliva para o estabelecimento de um diagnóstico mais precoce da raiva.Thirty saliva samples and 30 encephalon samples, collected from an equal number of rabid dogs, were examined by both the mouse inoculation and immunoflluorescent techniques. The results for each sample were positive with both techniques, showing perfect correlation in the methods and specimens used. The importance of saliva for early diagnosis was stressed.

Valdson de Angelis Côrtes

1979-12-01

156

Antimicrobial factors in saliva: ontogeny and relation to oral health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial agents (antibody and non-antibody) present in human saliva protect oral tissues by a variety of mechanisms, such as prevention of bacterial adhesion, agglutination of micro-organisms, and inhibition of multiplication and metabolism. However, studies in which the concentrations of various salivary antimicrobial agents have been correlated to the presence and severity of oral diseases--of dental caries, in particular--have produced controversial data, and it seems evident, also on the basis of the present study, that no single salivary antimicrobial factor (except flow rate) affects oral health to a significant degree. In the present study, we report the levels of some selected salivary antimicrobial agents in predentate and dentate human infants, with a comparison to the levels found in young adults' saliva. Salivary lysozyme, peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite concentrations were already at the adult level at the time when the primary teeth erupt, whereas immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, and IgM), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate concentrations were significantly lower in children than in adults. Dentate children had more IgG, thiocyanate, and protein in whole saliva than did predentate children. PMID:3040824

Tenovuo, J; Gråhn, E; Lehtonen, O P; Hyyppä, T; Karhuvaara, L; Vilja, P

1987-02-01

157

Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute  

Science.gov (United States)

Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

2015-01-01

158

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longit [...] udinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p

Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Fabrício Mezzomo, Collares; Eduardo Silveira, Ferreira; Susana Maria Werner, Samuel.

2009-06-01

159

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

OpenAIRE

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

160

Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: comparisons of bacterial species and strains.  

OpenAIRE

Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of agg...

Malamud, D.; Appelbaum, B.; Kline, R.; Golub, E. E.

1981-01-01

161

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

OpenAIRE

Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

Germaine, Greg; Tellefson, Lois M.

1982-01-01

162

Characteristic differences between saliva-dependent aggregation and adhesion of streptococci.  

OpenAIRE

Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Altho...

Rosan, B.; Malamud, D.; Appelbaum, B.; Golub, E.

1982-01-01

163

Differential Expression of Host Biomarkers in Saliva and Serum Samples from Individuals with Suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

The diagnosis of tuberculosis remains challenging in individuals with difficulty in providing good quality sputum samples such as children. Host biosignatures of inflammatory markers may be valuable in such cases, especially if they are based on more easily obtainable samples such as saliva. To explore the potential of saliva as an alternative sample in tuberculosis diagnostic/biomarker investigations, we evaluated the levels of 33 host markers in saliva samples from individuals presenting wi...

Phalane, Khutso G.; Magdalena Kriel; Loxton, Andre G.; Angela Menezes; Kim Stanley; Spuy, Gian D.; Gerhard Walzl; Chegou, Novel N.

2013-01-01

164

Xerostomia. Development, properties and application of a mucin-containing saliva substitute  

OpenAIRE

The physiological importance of saliva in human becomes obvious when saliva is secreted to a too large(hypersalivation) or a too small(hyposalivation) extent. The reduced salivary secretion results in a wide scale of complaints such as a dry and burning sensation of the mouth, and difficulties in chewing, swallowing, speaking and sleeping. To combat these complaints, the lack of saliva has to be compensated. ... Zie: Summary

Vissink, Arjan

1985-01-01

165

HPV and methylation indicators in paired tumor and saliva in HNSCC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16 is a causative agent for some head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC  and an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal SCC. The goal of this study was to examine HPV16 associated gene methylation in paired saliva and tumor DNA with assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive value for saliva HPV as a test for HNSCC. HPV16 status was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR in 35 primary HNSCC paired tumor and saliva specimens. Tumor cut points >=0.03 and >=0.1 and saliva cut points >0 and ?0.001 were used to classify results as HPV positive or negative. Aberrant methylation was determined by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA assay. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation in tumor samples was 66% (23/35 versus 17% (6/35 in saliva. Two of 35 paired tumor and saliva samples had commonly methylated genes. HPV and methylation were correlated for IGSF4 (p=0.01 in tumor samples (cut point ?0.03 and for ESR1 in saliva samples (cut point >0. Although the sensitivity of HPV detection in saliva was significantly reduced when saliva cut points were increased from >0 to >=0.001, the specificity and positive predictive values were 100% at saliva cut point of >=0.001, regardless of tumor cut points. Within clearly defined parameters, HPV detection in saliva DNA shows promise as a non invasive approach for tumor HPV status. Methylated genes detected in saliva may be useful in early detection and as potential predictive markers of HNSCC. Further confirmation and validation in larger cohorts is required.

Josena K. Stephen

2013-07-01

166

Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system  

OpenAIRE

Saliva provides a useful and non-invasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a 6-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of co...

Stevens, Richard C.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E.

2008-01-01

167

Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance  

OpenAIRE

Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biom...

Desai, Gauri S.; Mathews, Suresh T.

2014-01-01

168

A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author)

169

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in...

Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da Silva; Thelma Lopes da Silva; Magali Lourdes Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-01-01

170

Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders  

OpenAIRE

Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in saliva as affected by the welding profession. Forty-nine male welders, of whom 28 were in the low exposed group and 21 in the high exposed group, were recruited. Control subjects...

Wang, Dixin; Du, Xuqin; Zheng, Wei

2007-01-01

171

Tick saliva is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis  

OpenAIRE

We report for the first time that saliva of the hard tick and Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Saliva (? 1:500 dilutions) or salivary gland (0.1–0.5 pairs/assay) dose-dependently inhibits microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) proliferation. Inhibition was also detected with the saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus but not with the salivary gland of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensiae, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Aedes ...

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Mather, Thomas N.; Ribeiro, Jose? M. C.

2005-01-01

172

Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from saliva of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis.  

OpenAIRE

A method for cultivating and isolating Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the saliva of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis (formerly known as Ixodes dammini), is described. Saliva was collected from partially engorged ticks after application of pilocarpine to induce salivation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from 8 of 14 (57%) of the saliva samples derived from ticks infected with the bacteria, as determined by direct immunofluorescent-antibody assay of tick hemolymph. A compariso...

Ewing, C.; Scorpio, A.; Nelson, D. R.; Mather, T. N.

1994-01-01

173

Genotyping Performance between Saliva and Blood-Derived Genomic DNAs on the DMET Array: A Comparison  

OpenAIRE

The Affymetrix Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) microarray is the first assay to offer a large representation of SNPs conferring genetic diversity across known pharmacokinetic markers. As a convenient and painless alternative to blood, saliva samples have been reported to work well for genotyping on the high density SNP arrays, but no reports to date have examined this application for saliva-derived DNA on the DMET platform. Genomic DNA extractions from saliva samples produced ...

Hu, Yueshan; Ehli, Erik A.; Nelson, Kelly; Bohlen, Krista; Lynch, Christophina; Huizenga, Patty; Kittlelsrud, Julie; Soundy, Timothy J.; Davies, Gareth E.

2012-01-01

174

Metronidazole as a radiosensitizer: a preliminary report on estimation in serum and saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some studies indicate the clinical benefit of hypoxic radiosensitizers in patients who are undergoing radiotherapy. Serum level of sensitizers are usualy advised; however they are very demanding on the patient. Saliva level of the sensitizers may be an alternative method. This study correlated serum level of metronidazole to the saliva level in 10 patients who were undergoing radiotherapy with the sensitizer. A change to the saliva level method appears to relieve the patients

175

Short Communication: HIV Type 1 Escapes Inactivation by Saliva via Rapid Escape into Oral Epithelial Cells  

OpenAIRE

Saliva contains anti-HIV-1 factors, which show unclear efficacy in thwarting mucosal infection. When incubated in fresh, unfractionated whole saliva, infectious HIV-1 IIIb and BaL (X4- and R5-tropic, respectively) persisted from 4 to at least 30?min in a saliva concentration-dependent manner. In salivary supernatant for up to 6?h, both infectious HIV-1 strains “escaped” into immortalized oral epithelial cells; infectious BaL showed selectively enhanced escape in the presence of saliva...

Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Gebhard, Kristin H.; Fasching, Claudine E.; Giacaman, Rodrigo A.; Kappes, John C.; Ross, Karen F.; Herzberg, Mark C.

2012-01-01

176

Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fl uid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

Han Roelofsen

2008-01-01

177

Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

OpenAIRE

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

Joanna Stragierowicz; Ajewska, Karolina Miko Amp X.; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Ska, Kinga Pola Amp X.; Danuta Ligocka

2013-01-01

178

Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography of ofloxacin in human saliva and correlation of ofloxacin level in saliva and serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of ofloxacin in saliva. The saliva samples were directly introduced into a C8 HPLC column using a C18 precolumn. Ofloxacin and lomefloxacin as internal standards were detected spectrophotometrically at 300 nm. Determination of ofloxacin was possible in the concentration range 50-3,000 ng/ml, and the limit of detection was 20 ng/ ml. The recovery of ofloxacin added to saliva was 96.9-101.2% with a coefficient of variation of < 2.9%. These pharmacokinetic studies were made of healthy volunteers after treatment with ofloxacin. The maximum concentration of saliva and serum ofloxacin was 513.3-2,053.0 ng/ml and 768.2-3,089.0 ng/ml for dose of 100 mg or 200 mg, respectively. The AUC0-6 was 1,736.8-6,519.9 ng/h/ml in saliva and 2,875.5-10,086.0 ng/h/ml in serum, respectively. The saliva versus serum concentration ratio was 0.4-0.7 for doses of 100 and 200 mg. A good correlation between saliva and serum level of ofloxacin was obtained by this HPLC method (r = 0.949). PMID:8885126

Ohkubo, T; Suno, M; Kudo, M; Uno, T; Sugawara, K

1996-10-01

179

Mycobacterium leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin smears of leprosy patients / Mycobacterium leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de sujeitos com hanseníase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: verificar através da baciloscopia e da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) a presença do M. leprae no periodonto, saliva e raspados intradérmicos de pacientes com hanseníase. METODOLOGIA: Realizou-se um estudo transversal do tipo detecção de casos numa instituição referência de hanseníase [...] no Amazonas. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 48 pacientes, sendo 15 multibacilares (MB) e 33 paucibacilares (PB). Os pacientes MB tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado pela baciloscopia e PCR dos raspados intradérmicos, enquanto que 16 (48,5%) dos PB foram positivos apenas na PCR. Quatro pacientes PB negativos na PCR de raspados intradérmicos foram positivos no periodonto e na saliva, 1 positivo na saliva e 2 no periodonto. Nenhuma amostra do periodonto e da saliva foi positiva na baciloscopia. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre a doença periodontal e a presença do M. leprae; a baciloscopia não mostrou ser uma técnica eficiente para análise da saliva e periodonto; a técnica de PCR de raspado dérmico mostrou ser um método mais eficaz no diagnóstico dos PB do que a baciloscopia; a positividade da PCR para detecção do M. leprae nos PB pode ser aumentada coletando raspado intradérmico, periodonto e saliva. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the presence of M. leprae in the periodontium, saliva and skin slit smears of leprosy patients. To correlate bacteriological and molecular findings with clinical data and compare laboratory techniques. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to use bacteriological (bacilosco [...] py) and molecular (PCR) parameters to detect M. leprae in exudates of the gingival sulcus/periodontium pocket, saliva and skin slit smears from multiple clinical forms of leprosy patients without previous treatment. RESULTS: The study included 48 leprosy patients with 15 multibacillary (MB) cases and 33 paucibacillary (PB) cases. The diagnosis of MB was confirmed through bacteriological examination and PCR results from skin slit smears. A total of 16 (48.5%) PB patients were PCR positive only. Four PB patients with negative PCR skin smears were PCR positive for the periodontium and saliva, with 2 cases and 1 case, respectively. No periodontium or saliva samples had positive bacteriological results. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between periodontal disease and the presence of M. leprae. Bacteriological examination did not prove to be an efficient technique for the analysis of saliva and periodontium samples. PCR analysis of skin smears was more efficient at diagnosing PB patients than bacteriological examination. PCR positive results for the detection of M. leprae in PB patients can be increased by collecting slit skin smears, periodontium and saliva samples.

Ligia Fernandes, Abdalla; João Hugo Abdalla, Santos; Carolina Souza Cunha, Collado; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

180

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquímica. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz

2007-09-01

181

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

2007-09-01

182

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

2011-01-01

183

Delivering supplemental oxygen during sedation via a saliva ejector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraoperative oxygen supplementation to sedated children has been shown to prevent hemoglobin desaturations even in the presence of apnea during pediatric conscious sedation. Although many practitioners deliver supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, this method is impractical and often unsuccessful if the child is a mouth breather, has moderate adenotonsillar hypertrophy or occasionally cries during treatment (at which time there will be mouth breathing). This paper describes a method in which the saliva ejector is used to deliver supplemental oxygen to sedated children while they are receiving dental treatment. The advantages of this method and suggestions for its successful application are also included. PMID:12212878

Milnes, Alan R

2002-01-01

184

Comparison of plasma and saliva levels of diazepam.  

OpenAIRE

1. Salivary, unbound and total plasma levels of diazepam have been compared in nineteen subjects. 2. Salivary diazepam levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than, but closely related to the corresponding unbound levels (r = 0.97) at 2.5-3 h after administration of the drug. 3. The results presented suggest that saliva levels can be used to predict the corresponding plasma levels at a given time, but there is no 1:1 relation between the unbound diazepam concentration in plasma and the s...

Gier, J. J.; T Hart, B. J.; Wilderink, P. F.; Nelemans, F. A.

1980-01-01

185

Tick saliva-mediated immunomodulation of the vertebrate host.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Woldemeskel, M.), s. 19-36 ISBN 978-1-62081-136-8. - (Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior) R&D Projects: GA ?R GCP302/11/J029; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick infestation * host system modulation * bioactive molecules * tick-borne pathogens * saliva-assisted transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36294

Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J. F.; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

186

Electrochemical behavior of titanium in artificial saliva: influence of pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium is the most common material chosen for dental implants because it is highly corrosion resistant because it constantly reforms a protective passive film layer. The formation and composition of the passive film layer is dependent on the environmental conditions. If the stable oxide layer is damaged, the titanium surface underneath can corrode. The purpose of this study was to determine if basic corrosion of commercially pure titanium (CpTi) alloy in artificial saliva was affected by pH and to understand the corrosion kinetics/mechanisms of CpTi as a function of pH. In this study, titanium alloy discs were subjected to corrosion tests. Before the tests, all samples were cleaned and polished using standard metallographic preparation methods. Artificial saliva was used as the testing medium. The following pH values were tested: 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.5, and 9.0. Different pH values were achieved by adding lactic acid (acidic) or NaOH (basic) in appropriate amounts. Potentiodynamic curves indicated behavior change at each pH. In addition, the corrosion current density value determined from the potentiodynamic curve exhibited the poorest corrosion resistance for pH 7.5. The Nyquist plot (from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results) indicated that pH 7.5 had the poorest resistance. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that pH levels of 6.5, 7.5, and 9.0 had considerable surface corrosion. The results showed that the media's pH significantly influenced the corrosion behavior of CpTi. The poor corrosion behavior at the neutral pHs invites some concerns and highlights the need for further study. PMID:22103963

Abey, Savithri; Mathew, Mathew T; Lee, Damian J; Knoernschild, Kent L; Wimmer, Markus A; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-02-01

187

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

188

Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21-41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2-28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

2011-01-01

189

Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

A Abarghooyi

2012-10-01

190

Detection of Multiple Pathogenic Species in Saliva Is Associated with Periodontal Infection in Adults?  

OpenAIRE

We investigated whether certain bacterial species and their combinations in saliva can be used as markers for periodontitis. In 1,198 subjects, the detection of multiple species, rather than the presence of a certain pathogen, in saliva was associated with periodontitis as determined by the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets.

