WorldWideScience

Sample records for saliva electronic resource

  1. The AAS electronic resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Peter B.; Biemesderfer, Chris; Owens, Evan

    Recent experience is helping to sharpen our understanding of how the electronic world differs from the centuries-old, paper-based communication methods. The electronic future is highly interlinked, with all different types of information being included in the web of available resources. The enhanced ability to interchange information electronically improves the effectiveness of communication. At this time the author community does not make full use of the new capabilities. Most astronomers writing for electronic distribution have been slow to adopt new styles of presentation which exploit the new capabilities inherent in the electronic environment. By working together and sharing the burden, the community's resources can be multiplied. A coordinated distributed effort can yield a much more valuable product than any single person or group. Long term archiving and site maintenance are important responsibilities for publishers of electronic scholarly information. Ensuring access to electronic information into the foreseeable future takes planning from the beginning, and requires cooperation between the publishers, libraries, and other scholarly institutions.

  2. Educating for Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    While mission statements for various libraries and information centers necessarily vary, all librarians face "two very pressing charges: make voluminous numbers of electronic resources as visible as possible in a landscape of multiple access points and simultaneously manage all the technology, tasks, and data necessary to facilitate such…

  3. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Ji-Ye; Smith, Barry; Wong, David TW

    2012-01-01

    There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval, integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the...

  6. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrauskiene, Zibute

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

  7. Student attitudes towards electronic information resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Ray; Joan Day

    1998-01-01

    Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or impr...

  8. Electronic Resources: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the impact of electronic technology on libraries and scholarship. Focuses on some of the challenges of using electronic resources in research libraries, which include cost of acquiring electronic formats and the effect such expenditures have on other library services and collection development practices. Explores how electronic resources

  9. Wrangling Electronic Resources: A Few Good Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brandy Klug

    2010-01-01

    There are several freely available tools today that fill the needs of librarians tasked with maintaining electronic resources, that assist with tasks such as editing MARC records and maintaining web sites that contain links to electronic resources. This article gives a tour of a few tools the author has found invaluable as an Electronic Resources Librarian.

  10. Saliva and dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  11. Saliva and dental erosion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  12. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  13. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  14. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  15. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomical growth of e-resources—e-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally on acquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a bird’s eye view of various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  16. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomicalgrowth of e-resources—e-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally onacquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a bird’s eye viewof various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  17. Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software

    OpenAIRE

    Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

    2012-01-01

    The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

  18. Saliva and dental erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the re...

  19. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and informative…

  20. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

  1. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tull, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, Ohio State University along with the University of Washington, the University of Western Australia, Washington State University, and Glasgow University entered into a development partnership with Innovative Interfaces. The goal was to develop a module to manage electronic resources, integrated into Innovative’s Millennium library system. The product, Electronic Resource Management (ERM), became available in 2004 and is based on the work of the Digital Library Federation E...

  2. Saliva and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases. PMID:26662485

  3. Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doži? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

  4. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings. PMID:10427421

  5. Structural- mechanical characterization of nanoparticles- Exosomes in human saliva, using correlative AFM, FESEM and force spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shivani; Rasool, Haider I; Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Mathisen, Cliff; Schmidt, Michael; Wong, David T.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2010-01-01

    All living systems contain naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structural, biochemical and mechanical characteristics. Specifically, human saliva exosomes secreted by normal cells into saliva via exocytosis, are novel biomarkers showing tumor-antigen enrichment during oral cancer. Here we show the substructure of single human saliva exosomes, using a new ultra sensitive low force Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) exhibiting sub-structural organization unresolvable in Electron Microscopy...

  6. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Anbu K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the specific resource from the gamut of other resources followed by acquisition of the specific resource into the library realm and then felicitating access to the users and then the follow-up of studying the usage of the resource for further continuation of those resources. In between these processes there is the cumbersome chore of going through the licensing agreements and keeping the records correct. All these processes are time consuming and involve a lot of work. These relentless arrays of work have made librarians to look for systems which can save their time and energy and provide efficient management of e-resources. This paper looks at the origin of the ERMS (E-resource Management Systems and the available ERMS in the library digital landscape.

  7. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize th...

  8. From Tedious to Timely: Screencasting to Troubleshoot Electronic Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Thompson, Carole

    2010-01-01

    The shift from traditional print materials to electronic resources, in conjunction with the rise in the number of distance education programs, has left many electronic resource librarians scrambling to keep up with the resulting inundation of electronic resource problems. When it comes to diagnosing these problems, words do not always convey all…

  9. The functions of human saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, Siri Beier; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all su...

  10. User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin

    OpenAIRE

    BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons allu...

  11. Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time poin...

  12. Use of Electronic Resources in Scholarly Electronic Journals: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan Davis

    2002-01-01

    Describes a citation analysis of research articles from scholarly electronic journals published in 1999-2000 that focused on the extent to which scholars are using electronic resources and the types and subject areas of online resources that are being referenced. Results indicate a growing reliance on electronic resources, especially…

  13. Mouth Dryness or Thick Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... candy or chew sugarless gum to stimulate saliva. Citrus, cinnamon, and mint flavors often work well. Keep ... fruits that have a lot of moisture, like oranges and peaches Vegetables in sauce ... dressing Sour cream, half-and-half Cookies, cake, pie, unless ...

  14. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  15. What Faculty Think: A Survey on Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Millie

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, ebrary surveyed 906 faculty from around the world, asking them how they used electronic resources. This article, focusing on the responses of faculty to a few survey questions, finds some expected and surprising attitudes that faculty have about electronic resources for their own and students' research. (Contains 2 notes.)

  16. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  17. You Have "How Many" Spreadsheets? Rethinking Electronic Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rux, Erika; Borchert, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    As libraries face a veritable explosion of electronic resources and as the interconnectedness of print and online resources becomes increasingly complicated, many librarians are challenged to find efficient and cost-friendly ways to manage these resources. In this article, the authors describe how a team of people from various library departments…

  18. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  19. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  20. Using Zapier with Trello for Electronic Resources Troubleshooting Workflow

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan Finch

    2014-01-01

    Troubleshooting access problems is an important part of the electronic resources management workflow. This article discusses an opportunity to streamline and track troubleshooting using two web-based services: Trello and Zapier.

  1. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosti? Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  2. Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Micaela Waldman

    2003-01-01

    To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correl...

  3. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  4. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  5. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  6. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  7. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  8. Developing an Electronic Resource Management System: Verde from Ex Libris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Sadeh

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the number of electronic resources and the complexity of managing e-collections has posed new challenges for libraries and hence requires the development of new tools. To meet this need, Ex Libris is developing a new product, an electronic resource management (ERM system. The development process began in 2002 and has benefited from the company's 25 years of experience in providing libraries with various products - an integrated library system, digital asset management system, library portal, and link server. Working with an international focus group and development partners and interacting with the Digital Library Federation's Electronic Resource Management Initiative (DLF ERMI committee, Ex Libris explored the various aspects of the e-resource life cycle. As a result, the Ex Libris ERM system was designed to address the issues raised through this collaboration and the DLF requirements. The interface of the system represents all of its components; it includes navigation options and facilitates workflows that support the various activities that librarians perform when dealing with electronic resources. This paper describes the development process of the Ex Libris ERM system. The emphasis is on the particular functionality required for managing e-resources and the ways in which existing systems in the library arena can handle specific tasks.

  9. The impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process using ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.