Paju, Susanna; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Suominen-taipale, Liisa; Hyvo?nen, Mari; Knuuttila, Matti; Ko?no?nen, Eija

2008-01-01

191

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

2012-09-01

192

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

2012-07-01

193

Evaluation of serum and saliva components in candidosis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serum and saliva components of 36 chronic Candidosis patients, both male and female, ages 38-82 who attended the Department of Clinical Stomatology were studied. Total Mucous Lesion Index (TMLI) and salivary flow rate were assessed. The following parameters were evaluated: iron bound protein, unsaturated iron binding capacity, peroxidase activity, protein content, OSCN-, SCN-, IgAs, Candida and St. mutans levels and lactobacilli activity. Candidosis patients exhibited higher Candida CFU values and increased activity of the peroxidase system (p < 0.05) whereas unsaturated iron binding capacity was significantly lower as compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Furthermore, TMLI and Candida CFU values were higher in diseased subjects wearing complete prosthesis as compared to those without complete prosthesis. Diseased subjects with < 1.2 ml/min salivary flow rate exhibited even greater differences with control. This subgroup exhibited a marked reduction in IgAs. The serum components assayed were iron bound protein, unsaturated iron binding capacity, IgG, IgA and IgM. Unsaturated iron binding capacity was significantly lower in the Candidosis group (p = 0.03). Subjects suffering from oral Candidosis display deficiencies in some of their saliva components, evidencing impaired oral defense capacity. PMID:11885239

Dorronsoro de Cattoni, S T; Cornejo, L S; López de Blanc, S; Calamari, S; Femopase, F; Azcurra, A I; Battellino, L J

1997-01-01

194

Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not pr [...] omote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corrosion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

N.A., Mariano; R.G., Oliveira; M.A., Fernandes; E.C.S., Rigo.

2009-08-01

195

Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were i [...] ncluded in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.

Gisele Barreto Lopes, Menezes; Fernanda Albuquerque, Pereira; César Augusto Barros, Duarte; Theomira Mauadie Azevedo, Carmo; Hermes Pedreira da, Silva Filho; Maria Alice, Zarife; Marco Aurélio, Krieger; Eliana Almeida Gomes, Reis; Mitermayer G, Reis.

2012-08-01

196

An insight into the proteome of the saliva of the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata reveals important differences in saliva protein composition between the sexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick saliva contains pharmacologically active molecules that allow these parasites to obtain a blood meal from the host and facilitate host infection by tick-borne pathogens. Recent transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the salivary glands of several tick species have provided data sets that are invaluable for a better understanding of tick sialomes and tick-host-pathogen relationships. Here we performed a proteomic study of the saliva from the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata. Saliva samples from female and male specimens were analyzed separately by LC-MS/MS before and after their equalization to facilitate the identification of the less abundant proteins. We report the array of 193 proteins identified in the saliva of O. moubata showing: (i) the broad and complex composition of the saliva of this tick, in good agreement with the complexity of the argasid and ixodid sialomes described previously; (ii) a notable difference in the saliva proteomes of females and males, since only 10 of the proteins identified appeared to be shared by both sexes; and (iii) the presence in the salivary fluid of a wide range of proteins known to be housekeeping/intracellular, which could be secreted in unconventional ways, including exosome secretion. PMID:23416086

Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Valero, Luz; Oleaga, Ana; Encinas-Grandes, Antonio; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

2013-03-27

197

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

198

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

199

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR) libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the...

Shailendra Kumar; Gareema Sanaman

2013-01-01

200

‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?  

OpenAIRE

Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

2007-01-01

201

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle

2008-11-01

202

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

2012-01-01

203

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

204

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

OpenAIRE

Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Daher, Wajeeh M.; Ali Shaqour

2010-01-01

205

Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples / Detecção de anticorpos anti-VHA em amostras de saliva utilizando teste imuno-enzimático  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A possibilidade de identificar infecções presentes ou passadas utilizando fluidos corpóreos que seriam mais facilmente coletados do que o sangue, principalmente em crianças, facilitaria grandemente a investigação e o acompanhamento de surtos de hepatite A, que ocorrem com muita freqüência em nosso m [...] eio. Nosso estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de avaliar a detecção dos anticorpos anti-VHA, da classe IgA, IgM, e anticorpos totais em amostras de saliva, usando amostras de soro como padrão. Foram estudadas 43 amostras pareadas de saliva e de soro, colhidas de 24 crianças e de um adulto durante um surto de hepatite A, e de 18 funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Empregando saliva como amostra clínica, a sensibilidade para a detecção de anti-VHA IgM foi de 100,0%, de anti-VHA IgA foi de 80,8% e de anti-VHA total foi de 82,1%. Não houve nenhum resultado falso-positivo, sendo a especificidade de 100%. A concordância foi alta entre os resultados das amostras de saliva e soro na detecção dos anticorpos, indicando que amostras de saliva podem ser utilizadas no diagnóstico de infecção aguda pelo VHA e na seleção de indivíduos para vacinação contra o VHA, para conter surtos. Abstract in english The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and tota [...] l antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

Isabel Takano, OBA; Angela Maria Miranda, SPINA; Cláudia Patara, SARACENI; Marcílio Figueiredo, LEMOS; Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade, SENHORAS; Regina Célia, MOREIRA; Celso Francisco Hernandes, GRANATO.

2000-08-01

206

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ and valproic acid (VPA salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ e ácido valproico (VPA em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (idades 1-14 anos em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado.

C. Maldonado

2008-06-01

207

Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

208

Saliva and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with colorectal cancer : a prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and aims. A prospective cross-sectional study was designed to test if total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva and plasma correlated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population with symptoms consistent with this disease. Materials and methods. Stimulated whole saliva and blood samples were collected from 161 individuals referred to colonoscopy with symptoms associated with CRC. The results of the examination, as well as previous and/or current other diseases were recorded. In a blinded study, the authors used an in-house TIMP-1 ELISA previously validated for use in saliva and plasma to determine total levels of TIMP-1. Results. Fifty-six of the patients (35%) were diagnosed with CRC. Plasma TIMP-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with patients with other, non-malignant diseases and individuals without disease. Significant differences in saliva TIMP-1 levels between CRC patients and individuals without CRC could not be demonstrated. In addition, no correlation was found between levels of TIMP-1 in plasma and saliva. Conclusion. Total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva do not reflect the presence of CRC, and TIMP-1 saliva measurements thus cannot substitute plasma TIMP-1 measurements in detection of CRC.

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Ib Jarle

2012-01-01

209

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and objective The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status. PMID:24765243

Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

2014-01-01

210

Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

2014-12-15

211

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

212

Effects of a beta-blocking agent, timolol maleate, on saliva in healthy volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of timolol maleate on the secretion and composition of human saliva were studied in vivo. Eight healthy volunteers received orally 10 mg timolol maleate. Stimulated parotid saliva samples, resting whole saliva samples, and blood samples were collected immediately before and four times after the drug intake at intervals of 1 h. The levels of total protein, lysozyme, IgA, IgG and IgM, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, amylase, thiocyanate (SCN-), and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) were analyzed from saliva samples. Drug levels were measured both from parotid saliva and blood samples. Results were compared to the analyses of the samples collected in a similar way but without administration of any drugs. Decreased levels of total protein, lactoferrin, amylase, and salivary peroxidase were observed in parotid saliva after a single oral dose of timolol maleate. No such decrease was found in lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, SCN-, OSCN-, or immunoglobulins. Salivary flow rate was not significantly changed after drug intake. The results suggest that the beta-blocking drug may cause qualitative changes in the composition of saliva by inhibiting the synthesis and/or release of acinar proteins. PMID:2451271

Laurikainen, K; Laurikainen, E; Tenovuo, J; Kaila, T; Vilja, P

1988-04-01

213

Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

Chen Gang

2012-10-01

214

Corrosion of gold alloys and titanium in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of gold alloys and one type of pure titanium have been submitted to corrosion in artificial saliva for periods of up to about 2 months. The release of copper, gold and silver from the gold alloys as well as titanium from the titanium matrix was measured with nuclear tracer technique. The physical/chemical state of the corrosion products of gold alloys referring to the ionic state or presence in particulate form has been examined retaining the particulate matter on a glass filter. Copper was observed to be mainly present in the ionic state. Considerable amounts of gold were observed to be retained on the glass filter explained by the presence of gold in particulate form or as a compentent of a dispersed collloidal phase. The estimation of the release of titanium was registered by the tracer nuclide 46Sc assuming particulate matter to be deteriorated from the titanium surface. (author)

215

Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation. PMID:18999300

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

216

Fluoride inhibits the antimicrobial peroxidase systems in human whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluoride (F-) ions at concentrations present in vivo at the plaque/enamel interface (0.05-10 mM) inhibited the activities of lactoperoxidase (LP), myeloperoxidase (MP) and total salivary peroxidase (TSP) in a pH- and dose-dependent way. The inhibition was observed only at pH or = 0.1 mM. At pH 5.5 LP activity was inhibited by 85% and MP by 34% with 10 mM F-. TSP activity was also inhibited only at low pH (5.5) by approximately 25%. Furthermore, the generation of the actual antimicrobial agent in vivo, hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-), of the oral peroxidase systems was inhibited by F-, again at low pH (5.0-5.5) both in buffer (by 45%) and in saliva (by 15%). This inhibition was observed only with the highest F- concentrations studied (5-10 mM). Fluoridated toothpaste (with 0.10 or 0.14% F) mixed with saliva did not inhibit TSP or HOSCN/OSCN- generation. This may have been due to the 'buffering' effect of toothpaste which did not allow salivary pH to drop below 5.9. We conclude that the F- ions in acidic fluoride products, e.g. in gels or varnishes (but not in toothpastes), may have the potential to locally inhibit the generation of a nonimmune host defense factor, HOSCN/OSCN/SCN-, produced by oral peroxidase systems. The possible clinical significance of this finding remains to be shown. PMID:7850846

Hannuksela, S; Tenovuo, J; Roger, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Ekstrand, J

1994-01-01

217

Understanding Intention to Use Electronic Information Resources: A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

OpenAIRE

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceiv...

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

218

Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1 at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10 using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 ?g/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 ?g/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 ?g/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

?or?evi? Snežana

2009-01-01

219

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

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???????????

2007-04-01

220

The effect of artificial saliva on the rheological properties of tooth whitening systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was undertaken to explore the effect of saliva addition on the rheological properties of two contrasting tooth bleaching systems, one of which was a paste (Colgate Platinum) and the other a gel (Zaris, 3M ESPE). Using a dynamic stress rheometer with cone and plate geometry, it was shown that addition of artificial saliva reduced the apparent viscosity of each material. However, in some cases this was accompanied by an increase in elasticity. It is suggested that saliva may not have a deleterious effect on the ability of the materials to remain in the bleaching tray. PMID:15544649

Castellon, R G; Combe, E C; Pesun, I J

2004-12-01

221

Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 ?g DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses.

Nemoda Zsofia

2011-12-01

222

Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2), a sports drink (pH 3.5), and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8). Distille...

Shoji Takahashi; Shigeru Watanabe; Takashi Ogihara; Koji Watanabe; Kun Xuan; Xiaojing Wang

2011-01-01

223

Establishment and application of enzyme immunoassay for saliva cortisol in Taiwanese context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva steroid assay is an upcoming area of research, with much potential for growth and progress. Expensive, varying results with commercial kits and the disadvantages of radioimmunoassay have forced researchers to develop their own system of enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A modification from our established EIA system was used to develop a saliva cortisol (F) assay system. The system sensitivity (>90pg/mL) was checked by various experiments, including comparison of data with a commercial kit obtained from Salimetrics. The assay system was employed to investigate the saliva F level in a young Taiwanese population, and compared with the total and free serum levels of F. PMID:16827226

Chen, Han-Lin; Chen, Yung-Liang; Wu, Leang-Shin; Kaphle, Krishna; Lin, Jen-Hsou

2006-01-01

224

[Comparative study of the rheological properties of artificial saliva types based on hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (methocel) and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparent viscosity at different shear rates was measured for two types of saliva substitutes based on methocel and CMC, and was compared with that of human whole saliva. Results indicate, that fresh mixed human saliva is viscoelastic, exhibiting pseudoplasticity. Methocel containing artificial saliva and human whole saliva are similar in their rheological properties, while the preparation based on CMC is almost a Newtonian liquid. From the results it can be concluded that the saliva substitute containing 0.5% of methocel appears to be a better substitute for natural saliva than of containing CMC as far as rheological properties are concerned. PMID:1568511

Olveti, E; Nagy, G; Keszthelyi, G

1992-02-01

225

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-12-01

226

Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

Shadle, Steve

2009-01-01

227

QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

2011-01-01

228

Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

2005-01-01

229

Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos / Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las con [...] centraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales. Abstract in english At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA) and O2- in the saliva and [...] blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL), RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL). There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

Ninoska Tahis, Viera Sirit; Thais Teresita, Morales Rojas; Alejandra Isabel, Morón Medina; Rita Mireya, Navas Perozo; Adriana Beatriz, Pedreañez Santana.

2011-09-01

230

Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

2013-08-01

231

[Saliva as an alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone--advantages and limitations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva can be an excellent alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone concentration substituting the routinely used serum, plasma and urine. Particularly useful is the measurement of nonconjugated steroid hormones and cyclic amines (melatonin), the concentration of which is not dependent on saliva production, and correlates well with hormone concentration in blood. In routine laboratory diagnostic saliva is mainly used for multiple measurement of hormone concentration (establishing of diurnal cycle, monitoring the function of endocrine system with dynamic tests ex. Synacthen and dexamethasone), monitoring the concentration and metabolism of hormones used as a drugs (hormone replacement therapy) or when the determination of free (bioactive) fraction of hormone is required. Noninvasive saliva collection at patient's home, which does not need medical staff assistance, may reduce the costs of hormonal diagnostics in specialty clinics and hospitals. PMID:22026276

Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew P; Kondracka, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

232

Development of a competitive immunoassay for the determination of cortisol in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new protein conjugates were prepared and studied to develop and compare two (direct and indirect) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats for the determination of cortisol in human saliva. Toward this goal, ovalbumin was conjugated to cortisol and used for developing an indirect competitive ELISA, while alkaline phosphatase was coupled with the same analyte for a direct competitive assay. The yield of the conjugation reactions was evaluated. The results obtained show that the indirect and direct ELISA formats developed for cortisol had working ranges of 0.5-70 and 2-330 ng/ml and detection limits of 0.5 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Artificial and real saliva samples were spiked with cortisol to study the matrix effect of saliva. The suitability of the assays for quantification of cortisol in saliva was also studied. PMID:23262282

Sesay, Adama Marie; Micheli, Laura; Tervo, Pirkko; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Virtanen, Vesa

2013-03-15

233

The reproducibility of the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in human saliva after a nitrate load.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the reproducibility of the inter- and intra-individual variations in the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in saliva. Saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers just before and at regular intervals after a nitrate load on four non-consecutive days within a period of 2 months. On three occasions beetroot juice was the nitrate source and on one occasion a nitrate solution was given. Despite large day-to-day variations it was possible to discriminate between subjects with a consistently high or low nitrate conversion after a nitrate load. Neither saliva sampling before a nitrate load nor single saliva samples are sufficient to obtain clear information about individual capacities for nitrate-nitrite conversion. PMID:3366416

Bos, P M; Van den Brandt, P A; Wedel, M; Ockhuizen, T

1988-02-01

234

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas / Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO) y el [...] telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX), medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g), SHAM (n=12) y ovariectomizadas (OVX) (n=12). Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca) y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría). En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml) como FAO (UI/l) en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p Abstract in english Bone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopept [...] ide (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g) [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml) by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark) and b-AP (IU/L) (Wiener, colorimetrically). Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p

Pellegrini, Gretel; Macarena, Gonzáles Cháves; Julia, Somoza; Silvia, Friedman; Susana N., Zeni.

2006-06-01

235

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS) of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on cytokine production and surface mol...

Barral Aldina; Miranda José; Clarêncio Jorge; Costa Dirceu J; Menezes Maria; Barral-Netto Manoel; Brodskyn Cláudia; de Oliveira Camila I

2008-01-01

236

Relationship between Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate and Saliva Composition of Healthy Children in Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

Background: Saliva is one of the most important factors in regulating oral health, withflow rate and composition changing throughout development and during disease.In view of the shortage of data, the present study aimed to shed light onthe relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and saliva compositionof healthy children in Taiwan.Methods: Forty-four normal, healthy children from 3-14 years of age were divided intothree age groups: pre-school, elementary school and junior-high sc...

Yu-Cheng Lee; Ching-Fang Hu; Wong, Alice M. K.; Ming-Yen Chou; Tsong-Long Hwang; Chia-Ling Chen; Chia-Ying Chung; Jyh-Yuh Ke; Wu, Katie P.

2008-01-01

237

Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva, dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To compare genotype of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolated from saliva, dental plaques, gastric biopsy, and stool of each patient in order to evaluate the mode of transmission of H. pylori infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 300 antral gastric biopsy, saliva, dental plaque and stool samples which were obtained from patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy referred to endoscopy centre of Hajar hospital of Shahrekord, Iran from...

Meysam Sarshar; Hossein Dabiri; Hassan Momtaz; Negar Souod

2012-01-01

238

Beta 2 microglobulin measurements in saliva of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: influence of flow.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--To determine the diagnostic value of beta 2 microglobulin in parotid saliva, its concentration in relation to salivary flow was determined in 29 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 30 normal controls. The specific secretion rate of beta 2 microglobulin was calculated. METHODS--Parotid saliva samples were collected within a 20 minute period directly from Stensen's duct with Lashley cups: sample 1 without gustatory stimulation during the first 10 minutes and samples 2 a...

Geest, S. A.; Markusse, H. M.; Swaak, A. J.

1993-01-01

239

CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL O-GLYCANS ISOLATED FROM TEAR AND SALIVA of OCULAR ROSACEA PATIENTS  

OpenAIRE

O-glycans in saliva and tear isolated from patients suffering from ocular rosacea, a form of inflammatory ocular surface disease, were profiled and their structures were elucidated using high resolution mass spectrometry. We have previously shown that certain structures, particularly sulfated oligosaccharides, increased in the tear and saliva of rosacea patients. In this study, the structures of these glycans were elucidated using primarily tandem mass spectrometry. There were important simil...

Ozcan, Sureyya; An, Hyun Joo; Vieira, Ana C.; Park, Gunwook; Kim, Jae Han; Mannis, Mark J.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

2013-01-01

240

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most allection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

241

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

OpenAIRE

Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method...

Cvetkovi? Andrijana; Vulovi? Marko; Ivanovi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

242

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05.

Michelle Peneluppi Silva

2012-02-01

243

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and c [...] ontrolling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

Michelle Peneluppi, Silva; José, Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda, Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva, Machado; Luciane Dias de, Oliveira; Juliana Campos, Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

2012-02-01

244

A comparative study of saliva and serum paracetamol levels using a simple spectrophotometric method.  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between saliva and serum paracetamol levels was investigated in ten healthy male volunteers. The salivary and serum paracetamol levels showed significant correlation with each other. The salivary and serum paracetamol concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary and serum paracetamol half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of paracetamol concentration in saliva and serum failed to show significant correla...

Adithan, C.; Thangam, J.

1982-01-01

245

Integrity of Proteins in Human Saliva after Sterilization by Gamma Irradiation?  

OpenAIRE

Microbial contamination of whole human saliva is unwanted for certain in vitro applications, e.g., when utilizing it as a growth substratum for biofilm experiments. The aim of this investigation was to test gamma irradiation for its suitability to sterilize saliva and to investigate the treatment's influence on the composition and integrity of salivary proteins in comparison to filter sterilization. For inhibition of bacterial growth by gamma irradiation, a sterility assurance level of 10?6...

Ruhl, Stefan; Berlenbach, Pereshia; Langenfelder, Sabine; Ho?rl, Dagmar; Lehn, Norbert; Hiller, Karl-anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Durchschlag, Helmut

2010-01-01

246

Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

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Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28 in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19, moderate disease activity (n=19 and high disease activity (n=25. NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3 to nitrite (NO-2 was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3 was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05. We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05. Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

Amela Dervisevic

2012-07-01

247

Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment  

OpenAIRE

Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X. Chris

2013-01-01

248

Fluconazole concentrations in saliva from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidosis refractory to treatment with fluconazole.  

OpenAIRE

Fluconazole (FCZ) has been extensively used as a primary therapy for oropharyngeal candidosis in AIDS patients. Clinical resistance to FCZ is now encountered, often related to decreased susceptibility of the isolate in vitro. We wondered if low levels in saliva play a role in the therapeutic failure, especially in patients complaining of dry mouth. Sixteen AIDS patients treated for oropharyngeal candidosis with FCZ were studied. MICs for the isolates were determined. Serum and saliva samples ...

Garcia-hermoso, D.; Dromer, F.; Improvisi, L.; Provost, F.; Dupont, B.

1995-01-01

249

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most ollection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

250

Welfare assessment in the Indian rhino and Asian elephant through cortisol measurement in saliva  

OpenAIRE

At Estación Biológica Terra Natura (University of Alicante, Spain), we are developing a stress assessment program in the Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) at Terra Natura’s Theme Park. We are attempting to test the effect of environmental enrichment techniques applied in their enclosures, through cortisol measurement in saliva. We obtain the saliva daily and the cortisol level is analysed using RIA (Radio Immuno Assay techniques), at the endocrino...

Menargues Marcilla, Mari?a Asuncio?n; Urios Moliner, Vicente; Navarrete, Jose? Mari?a; Lo?pez Gonza?lez, Manuel

2005-01-01

251

Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study  

OpenAIRE

This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

Kidd, T.

2009-01-01

252

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

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Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan

2009-12-01

253

National Information Infrastructure of a Science, Culture and Education: Representation of Resources of Electronic Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

In the report are given questions concerned the choice of international standards for electronic libraries construction: - The alternative variants of choice standards on electronic catalogs and metacatalogs formats; - The alternative variants of choice standards for interlibrary loan; - The variants of choice standards for information search in online public catalogs (OPAC) and bibliographic databases; - The variants of choice standards for file representation of full text documents, vector and raster images, audio- and video-materials, text of public distributed programs. The questions for public discussion by interested organizations are intended to represent on special web site. The profile of electronic library as a total combination of standards on program interfaces and protocols may be constructed with the conceptual model of EL. This model is offered as a expansion of basic open systems environment / reference model (OSE/RM) for the area of applications to describe the Application Program Interface (APIs). Opinions of the interested organizations, which will be collected on a site by way of discussion of the questions put above, it is supposed to base on formation of a national information infrastructure of Russia for science, culture and education.

Filinov, E.; Boychenko, A.

254

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national pro...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

255

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

OpenAIRE

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is: . The code instructs the browser to suppress the con...

Dicarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

256

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

257

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

258

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

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Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX, medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g, SHAM (n=12 y ovariectomizadas (OVX (n=12. Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría. En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml como FAO (UI/l en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, pBone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopeptide (CTX and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark and b-AP (IU/L (Wiener, colorimetrically. Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p<0.05 y 71±29 vs. 104±23; p<0.01, respectively. Saliva presented the same behaviour (3.6±0.5 vs. 6.4±2.9; p<0.02 y 73±29 vs. 90±8; p<0.003, respectively. When saliva CTX and b-AP were plotted against serum concentration significant positive correlations were obtained: r=0.58, p<0.05 and r=0.59; p<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the present results are promisory in the sense of the potential use of a salivary-based test for evaluating bone remodeling. However, the use of this methodology for clinical practice needs extensive additional investigations.

Pellegrini Gretel

2006-06-01

259

Differential expression of host biomarkers in saliva and serum samples from individuals with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of tuberculosis remains challenging in individuals with difficulty in providing good quality sputum samples such as children. Host biosignatures of inflammatory markers may be valuable in such cases, especially if they are based on more easily obtainable samples such as saliva. To explore the potential of saliva as an alternative sample in tuberculosis diagnostic/biomarker investigations, we evaluated the levels of 33 host markers in saliva samples from individuals presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms and compared them to those obtained in serum. Of the 38 individuals included in the study, tuberculosis disease was confirmed in 11 (28.9%) by sputum culture. In both the tuberculosis cases and noncases, the levels of most markers were above the minimum detectable limit in both sample types, but there was no consistent pattern regarding the ratio of markers in serum/saliva. Fractalkine, IL-17, IL-6, IL-9, MIP-1 ? , CRP, VEGF, and IL-5 levels in saliva and IL-6, IL-2, SAP, and SAA levels in serum were significantly higher in tuberculosis patients (P < 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that there are significant differences in the levels of host markers expressed in saliva in comparison to those expressed in serum and that inflammatory markers in both sample types are potential diagnostic candidates for tuberculosis disease. PMID:24327799

Phalane, Khutso G; Kriel, Magdalena; Loxton, Andre G; Menezes, Angela; Stanley, Kim; van der Spuy, Gian D; Walzl, Gerhard; Chegou, Novel N

2013-01-01

260

Characterization of novel O-glycans isolated from tear and saliva of ocular rosacea patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

O-Glycans in saliva and tear isolated from patients suffering from ocular rosacea, a form of inflammatory ocular surface disease, were profiled, and their structures were elucidated using high resolution mass spectrometry. We have previously shown that certain structures, particularly sulfated oligosaccharides, increased in the tear and saliva of rosacea patients. In this study, the structures of these glycans were elucidated using primarily tandem mass spectrometry. There were important similarities in the glycan profiles of tears and saliva with the majority of the structures in common. The structures of the most abundant species common to both tear and saliva, which were also the most abundant species in both, were elucidated. For sulfated species, the positions of the sulfate groups were localized. The majority of the structures were new, with the sulfated glycans comprising mucin core 1- and core 2-type structures. As both saliva and tear are rich in mucins, it is suggested that the O-glycans are mainly components of mucins. The study further illustrates the strong correspondence between the glycans in the tear and saliva of ocular rosacea patients. PMID:23294139

Ozcan, Sureyya; An, Hyun Joo; Vieira, Ana C; Park, Gun Wook; Kim, Jae Han; Mannis, Mark J; Lebrilla, Carlito B

2013-03-01

261

In situ assessment of the saliva effect on enamel morphology after microabrasion technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: This study evaluated saliva effects on enamel morphology surface after microabrasion technique. METHODS: Enamel blocks (16 mm2) obtained from bovine incisors were divided into 9 groups as follows: one control group (no treatment), four groups with microabrasion treatment using 35% phospho [...] ric acid and pumice (H3PO4+Pum) and other four groups treated with 6.6% hydrochloric acid and silica (HCl+Sil). One group of each treatment was submitted to 4 frames of saliva exposure: without exposure, 1-h exposure, 24-h exposure, and 7-days exposure on in situ regimen. Nineteen volunteers (n=19), considered as statistical blocks, used an intraoral appliance containing the specimens, for 7 days. Enamel roughness (Ra) was tested before and after treatment, and after saliva exposure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to evaluate qualitatively the enamel morphology. RESULTS: All groups exhibited increased Ra after microabrasion. With regards to saliva exposure, the treatment with HCl+Sil presented more susceptibility to the saliva action, but no period of time was efficient in re-establishing this characteristic compared with the control group. CLSM analysis showed reduction of the micro-abrasive damages during the experimental times. CONCLUSIONS: Seven days of saliva exposure were not sufficient for the treated enamel to reach its normal characteristics compared with the control group.

Núbia Inocencya Pavesi, Pini; Débora Alves Nunes Leite, Lima; Renato Herman, Sundfeld; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Flávio Henrique Baggio, Aguiar; José Roberto, Lovadino.

2014-09-01

262

Hantavirus RNA in saliva from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hantaviruses cause 2 zoonotic diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Infection is usually initiated after inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. In addition to the zoonotic infection route, growing evidence suggests person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. For this reason, we studied whether saliva from HFRS patients contained hantavirus. During an outbreak in northern Sweden of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, we collected saliva and plasma from 14 hospitalized NE patients with verified Puumala virus (PUUV) infection. PUUV RNA was detected in saliva from 10 patients (range 1,530-121,323 PUUV RNA copies/mL) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The PUUV S-segment sequences from saliva and plasma of the same patients were identical. Our data show that hantavirus RNA could be detected in human saliva several days after onset of disease symptoms and raise the question whether interhuman transmission of hantavirus may occur through saliva. PMID:18325254

Pettersson, Lisa; Klingström, Jonas; Hardestam, Jonas; Lundkvist, Ake; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

2008-03-01

263

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions. PMID:17710285

Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P; Sathler, Lúcio

2007-01-01

264

Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of ? amyloid (A? using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva A?42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of A?42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva A?40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva A?42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva A?42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

Antequera Desiree

2010-11-01

265

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelera [...] tes in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Natalia Cadaxo, Rochael; Luize Goncalves, Lima; Sandra Maria Pereira de, Oliveira; Marcello Andre, Barcinski; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Robson Queiroz, Monteiro; Lucia Helena, Pinto-da-Silva.

2013-09-01

266

Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry / Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. METODOLOGIA: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a [...] 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%). Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This study evaluated the quality of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to human identification. METHODS: The saliva samples of 20 subjects, collected in the form of saliva in natura and from mouth swabs and stored at -20ºC, were analyzed. After 7 days, the DNA was e [...] xtracted from the 40 saliva samples and subjected to PCR and electrophoresis. After 180 days, the technique was repeated with the 20 swab samples. RESULTS: The first-stage results indicated that DNA was successfully extracted in 97.5% of reactions, 95% of saliva in natura and 100% of swab saliva samples, with no statistically significant difference between the forms of saliva. In the second phase, the result was positive for all 20 analyzed samples (100%). Subsequently, in order to analyze the quality of the DNA obtained from human saliva, the SIX3-2 gene was tested on the 20 mouth swab samples, and the PCR products were digested using the MbO1 restriction enzyme to evaluate polymorphisms in the ADRA-2 gene, with positive results for most samples. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the quantity and quality of DNA from saliva and the techniques employed are adequate for forensic analysis of DNA.

Suzana Papile Maciel, Carvalho; Arsenio, Sales-Peres; Lucilene Arilho, Ribeiro-Bicudo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva.

267

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

268

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures / Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte [...] amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discus [...] s the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

Evelyn, Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki, Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo, Hirata; Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff, Melani; Rogério Nogueira, Oliveira.

2005-09-01

269

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório.

Evelyn Anzai-Kanto

2005-09-01

270

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

271

Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

272

Non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva and effects of a tooth gel containing antibacterial enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected innate: non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva were characterized and quantitated. The samples from dogs showed increased pH, higher lysozyme and salivary peroxidase activities, but lower hypothiocyanite concentration and myeloperoxidase activity when compared with human saliva. Secondly, a 1-month clinical pilot study was performed using a commercial tooth gel to determine acute and long-term changes in salivary host defense proteins. Daily application of the tooth gel did not substantially affect the concentrations of these factors in dogs with normal salivation. Our results suggest that canine saliva may be similar to human saliva, comprised of both immune and non-immune antimicrobial factors. However, as in humans, oral administration of antimicrobial proteins as reported here does not seem to benefit dogs with normal saliva secretion. Products such as the tooth gel evaluated in this study may benefit dogs with xerostomia or other clinical conditions causing decreased saliva production. PMID:11968939

Tenovuo, J; Illukka, T; Vähä-Vahe, T

2000-09-01

273

Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Me?lika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

2011-01-01

274

Effect of Prophylactic Valacyclovir on the Presence of Human Herpesvirus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals after Dental Treatment  

OpenAIRE

Human herpesviruses (HHVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that intermittently reactivate from latency. Transmission is believed to be facilitated by their frequent appearance in saliva. This study sought to understand the factors that influence the appearance of these viruses in saliva by examining the prevalence, pattern, and quantity of all eight HHVs in saliva of immunocompetent adults with a history of recurrent oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections following dental treatment and antiviral...

Miller, Craig S.; Avdiushko, Sergei A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Danaher, Robert J.; Jacob, Robert J.

2005-01-01

275

Developing an outcome measure for excessive saliva management in MND and an evaluation of saliva burden in Sheffield.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few studies providing evidence to guide the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems in motor neuron disease (MND). There is a lack of a suitable outcome measure for evaluating management strategies. We applied several potential outcome measures for assessing excessive secretions to patients with MND who attended the Sheffield Care and Research Centre for Motor Neurone Disease between 21 November 2012 and 15 May 2013. These measures were the CSS-MND, a symptom rating scale, and the Drool and Wipe quotient, which were designed to semi-objectively measure patients' drooling. Of the 143 patients seen in clinic during the study period, 58 had symptoms of excessive secretions, and of whom 50 agreed to participate in the study. Semi-objective measures failed to effectively identify patients complaining of secretion problems. The CSS-MND had a relatively low internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.539; n = 50); however, analysis of the inter-item correlations suggested the appearance of low internal consistency was because the scale was measuring a variety of saliva related symptoms that did not necessarily influence each other. The scale correlated well with patient reported symptom impact (r = 0.673, n = 50). In conclusion, the CSS-MND would be a useful outcome measure in studies assessing the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems. PMID:25225845

McGeachan, Alexander J; Hobson, Esther V; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

2015-03-01

276

Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid / Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (i [...] dades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 [...] years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.