    OpenAIRE

    Love-Rodgers, Christine; Stewart, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    As part of a UK wide study attempting to assess the impact libraries have on the work and study of their members, Edinburgh University Library (EUL) decided to “measure the impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process”, using the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars. The project methodology included analysis of the databases’ coverage of University of Edinburgh research publications and surveys of...

  10. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  11. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences.This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites.There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids.This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  12. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  13. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.

  15. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  16. Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

  17. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  18. Think Locally: A Prudent Approach to Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson-Sundell, Nat

    2011-01-01

    A few articles have drawn some amount of attention specifically to the local causes of the success or failure of electronic resource management system (ERMS) implementations. In fact, it seems clear that local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail. This statement might seem obvious, but the…

  19. What Is the Future of Electronic Resource Management Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie; King, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    In a time of constant change, sometimes it is worthwhile to ruminate on the future and how things ought to be. "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" wanted to capture some of these ruminations from around the field in a new column called "E-Opinions from the Field" where readers are asked to send in their thoughts on a topic and respond…

  20. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  1. Electronic Resources: Access and Usage at Ashesi University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, Perpetua S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Sets out to investigate the use of electronic resources by students and faculty of Ashesi University, Ghana, in order to determine the level of use, the type of information accessed and the effectiveness of the library's communication tools for information research. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based survey was utilized.…

  2. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  3. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Torma; Pertti Vakkari

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of disc...

  4. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic

  5. From the Inside Out: An Organizational View of Electronic Resources and Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic resources and collection development. Topics include how electronic resources are changing the world of access to information; how and why scholars and research libraries use electronic resources; digitization initiatives; knowledge and learning via the Web; archiving electronic resources; and building collections versus…

  6. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  7. Use of Electronic Resources in Degree College Libraries in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kaur Bhatia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The electronic resources (e-resources available in a library play a prominent role in facilitating access to required information to the users in an easy and expeditious manner. The e-resources, like CD-ROM databases, online journals, online books, OPACs, and the internet, are slowly replacing the importance and usage of print media. A study of 11 degree colleges in Chandigarh, which have students and teachers strength of over 30000, was conducted. For the purpose of the study, a sample selected was 770 which included 60 students and 10 teachers from each of the colleges, respectively. The objectives of this study was to know the usage of e-resources and services by the users of degree college libraries in Chandigarh; find out the impediments encountered by the users while accessing and using the e-resources; and suggest measures to take full advantage of IT to make degree college libraries more digitally resourceful and for providing information services data from the users.teachers and students.to know the impact of e-resources. The data collected was analysed using simple percentage technique.

  8. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing the linking framework, papers in the electronic research journals, data and abstracts will be incorporated into the system in a routine manner. The astronomical community now has an ever-growing, operational integrated information system which fulfills today, the dream of the digital library. It remains to be seen how this electronic resource will affect the progress of research.

  9. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

  10. Next Generation Networks for Distributed Electronic Resources: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Soysal, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the lifestyle of the people, new applications, technological developments and the telecommunication market drive the adoption Next Generation Network (NGN) as the new network architecture. NGN has a service-centric architecture which promotes agile creation of services and then maintenance of these services with end-to-end QoS support. In the current era, every internet user is a potential electronic resource user. Due to the transition from the traditional mode of collections ...

  11. Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Barry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1 the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2 the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO. Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb.ucla.edu/SALO/ as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics domain and to saliva-related diagnostics following the principles of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. Conclusions The Saliva Ontology is an ongoing exploratory initiative. The ontology will be used to facilitate salivaomics data retrieval and integration across multiple fields of research together with data analysis and data mining. The ontology will be tested through its ability to serve the annotation ('tagging' of a representative corpus of salivaomics research literature that is to be incorporated into the SKB.

  12. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  13. Saliva as an alternative source of high yield canine genomic DNA for genotyping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulhaber Erica A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic dog presents an attractive model system for the study of the genetic basis of disease. The development of resources such as the canine genome sequence and SNP genotyping platforms has allowed for the implementation of canine genetic studies. Successful implementation of such studies depends not only on the quality of individual DNA samples, but also on the number of samples obtained. The latter can be maximized using a non-invasive DNA collection method that can increase study participation. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained from blood and buccal swabs to those obtained using a non-invasive saliva collection kit (Oragene ®•ANIMAL kit. We also assessed the success rate of PCR amplification and genotyping accuracy of DNA isolated using these collection methods. Findings Comparison of DNA yields from matched saliva, blood and buccal swab samples showed that yields from saliva were significantly higher than those from blood (p = 0.0198 or buccal swabs (p = 0.0008. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that blood and saliva produced higher quality DNA than buccal swabs. In addition, a 1.1-kb PCR fragment was successfully amplified using the paired DNA samples and genotyping by PCR-RFLP yielded identical results. Conclusion We demonstrate that DNA yields from canine saliva are higher than those from blood or buccal swabs. The quality of DNA extracted from saliva is sufficient for successful amplification of a 1.1-kb fragment and for accurate SNP genotyping by PCR-RFLP. We conclude that saliva presents a non-invasive alternative source of high quantities of canine genomic DNA suitable for genotyping studies.

  14. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  15. Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Sunil K. Mor; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulize...

  16. The study of the method for determining PRL in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values of PRL in saliva and serum were determined by RIA in 70 cases. At the sametime, the total protein content was determined, the volume and value of salivary PRL were estimated for linear test. It is found that the salivary total protein is correlated with the saliva PRL (P0.05). The authors recognize that PRL presents in the saliva. Determining PRL in saliva may have some significance for tracing the personal PRL level

  17. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  18. Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Jean E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek® was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97% for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

  19. COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????????

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

  20. Radioimmunological method for determination of testosterone in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method proposed is applied for testosterone concentrations determination in plasma and saliva of 64 subjects. The plasma and saliva values showed no statistically significant differeces which is an evidence that testosterone concentrations may as well be measured in saliva whenever clinical indications exist. 2 tabs.; 7 refs

  1. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  2. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist.

  3. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  4. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?nar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  5. eFG: an electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Luonan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein-protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely. DATABASE URL: http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ PMID:23798489

  6. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Saliva in Oral and Systemic Diseases: A Literature Rewiew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Adriane Bezerra de MOURA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The value of saliva as a diagnostic resource of oral and systemic diseases has been object of study of several researchers that intend to add a possible complementary examination. The analysis of saliva, as analyses based on the use of blood, has two goals: first, to identify individuals with disease, and second, to follow the evolution of the affected individual, evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. Among the advantages of the use of this resource, it may be mentioned ease of material collection and handing, which are important points in the technical operationalization of this type of examination. Saliva can be useful in the evaluation of caries risk as well as in the diagnosis of other diseases by means of syalometric and syalochemical methods (flow salivary. These methods allow that substances are dosed and thus contribute to the diagnosis of diseases from the assessment of the levels of inorganic and organic elements, such as hormonal dosages, analysis of biological, viral, bacterial and fungal agents, in addition to bacterial markers that are useful in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. It is necessary to consider a hierarchical model used for diagnostic evaluation of the technology, which consists in five basic levels of analysis in which the efficacy of the entire diagnostic test should be evaluated: the analytical, which considers the accuracy and exactness; the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; the efficacy of the result for the patient based on the medical decision making; the operational evaluation, which considers the predictive value and the test efficiency; and the cost/benefit.Purpose: To perform an ample literature review on the use of saliva as a diagnostic resource of diseases and monitoring of oral and systemic health.Conclusion: The advances in the studies of diagnostic methods that use saliva as a biological mean for diagnosis and surveillance of oral and systemic conditions present promising results, which could constitute an examination resource used in routine practice.