C., Maldonado; Pietro, Fagiolino; M., Vázquez; A., Rey; I., Olano; R., Eiraldi; C., Scavone.

2008-06-01

277

Concentrations of thiocyanate and hypothiocyanite in the saliva of young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to determine thiocyanate (SCN-) and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) concentrations in resting (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) and stimulated parotid saliva (SPS) of 20 healthy young adults aged 21-29 y. Samples of saliva were collected at 12:30, immediately before lunch. Resting saliva was collected by expectoration, and stimulated saliva was collected during the uniform chewing of paraffin wax. Parotid secretion was collected using a modified Carlsson-Crittenden cup (Carlsson et al., Am, J. Physiol., 26, 169-177, 1910). SCN- concentration was determined by the ferric nitrate method (Betts et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 5721-5727, 1953) whilst OSCN- was assayed using 2-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent (Pruitt et al., Caries Res., 16, 315-323, 1982). In RWS, SWS and SPS, the mean SCN- concentrations (in mM) were 1.48 +/- 0.59(S.D.), 0.90 +/- 0.56(S.D.) and 1.24 +/- 0.65(S.D.) whilst the mean OSCN- concentrations (in microM) were 31.21 +/- 13.54(S.D.), 24.90 +/- 12.61 and 30.19 +/- 23.35(S.D.) in the respective salivas. The presence of OSCN- in the secretion collected from the parotid gland supported previous findings by Tenovuo and Pruitt (Tenovuo et al., J. Oral Path, ol. 13, 573-584, 1984), who suggested an endogenous glandular (eukaryotic) source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), since parotid saliva from healthy glands is devoid of bacteria and leukocytes. PMID:7869127

Jalil, R A

1994-12-01

278

Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

Pola?ska, Kinga

2013-01-01

279

Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Saliva: A Comparison between Partially and Fully Engorged Females  

Science.gov (United States)

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. PMID:24762651

Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Fox, Jay W.; Yates, John R.; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F. M.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

2014-01-01

280

Detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the Saliva of Amoebic Liver Abscess Patients Who Received Prior Treatment with Metronidazole  

OpenAIRE

Saliva is an easily-accessible and a non-invasive clinical specimen alternate to blood and liver pus. An attempt was made to detect Entamoeba histolytica DNA released in the saliva of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients by applying 16S-like rRNA gene-based nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR). The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of eight (28.6%) of 28 ALA patients. The NM-PCR result was negative for E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of all the eight ALA patient...

Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

2008-01-01

281

Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additiouated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

282

Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil / Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a validade da utilização da saliva no diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola. Quarenta e cinco amostras pareadas de sangue e de saliva, coletadas de 1 a 29 dias após o início da doença, foram testadas para detecção de imunoglobulina (Ig) M específica por radioimun [...] oensaio com captura (MACRIA). Anticorpos IgM específicos contra rubéola foram detectados em todas as amostras sangüíneas e em 38 (84,4%) das amostras de saliva. A especificidade do teste na saliva foi de 96%. Estes resultados indicam que a utilização da saliva pode ser uma alternativa válida para obtenção de espécimens clínicos na investigação de casos recentes de rubéola, especialmente nas atividades de vigilância epidemiológica e controle da virose. Abstract in english This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by [...] antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

Solange Artimos de, Oliveira; Marilda Mendonça, Siqueira; David W.G., Brown; Pamella, Litton; Luís Antonio B., Camacho; Sílvia Thees, Castro; Bernard J., Cohen.

2000-08-01

283

XTT assay of ex vivo saliva biofilms to test antimicrobial influences  

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Full Text Available Objective: Many dental diseases are attributable to biofilms. The screening of antimicrobial substances, in particular, requires a high sample throughput and a realistic model, the evaluation must be as quick and as simple as possible. For this purpose, a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-[(phenylamino-carbony]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene-sulfonic acid hydrate converted by saliva biofilms is recommended. Cleavage of XTT by dehydrogenase enzymes of metabolically active cells in biofilms yields a highly colored formazan product which is measured photometrically. Materials and method: The suitability of the XTT assay for detecting the vitality of ex vivo saliva biofilms was tested to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine and ozone versus saliva biofilms grown on titanium discs. Results: The XTT method lends itself to testing the vitality of microorganisms in saliva biofilms. The sensitivity of the arrays requires a specific minimum number of pathogens, this number being different for planktonic bacteria and those occurring in biofilms. The antibacterial effect after treatment with chlorhexidine or ozone was measured by XTT conversion that was significantly reduced. The antimicrobial efficacy of 60 s 0.5% and 0.1% chlorhexidine treatment was equal and comparable with 60 s ozone treatment. Conclusion: The XTT assay is a suitable method to determine the vitality in saliva biofilms, permitting assessment of the efficacy of antimicrobial substances. Its quick and easy applicability renders it especially suitable for screening.

Ina Koban

2012-04-01

284

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

2013-08-01

285

Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Binge eating episodes in persons with bulimia nervosa may to some extent be a result of disturbed sensations of hunger and satiety. It has been hypothesized that abnormal appetite sensations may be due to bulimia nervosa-related alterations in the release of hormones that are known to be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa than in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake of potentially xerogenic medication. Subjects with bulimia nervosa experienced reduced hunger, which could not be explained by pre- or postprandial alterations in circulating ghrelin, leptin, insulin, or glucose concentrations. Conclusions: There were no apparent differences in the composition of blood and saliva between bulimia nervosa and control subjects, and meal-induced compositional changes in blood were not directly mirrored in saliva composition.

Dynesen, Anja WeirsØe; Jensen, Allan Bardow

2008-01-01

286

Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments  

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Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four t [...] reatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

Daniela Correia Cavalcante, SOUZA; Marisa, MALTZ; Lina Naomi, HASHIZUME.

2014-08-26

287

Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare the frequency of E.faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure Study. Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Duration of this study was one year. Patients and Method: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-370 C for 48 hours. E.faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E.faecalis in saliva was 34% and 58% in root canal samples. Frequency of the presence of E.faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p=0.000). Conclusion: The presence of E.faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

288

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

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Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

Kršljak Elena

2008-01-01

289

Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis  

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BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in saliva and gingival tissues, respectively. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Reduced salivary TFF1 and TFF3 concentrations were observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Decreased TFF3 expression in gingival tissues of patients with CP was demonstrated (P = 0.041). Levels of salivary TFF3 concentrations were negatively correlated with periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (formerly known as Bacteroides forsythus). CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of TFFs in saliva and gingival tissues was detected in patients with CP. The results suggest that TFF3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek

2012-01-01

290

Effects of delmopinol on antimicrobial peroxidase systems and lysozyme in vitro and in human whole saliva.  

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Delmopinol is a new surface-active agent which can reduce plaque formation and gingivitis. This study was aimed to analyze whether delmopinol (0.0032-0.65 mM) interferes with the activity of two surface-active oral antimicrobial enzymes, salivary peroxidase and lysozyme. In addition to human whole saliva (pH 5.0 and 6.0), the experiments were done in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) with purified lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). LPO and MPO were significantly inhibited in buffer by delmopinol concentrations > 6.5 mM and > or = 3.2 mM, respectively. No such inhibition was found for total peroxidase activity in mixed saliva. In vitro, delmopinol was found to desorb surface-bound peroxidases in an active form to the liquid phase. In further analyses, the possible effect of delmopinol on peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-) was studied in saliva and buffer. No effect was found in buffer, but salivary HOSCN/OSCN- declined significantly with 6.5 mM delmopinol. This was obviously due to an enhanced decay of hypothiocyanite, rather than its reduced rate of formation. No delmopinol-related inhibition of lysozyme occurred in saliva or buffer. The results suggest that high concentration (6.4 mM -0.2%) of delmopinol may lower the concentrations of antimicrobial HOSCN/OSCN- in saliva but has no effect on human lysozyme. PMID:7552957

Tenovuo, J; Hannuksela, S; Lenander-Lumikari, M

1995-08-01

291

Peroxidase antimicrobial system of human saliva: requirements for accumulation of hypothiocyanite.  

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Human saliva was fractionated to determine the components required for production and accumulation of the antimicrobial oxidizing agent, hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-). The required components were: 1) peroxidase activity and thiocyanate ion (SCN-), 2) the saliva sediment, which produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of oxygen and a divalent cation, and 3) heat-stable factors of the saliva supernatant. The supernatant factors were separated into high- and low-mol wt fractions. The high-mol wt fraction contained both peptide and carbohydrate, and its activity was partially inhibited by proteolytic treatment. The low-mol wt fraction contained carbohydrate and could be replaced by a number of mono- and di-saccharides. Glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine were the most effective, whereas neutral sugars such as sucrose were less effective. Sucrose competed with glucosamine, so that lower levels of OSCN- were obtained with increasing amounts of sucrose. The sugars stimulated production of H2O2 by the saliva sediment. Production of H2O2 was greater in the presence of glucosamine than of neutral sugars. Also, the ratio of OSCN- accumulation to H2O2 production was greater in the presence of glucosamine. The results suggest that peroxidase-mediated antimicrobial activity is modulated by the carbohydrate composition of whole saliva and by certain protein and glycoprotein components. PMID:6937515

Thomas, E L; Bates, K P; Jefferson, M M

1981-04-01

292

Antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of human infants: a longitudinal study.  

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Because early childhood is an important period for the colonization of bacteria in the primary dentition, it is possible that antimicrobial factors in saliva may modify these early events. In this study we have followed longitudinally 33 children from predentate to dentate phase and analyzed whole saliva for such salivary factors as lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, total IgA, IgG, IgM, and total protein. Children's saliva samples were compared with those from an adult reference group whose samples were collected and analyzed in an identical way. It was observed that salivary thiocyanate and IgG increased and salivary peroxidase decreased significantly from predentate to dentate phase. The other parameters remained unchanged. Children in predentate phase already had reached adult levels of hypothiocyanite and IgM, whereas all the other components were found in significantly lower amounts in children's saliva than in adult saliva. Salivary myeloperoxidase assay is interfered by the thiocyanate ions, and the observed increase in salivary "myeloperoxidase" activity may be due to the simultaneous increase in salivary thiocyanate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2626337

Hyyppä, T; Karhuvaara, L; Tenovuo, J; Lumikari, M; Vilja, P

1989-03-01

293

Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors  

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Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

2014-07-01

294

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group, according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control. After varnish application (4 mg, specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: Colorimetric analysis was not able to detect xylitol in saliva samples of the control group. Salivary xylitol concentrations were significantly higher up to 8 h after application of the 20% xylitol varnish. Thereafter, the 10% xylitol varnish released larger amounts of that polyol in artificial saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the results in short-term, sustained xylitol releases could be obtained when the 10% xylitol varnish was used. These varnishes seem to be viable alternatives to increase salivary xylitol levels, and therefore, should be clinically tested to confirm their effectiveness.

Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira

2012-04-01

295

Immunological and molecular detection of human immunodeficiency virus in saliva, and comparison with blood testing.  

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In order to test the detection feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in saliva, a three-method blind screening analysis was conducted. Sixty-eight individuals were studied, comprising 34 HIV carriers and 34 noncarriers (controls) of matched gender and age. An oral examination preceded saliva and blood sampling of studied individuals. All samples were tested blind for HIV by using two immunological methods [Oraquick-compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a fluorescent immunoenzymatic method (ELFA)], confirmed by western blotting, and a simple molecular method (polymerase chain reaction amplification of a relatively constant viral DNA region), confirmed by DNA hydridization. Compared with the controls, about twice as many HIV carriers had oral health problems, including periodontal disease. ELFA resulted in 33/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in saliva, while it detected 34/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in blood. ELISA performed even better, with correct assignment of all positives and negatives in both saliva and blood. The PCR method, at three annealing temperatures, surprisingly detected all positive samples, while it gave no false-positive result. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HIV in saliva may achieve accuracy of 97.1-100%, comparable with that in blood. Furthermore, this study suggests that a highly accurate molecular method of HIV detection may be feasible, although the studied carriers had rather homogeneous characteristics. PMID:16776764

Yapijakis, Christos; Panis, Vassilis; Koufaliotis, Nikos; Yfanti, Georgia; Karachalios, Stefanos; Roumeliotou, Anastasia; Mantzavinos, Zacharias

2006-06-01

296

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

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Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

297

Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%. Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA.

Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel et al.

2010-01-01

298

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-11-01

299

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-12-01

300

Characterisation of human saliva as a platform for oral dissolution medium development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is a biological fluid of great importance in the field of dissolution testing. However, until now, no consensus has been reached on its key characteristics relevant to dissolution testing. As a result, it is difficult to select or develop an in vitro dissolution medium to best represent human saliva. In this study, the pH, buffer capacity, surface tension, viscosity and flow rate of both unstimulated (US) and stimulated (SS) human saliva were investigated in order to provide a platform of reference for future dissolution studies using simulated salivary fluids. Age and gender related differences in a sample size of 30 participants for each parameter were investigated. Significant differences were established between US and SS for all characteristics except surface tension. Therefore, the requirement for using two simulated salivary fluids should be considered when developing an oral dissolution model. PMID:25603197

Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Henry, Brian; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel

2015-04-01

301

Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

302

Integrity of Proteins in Human Saliva after Sterilization by Gamma Irradiation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial contamination of whole human saliva is unwanted for certain in vitro applications, e.g., when utilizing it as a growth substratum for biofilm experiments. The aim of this investigation was to test gamma irradiation for its suitability to sterilize saliva and to investigate the treatment's influence on the composition and integrity of salivary proteins in comparison to filter sterilization. For inhibition of bacterial growth by gamma irradiation, a sterility assurance level of 10?6 was determined to be reached at a dose of 3.5 kGy. At this dose, the integrity of proteins, as measured by fluorescence, circular dichroism, and gel electrophoretic banding pattern, and the enzymatic activities of salivary amylase and lysozyme were virtually unchanged. Filtration reduced the total protein concentration to about half of its original value and decreased lysozyme activity to about 10%. It can be concluded that irradiation is suitable for sterilizing whole saliva in its native form. PMID:21148692

Ruhl, Stefan; Berlenbach, Pereshia; Langenfelder, Sabine; Hörl, Dagmar; Lehn, Norbert; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Durchschlag, Helmut

2011-01-01

303

Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from saliva of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for cultivating and isolating Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the saliva of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis (formerly known as Ixodes dammini), is described. Saliva was collected from partially engorged ticks after application of pilocarpine to induce salivation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from 8 of 14 (57%) of the saliva samples derived from ticks infected with the bacteria, as determined by direct immunofluorescent-antibody assay of tick hemolymph. A comparison of the protein profiles of the salivary isolates and a highly passaged strain (B31) showed that the salivary isolates all lacked a 22-kDa protein known to increase with continuous passage, but exhibited larger amounts of the OspA and OspB proteins than did the highly passaged B31 strain. PMID:8195390

Ewing, C; Scorpio, A; Nelson, D R; Mather, T N

1994-03-01

304

Determination of methylphenidate in plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In adults, clinical monitoring of MPH therapy is usually performed by measuring plasma MPH concentrations. In children blood sampling is however undesirable. Saliva may be an alternative matrix for monitoring MPH concentrations with the advantage that it can be obtained non-invasively. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. We present the validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC). In 100 ?L sample, proteins were precipitated with 750 ?L acetonitrile/methanol 84/16 (v/v) containing d9-methylphenidate as the internal standard. Standard curves were prepared over the MPH concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ?g/L. The total analysis time was 45 s. Accuracy and within- and between-run imprecision were in the range of 98-108% and less than 7.0%, respectively. Matrix effects were greater for plasma than saliva with 46% and 8% ionization suppression. The matrix effects were adequately compensated by the use of deuterated MPH as internal standard. MPH significantly degraded in plasma and saliva at room temperature and 5°C. Samples were stable at -20°C for at least 4 weeks. The method was successfully applied for the determination of MPH concentrations in plasma and saliva samples from an adult healthy volunteer. Using protein precipitation and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, this method allows fast, accurate and precise quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. PMID:23454305

Seçilir, A; Schrier, L; Bijleveld, Y A; Toersche, J H; Jorjani, S; Burggraaf, J; van Gerven, J; Mathôt, R A A

2013-04-01

305

Analysis of the shedding of three ?-herpesviruses in urine and saliva of children with renal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. To elucidate the kinetics of the three ?-herpesviruses in saliva and urine samples were collected serially from children with renal diseases. Twenty children with renal diseases were enrolled in this study. A total of 240 saliva and urine samples were collected monthly from the patients over a 1-year period. Viral DNAs loads were measured by real-time PCR. In 10 CMV seropositive patients CMV DNA was detected rarely in saliva and CMV DNA load was lower than the other two ?-herpesviruses DNA loads. All patients were seropositive for HHV-6B and the virus was detected frequently in saliva. Two of 20 patients were HHV-7 seronegative. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P = 0.039). HHV-6B DNA loads were significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatment compared to those without treatment (P = 0.013). Although CMV DNA was detected in urine samples collected from 5 of 10 CMV seropositive patients, HHV-6B and HHV-7 DNA were detected at relatively low frequencies in urine. No remarkable temporal associations between viral DNA excretion and proteinuria or immunosuppressive treatment were demonstrated. The pattern of viral DNA excretion in saliva and urine were different among the three viruses. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases. PMID:24132949

Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ihra, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

2014-03-01

306

Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study consisted of two sets of experiments, one in saliva and one in dental plaque. The xylitol concentration in saliva was determined enzymatically in 12 children (mean age 11.5 years) after a standardised use of various xylitol products: (A) chewing gums (1.3 g xylitol), (B) sucking tablets (0.8 g xylitol), (C) candy tablets (1.1 g xylitol), (D) toothpaste (0.1 g xylitol), (E) rinse (1.0 g xylitol), and (F) a non-xylitol paraffin. Unstimulated saliva was sampled 1, 3, 8, 16 and 30 min after use. The concentration in dental plaque was determined after mouthrinses with contrasting amounts of xylitol (LX = 2.0 g, HX = 6.0 g, and control) and supragingival plaque was collected and pooled after 5, 15 and 30 min. The mean xylitol concentration in saliva at baseline was approximately 0.1 mg/ml. All xylitol-containing products resulted in significantly increased levels (p saliva was obtained immediately after use of chewing gums (33.7 +/- 16.4 mg/ml) and the lowest was demonstrated after using toothpaste (8.2 +/- 4.9 mg/ml). No significant differences were demonstrated between chewing gums (A), sucking tablets (B), candy (C) and rinses (E). In dental plaque, the mean values were 8.6 +/- 5.4 and 5.1 +/- 4.0 mg/ml 5 min after HX and LX rinses. Concerning the higher concentration, the values remained significantly elevated (p xylitol-containing products gave elevated concentrations of xylitol in unstimulated whole saliva and dental plaque for at least 8 min after intake. PMID:16946607

Lif Holgerson, P; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Sjöström, I; Oberg, M; Twetman, S

2006-01-01

307

Stereostructure of plagiochiline A and conversion of plagiochiline A and stearoylvelutinal into hot-tasting compounds by human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stereostructure of plagiochiline A (1) isolated from the liverwort Plagiochila fruticosa has been established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Plagiochiline A was converted into plagiochilal B (2) and furanoplagiochilal (3) by human saliva, and stearoylvelutinal (4) isolated from the fungus Lactarius vellerus was converted into velleral (5), also by human saliva. PMID:7923476

Hashimoto, T; Tanaka, H; Asakawa, Y

1994-07-01

308

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da contaminação por saliva na resistência de união de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte com um compósito resinoso hidrofílico. MÉTODOS: oitenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20), de acordo com o material de colagem e a presença de [...] contaminação - G1) colagem com Transbond XT na ausência de contaminação; G2) colagem com Transbond XT na presença de contaminação; G3) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na ausência de contaminação; G4) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presença de contaminação. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão (MPa) foram G1 = 10,15 ± 3,75; G2 = 6,8 ± 2,54; G3 = 9,3 ± 3,36; G4 = 8,3 ± 2,95. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomínio do escore 0 e distribuição similar no G3. CONCLUSÃO: a contaminação por saliva reduziu a resistência de união no grupo que usou a resina hidrofóbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidrofílica Transbond Plus Color Change não foi influenciada pela contaminação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond [...] XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa) were: G1)10.15 ± 3.75; G2) 6.8 ± 2.54; G3) 9.3 ± 3.36; G4) 8.3 ± 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.

Mauren Bitencourt, Deprá; Josiane Xavier de, Almeida; Taís de Morais Alves da, Cunha; Luis Filipe Siu, Lon; Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Orlando Motohiro, Tanaka.

2013-02-01

309

A simple collection method for saliva in children: potential for home monitoring of carbamazepine therapy.  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a method of monitoring plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs which uses salivary samples, and is suitable for home monitoring in children. To validate the method, paired plasma and saliva samples from 39 children aged between 2 and 15 years were assayed for carbamazepine and its active metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide by h.p.l.c. The method uses a gauze-wrapped cotton ball with attached string, to absorb saliva which is then separated using a syringe and plunge...

Chee, K. Y.; Lee, D.; Byron, D.; Naidoo, D.; Bye, A.

1993-01-01

310

Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

311

Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

312

Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ?l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ?g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously. (Auth.)

313

Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ..mu..l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ..mu..g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously.

Hiramatsu, R. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-12-09

314

The Majority of MicroRNAs Detectable in Serum and Saliva Is Concentrated in Exosomes  

OpenAIRE

There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. They are easily accessible in many body fluids but it is controversial if they are circulating freely or are encapsulated in microvesicles, particularly exosomes. We investigated if the majority of miRNas in serum and saliva are free-circulating or concentrated in exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fresh and frozen human serum and saliva. The amount of selected miRNAs ext...

Gallo, Alessia; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G.

2012-01-01

315

Saliva of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes dammini, blocks cell activation by a nonprostaglandin E2-dependent mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne pathogens would appear to be vulnerable to vertebrate host immune responses during the protracted duration of feeding required by their vectors. However, tick salivary components deposited during feeding may inhibit hemostasis and induce immunosuppression. The mode of action and the nature of immunosuppressive salivary components remains poorly described. We determined that saliva from the main vector of the agent of Lyme disease, Ixodes dammini, profoundly inhibited splenic T cell proliferation in response to stimulation with concanavalin A or phytohemagglutin, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, interleukin 2 secretion by the T cells was markedly diminished by saliva. Tick saliva also profoundly suppressed nitric oxide production by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, we analyzed the molecular basis for the immunosuppressive effects of saliva and discovered that the molecule in saliva responsible for our observations was not PGE2, as hypothesized by others, but rather, was a protein of 5,000 mol wt or higher. PMID:8064226

Urioste, S; Hall, L R; Telford, S R; Titus, R G

1994-09-01

316

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

317

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

318

Electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast electrons are used to produce isotopes for studying the cooper metabolism: Cu-64 in a cyclotron and Cu-67 in a linear accelerator. Localized electrons are responsible for the chemical and physiological characteristics of the trace elements. Studied are I, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe, Se, Mg. The Cu/Mo and Cu/Zn interactions are investigated. The levels of molybdenum, sulfate and zinc in the food are analysed. The role of the electrons in free radicals is discussed. The protection action of peroxidases and super oxidases against electron dangerous effect on normal physiology is also considered. Calculation of radiation damage and radiation protection is made. (author)

319

Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

2014-01-01

320

Bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana da saliva de pacientes com diferentes índices de higiene bucal através da construção de duas bibliotecas do gene 16S rRNA. Cada biblioteca foi composta por amostras de saliva de pacientes com índice de biofilme dental de Silness-Löe [...] diferenciado, sendo a primeira (A) com índice de 1,0 a 3,0 (denominada de alto índice) e a segunda (B), entre 0 a 0,5 (denominada de baixo índice). O DNA da saliva foi extraído e o gene 16S rRNA foi amplificado, clonado e sequenciado. As sequências obtidas foram comparadas com aquelas armazenadas no GenBank do NCBI e RDP. A saliva de pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental apresentou cinco gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella e Peptostreptococcus e 33,3% de bactérias não-cultivadas, agrupados em 23 unidades taxonômicas operacionais (UTOs). A saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental, foi diferente significativamente da primeira (p=0,000) e foi composta de 42 UTOs, distribuídas em 11 gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces, além de 24,87% de bactérias não-cultivadas. Pode-se concluir que existe maior diversidade bacteriana na saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental em relação a pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes using of two 16S rRNA gene libraries. Each library was composed of samples from patients with different averages of the differentiated Silness-Löe biofilm index: t [...] he first library (A) with an index between 1.0 and 3.0 (considered a high index) and the second library (B) between 0 and 0.5 (considered a low index). Saliva DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and cloned. The obtained sequences were compared with those stored at NCBI and RDP GenBank. The saliva of patients with high index presented five known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella and Peptostreptococcus - and 33.3% of nonculturable bacteria grouped into 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The saliva of patients with low index differed significantly from the first library (p=0.000) and was composed of 42 OTUs distributed into 11 known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces - including 24.87% of nonculturable bacteria. It was possible to conclude that there is greater bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with low dental plaque in relation to patients with high dental plaque.

Juliana Vianna, Pereira; Luciana, Leomil; Fabíola, Rodrigues-Albuquerque; José Odair, Pereira; Spartaco, Astolfi-Filho.

321

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

322

Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children / Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar se alguns parâmetros da saliva total estimulada são influenciados pelo aumento do Índice de Massa Corporal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado com 90 escolares, de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 10 anos incompletos de Bragança Paulista, SP, formando três grupos: sobrepeso, obeso e co [...] ntrole. Avaliou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (P/E2) e a ingestão dietética pelo registro alimentar. Na saliva foram avaliados o fluxo, pH, capacidade tampão e concentrações de proteína, fósforo, cálcio, flúor, ácido siálico livre e total e atividade da peroxidase. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve maior consumo de energia e lipídios (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight [...] , obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free sialic acid, and peroxidase activity were determined. RESULTS: The overweight and obese groups showed greater energy and lipid intake (P

Eliana, Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio, Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal de, Souza; Fausto Medeiros, Mendes; José, Nicolau.

323

MEDLINE [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Premier bibliographic database of the National Library of Medicine. Contains over 12 million bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,600 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries dating from 1966 to current. Covers the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, preclinical sciences. Please note: No registration or login needed.

324

Electricity auctions [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"This book presents a comprehensive overview of the international experience in electricity auctions, focusing on the procurement of long-term electricity contracts to foster new generation capacity"--from publisher's site.

325

ADAMS [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An information system that provides access to all documents made public by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since November 1, 1999 and to bibliographic records (some with abstracts and full text) that were made public up to October 1999.

326

IOPScience extra [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Access the full-text articles of 72 journals in the field of physics and related subjects published by the Institute of Physics. Browse by title or search across all journals. Coverage: 1993 to present.

327

Nature geoscience [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality original research papers across all areas of the geosciences. The journal's content reflects all the disciplines within the geosciences, including studies of the Earth's climate system, the solid Earth and the planets.

328

Procedia chemistry [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedia Chemistry covers conferences on all topics in Chemistry, such as: analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical biology, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry and physical chemistry.

329

Plant science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on plant science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;

330

Science advances [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The online-only journal seeks to publish high-quality original research in the physical, life, environmental, mathematical, engineering, computer, and social sciences that has the potential to make significant advances in any relevant field.

331

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

332

Detección de arn de virus hepatitis c en la saliva de un grupo de pacientes con hepatitis c crónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La Hepatitis C constituye un problema de salud pública y su transmisión está claramente asociada con la ruta parenteral. Sin embargo su agente causal, Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC), también ha sido aislado de otros fluidos incluyendo la saliva, aunque la relación existente entre VHC y la patología buca [...] l no está completamente dilucidada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con Hepatitis C crónica. En la presente investigación se evaluaron 24 pacientes provenientes del Departamento de Hepatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad Central de Venezuela, con infección por VHC. 5 ml de saliva no estimulada fue tomada de cada paciente. ARN-VHC fue detectada por la técnica de Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en cadena de la Polimerasa (TR-RCP). En 29%, (7/24) pacientes VHC+, se observó la presencia de ARN-VHC en saliva. En este estudio, observamos la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC. Es necesario realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala, para clarificar el significado biológico de la presencia de este agente viral en la saliva, incluyendo la potencial vía de transmisión por la exposición con este fluido. Abstract in english Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmisión is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids, including saliva, although the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. The aim of thi [...] s study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva from patients with chronic C hepatitis. In the present investigation 24 patients, attended at the Hepatology Department, at the the Clinical Hospital University, Central University of Venezuela, with HCV infection were evaluated . 5ml of unstimulated saliva were taken of each patient. Saliva HCV-RNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 29% (7/24) of HCV+ patients showed HCV-RNA in saliva. In this study, we observed the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients infected with HCV. Further large-scale epidemiological studies are required to clarify the clinical significance of HCV in the saliva, including the potencial for viral transmisión through exposure to these fluids.

M, Luna; , De Guglielmo; M, Garassini; M, Perrone; M, Correnti.

2008-12-01

333

[The role of biochemical study of the saliva in diagnosing diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed saliva contains numerous biological molecules which participate in regulation of the functions of the major physiological systems or are products of their work. Therefore, salivary components reflect the status of body systems and can provide diagnostic information about their abnormalities. PMID:9695489

Grigor'ev, I V; Chirkin, A A

1998-06-01

334

[Monitoring of I-125 contamination in vivo by analysis of the saliva].  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sun peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of 125I in saliva ranged 4.65 +/- 2.1 cBq (1.26 +/- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +/- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +/- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +/- 1.9 cBq (5.62 +/- 0.51 pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +/- 0.64) X 10(-9) to (3.6 +/- 0.073) X 10(-8) and the average was (8.1 +/- 1.1) X 10(-9). The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94 nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9 nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 X 10(-5) to 5.4 X 10(-6). The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 microGy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 microGy (474 mrad). Monitoring of 125I-in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination. PMID:6658024

Nishizawa, K; Hamada, N; Sakuma, S

1983-08-01

335

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

2005-03-01

336

Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colarado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both ...

337

Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Frequency and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of around 300 bacterial taxa/clusters in samples were used as parameters for investigation. Differences at taxon/cluster values between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort.

BelstrØm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

2014-01-01

338

Diagnostic model of saliva protein finger print analysis of patients with gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To explore the method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer by screening the expression spectrum of saliva protein in gastric cancer patients using mass spectrometry for proteomics.METHODS: Proportional peptide mass fingerprints were obtained by analysis based on proteomics matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. A diagnosis model was established using weak cation exchange magnetic beads to test saliva specimens from gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects.RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the mass to charge ratio (m/z peaks of four proteins (1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da between gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: The finger print mass spectrum of saliva protein in patients with gastric cancer can be established using gastric cancer proteomics. A diagnostic model for distinguishing protein expression mass spectra of gastric cancer from non-gastric-cancer saliva can be established according to the different expression of proteins 1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da. The method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer is of certain value for screening special biological markers.