  8. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Perio...

  9. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  10. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  11. Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

  12. Detection of phthalate metabolites in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Samandar, Ella; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2005-11-01

    In assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants, the use of unconventional matrices is becoming an increasingly important area of research. Saliva is one of the most promising alternative matrices because its collection is easy, noninvasive, and inexpensive. In this study, we measured the salivary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites in 39 anonymous adult volunteers using isotope-dilution, automated solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seven phthalate metabolites were detected at the concentrations ranging from below the limit of detection (serum MBP level in another non-occupationally exposed human adult population in the United States, whereas, the median salivary levels of MEP and MEHP were lower than the corresponding median serum levels. The frequency of detection and the salivary levels of each phthalate monoester in this study population were lower than the frequency of detection and urinary level of the same monoester in the general US population. Although urine is preferred for exposure assessment to non-persistent chemicals such as phthalates, the similar levels in serum and saliva suggest that saliva could be used as a surrogate matrix for measuring the bioavailable dose of phthalates in biomonitoring studies. PMID:15995852

  13. ????????????????????--?????????????? | Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Li-Hsiang Lai

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ???85-97

    ?????????????????????88???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????www???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    The Project of Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan was subsidized by Ministry of Education and carried out by National Taichung Library. The Project started in January of 1999. Its purposes are to establish an electronic database system through WWW for all the public libraries in Taiwan to provide the public to use, and to form a public library cooperation mechanism to foster resource sharing among the libraries.

    This paper introduces the brief history, current status, and achievement o

  14. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Solution at York University

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron August Lupton; Marcia Kay Salmon

    2012-01-01

    Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, d...

  15. User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN)

    OpenAIRE

    BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded...

  16. Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

  17. Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fang; Ning, Kang; Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; CHEN, ZHENGGANG; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between...

  18. Comparison of Biomarkers in Blood and Saliva in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Elswick, R K; Mary Jo Grap; Rita Pickler; Cindy Munro; Sarah Williamson

    2012-01-01

    Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines) in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter pap...

  19. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  20. Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble M.G; Ghante P. B.

    2012-01-01

    This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

  1. Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Wenjuan; Wu Xuezhi; Zhao Tieqin

    2014-01-01

    PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA) is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resource...

  2. Electronic Resource Management 2.0: Using Web 2.0 Technologies as Cost-Effective Alternatives to an Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Designed to assist with the management of e-resources, electronic resource management (ERM) systems are time- and fund-consuming to purchase and maintain. Questions of system compatibility, data population, and workflow design/redesign can be difficult to answer; sometimes those answers are not what we'd prefer to hear. The two primary functions…

  3. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; Buchwald, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates ? 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p <0.001). However, significantly lower unstimulated (p <0.05)and stimulated (p <0.01) saliva flow rates were obtained after radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p <0.01) and in a period after sucking the candies (p <0.01). HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p <0.001 and p <0.05). Conclusions. Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

  4. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  5. Issues in Electronic Resource Services in K-12 School Library Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Leslie S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the unique factors that online electronic resources pose in school library settings. Topics include the appropriateness of online electronic resources; strategic planning for Internet access, including acceptable use policies; administrative issues; selection and acquisition; organization; and intellectual access, including library…

  6. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  7. What Do Libraries Really Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Jay

    2005-01-01

    One hundred fourteen academic libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, electronic resources, subject guides, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their…

  8. Using a Decision Grid Process to Build Consensus in Electronic Resources Cancellation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudy, Gerri; McManus, Alesia

    2005-01-01

    Many libraries are expending an increasing part of their collections budgets on electronic resources. At the same time many libraries, especially those which are state funded, face diminishing budgets and high rates of inflation for serials subscriptions in all formats, including electronic resources. Therefore, many libraries need to develop ways…

  9. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free) and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  10. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  11. Bridging the Two Cultures: A Collaborative Approach to Managing Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, John; Ryan, Patti

    2002-01-01

    Highlights an example of cross-discipline collaboration in an academic library and describes a collaborative approach to managing electronic resources that is used at York University (Canada). Explains a model in which a science librarian and a humanities/social science librarian work together to manage electronic resources. (Author/LRW)

  12. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  13. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  14. [Effect of saliva on resorption time of some resorbable membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, G; Canepari, P; Lombardo, G; Salgarelli, C; Santi, E

    1997-11-01

    Since resorbable membranes have been introduced their resorption time has been always an important topic of discussion. The current literature does not cover very accurately the contributing factors associated with this biologic process in the oral cavity. The clinical experience shows that the influence of saliva may be an important factor during the resorption of synthetic resorbable membranes. Six experiments are described in this article in which four synthetic resorbable membranes are tested (Vicryl periodontal mesh, Vicryl collagene, Guidor and Resolut). The membranes are plated in Petri dishes precoated with Agar in contact with saliva. Experiment number 1 and 2 demonstrated that saline solution and Agar do not alter the resorption time of the membranes. Experiment 3 and 4 showed that a dilution of saliva to 1:10 and a non diluted saliva accelerate their resorption time of two of the tested membranes. The Vicryl periodontal mesh and the Vicryl collagene disappeared respectively after 7 and 9 days of contact with the not diluted saliva and after 10 and 12 days of contact with the 1:10 diluted saliva. The experiment 5 and 6 indicated that both salivas (diluted and not diluted) deprived of bacteria do not alter the resorption time of the membranes. In conclusion the pattern of resorption of the synthetic membranes, in this in vitro study, is recognized in the contact between the membrane and the bacterial enzymes present in saliva, and in the mechanical structure of the membrane design. PMID:9489352

  15. [Indole production in human whole saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Mishiro, Y

    1989-08-01

    It is known that between saliva and oral microorganisms there are close relations. To investigate the salivary factors that influence the metabolism of oral microorganisms, the production and degradation of indole were studied in several salivary supernatants or salivary ultrafiltrates. Washed salivary sediments were mixed with the supernatants or the ultrafiltrates containing tryptophan or indole. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 hours, the indole was extracted by petroleum ether and determined spectrophotometrically. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The amount of indole produced in the raw supernatants was generally greater than that produced in the heated supernatants. 2) The production and the degradation of indole in the ultrafiltrates varied according to the saliva samples. 3) Only a small amount of indole was produced when tryptophan was not added to the ultrafiltrates. 4) When the ultrafiltrate was preheated at 98 degrees C, the indole production slightly decreased for only ten minutes. 5) The optimum pH for indole production in the ultrafiltrate was within the range from 7.0 to 8.5 in the presence of 20mM of Good's buffer (MES, MOPS, TAPS). 6) The highest indole production was observed when MOPS (pH7.7) was added at the concentration of 20mM to the ultrafiltrate. 7) The amount of indole production was mainly influenced by salivary sediment, and it was also affected by the ultrafiltrate. PMID:2489307

  16. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  17. Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W

    2010-07-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care. PMID:20737986

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2003-01-01

    This Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) report summarizes and analyzes more than 200 recent research publications that focus on the use of electronic library resources (digital libraries and digital resources) and were published between 1995 and 2003. Eight major ongoing studies (each with multiple publications) are identified as…

  20. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  1. "Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

  2. Resource note: Theoretical atomic-electron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annotated bibliography of calculations of electron binding energies of neutral atoms is presented. The subject is summarized in a brief introduction. Published calculations are tabulated; entries are characterized according to range of atomic numbers; type of atomic model; nuclear charge distribution; and inclusion of relaxation, Breit interaction, and quantum-electrodynamic effects. The table is supplemented with a chronological list of selected papers on atomic structure calculations and with a list of references to some useful computer programs. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  3. Radioimmunoassay for 'free' testosterone in human saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, specific and accurate direct radioimmunoassay of testosterone in human saliva, without chromatography, is described. Ether extraction was employed before immunoassay which was performed by using rapid double antibody method. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible; the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variation were 4.8 and 9.7% respectively. The mean recovery of labelled [1,2-3H)-testosterone, obtained from 90 samples, was 85.6 +- 11.3%. Good correlation was found between the results determined on 26 pairs of samples with and without the use of chromatographic partition (r = 0.9559). Results in men and women under normal and pathological conditions are reported. (U.K.)