Zheng-Zhi Wu, Ji-Guo Wang, Xiao-Li Zhang

2009-02-01

339

A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

2013-01-01

340

Changes in composition of whole saliva in patients with fissured tongue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both resting and paraffin-stimulated whole saliva were studied in 25 patients with fissured tongue and in their age and sex-matched healthy controls. The groups did not differ in dental or periodontal health. No significant differences were found between the groups in the salivary secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity, or in the frequency of lactobacilli and yeasts in saliva samples and scrapings from tongue surface. In patients with fissured tongue, unstimulated whole saliva displayed significantly elevated levels of sodium, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and all immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G and M) when compared with the controls. These changes most likely reflect the inflammation frequently seen in the biopsies of fissured tongue. No differences between the groups existed in the amounts of salivary potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase and total protein. Our study shows that in patients with fissured tongue the salivary secretion and composition are normal. However, components from plasma and inflammatory cells are diagnostically elevated in the whole saliva samples of patients with fissured tongue when compared with the healthy controls. PMID:3868014

Kullaa-Mikkonen, A; Tenovuo, J; Sorvari, T

1985-12-01

341

Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

2010-10-01

342

Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except sodium studied in the diabetic group with periodontal disease in comparison to the non-diabetic groups without periodontal disease. It is concluded in this study these salivary parameters may be considered as a valuable aid in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

2012-07-01

343

Effects of a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste on dental plaque and whole saliva in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste. Biotene, on saliva and dental plaque were studied. In a double-blind crossover study 20 healthy volunteers used an experimental (comprising the complete peroxidase system) or a placebo (without lactoperoxidase, KSCN, and glucose oxidase) toothpaste twice daily for 2 weeks separated by a 2-week washout period. At base lines and at the end of both test periods saliva and plaque samples were collected, and plaque pH changes were monitored. Saliva was analyzed for hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-) and thiocyanate (SCN-) concentrations and salivary peroxidase activity. The amount of total streptococci, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobic flora was determined both in saliva and in plaque samples. The accumulation and the acidogenicity of plaque were also quantitated. A 2-week daily use of Biotene had no effect on salivary flow rate, peroxidase activity, HOSCN/OSCN-, SCN-, or any of the monitored bacterial counts compared with the placebo toothpaste. The accumulation of dental plaque was not affected by the lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste. The acidogenicity of plaque did not change significantly, nor did the two test dentifrices differ in their ability to inhibit the plaque pH drop caused by sucrose in subjects with normal salivary flow rate. PMID:7887144

Kirstilä, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Tenovuo, J

1994-12-01

344

Immunoglobulins and innate antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the flow rate and composition of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples from 35 adult diabetic patients and their age- and sex-matched, non-diabetic, clinically healthy controls. All patients had insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) with a mean (+/- S.D.) duration of 14.0 +/- 9.1 years. The saliva analysis included the quantitation of total protein, amylase, immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G, and M), and the non-antibody, innate antimicrobial factors (lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate, and hypothiocyanite). The whole saliva samples from diabetic patients had significantly higher amounts of IgA (p less than 0.001) and IgG (p less than 0.05) than did the controls. No differences between the study groups were observed in flow rate, protein content, amylase activity, or IgM. The levels of innate defense factors were similar in both study groups except for salivary peroxidase, which was higher (p less than 0.02) among diabetics than among controls. Our results indicate that the antimicrobial defense capacity of whole saliva is not impaired in diabetic patients. PMID:3455700

Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Viikari, J; Larjava, H; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P

1986-01-01

345

Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 12, ?. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zden?k; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

2010-01-01

346

Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

Momm, F.; Volegova-Neher, N.J.; Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Schulte-Moenting, J. [Dept. of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Univ. of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

2005-04-01

347

Flagellin enhances saliva IgA response and protection of anti-caries DNA vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We and others have shown that anti-caries DNA vaccines, including pGJA-P/VAX, are promising for preventing dental caries. However, challenges remain because of the low immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, we used recombinant flagellin protein derived from Salmonella (FliC) as a mucosal adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine (pGJA-P/VAX) and analyzed the effects of FliC protein on the serum PAc-specific IgG and saliva PAc-specific IgA antibody responses, the colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on rat teeth, and the formation of caries lesions. Our results showed that FliC promoted the production of PAc-specific IgG in serum and secretory IgA (S-IgA) in saliva of rats by intranasal immunization with pGJA-P/VAX plus FliC. Furthermore, we found that enhanced PAc-specific IgA responses in saliva were associated with the inhibition of S. mutans colonization of tooth surfaces and endowed better protection with significant fewer caries lesions. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that recombinant FliC could enhance specific IgA responses in saliva and protective ability of pGJA-P/VAX, providing an effective mucosal adjuvant candidate for intranasal immunization of an anti-caries DNA vaccine. PMID:22027714

Shi, W; Li, Y H; Liu, F; Yang, J Y; Zhou, D H; Chen, Y Q; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; He, B X; Han, C; Fan, M W; Yan, H M

2012-03-01

348

Detection of hepatitis G virus (GB virus C) RNA in human saliva.  

OpenAIRE

Using PCR and genomic sequencing, we confirmed the presence of and homology between hepatitis G virus (HGV) (also called GB virus C) RNA in six serum samples and that in two saliva samples obtained from 34 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections. Thus, HGV may be found outside the circulatory system.

Chen, M.; So?nnerborg, A.; Johansson, B.; Sa?llberg, M.

1997-01-01

349

The blistering of a viscoelastic filament of a droplet of saliva  

OpenAIRE

A fluid dynamics video of the break up of a droplet of saliva is shown. First a viscoelastic filament is formed and than the blistering of this filament is shown. Finally, a flow induced phase separation takes place nanometer sized solid fiber remains that consist out of the biopolymers.

Wagner, Christian; Sattler, Rainer; Eggers, Jens

2009-01-01

350

Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 5, ?. 1 (2012), s. 229. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

2012-01-01

351

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

352

Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 41, ?. 6 (2011), s. 591-594. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

2011-01-01

353

Antibody response against saliva antigens of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti in travellers in tropical Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to vectors of infectious diseases has been associated with antibody responses against salivary antigens of arthropods among people living in endemic areas. This immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to vectors appropriate for evaluating the protective efficacy of antivectorial devices. The existence and potential use of such antibody responses in travellers transiently exposed to Plasmodium or arbovirus vectors in tropical areas has never been investigated. The IgM and IgG antibody responses of 88 French soldiers against the saliva of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti were evaluated before and after a 5-month journey in tropical Africa. Antibody responses against Anopheles and Aedes saliva increased significantly in 41% and 15% of the individuals, respectively, and appeared to be specific to the mosquito genus. A proteomic and immunoproteomic analysis of anopheles and Aedes saliva allowed for the identification of some antigens that were recognized by most of the exposed individuals. These results suggest that antibody responses to the saliva of mosquitoes could be considered as specific surrogate markers of exposure of travellers to mosquito vectors that transmit arthropod borne infections. PMID:17913537

Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Almeras, Lionel; Denis de Senneville, Laure; Barbe, Solenne; Remoué, Franck; Villard, Claude; Cornelie, Sylvie; Penhoat, Kristell; Pascual, Aurélie; Bourgouin, Catherine; Fontenille, Didier; Bonnet, Julien; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Reiter, Paul; Pagés, Frederic; Laffite, Daniel; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Pradines, Bruno; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe

2007-10-01

354

Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author).

Funegaard, U.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, Th.; Henriksson, R. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden))

1994-01-01

355

An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen

2014-01-01

356

Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

357

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

358

Pharmacokinetic study of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine following administration of 100 mg single oral dose were investigated in 24 healthy volunteers.Materials and Methods: 12 male and 12 female healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and Plasma, mixed saliva -secreted samples without any stimulation and urine were analyzed for Tramadol and its main metabolites by HPLC method.Results and Disscusion: Almost 16.2% of tramadol and 11.2, 1.1 and 5.0% of O-desmethyltramadol (M1, N-desmethyltramadol (M2 and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5 respectively were recovered in 30 hrs collected urine. Renal clearance of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 114.7 ± 44.5, 193.9 ± 67.6, 116.1 ± 61.8 and 252.0 ± 91.5 (mL/min respectively. The maximum plasma concentration of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 349.3 ± 76.7, 88.7±30.3, 23.1 ± 11.4 and 30.0 ± 11.7 (ng/mL at 1.6 ± 0.4, 2.4 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 1.0 and 2.7 ± 1.4 hrs after drug administration respectively. Tramadol and its metabolites appeared in a significant amount in saliva with the saliva/plasma ratios of 9.0, 1.6, 12.3 and 2.8 for tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 according to AUC(0-24 respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion Strong correlations were found between plasma and saliva concentrations for all studied compounds and a dissection to pre and post absorption components improved these correlations. Results o f this study suggests that saliva is a suitable alternative to plasma for clinical and toxicological studies of tramadol and in addition to passive diffusion, a possible active transport is also suggested to describe the elevated saliva/plasma ratios for these compounds.

M.R Rouini

2009-12-01

359

Rapid determination of natural steroidal hormones in saliva for the clinical diagnoses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva samples are easily collectable and non-invasive, and the monitoring of natural steroidal hormones, such as estrone (E1, 17?-estradiol (E2, estriol (E3, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T, in saliva has attracted much attention due to its numerous potential clinical and health-related applications. Because E1, E2, E3, P and T are useful indicators in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses, there is a need for simultaneous determination. Results A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric assay was developed for rapid simultaneous determination of E1, E2, E3, P and T in saliva for clinical diagnoses. Extraction was achieved with a liquid extraction using 3.0 mL of pentane. The extract was dried and silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide/NH4I (100:2 under a catalysis of 1.5% dithioerythritol for 10 min at 90°C. The accuracy of the analytes was in the range of 96% to 112% at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.10 ?g/L (5.0 and 10.0 ?g/L for E3, respectively, with relative standard deviations of less than 11%. The lowest quantification limits were from 0.002 to 0.6 ?g/L for 1.0 mL of saliva. Conclusion Natural steroidal hormones were detected in the concentration ranges of nd to 0.2 ?g/L in human saliva. The salivary testosterone values in the patients with prostatic carcinoma were significantly lower than in normal males. The method may useful in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses.

Oh Jin-Aa

2012-03-01

360

Glycomic analysis of tear and saliva in ocular rosacea patients: the search for a biomarker.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to study changes in glycosylation in tear and saliva obtained from control and ocular rosacea patients in order to identify potential biomarkers for rosacea. Tear fluid was collected from 51 subjects (28 healthy controls and 23 patients with ocular rosacea). Saliva was collected from 42 of the same subjects (25 controls and 17 patients). Pooled and individual samples were examined to determine overall glycan profiles and individual variations in glycosylation. O-and N- glycans were released from both patients and control subjects. Released glycans were purified and enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with graphitized carbon. Glycans were eluted based on glycan size and polarity. SPE fractions were then analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Glycan compositions were assigned by accurate masses. Their structures were further elucidated by tandem mass spectrometric using collision-induced dissociation (CID), and specific linkage information was obtained by exoglycosidase digestion. N- and O-glycans were released from 20-?L samples without protein identification, separation, and purification. Approximately 50 N-glycans and 70 O-glycans were globally profiled by mass spectrometry. Most N-glycans were highly fucosylated, while O-glycans were sulfated. Normal tear fluid and saliva contain highly fucosylated glycans. The numbers of sulfated glycans were dramatically increased in tear and saliva of rosacea patients compared to controls. Glycans found in tear and saliva from roseatic patients present highly quantitative similarity. The abundance of highly fucosylated N-glycans in the control samples and sulfated O-glycans in ocular rosacea patient samples may lead to the discovery of an objective diagnostic marker for the disease. PMID:22814645

Vieira, Ana Carolina; An, Hyun Joo; Ozcan, Sureyya; Kim, Jae-Han; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mannis, Mark J

2012-07-01

361

Influence of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of adhesives on enamel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength of 3 adhesive systems (Single Bond, TransbondTM MIP and TransbondTM XT) applied on bovine enamel under saliva contamination condition. METHOD: One hundred and twenty enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 20) according to the adh [...] esive system used (TransbondTM XT, TransbondTM MIP and Single Bond) with or without saliva contamination. For each adhesive system, there were two groups defined as no contamination group (NC): 37% H3PO4 conditioning for 30 seconds and two layers of adhesive systems; saliva contamination group (SC): After the first adhesive layer application, the examined areas were contaminated with saliva. Samples were mounted appropriately for testing and stored in deionized water at 37 ºC for 7 days. Samples were then submitted to shear bond strength trials at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated under stereomicroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to compare mean values (? = 0.05). RESULTS: Groups XT (NC) = 26.29 ± 7.23; MIP (NC) = 24.47 ± 7.52 and SB (NC) = 32.36 ± 4.14 XT (SC) = 19.59 ± 6.76; MIP (SC) = 18.08 ± 6.39 and SB (SC) = 18.18 ± 7.03 MPa. ARI 0 and 1 were the most prevalent scores in all study groups examined. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination significantly decreased bond strength of the three adhesive systems examined (p

Tatiana Feres, Assad-Loss; Mônica, Tostes; José Nelson, Mucha.

2012-04-01

362

Effects of saliva or serum coating on adherence of Streptococcus oralis strains to titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of dental implants to treat tooth loss has increased rapidly over recent years. 'Smooth' implants showing high long-term success rates have successively been replaced by implants with rougher surfaces, designed to stimulate rapid osseointegration and promote tissue healing. If exposed in the oral cavity, rougher surfaces may promote bacterial adhesion leading to formation of microbial biofilms which can induce peri-implant inflammation. Streptococcus oralis is an early colonizer of oral surfaces and has been recovered from titanium surfaces in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence of clinical strains of S. oralis to titanium with smooth or moderately rough surface topography and to determine the effect of a saliva- or serum-derived coating on this process. Adherence was studied using a flow-cell system with confocal laser scanning microscopy, while putative adhesins were analysed using proteomics of bacterial cell wall proteins. This showed that adherence to moderately rough surfaces was greater than to smooth surfaces. Serum did not promote binding of any of the studied S. oralis strains to titanium, whereas a saliva coating increased adherence in two of three strains tested. The higher level of adherence to the moderately rough surfaces was maintained even in the presence of a saliva coating. The S. oralis strains that bound to saliva expressed an LPXTG-linked protein which was not present in the non-adherent strain. Thus strains of S. oralis differ in their capacity to bind to saliva-coated titanium and we propose that this is due to differential expression of a novel adhesin. PMID:22075030

Dorkhan, Marjan; Chávez de Paz, Luis E; Skepö, Marie; Svensäter, Gunnel; Davies, Julia R

2012-02-01

363

Effects of pH and thiocyanate on hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen in human mixed saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen was measured with a Clark-type electrode in a buffered reaction mixture containing mixed whole or dialysed saliva. The optimum pH for oxygen evolution in mixed whole saliva was around 8. Oxygen evolution was also observed in dialysed saliva, suggesting that free SCN- is not essential. The optimum pH was around pH 6. Sodium thiocyanate inhibited the oxygen evolution under acidic conditions in dialysed saliva, increasing the K(m) of hydrogen peroxide and decreasing the Vmax. Ferric chloride (1 mM), a chelator of SCN-, also inhibited oxygen evolution in dialysed saliva; activity was completely restored by 10 mM sodium citrate. Under alkaline conditions, NaSCN slightly enhanced the oxygen evolution without affecting the K(m) of hydrogen peroxide but increasing the Vmax. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of SCN- in dialysed saliva was much faster at pH 5 than pH 8. These findings suggest that a function of peroxidase in stimulated saliva where the pH is typically between 7 and 8 is the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide to produce molecular oxygen but without producing OSCN- plus HOSCN. PMID:9031698

Nishioka, T; Kimura, M; Takahama, U

1996-10-01

364

Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori to an innate defence mechanism, the lactoperoxidase system, in buffer and in human whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helicobacter pylori has frequently been isolated from human dental plaque, and oral spread via saliva is thought to be one of its principal modes of transmission. Among other innate defence systems human saliva contains peroxidase enzymes and lysozyme. The sensitivity of H. pylori to physiological concentrations of lactoperoxidase and its salivary substrate thiocyanate, and different amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was investigated in buffer and in human whole saliva. The effect of lysozyme was also studied in saliva. All tested H. pylori strains, ATCC 43504(T) and five clinical isolates, were efficiently inhibited by the peroxidase system with high concentrations of H(2)O(2) in buffer. The inhibition was stronger at lower pH. However, in human saliva these high concentrations of H(2)O(2) generated less hypothiocyanite, the antibacterial product of the peroxidase system and the effects of the peroxidase system were weaker. Physiological concentration of lysozyme was not bacteriocidal against H. pylori, nor did it enhance the effect of the peroxidase system in saliva. Thus, further studies are needed to enhance the efficacy of peroxidase systems in human saliva to make it more beneficial not only against dental but also against gastric pathogens. PMID:15314191

Haukioja, Anna; Ihalin, Riikka; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Lenander, Marianne; Tenovuo, Jorma

2004-09-01

365

Soluble HLA measurement in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid in Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of soluble HLA in body fluids has a potential role in assessing disease activity in autoimmune disorders. Methods We applied a solid phase, enzyme-linked immunoassay to measure soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I and class II (sHLA-II molecules in the saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in 13 untreated patients with relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS. For comparison purposes, we also studied saliva from 53 healthy subjects. Results Saliva from normal controls had detectable sHLA-I levels in 41 of 53 individuals studied, with values ranging from 9–100 ng/ml (mean = 41 ± 2.8 ng/ml. sHLA-I was undetectable in the saliva in 11 of 13 MS patients, and in none of the CSF specimens. In contrast, mean sHLA-II concentration in the saliva of MS patients was significantly increased compared to controls (386 ± 52 unit/ml vs. 222 ± 18.4 unit/ml, t = 8.68, P Conclusion Our data suggest that the measurement of soluble HLA in saliva, specifically sHLA-II, correlates with the level found in the CSF. Therefore, if sHLA correlates with disease activity in MS, as has been proposed, saliva measurements provide a noninvasive correlate of CSF measurement.