  4. The human saliva proteome: overview and emerging methods for characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Among the different biomolecules found in human saliva, proteins are among the most prominent. Proteins carry out many vital roles in saliva, from enzymatic catalysis to structure. Proteins also have great potential as diagnostic biomarkers, which can be easily collected using non-invasive methods. In order to catalog salivary proteins, and determine those with diagnostic potential for human disease and other health conditions, mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have been used over the last decade or more. Using these conventional technologies, several thousand proteins have been identified in whole saliva, with numerous studies identifying proteins with diagnostic promise for a variety of health conditions. In addition, these technologies have been used to identify proteins expressed by microbial communities in human saliva. In recent years, new mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have emerged that are giving researchers new tools for characterizing the proteome of whole saliva, as well as other biological sample types. Two of the most promising of these new technologies include methods for "data-independent acquisition", which allows for large-scale hypothesis-driven proteomic discovery studies, and proteogenomics, a bioinformatics-driven approach which integrates genomic and proteomic data to characterize novel gene products missed by conventional methods. This paper will summarize the efforts of cataloging the saliva proteome to-date, including highlights of studies identifying salivary protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, the emerging technologies of data-independent acquisition and proteogenomics will be described, along with their potential in characterizing the saliva proteome for diagnostic applications.

  5. Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

    2012-05-01

    In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles. PMID:22550109

  6. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  7. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

  8. The effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro. METHODS A total of 204 bovine enamel samples were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated to 17 groups (n=12). The specimens were eroded in an artificial mouth (3 days; 6??30 s/days, flow rate: 2 ml/min) using citric acid (pH: 2.5). Immediately after the erosive attacks, saliva substitutes (12 sprays, 3 gels) were applied. Between the erosive cycles the specimens were rinsed with artificial saliva (flowr...

  9. La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Medina Madrid

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

  10. Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

  11. A comparative analysis of the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students at two Kenyan universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ingutia-Oyieke, Lilian; Dick, Archie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures, the levels of access, and the electronic resources usage patterns at two academic libraries in Kenya. The focus is on the use by undergraduate students at the private University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and the public Kenyatta University (KU) of electronic resources to support formal and informal learning. The article also briefly explores the perceptions of library managers with regard to teach...

  12. Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallinath Kumbar; G. Kiran kumar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and ...

  13. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  14. Electronic Information Resources in Undergraduate Education: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities for Student Learning and Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Liz

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative interview-based study examines lecturer perspectives on the roles of electronic information resources in undergraduate education. Highlights include electronic academic libraries; changes toward more constructivist approaches to learning; information quality on the Web; plagiarism; information use; information literacy; and…

  15. Using the Internet Gopher Protocol to link a computerized patient record and distributed electronic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, J. W.; Low, R. C.; Fitzpatrick, K T

    1993-01-01

    At Duke University Medical Center, we are developing a prototype clinical application for automated patient care plans with integrated links to electronic documents and other electronic resources. These links are implemented using the Internet Gopher Protocol, an emerging standard for distributed document search and retrieval. Use of this protocol permits storage of electronic documents in an open, nonproprietary manner. This paper discusses the architecture of the link mechanism and presents...

  16. Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallinath Kumbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and observation to add clarity.Findings: The study assesses the faculty awareness and use of electronic resources in their academic and research needs. Besides, familiarity about search patterns for effective retrieval.Research Limitations: The study is limited to the faculty of the Autonomous Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU in Bengaluru Region of Karnataka State, India.Keywords: e-resources; search pattern; e-resource use; Autonomous Engineering Colleges.Paper Type: Survey cum Research

  17. ?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

  18. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  19. Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aristidis Arhakis; Vassilis Karagiannis; Sotirios Kalfas

    2011-01-01

    Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method) or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method) were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling) of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva ...

  20. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  1. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  2. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro COLLARES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus. Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  3. Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.)

  4. Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  5. Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; REDDING, SPENCER W.

    2010-01-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

  6. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass–endophyte mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant–herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation...

  7. Assessment of the utilisation of Makerere University electronic information resources by academic staff; challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Agaba, Didace Mulamira

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the utilization of electronic information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined academic staff awareness of the resources’ availability, the types of resources provided by the University Library , factors affecting their utilization, problems faced, and it offers recommendations for the way forward. The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, employing questionnaire, interview and content analysis methods. Findings ...

  8. Electronic resources and institutional repositories in informal scholarly communication and publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Russell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of institutional repositories is to aid the management and dissemination of the increasingly copious amount of scholarly electronic resources produced by academics. To date most research has focused on the impact for formal scholarly publishing. The purpose of this exploratory study is to discover the impact of IRs on the visibility and use of digital resources with particular focus on resources outside the formal publishing framework. An online survey and interviews wi...

  9. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  10. Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive clinical examination to identify potential female carriers of HED. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

  11. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in the saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the radioimmunoassay of 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in the saliva. The limit of detection is 1.96 fmole/tube. Salivary 17?-hydroxyprogesterone was measured in control subjects. Values found were of 296+-115 pmol/l in the male, and 251+-23 pmol/l in the female during the follicular phase and 401+-94 pmol/l during the luteal phase, and 115+-30 pmol/l in the prepubertal child. Concentrations were much higher in the newborn and decreased during the first days of life. Variations in salivary concentrations were compared with those in plasma 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone during the 24-hour period and with the Synacthene stimulation test. The excellent correlation (r=0.0969) between salivary 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone and plasma 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in 28 patients being treated for 21 hydroxylase deficiency makes it possible to suggest salivary assay in place of plasma assay in the therapeutic follow-up of such patients

  13. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette; Ladelund, Steen; Niesters, Hubert G M; Høgh, Birthe

    2010-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva as a vehicle for horizontal transmission of HBV among children.

  14. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  15. Saliva de animais hematófagos: fonte de novos anticoagulantes / Saliva of hematophagous animals: source of new anticoagulants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra, Ciprandi; Fabiana, Horn; Carlos, Termignoni.

    Full Text Available Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar os anticoagulantes e inibidores da agregação plaquetária que foram encontrados em animais hematófagos. Esses animais precisam inibir as reações hemostáticas no local onde se alimentam no hospedeiro para realizar a refeição sangüínea e também para manter o sa [...] ngue fluido nos seus próprios tratos digestivos. Devido a essa necessidade, eles desenvolveram ao longo da evolução uma grande diversidade de substâncias que são injetadas no hospedeiro através da saliva e que permitiram o sucesso de seu parasitismo. Tais recursos farmacológicos podem ser utilizados como ferramentas em pesquisa da fisiologia vascular e hemostática, e têm potencial uso terapêutico em doenças cardiovasculares. Abstract in english In this review, we present anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation isolated from hematophagous animals. These animals have to inhibit, at the site of injury, the host hemostasis in order to blood-feed and maintain the blood fluid inside their digestive tract. During evolution, hematoph [...] agous animals developed a diversity of anti-homeostatic substances that are injected into the host through their saliva and that are crucial to successful parasitism. These anti-homeostatic substances could be used as tools in vascular physiology investigation and they also have potential therapeutic applications.

  16. Saliva de animais hematófagos: fonte de novos anticoagulantes Saliva of hematophagous animals: source of new anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ciprandi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar os anticoagulantes e inibidores da agregação plaquetária que foram encontrados em animais hematófagos. Esses animais precisam inibir as reações hemostáticas no local onde se alimentam no hospedeiro para realizar a refeição sangüínea e também para manter o sangue fluido nos seus próprios tratos digestivos. Devido a essa necessidade, eles desenvolveram ao longo da evolução uma grande diversidade de substâncias que são injetadas no hospedeiro através da saliva e que permitiram o sucesso de seu parasitismo. Tais recursos farmacológicos podem ser utilizados como ferramentas em pesquisa da fisiologia vascular e hemostática, e têm potencial uso terapêutico em doenças cardiovasculares.In this review, we present anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation isolated from hematophagous animals. These animals have to inhibit, at the site of injury, the host hemostasis in order to blood-feed and maintain the blood fluid inside their digestive tract. During evolution, hematophagous animals developed a diversity of anti-homeostatic substances that are injected into the host through their saliva and that are crucial to successful parasitism. These anti-homeostatic substances could be used as tools in vascular physiology investigation and they also have potential therapeutic applications.

  17. Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Movahed S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter. Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001; however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, A; Grinter, R E; Hurst, A; Szymanski, M H; Thornton, J D; Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air audio played through speakers.

  19. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources...

  20. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available ?Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  1. Evaluating a scalable model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Were, Martin C.; Emenyonu, Nneka; Achieng, Marion; Shen, Changyu; Ssali, John; Masaba, John P M; William M. Tierney

    2010-01-01

    Current models for implementing electronic health records (EHRs) in resource-limited settings may not be scalable because they fail to address human-resource and cost constraints. This paper describes an implementation model which relies on shared responsibility between local sites and an external three-pronged support infrastructure consisting of: (1) a national technical expertise center, (2) an implementer's community, and (3) a developer's community. This model was used to implement an op...

  2. CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Soell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals at the same time interval in the morning without any oral stimuli. Circadianic periodics in protein productions have been avoided. The presence of chromogranin A and its derived peptides was determined in whole saliva, after centrifugation at 40C for 12 min at 14 000 rpm, by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Immunoblotting (Western Blot. To ensure same protein concentrations Bradford protein quantification assay has been performed before.For the first time, we have determined an overexpression of chromogranin A in saliva of diabetic patients in 100% of the individuals.Chromogranin A, a circulating biomarker for epithelial tumours, is also overexpressed in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients. To confirm our results, more studies with a large amount of patients is necessary.

  3. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  4. We're All in This Together: Library Faculty and Staff and Their Reporting of Electronic Resource Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Anita; Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    Libraries continue to shift budgets toward obtaining more electronic resources. Electronic resources can develop problems at any time when a library offers access. Staff collaboration is vital in ensuring availability to those resources. Partnering with areas in the library that work most closely with patrons can help share the load of the…

  5. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs. PMID:22023919

  6. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  7. Implementation of an Electronic Resource Assessment System in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a library with useful information about selection criteria for an electronic resource assessment system and practical assistance on how to implement efficiently such a system. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on literature review, desk research, and implementation experience.…

  8. What Do Community College Libraries Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Jay

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fourteen community college libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their web site. They do not usually…

  9. A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project" universities…

  10. Innovative's Electronic Resource Management as catalyst for change at Glasgow University Library

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, L

    2006-01-01

    In March 2003 Glasgow University Library joined with Innovative and several other Innovative customers to develop a new Electronic Resource Management (ERM) module. This paper will outline the ways in which the development and implementation of ERM has acted as a catalyst and facilitator for further enhancements and developments in the area of e-journals at Glasgow University Library.

  11. Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

  12. Isolation and Analytical Characterization of Local Malaysian Leech Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alaama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech saliva contains biologically active compounds that are mainly proteins and peptides. In this study a modified and smooth extraction method of saliva was used without leeches' scarification. UV and Bradford Assay protein methods showed that the saliva extract contains high concentrations of proteins. RP-HPLC chromatogram revealed that more than 30 different peaks were observed in leech saliva extract. Gel electrophoresis revealed the existence of proteins and peptides with different molecular weights. The gel showed up to 25 different bands. Comparison of gel electrophoresis data with protein database revealed the closeness of four molecular weights to known proteins from Hirudinaria leech family. Other proteins detected by gel electrophoresis may be related to completely new biologically active proteins and peptides in the saliva extract or to a modification (isoforms of the existing ones or finally to a mixture of both.ABSTRAK: Air liur pacat secara biologinya mengandungi sebahagian besar campuran aktif protein dan peptida. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah pengestrakan air liur pacat yang telah diubah suai digunakan tanpa perlu membunuh pacat. Kaedah protein Cerakin UV dan Bradford menunjukkan air liur pacat yang diekstrak mengandungi konsentrasi protein yang tinggi. Kromatogram RP-HPLC memperlihatkan lebih daripada 30 puncak berbeza diperolehi semasa air liur pacat diekstrak. Gel elektroforesis memperlihatkan kewujudan protein dan peptida dengan berat molekul yang berbeza. Gel menunjukkan hingga 25 jalur yang berbeza. Perbandingan data menggunakan gel elektroforesis seiring dengan pangkalan data protein memperlihatkan persamaan empat berat molekul, dengan protein yang yang dikenali daripada keluarga pacat Hirudinaria. Jenis protein lain yang dikesan dengan menggunakan gel elektrofosis mungkin juga berkait secara biologinya dengan protein dan peptida aktif yang baru, dalam ekstrak air liur atau pengubahsuaian (beberapa jenis yang berbeza daripada protein yang sama daripada yang sedia ada ataupun gabungan kedua-duanya.KEY WORDS : leech saliva; RP-HPLC; gel electrophoresis.

  13. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education. PMID:26309211

  14. Evaluation of Whole Saliva Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Azizi; Fatemeh Sarlati; Azam Parchakani; Somayeh Alirezaei

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Periodontitis is the inflammation of the supporting tissues of teeth. In this disease, overproduction of free radicals by polymorphonuclears (PMNs) will result in the imbalance between saliva’s oxidants and antioxidants. Therefore, due to insufficient levels of anti-oxidants, free radicals can start chain reactions that eventually will lead to destruction of periodontal tissues. The purpose of this research is to compare the amount of whole saliva’s antioxidant capacit...

  15. Reduced inhibition of Candida albicans adhesion by saliva from patients receiving oral cancer therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Umazume, M; Ueta, E; Osaki, T.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of saliva on the adhesion of Candida albicans to epithelial cells was examined in vitro by using saliva from healthy controls and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The adhesion of C. albicans to established epithelial tumor cells was reduced by 40% by salivary treatment of the C. albicans or epithelial cells. The inhibitory activity of saliva was almost completely abolished by anti-secretory immunoglobulin A antibody, concanavalin A, and mannose. Compared with saliva from...

  16. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-01-01

    During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1) Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2) Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17) selected by their general diseases and con...