Featherston Liubov

2005-06-01

366

Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients  

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Full Text Available Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100% of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; P<.001. This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

Gökhan Aç?kgöz

2009-01-01

367

Effect of radiation therapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of blood and saliva in oral cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapy is reported to induce oxidative stress in oral cancer patients. Saliva as a diagnostic tool has received increasing attention in recent years. Saliva analysis is proposed to be a noninvasive, sensitive tool for the evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy in oral cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of radiation therapy on malondialdehyde, the marker of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity in blood and saliva of oral cancer patients. We also aimed to assess the correlation between blood and saliva with respect to malonaldehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Thirty, clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients visiting the Oncology Department were the subjects. Thirty age- and sex-matched normal, healthy controls were included. Blood and saliva samples were collected from controls, and from oral cancer patients before and after radiation therapy. The samples were analyzed for MDA and TAC by standard spectrophotometric methods. Oral cancer patients showed significantly higher MDA level and lower TAC in blood and saliva when compared to controls. One week after radiation therapy, there was significant increase in MDA and decrease in TAC in oral cancer patients. After the completion of radiation therapy of six weeks, MDA level decreased and TAC increased, restoring the values near-to-controls. The pattern of change in MDA and TAC was similar between blood and saliva. There was significant correlation between blere was significant correlation between blood and saliva with respect to MDA and TAC in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients showed increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capacity. After radiation therapy of one week, oxidative stress increased further, and after six weeks of radiation therapy there was amelioration of antioxidant status. Saliva could be a sensitive and convenient laboratory tool for diagnosis of oral cancer and evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy. (author)

368

Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the microstructure and rheology of xanthan solutions. In this work the effect of saliva on the rheology of CMC and xanthan solutions was compared. Solutions of molecularly dissolved xanthan gum and CMC mixed with water or human whole saliva at a ratio of 5:1 showed little impact of the presence of saliva on steady shear or dynamic viscosity for the two hydrocolloids. In filament thinning experiments saliva addition significantly increased filament break-up time for xanthan gum while it had little effect on the break-up time of the CMC filament. Also, filament thinning appeared a lot less even and was not as reproducible in the case of xanthan gum. Addition of CMC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to xanthan gum solutions showed a similar increase in break-up time to saliva, but to see this effect the viscosity of the added CMC or HPMC solution had to be very much higher than the viscosity of saliva. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of xanthan gum and the reported extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:25284950

Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R; Hill, Sandra E; Wolf, Bettina

2014-10-01

369

Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

2007-03-01

370

Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 [...] x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211). HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes). Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94%) anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4%) had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma) was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

Patrícia L., Gonçalves; Carla B., Cunha; Solange C. U., Busek; Guilherme C., Oliveira; Rodrigo, Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL, Pereira.

2005-02-01

371

Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211. HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes. Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94% anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4% had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

Patrícia L. Gonçalves

2005-02-01

372

Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion iharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF

373

Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell / Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell’s palsy patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persiste [...] ntes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR), diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante se comparado ao grupo controle, no qual não foi obtido nenhum caso de positividade. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a presença do HSV-1 na saliva de pacientes portadores de PFP de Bell indica que a reativação viral pode ser a etiologia desta doença. A detecção do vírus na saliva destes pacientes não influencia o prognóstico da doença. Abstract in english The first herpes virus to be described was types 1 and 2, whose denomination is herpes simplex 1 and 2 or HSV -1 and HSV -2. These viruses have specific biological characteristics, such as the ability to cause different kinds of diseases, as well as to establish host’s latent or persistent lifetime [...] infections and also of being reactivated, causing lesions that can be located at the same site of the initial primary infection or close to it. It is suggested that this virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be related to Bell’s palsy. In this situation, the viruses that would be latent in this ganglion, would suffer reactivation and replication, then be diffused through the facial nerve and its branches, among them the chorda tympani nerve, which by stimulating salivary secretion would enable the identification of the viral DNA in the patients’ saliva. Until recently, a great number of patients was diagnosed as holders of this kind of paralysis, named idiopathic or Bell’s palsy. With the introduction of the technique studying the viral DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), several authors have found herpes simplex virus type I DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in the lachrymal secretion, in the saliva and in the geniculate ganglia of patients with Bell’s palsy. AIM: observe the occurrence of herpes simplex type I virus using PCR technique in the saliva of patients with Bell’s palsy and relating it to the clinical evolution of these cases. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated 38 patients with Bell’s palsy submitted to anamnesis, clinical and ENT examination and saliva sampling for viral DNA detection by PCR techn

Paulo Roberto, Lazarini; Melissa Ferreira, Vianna; Mônica Porto Alves, Alcantara; Rodolfo Alexander, Scalia; Hélio Hehl, Caiaffa Filho.

2006-02-01

374

Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies  

OpenAIRE

We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV ...

Gonc?alves, Patri?cia L.; Cunha, Carla B.; Busek, Solange C. U.; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; El, Fausto Pereira

2005-01-01

375

La saliva en el mantenimiento de la salud oral y como ayuda en el diagnóstico de algunas patologías / The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La saliva es una secreción compleja proveniente de las glándulas salivales mayores en el 93% de su volumen y menores en el 7% restante. El 99% de la saliva es agua mientras que el 1% restante está constituido por moléculas orgánicas e inorgánicas. Si bien la cantidad de saliva es importante, también [...] lo es la calidad de la misma. Se revisará los componentes de la saliva y sus funciones en el mantenimiento de la salud oral los principales factores causales que alteran la secreción salival, se comentará la importancia de la saliva en el desarrollo de la enfermedad de caries y en la formación de la placa bacteriana, y se analizará su papel como material de ayuda para el diagnóstico de algunas patologías. Las variaciones en el flujo salival pueden verse afectadas por múltiples factores fisiológicos y patológicos, de forma reversible o irreversible. Juega un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento de la integridad de las estructuras bucales, en la vida de relación, en la digestión y en el control de infecciones orales. El papel de la saliva en la protección frente a la caries podemos concretarlo en cuatro aspectos, dilución y eliminación de los azúcares y otros componentes, capacidad tampón, equilibrio entre la desmineralización / remineralización y acción antimicrobiana. La saliva como alternativa para el diagnóstico, de algunas enfermedades, como elemento para monitorizar la evolución de determinadas patologías o la dosificación de medicamentos o drogas proporciona una vía prometedora. La accesibilidad en su obtención y la correlación positiva entre múltiples parámetros en el suero y en la saliva son algunas de las ventajas que ofrece como instrumento diagnóstico. Abstract in english Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of sali [...] va, its functions in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion will be reviewed, the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation will be discussed and its rôle as an aid to diagnosing certain pathologies will be examined. Variations in salivary flow can be affected, reversibly or irreversibly, by numerous physiological and pathological factors. Saliva plays an essential rôle in maintaining the integrity of the oral structures, in personal relationships, in the digestion and in controlling oral infection. The part that saliva plays in protecting teeth from caries can be summarised under four aspects: diluting and eliminating sugars and other substances, buffer capacity, balancing demineralisation / remineralisation and antimicrobial action. Saliva is a promising option for diagnosing certain disorders and monitoring the evolution of certain pathologies or the dosage of medicines or drugs. Its advantages as a diagnostic tool include its being easy to obtain and the positive correlation between many parameters in serum and saliva.

Carmen, Llena Puy.

2006-09-01

376

Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

377

Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida / Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos par [...] âmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG), com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas. Abstract in english The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) par [...] ameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

H. N., Yoshimura; M. M., Pinto; C. C., Gonzaga; P. F., Cesar.

2009-06-01

378

Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos parâmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG, com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas.The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG parameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

H. N. Yoshimura

2009-06-01

379

Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

2012-08-01

380

Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva / Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Esta revisión muestra los principales biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. El aspecto clínico y el grado de displasia de las lesiones precancerosas de la cavidad bucal sugieren su capacidad de malignidad; sin embargo, éstas generalmente son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados, disminuyendo la pr [...] obabilidad de supervivencia, lo que justifica el diseño de nuevas pruebas diagnósticas que determinen el grado de alteración celular, permitan comprender el proceso degenerativo en el cáncer y establezcan diagnósticos precoz. Esta búsqueda para mejorar los métodos diagnósticos, apunta a que sean sensibles, específicos y menos invasivos, por lo cual el estudio de diferentes biomarcadores en saliva que desde una perspectiva molecular proporcionan información adicional al examen clínico e histopatológico, es considerada como una alternativa eficaz y más cómoda con respecto a los ensayos en sangre. Los biomarcadores que se han descrito en saliva algunos mostrando mayor relación con la carcinogénesis oral son: Ciclina D1, cyfra 21-1, endotelina-1, galectinas 1, 3 y 7, Ki67, lactato deshidrogenasa, metaloproteinasas 2 y 9, proteína p53, proteína de unión a calcio (S100P) y telomerasa. Abstract in english This review shows the main oral cancer biomarkers in saliva. The clinical appearance and the degree of dysplasia, precancerous lesions of the oral cavity suggests its ability to malignancy, but these are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, decreasing the likelihood of survival, justifying the desi [...] gn of new diagnostic tests to determine the degree of cell alteration as to understand the degenerative process in cancer diagnosis and establish early. This search for improved diagnostic methods, aims to be sensitive, specific and less invasive, so the study of biomarkers in saliva from a molecular perspective provide additional information to clinical and histopathological examination is considered as a more comfortable and effective to establish a diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been described in saliva some showing more related to oral carcinogenesis are cyclin D1, Cyfra 21-1, Endothelin-1, Galectins 1, 3 and 7, Ki67, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, p53 protein, protein calcium-binding (S100P) and Telomerase.

M.V., Madera Anaya.

2013-12-01

381

Measuring H type 1 and H type 2 antigens in human saliva by immunoassay using artificial antigens as standard substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

A time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay for water-soluble H antigens of ABH blood group substances has been developed. Introducing artificial antigens (trisaccharide-albumin complexes for H type 1 and H type 2) as reference substances, H blood group substances in human saliva were measured. The monoclonal antibody, anti-H 1E3, reacted with both H type 1 and type 2 chains, and the commercially available anti-H reacted with H type 2 chain. Using these two antibodies we found 10-20-fold higher concentration of H type 1 compared with that of H type 2 in human saliva. The H type 2 was not found in the saliva samples from nonsecretors, irrespective of ABO phenotypes. The results suggest that approximately 90% of A and B blood group substances in human saliva are built on type 1 chains. PMID:8082855

Wang, B; Akiyama, K; Jia, J T; Kimura, H

1994-06-28

382

Use of Saliva for assessment of Stress and Its Effect On the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a study investigating the effects of sequential tests on the immune system. The study was conducting on occupational therapy students via saliva. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

S. Reid Lester (University of Mississippi Medical Center Periodontics and Preventive Sciences)

2010-07-06

383

Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used stimulant to collect saliva samples for hormone analyses. This study tested the effect of sugarless chewing gum on cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone concentrations measured in saliva samples collected from 8 individuals at different times of the day (morning, evening) and under different collection conditions (gum, no gum) as well as in a saliva pool and water, either untreated or treated with chewing gum. Sugarless chewing gum raised all progesterone concentrations by 20 to 40pg/mL, corresponding to a twofold increase, relative to no-gum controls and attenuated salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations. It is recommended that the use of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant should be avoided with saliva samples. PMID:23220228

Schultheiss, Oliver C

2013-01-01

384

A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release  

CERN Document Server

After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

2013-01-01

385

Human IgG antibody response to Glossina saliva: an epidemiologic marker of exposure to Glossina bites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of human antibody response specific to arthropod saliva may be a useful marker of exposure to vector-borne disease. Such an immunologic tool, applied to the evaluation of the exposure to Glossina bites, could be integrated in the control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The antibody (IgG) response specific to uninfected Glossina fuscipes fuscipes saliva was evaluated according to the vector exposure and trypanic status in individuals residing in an HAT-endemic area. A high level of anti-saliva IgG antibodies was only detected in exposed individuals, whether infected or not by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. In addition, the evaluation of specific IgG response represented spatial heterogeneity according to studied sites. These results suggest that the evaluation of anti-saliva IgG could be an indicator of Glossina exposure and thus could be integrated in other available tools to identify populations presenting risks of HAT transmission. PMID:18458309

Poinsignon, Anne; Remoue, Franck; Rossignol, Marie; Cornelie, Sylvie; Courtin, David; Grébaut, Pascal; Garcia, Andre; Simondon, Francois

2008-05-01

386

Fabrication of a functional palatal saliva reservoir by using a resilient liner during processing of a complete denture.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major problems associated with xerostomic patients is the poor tolerance and retention of removable dental prostheses because of thin dry atrophic mucosa and lack of a saliva film. The use of salivary substitutes can improve lubrication, provide irrigation for dry mucosa, provide significant relief from symptoms, and also improve the retention of removable prostheses. These substitutes can be delivered over prolonged periods by using saliva reservoirs in the prosthesis itself. This report describes a novel technique for the fabrication of a functional palatal saliva reservoir in edentulous xerostomic patients. The technique uses a resilient liner in the floor of the reservoir. The tongue presses against the liner during swallowing, resulting in flow of saliva substitute through a hole in the anterior part of the floor of the reservoir. PMID:23107242

Upadhyay, Snehal Rashmikant; Kumar, Lakshya; Rao, Jitendra

2012-11-01

387

Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients by using weak cation exchange magnetic beads  

OpenAIRE

Saliva diagnostics has become an attractive field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies for pSS (primary Sjögren's syndrome). However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of the saliva peptide finger print for the early detection of pSS, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in pSS patients by using mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS) combined with magnetic bead. ...

Wei, Pan; Kuo, Winston patrick; Chen, Feng; Hua, Hong

2013-01-01

388

Differences in the Adsorptive Behavior of Human Strains of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii to Saliva-Treated Hydroxyapatite Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

Human strains of Actinomyces viscosus and A. naeslundii differ in the time of their appearance and in their patterns of colonization in the mouth. Strains of these organisms were found to differ in their abilities to adsorb to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) surfaces, thought to mimic the teeth, and these differences parallel their patterns of colonizing the dentition. Thus, strains of A. viscosus tended to adsorb in higher numbers to hydroxyapatite (HA) treated with saliva of older chil...

Qureshi, J. V.; Gibbons, R. J.

1981-01-01

389

DNA extracted from saliva for methylation studies of psychiatric traits: evidence tissue specificity and relatedness to brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA methylation has become increasingly recognized in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Because brain tissue is not accessible in living humans, epigenetic studies are most often conducted in blood. Saliva is often collected for genotyping studies but is rarely used to examine DNA methylation because the proportion of epithelial cells and leukocytes varies extensively between individuals. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether saliva DNA is informative for studies of psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) was assessed in saliva and blood samples from 64 adult African Americans. Analyses were conducted using linear regression adjusted for appropriate covariates, including estimated cellular proportions. DNA methylation from brain tissues (cerebellum, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus) was obtained from a publically available dataset. Saliva and blood methylation was clearly distinguishable though there was positive correlation overall. There was little correlation in CpG sites within relevant candidate genes. Correlated CpG sites were more likely to occur in areas of low CpG density (i.e., CpG shores and open seas). There was more variability in CpG sites from saliva than blood, which may reflect its heterogeneity. Finally, DNA methylation in saliva appeared more similar to patterns from each of the brain regions examined overall than methylation in blood. Thus, this study provides a framework for using DNA methylation from saliva and suggests that DNA methylation of saliva may offer distinct opportunities for epidemiological and longitudinal studies of psychiatric traits. PMID:25355443

Smith, Alicia K; Kilaru, Varun; Klengel, Torsten; Mercer, Kristina B; Bradley, Bekh; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B

2015-01-01

390

The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were ...

de la Torre Bartolomé; Theorell Töres; Alderling Magnus; Lundberg Ingvar

2006-01-01

391

Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

2005-11-01

392

Oxidative stress assessed in saliva from patients whit acute myocardial infarction: A preliminary study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Existe evidencia que permite establecer una asociacion entre la generacion de especies reactivas del oxigeno y el dano tisular en el sindrome coronario agudo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar en saliva de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), la presencia de reactantes de estres ox [...] idativo a las 24 y 48 horas. Materiales y metodos: se efectuo un estudio prospectivo de comparacion entre pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma y sujetos sin patologia clinica evidente. La produccion de especies reactivas de oxigeno fue evaluada mediante la tasa de oxidacion de la 2'7' diacetato de diclorohidrofluoreceina (DCFH-DA) y la actividad antioxidante de la enzima catalasa (CAT) en saliva de pacientes con IAM a las 24 y 48 h de producido el sindrome coronario agudo. Simultaneamente, se determinaron en suero los biomarcadores diagnosticos de IAM. Resultados: se incorporaron 10 pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del ST que fueron comparados con 10 sujetos del grupo control. La edad promedio fue 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs 48.7 ?} 4.1 anos, respectivamente (p0.05). La media de la velocidad de oxidacion de la DCFH-DA fue mayor a las 24 h en los pacientes con IAM (p=0.004). Estas diferencias se mantuvieron a las 48 h del infarto sin cambios significativos. No se encontraron diferencias en las medias de actividad de la enzima catalasa entre IAM y control (p>0.05). Se encontro una relacion entre CAT48 y DCFH-DA48 (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusiones: En esta poblacion se han detectado reactantes de estres oxidativo en saliva de pacientes con IAM. Relevancia clinica: nuevos estudios con mayor numero de casos seran necesarios para confirmar estas observaciones y evaluar la utilidad de la saliva en el diagnostico, evolucion y pronostico del sindrome coronario agudo. Abstract in english There is evidence that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increasing production of reactive oxygen species and tissue injury. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oxidative stress indices in saliva 24 and 48h after AMI. Materials and methods: We designed a prospectiv [...] e study comparing salivary levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with AMI with elevation of the ST segment in electrocardiogram versus clinically healthy subjects. Oxidative stress indices including the rate of oxidation of 2'7' dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were evaluated in saliva from patients with AMI at 24 and 48 hours. At each sampling time, blood was drawn for serum markers of myocardial infarction. Results: This study included ten patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and ten clinically healthy controls. Mean age was 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs. 48.7 ?} 4.1 years (p0.05) for AMI vs. controls, respectively. Our results demonstrated an increase in the rate of oxidation of DCFH-DA in the myocardial infarction group as compared with controls (p=0.004), which remained unchanged at 48h. There was no difference in salivary catalase activity between controls and AMI subjects at 24h or at 48h post-diagnosis (p=0.157). The relationship between CAT48 and DCFH-DA48 was fairly significant (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that biomarkers of oxidative stress are detectable in saliva of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clinical Relevance: Future studies using a larger population are needed to confirm these observations and to explore the possibility of using the saliva to monitor evolving diagnosis and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome.