  17. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

  18. Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

    2015-06-01

    The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

  19. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  20. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (Pzoster patients.

  1. Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...

  2. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  3. The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ojokuku, R. M.; Sajuyigbe, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR) performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents ran...

  4. Demographic Variables of University Teachers and Usage of Electronic Information Resources: A Case in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarajah Sivathaasan; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR).The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test) to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 7...

  5. Bit by Bit: A Series of Trends, Tools, and Initiatives Are Aimed at Improving Electronic Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Electronic resources are more prominent than ever in library collections, yet they resist easy management. A range of tools and cooperative efforts are emerging to improve the management and evaluation of electronic resources. Initiatives are underway to standardize and automate the harvesting of usage statistics and e-journal title and holdings…

  6. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research.

  7. Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V; Nyvad, B; Baelum, V

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old childre...

  8. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stragierowicz; Karolina Miko?ajewska; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Kinga Pola?ska; Danuta Ligocka

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva w...

  9. A Survey of Some Factors Related to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eisabadi Bozchelouei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Free radicals are molecules or atoms with single electron that results in reactions thus causing severe damages to the body’s macromolecules. By preventing the formation of free radicals, repairing damages caused by radical’s activities, increasing the excretion of the damaged molecules and minimizing the cellular mutation, the antioxidant defense system contrasts the damages caused by free radicals. Different lifestyles and nutrition, environmental and genetic factors can lead to the unusual increase in free radicals formation or weakening the antioxidant defense system and can cause the imbalance between the production and excretion of free radicals. They have not only a significant role in aging but also in causing and aggravating many diseases. Accordingly, some factors related to total antioxidant capacity of saliva were studied. Methods: This study was descriptive and the sampling was performed in multi stages. The subjects consisted of 720 students (male: 325, female: 395 in Arak. Individuals filled a questionnaire approved by experts and included the demographic factors and dietary habits. Then the total antioxidant capacity in saliva of these students were measured by FRAP method. The results were analyzed with descriptive analysis (such as Mean, Deviation standard and also analytical analysis (such as T-test and Spirman Correlation Coefficient. Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ? SD of total antioxidant capacity of saliva in males was higher than the females and so there was a positive and meaningful correlation between total capacity antioxidant of saliva and milk consumption, father’s education and mother’s education. P and R in this manner were (0.02, 0.04, 0.045-0087, 0.11, 0.076 while there was no significant correlation between social and economic status, consumption of fats, red and white meat and the antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Parents level of education and dietary habits have a significant and positive correlation with the antioxidant capacity. It seems that giving necessary information and nutrition instruction can help decrease oxidative stress and prevent different diseases.

  10. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus and…

  11. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

  12. Condiciones optimas de manipulación para la cuantificación de fibronectina en saliva / Optimal assay conditions for quantifying fibronectin in saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª Carmen, Llena Puy; Consuelo, Montañana Llorens; Leopoldo, Forner Navarro.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La fibronectina (Fn) es una glucoproteína presente en múltiples fluidos y tejidos orgánicos, tanto en condiciones fisiológicas como patológicas. También en la saliva puede detectarse aunque en muy pequeñas cantidades y frecuentemente en cadenas fragmentadas, induce agregación bacterian [...] a y sus niveles se reducen cuando aumentan los niveles de bacterias cariogénicas o periodontopatógenas. La capacidad infectiva de la saliva de los pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodificiencia humana (VIH) se ha relacionado con los niveles de esta proteína. En algunas enfermedades crónicas de la mucosa oral como es el liquen plano, la concentración de Fn salivar se encuentra reducida. También su cuantificación varía en presencia de algunos tumores como el carcinoma oral de células escamosas, aunque no puede considerarse un factor específico. Objetivo: Debido a la baja concentración de Fn en la saliva y a su labilidad en la forma soluble, las condiciones de recogida y conservación de las muestras son extremadamente importantes, por ello nos proponemos en el presente trabajo estandarizar dichas condiciones con el fin de poder cuantificarla de manera óptima. Material y método: Se determinó la concentración de Fn en saliva humana de 20 personas sanas de edades comprendidas entre 28 y 54 años mediante técnica de ELISA, comparando la concentración de la proteína en muestras frescas, conservadas 24 h a 4ºC, o congeladas a - 40ºC durante diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados y conclusiones: Tras comparar diferentes formas de conservación de las muestras de saliva, observamos que las condiciones óptimas son: recoger las muestras en tubos de vidrio, cuantificarlas inmediatamente tras su recogida o como máximo 24 horas después, conservándolas a 4ºC. La congelación y posterior descongelación para su cuantificación induce pérdidas de hasta el 60 % de la proteína. Abstract in english Introduction: Fibronectin (Fn) is a glycoprotein that is present in many body fluids and tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. It can also be detected in the saliva, although only in very small quantities and frequently in broken chains. It induces bacterial aggregation and its [...] levels fall when those of cariogenic or periodontal pathogenic bacteria rise. The infective capacity of the saliva of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been linked to the levels of this protein. In some chronic conditions of the oral mucosa, such as oral lichen planus, the concentration of salivary fibro-nectin is lower than usual. Fibronectin quantity also varies in the presence of some tumours, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, although it cannot be considered a specific factor. Aims: Due to the low Fn concentration in saliva and its lability in the soluble form, sample collection and conservation conditions are extremely important. The aim of this study is therefore to standardise these conditions so that the Fn can be quantified in an optimum manner. Materials and methods: The Fn concentration in human saliva was determined in 20 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 54 by means of the ELISA technique and the concentration of the protein in fresh samples kept at 4ºC for 24 hours was compared with that of frozen samples kept at -40ºC for different periods of time. Results and Conclusions: After comparing different ways of conserving the saliva samples, we found that the optimum conditions were to collect the samples in glass tubes and to quantify them immediately after collection or conserve them at 4ºC and quantify them within a maximum of 24 hours. Freezing and later thawing for quantification induced losses of up to 60% of the protein.

  13. Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

  14. Effect of cleansing methods on saliva-contaminated zirconia--an evaluation of resin bond durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, S A; Patel, D; Borges, A L S; Alshehri, E Z; Bottino, M A; Özcan, M; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M C

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the influence of cleansing methods after saliva contamination and 2) aging conditions (thermocycling and water storage) on zirconia shear bond strength (SBS) with a resin cement. One hundred and eighty zirconia specimens were sandblasted with 50 ?m aluminum oxide particles, immersed in saliva for one minute (with the exception of the control group, [C]), and divided into groups according to the cleansing method, as follows: water rinse (W); 37% phosphoric acid gel (PA); cleaning paste (ie, Ivoclean®) containing mainly zirconium oxide (IC); and 70% isopropanol (AL). Scanning electron microscopy was done to qualitatively evaluate the zirconia surface after each cleansing method. For the SBS test, resin cement buttons were bonded to the specimens using a dedicated jig. SBS was evaluated according to standard protocols after 24 hours, 5000 thermal cycles (TC), or 150 days of water storage. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (pcement interface. Our findings suggest that Ivoclean® was able to maintain adequate SBS values after TC and 150 days of storage, comparable to the uncontaminated zirconia. PMID:25136900

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against rat saliva and salivary gland antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, T; Gresik, E W; van der Noen, H

    1985-03-01

    Hybridomas were produced by the fusion of NS1 myeloma cells with spleen cells of a BALB/c mouse immunized with rat submandibular saliva. Growth of hybridomas was evident in 60/96 wells, and colonies secreting antibodies against saliva components were identified in 20 wells by using a solid phase enzyme-linked immunoassay. Cloning of cells from 12 wells yielded originally 43 hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-saliva antibodies. After recloning, one hybridoma (4Cl3) was selected for further studies. The hybridoma (4Cl3) cells were grown as ascites tumors, and the antibodies were purified from the ascitic fluid by diethylaminoethyl Affi-gel Blue chromatography. The purified antibody (MA4), immunoglobulin G1, immunoprecipitated a 39K dalton protein from submandibular saliva, and also reacted with a protein of the same electrophoretic mobility on immunoblots. From extracts of submandibular gland slices, incubated with [3H]leucine, the antibody again immunoprecipitated a 39K protein, indicating that this protein is synthesized in the gland. MA4 was used for immunocytochemical stainings of submandibular glands of rats of different ages. In general, immunostaining was seen only in acinar cells. Thus, there was no staining in the glands of 1-day-old rats that lack differentiated acinar cells. In the glands of 1- to 4-week-old rats the number of immunoreactive cells and the extent of immunostaining paralleled the differentiation of the acinar cells. In the glands of adult rats a uniform staining of the secretory granules of the acinar cells was observed. The immunoreactive 39K protein seemed to be restricted to the acinar cells in the submandibular gland; there was no immunostaining in the parotid, sublingual, or lingual salivary glands, or in the pancreas, colon, and duodenum. Stimulation of saliva secretion by isoproterenol resulted in a virtual depletion of the antigen from the acinar cells. These results indicate the feasibility of producing mouse hybridomas that secrete antibodies against rat saliva components. The monoclonal antibody at hand will be useful in analyzing the differentiation of the acinar cells, and the factors that influence this differentiation process. PMID:2579121

  16. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  17. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  18. PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

  19. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 ?M respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 ?M). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 ?M H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 ?M H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  20. An electronic resource to support staff providing end of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pordes, Philippa; Ashcroft, Angela; Williams, Pauline

    The Department of Health's End of Life Care Strategy provided the opportunity to develop effective care, regardless of the setting. However, providing end of life care is challenging for all healthcare practitioners, with each care setting experiencing unique challenges. Within one acute NHS trust, the challenges of identifying and diagnosing dying were identified. An electronic resource tool was developed to aid prognostication and provide a single point of reference to assist healthcare practitioners in improving end of life care for patients in an acute hospital setting. PMID:22216666

  1. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnio Matti; Romanov Kalle

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded). Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental stu...

  2. Molecular sabotage of plant defense by aphid saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Will, T; Tjallingii, W.F.; Thönnessen, A.; Bel, A.J.E., van

    2007-01-01

    Aphids, which constitute one of the most important groups of agricultural pests, ingest nutrients from sieve tubes, the photoassimilate transport conduits in plants. Aphids are able to successfully puncture sieve tubes with their piercing mouthparts (stylets) and ingest phloem sap without eliciting the sieve tubes' normal occlusion response to injury. Occlusion mechanisms are calcium-triggered and may be prevented by chemical constituents in aphid saliva injected into sieve tubes before and d...

  3. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H; Holmstrup, P; Kirkby, N; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Twetman, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bac...

  4. Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Valadão, Cardoso; Marcos Horácio, Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de, Araújo.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

  5. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhvika Patidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood.

  6. The Inhibition Effect of Eugenol to the Biocorrosion of Titanium in Saliva Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa KINANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of eugenol in controlling corrosion of titanium grade 2 in saliva medium containing bacteria at different pH has been evaluated by electrochemical polarization methods, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical data show that the corrosion resistance is greatly enhanced after surface modification. The best protection is obtained with eugenol at pH 7. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that theses inhibitors act by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface. The film, act as a barrier to the transport of the metal ions from the metal to the solution at high concentration of inhibitor acts by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface.

  7. Librarians' perceptions on the use of electronic resources at Catalan academic libraries: results of a focus group

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé, Candela; Borrego, Àngel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to expand on previous quantitative and qualitative research into the use of electronic information resources and its impact on the information behaviour of academics at Catalan universities.

  8. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  9. Assessment of accepting rate of Electronic Information Resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science faculty members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hamdipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR play an important role in the process of education and research. The aim of this study was to analyze the status of adoption of electronic information resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science (KIS faculty members. This applied- descriptive survey was carried out on Iranian KIS Faculty Members in 2012. The number of participants was determined based on the Cochran's sample size table. Of the 170 Faculty Members, 122 individuals were randomly selected. Data collection tool was an Electronic questionnaire, and its validity was confirmed by professionals. The reliability of the questionnaire was verified after a pilot study. By using IBM SPSS 20 software and through exploratory factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and inferential tests the data were analyzed. Results showed that, there is significant difference between the mean of adoption rate of electronic information resources (EIR by people with different levels of education. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between mean of adoption rate and the faculty’s teaching experience and age. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test showed that the curve of adoption rate of electronic information resources among the sample is normal, and thus, the adoption rate of resources over time, is S-shaped. Ultimately, this study confirmed The Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory (2003 in context of Adaptor categories of electronic information resources (EIR, and S-shaped curve, among faculty members in departments of knowledge and Information science in Iran.

  10. Nitrite in saliva increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Björne, Håkan; Petersson, Joel; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O.

    2004-01-01

    Salivary nitrate from dietary or endogenous sources is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In the acidic stomach, nitrite is further reduced to NO and related compounds, which have potential biological activity. We used an in vivo rat model as a bioassay to test effects of human saliva on gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness. Gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness were measured after topical administration of human saliva in HCl. The saliva was collected either after fastin...

  11. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva collections. Design: Parotid saliva flow rate, pH and protein concentration, as it exits the Stensen's duct, were determined on seven subjects in response to one and 30 ipsilateral jaw clenches. To achieve...

  12. Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da Silva; Thelma Lopes da Silva; Magali Lourdes Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in ...

  13. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  14. Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxyapatite coated with lysozyme and lysozyme-supplemented saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Tellefson, L M; Germaine, G R

    1986-01-01

    The adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled Streptococcus sanguis strains to bare hydroxyapatite and to hydroxyapatite coated with a range of concentrations of lysozyme, poly-L-lysine, poly-L-glutamic acid, whole saliva supernatant, and combinations of some of the above was studied. Adherence of several strains of S. sanguis to bare hydroxyapatite and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite was compared. Saliva present as a pellicle on the hydroxyapatite inhibited adherence of some strains (903, M-5, 73X11) ...

  15. Metronidazole as a radiosensitizer: a preliminary report on estimation in serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies indicate the clinical benefit of hypoxic radiosensitizers in patients who are undergoing radiotherapy. Serum level of sensitizers are usualy advised; however they are very demanding on the patient. Saliva level of the sensitizers may be an alternative method. This study correlated serum level of metronidazole to the saliva level in 10 patients who were undergoing radiotherapy with the sensitizer. A change to the saliva level method appears to relieve the patients

  16. A new approach to the assessment of anaerobic metabolism: measurement of lactate in saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Segura, R.; C. Javierre; Ventura, J.L.; Lizarraga, M.A.; Campos, B.; Garrido, E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that saliva lactate concentrations may reflect those present in blood and that saliva lactate can be used as a very convenient and useful variable in the study of anaerobic metabolism. METHODS: Parallel determinations were made of lactate in saliva and in capillary blood samples, obtained at 3 min intervals from nine individuals during the performance of a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer against increasing workloads (from 25 up to a maximum ...