María C, Rubio; Paula M, González; Cecilia, Ramos; Pablo G, Lewin; Silvia M, Friedman; Susana, Puntarulo; Liliana N, Nicolosi.

2013-10-01

393

DNA identification of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in human saliva from a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aims to report the amplification of the DNA of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, using polymerase chain reaction, obtained from the saliva of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis who did not present any lesion in the oral mucosa. Amplification produced fragments of 103 bp, an estim [...] ated size employing Leishmania (V.) braziliensis primers (b1 e b2). The present results revealed, for the first time, that the in vitro amplification of Leishmania DNA using samples from the salivary fluid of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis is possible. However, more studies are required with a larger number of participants to evaluate the usefulness of saliva as a non-invasive sample for PCR. The development of such non-invasive technique is necessary for the diagnosis of many diseases in the future, especially infectious and parasitic ones.

FH, Corvalan; RNR, Sampaio; YM, Brustoloni; R, Andreotti; MSC, Lima Júnior.

394

DNA identification of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in human saliva from a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to report the amplification of the DNA of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, using polymerase chain reaction, obtained from the saliva of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis who did not present any lesion in the oral mucosa. Amplification produced fragments of 103 bp, an estimated size employing Leishmania (V. braziliensis primers (b1 e b2. The present results revealed, for the first time, that the in vitro amplification of Leishmania DNA using samples from the salivary fluid of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis is possible. However, more studies are required with a larger number of participants to evaluate the usefulness of saliva as a non-invasive sample for PCR. The development of such non-invasive technique is necessary for the diagnosis of many diseases in the future, especially infectious and parasitic ones.

FH Corvalan

2011-01-01

395

Inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei by oral peroxidase systems in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, Strep. sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei were grown in glucose-supplemented, sterilized, human whole saliva, adjusted to pH 5, 6 or 7. Components of the antibacterial peroxidase system--hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) and hypothiocyanite ions (OSCN-)--were generated by adding exogenous H2O2 to sterilized saliva containing endogenous peroxidases and thiocyanate (SCN-) ions. HOSCN/OSCN- generation was proportional to the amount of H2O2 added, and more HOSCN/OSCN- was detected in saliva at pH 7 than at pH 5. However, the growth of mutans streptococci and L. casei was inhibited at pH 5 by HOSCN/OSCN-, whereas no inhibition was found at pH 7. The findings show that (a) sufficient amount of HOSCN/OSCN- will inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria in human saliva at pH 5; (b) this amount of HOSCN/OSCN- can be generated in saliva by exogenously added H2O2; and (c) peroxidase systems have stronger antistreptococcal effects in human whole saliva than in phosphate buffer. PMID:1905532

Lumikari, M; Soukka, T; Nurmio, S; Tenovuo, J

1991-01-01

396

Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV. PMID:24799600

Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

2014-11-01

397

Influência da mucina no mecanismo de corrosão de uma amálgama dentária em saliva artificial / Influence of mucin on the corrosion mechanism of dental amalgams in artificial saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a influência da adsorção da proteína mucina nas propriedades de superfície e na corrosão da amálgama dentária rica em cobre Tytin®. Diferentes concentrações da mucina, numa solução de saliva artificial inorgânica, de alta concentração iónica, foram estudadas para tempos de [...] imersão de 4 horas e tempos de imersão mais longos até 96 horas. As técnicas utilizadas foram de potencial em circuito aberto e a sua variação com o tempo, curvas de polarização e espectroscopia de impedância electroquímica. Verificou-se a adsorção da mucina na superfície da amálgama assim como o seu papel na prevenção da formação de uma camada de óxido passivo. Abstract in english In this work the influence of adsorption of mucin protein on the surface properties and on the corrosion behaviour of the high-copper dental amalgam Tytin® has been studied. Different concentrations of mucin, in a solution of an inorganic, artificial saliva of high ionic concentration, were studied [...] for immersion times of 4 hours and for longer immersion times up to 96 hours. Techniques used were open circuit potential and its variation with time, polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidence was found for the adsorption of mucin on the amalgam surface and also for its role in the prevention of the formation of a passive oxide layer.

Ricardo, Carvalho; Christopher M. A., Brett.

2008-12-01

398

Colonization of Phlebotomus papatasi changes the effect of pre-immunization with saliva from lack of protection towards protection against experimental challenge with Leishmania major and saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand fly saliva has been postulated as a potential vaccine or as a vaccine component within multi component vaccine against leishmaniasis. It is important to note that these studies were performed using long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi. The effect of sand flies colonization on the outcome of Leishmania infection is reported. Results While pre-immunization of mice with salivary gland homogenate (SGH of long-term colonized (F5 and beyond female Phlebotomus papatasi induced protection against Leishmania major co-inoculated with the same type of SGH, pre-immunization of mice with SGH of recently colonized (F2 and F3 female P. papatasi did not confer protection against L. major co-inoculated with the same type of SGH. Our data showed for the first time that a shift from lack of protection to protection occurs at the fourth generation (F4 during the colonization process of P. papatasi. Conclusion For the development of a sand fly saliva-based vaccine, inferences based on long-term colonized populations of sand flies should be treated with caution as colonization of P. papatasi appears to modulate the outcome of L. major infection from lack of protection to protection.

Derbali Mohamed

2011-07-01

399

The Effect of a Silver Nanoparticle Polysaccharide System on Streptococcal and Saliva-Derived Biofilms  

OpenAIRE

In this work, we studied the antimicrobial properties of a nanocomposite system based on a lactose-substituted chitosan and silver nanoparticles: Chitlac-nAg. Twofold serial dilutions of the colloidal Chitlac-nAg solution were both tested on Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus oralis planktonic phase and biofilm growth mode as well as on saliva samples. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of Chitlac-nAg were evaluated together with its effect on ses...

Luigina Cellini; Amelia Cataldi; Andrea Travan; Silvia Sancilio; Eleonora Marsich; Emanuela Di Campli; Soraya Di Bartolomeo; Mara Di Giulio

2013-01-01

400

Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. vi...

Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

1981-01-01

401

Multispecies communities: interspecies interactions influence growth on saliva as sole nutritional source  

OpenAIRE

Human oral bacteria live in multispecies communities in the biofilm called dental plaque. This review focuses on the interactions of seven species and the ability of each species individually and together with other species to grow on saliva as the sole source of nutrient. Community formation in biofilms in flow cells is monitored using species-specific fluorophore-conjugated immunoglobulin G, and images are captured by confocal microscopy. Early colonizing veillonellae emerge from this revie...

Kolenbrander, Paul E.

2011-01-01

402

Cortisol en saliva, orina y heces: evaluación no invasiva en mamíferos silvestres  

OpenAIRE

La evaluación de glucocorticoides a partir de muestras obtenidas en forma no invasiva ha abierto la posibilidad de llevar a cabo estas determinaciones en las especies de mamíferos silvestres, lo cual ha facilitado los estudios sobre estrés y el impacto de diferentes estímulos. Una proporción de las hormonas esteroides puede aparecer en la saliva y todas se metabolizan para ser eliminadas a través de la orina y las heces. Los metabolitos que aparecen en la orina son genera...

Uregui, Dulce Ma Brousset Hern U. E. Ndez-j U. E.; Francisco Galindo Maldonado; Rez, Ricardo A. Valdez P. U. E.; Marta Romano Pardo; Aline Schuneman de Aluja

2005-01-01

403

Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia  

OpenAIRE

Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron defici...

Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci

2012-01-01

404

Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

2013-02-01

405

Repassivation of commercially pure Ti in different saliva solutions under tribocorrosion conditions  

OpenAIRE

The surface of dental implants can undergo wear during insertion and implantation into hard tissue, or, in some conditions, during its lifetime. As a consequence, the passive film presented at the implant surface can be damaged or even totally destroyed. However, if the wear action stops the surface might regenerate, giving origin to a new passive film. As all the process occurs in the presence of a chemical aggressive environment, human saliva, the material is under tribocorrosion conditions...

Vieira, A. C.; Rocha, L. A.; Ariza, E.; Gomes, J. R.; Celis, J. P.

2005-01-01

406

Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor gene associated with resistance to lactamic agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the presence of Prevotella strains and genes associated with resistance to lactamics in different oral niches from patients with/without primary endodontic infections. Saliva (S) and supragingival biofilm (SB) were collected from three patient groups: Group I – no endod [...] ontic infection (n = 15); Group II – acute endodontic infection (n = 12); and Group III – chronic endodontic infection (n = 15). Root canal (RC) samples were collected from Groups II and III. The presence of P. intermedia, P nigrescens, P. tannerae and cfxA/cfxA2 gene was assessed by PCR. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected in all environments within the same patient. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was present in 23.81% of S samples, 28.57% of SB samples, and 7.41% of RC samples. Prevotella species were detected in 53.97%, 47.62% and 34.56% of the S, SB, and RC samples, respectively. P. intermedia had a high frequency in saliva samples from Group 3. Saliva samples from Group 1 had higher detection rates of P. nigrescens than did Groups 2 and 3. Patients without endodontic disease had high frequencies of P. nigrescens in the SB samples. The presence or absence of spontaneous symptoms was not related to the detection rates for resistance genes in the RC samples. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor resistant bacteria. The presence of symptomatology did not increase the presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in the supragingival biofilm and inside root canals.

Ludmila Coutinho, MORAES; Clarissa Cavalcanti, FATTURI-PAROLO; Maria Beatriz Cardoso, FERREIRA; Marcus Vinicius Reis, SÓ; Francisco, MONTAGNER.

407

Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease

408

To Spear or Not to Spear: Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods  

OpenAIRE

The eye spear, or an absorbent sponge-like material, has been proposed as a useful method of obtaining repeated saliva samples from infants and young children for cortisol determination. This brief report examines possible interference effects of different types of eye spears under conditions of relatively high and low cortisol levels, with or without the use of oral stimulant, and using two common assays. In Study 1, one type of eye spear was compared to passively collected drool using two d...

Donzella, Bonny; Talge, Nicole M.; Smith, Tiffany L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2008-01-01

409

Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.  

OpenAIRE

We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contr...

Wyatt, L. S.; Frenkel, N.

1992-01-01

410

Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2009), s. 766-770. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021620828; GA ?R(CZ) GP206/06/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti-saliva IgG * cellular response * Phlebotomus sergenti Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2009

Drahota, J.; Lipoldová, Marie; Volf, P.; Rohoušová, Iva

2009-01-01

411

Hydrogen peroxide-induced luminescence and evolution of molecular oxygen in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-level chemiluminescence (CL) appeared on addition of hydrogen peroxide to human saliva and then decayed slowly. Azide (10 microM) inhibited CL by about 50% and deuterium oxide (99.75%) enhanced it about twofold. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (50 mM) and tryptophan (10 mM) were also enhancing, which suggests that singlet oxygen participates in this CL. The optimal pH for CL was around 8.5. Molecular oxygen was produced on addition of hydrogen peroxide to human saliva with a time course similar to that of CL; the optimal pH for oxygen evolution was around 8.0. The levels of SCN- and OSCN- at first decreased and increased, respectively, on addition of hydrogen peroxide and then remained constant as long as the induced CL could be detected. Dithiothreitol (1 mM) and mercaptoethanol (1 mM) completely suppressed CL. Induced CL was observed in saliva dialysed against 10 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5). Its intensity was increased by NaSCN, reaching a maximum around 0.1 mM NaSCN in the presence of 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that part of the molecular oxygen evolved on addition of hydrogen peroxide to human saliva is in a singlet state and that molecular oxygen is evolved by oxidation of hydrogen peroxide, which may be catalysed by OSCN- bound to salivary peroxidase. PMID:7748108

Kou, F; Takahama, U

1995-01-01

412

Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo comparou os níveis de biofilme em próteses totais maxilares e mandibulares, e analisou o número de unidades formadoras de colônias de leveduras, após o uso de agentes auxiliares da escovação e saliva artificial. Vinte e três usuários de próteses totais com hipossalivação e xerostomia for [...] am orientados a escovar as dentaduras 3 vezes ao dia durante 3 semanas com os seguintes produtos: Corega Brite (dentifrício para prótese), sabonete líquido neutro, Corega Brite associado com o uso do Oral Balance (saliva artificial) ou água de torneira. Para a quantificação do biofilme, as superfícies internas das próteses totais foram evidenciadas, fotografadas e o biofilme quantificado com o auxílio de um software. Para a análise microbiológica, o biofilme foi removido por escovação, coletado, diluído, semeado em meio seletivo CHROMagar™ Candida e incubado a 37°C por 48?h. A análise de variância para dois fatores (p Abstract in english This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to br [...] ush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48?h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p

Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos; Antônio Eduardo Sparça, Salles; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Cláudia Helena da, Silva-Lovato; Valéria Oliveira, Pagnano; Evandro, Watanabe.

413

Specific and nonspecific immune factors in dental plaque fluid and saliva from young and old populations.  

OpenAIRE

Separate samples of supragingival dental plaque overtly free of blood were centrifuged to obtain the free fluid phase (plaque fluid). Bound protein was eluted from the plaque bacteria and matrix by washing the plaque with a low-pH buffer. The plaque fluid, low pH eluate, and whole saliva were assayed for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the third component of complement, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were also determined. Antibody reactive...

Cole, M. F.; Hsu, S. D.; Baum, B. J.; Bowen, W. H.; Sierra, L. I.; Aquirre, M.; Gillespie, G.

1981-01-01

414

Promotion of Streptococcus mutans glucose transport by human whole saliva and parotid fluid.  

OpenAIRE

Human saliva and parotid fluid have two effects on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans: a reduction in the overall rate of uptake, and the promotion of a biphasic mode of uptake. The former effect had been previously shown to result from lactoperoxidase-mediated inhibition of transport or metabolism or both. The objective of the present study was to uncover the basis of the second effect. Biphasic glucose uptake consisted of a rapid phase of low capacity and short duration (approximately 1...

Germaine, G. R.; Tellefson, L. M.

1985-01-01

415

Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women  

OpenAIRE

Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but we...

Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Lamonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-wende, Jean

2013-01-01

416

Sensitive Method for Detection of Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 in Saliva Collected in Field Studies  

OpenAIRE

To facilitate studies of the epidemiology and natural history of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in infants, a practical method for collecting and quantifying the DNA of these viruses was developed. Saliva was collected using small strips of fil