  17. The effect of saliva composition on texture perception of semi-solids

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, L; Keybus, P.A.M., van den; Wijk, R.A., de; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.; Bosman, F; Prinz, J F; Bilt, A., van de

    2007-01-01

    Saliva is expected to be of significance for the perception of food stimuli in the mouth. Mixing the food with saliva, including breakdown and dilution, is considered to be of large importance for semi-solids as these products are masticated without chewing. It is known that there are large variations in composition of saliva originating from different glands and different subjects. In this study we investigated how variations in salivary characteristics affect sensory perception. Eighteen tr...

  18. Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?

  19. The functions of human saliva : A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body.

  20. The functions of human saliva: A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, A M L; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-06-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body. PMID:25841068

  1. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  2. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment. PMID:21683566

  3. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  4. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquímica. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF.

  5. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

  6. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itunu Bamidele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
    Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

  7. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

  8. Comparison of the antioxidant potential in urine, saliva and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkhai, Hicham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Free radicals, oxidative stress and their possible consequences for health are becoming increasingly important in modern medicine. Reactive species influence the organism, potentially causing oxidative cell damage. They can be produced by exogenous sources, or be a product of a variety of not only physiological metabolic processes, such as immune response, but also pathological processes. The antioxidant protection system protects the organism from oxidative damage caused by reactions producing an excess of free radicals. The analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP is therefore becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis of individual vitality. Method: The photochemoluminescence method was used to measure the AOP in urine and saliva, spectrometry was employed to measure the ?-carotene content of the skin. In addition, it was investigated whether the AOPsaliva correlated with the AOPUurine (uric-acid independent AOP as well as the ?-carotene content of the skin. Results: The AOP was significantly higher in urine than in saliva, and both values were significantly positively correlated with each other. However, there was no significant correlation to the ?-carotene content of the skin. Discussion: The components of the AOPUurine are accumulated over time (night, whereas AOP measurement in saliva is like a snapshot, which explains why AOPUurine was significantly higher than AOPsaliva, although the two parameters are correlated with each other. ?-carotene is a fat-soluble antioxidant, whereas in our study, only water-soluble antioxidants were determined in the urine. This explains why there is no positive correlation between ?-carotene of the skin and AOP. Conclusion: For the characterization of the AOP in epidemiological studies, we recommend determining the AOPUurine and parallel to this, the ?-carotene content of the skin.

  9. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MS X-NONE AR-SA Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT. The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100 is 43.205µg/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S.aureus  and fungi spp. (C.albicans and C.neoformans. It was found that saliva has an inhibition activity against Sal.typhi (minimal inhibitory concentration MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml and E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.ABSTRAK: Pacat-pacat diberi makan larutan phagostimulatory menerusi membran parafilem. Pacat-pacat yang kekenyangan itu dipaksa memuntahkan larutan tersebut dengan direndam di dalam bekas berisi ais. Aktiviti antigumpal ditentukan menggunakan cerakin masa trombin (TT. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan air liur pacat menyebabkan pertambahan TT sebanyak 100% (IC100 iaitu 43.205µg/ml plasma. Aktiviti antimikrob air liur telah diuji dengan pelbagai jenis bakteria (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi dan S.aureus dan pelbagai jenis kulat (C.albicans and C.neoformans. Didapati air liur menghasilkan aktiviti perencatan terhadap Sal.typhi (kepekatan perencat minima (Minimal inhibitory concentration - MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml dan E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Qu; Lei Wang; Yajun Chen; Lei Li; Yue He; Zhongtao Ding

    2014-01-01

    As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs), polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of tita...

  11. Tick saliva-mediated immunomodulation of the vertebrate host.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J. F.; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Woldemeskel, M.), s. 19-36 ISBN 978-1-62081-136-8. - (Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior) R&D Projects: GA ?R GCP302/11/J029; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick infestation * host system modulation * bioactive molecules * tick-borne pathogens * saliva-assisted transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36294

  12. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata; Fabio Daumas Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani; Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected ...

  13. Efecto de Chicles con Xilitol sobre Placa Bacteriana, Flujo Salival y Capacidad Buffer de la Saliva en Adolescentes Chilenos / Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum on Dental Plaque, Saliva Flow and Saliva Buffer Capacity in Chilean Youngsters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Felipe, Velásquez Castilla; Carmen Gloria, Narváez Carrasco.

    Full Text Available La prevención es el área de la odontología a la que se le debe dar más énfasis para disminuir posteriores consecuencias sobre la cavidad oral. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del uso de chicles con xilitol sobre placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva en jóv [...] enes. Participaron 15 alumnos de quinto año, se asignaron al azar en un grupo de estudio y un grupo control, consumiendo chicles con xilitol y un placebo respectivamente, 4 veces al día por 21 días. Se midió placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva al día 0, 7, 14 y 21. La placa bacteriana se redujo en ambos grupos tras 21 días de tratamiento sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Asimismo el flujo salival aumentó tanto en el grupo de estudio como en el grupo de control, pero sin encontrar resultados significativos (p>0,05). El pH salival aumentó en ambos grupos, sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Los resultados sugieren quemasticar chicles con xilitol disminuye la placa bacteriana, aumenta el flujo salival y la capacidad buffer de la saliva, pero estudios con un mayor número de pacientes deberían realizarse para obtener valores significativos. Abstract in english Prevention is the area of dentistry that should be given more emphasis to reduce further consequences on the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to assess the use of xylitol chewing gum on dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva buffer capacity in youngster. Fifteen dental students were randomly as [...] signed to a study and control group, the first received a xylitol chewing gum while the second a placebo chewing gum, provided 4 times per day for 21 days. Dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva ph were measures at day 0, 7, 14 and 21st. Dental plaque concentration decreased in both groups (p >0,05), saliva flow increased (p>0,05) and saliva ph was incremented but no significant differences were found among groups (p>0,05). The use of xylitol chewing gum helps to reduce dental plaque, increase saliva flow and ph, like the placebo chewing gum, but a larger study is needed to properly assess if xylitol has an additional benefit on the studied variables.

  14. LA SALIVA Y SISTEMAS ADHESIVOS ALTERNATIVOS PARA PRÓTESIS TOTAL / SALIVA AND ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS FOR COMPLETE DENTURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier Enrique, Méndez Silva; Cristhian Camilo, Madrid Troconis; Lesbia Rosa, Tirado Amador.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las prótesis totales pueden presentar problemas biomecánicos relacionados con la retención y la estabilidad, que pueden originarse a partir de errores del profesional durante la toma de impresión funcional de los tejidos, diseño y confección de las prótesis; además de errores durante la fase de labo [...] ratorio a cargo de los técnicos o simplemente a cambios biológicos que experimentan los tejidos subyacentes como la reabsorción ósea, atrofia de los maxilares y disminución del flujo salival. Esta última circunstancia es de principal preocupación, ya que la saliva tiene un papel importante en la retención de las prótesis como "adhesivo natural", por lo que durante años se han propuesto diversos métodos alternativos de retención, especialmente sistemas adhesivos complementarios cuyas propiedades se han perfeccionado con la inclusión de otros compuestos como algunos polímeros sintéticos, agentes antimicrobianos, colorantes, aditivitos y preservativos; además se encuentran disponibles en diferentes presentaciones comerciales. El objetivo de esta revisión es exaltar las propiedades de la saliva como adhesivo natural y la posibilidad de mejorar la retención de las prótesis, cuando estas no poseen la capacidad de asegurar resultados deseados mediante sistemas adhesivos complementarios, que son una alternativa segura y efectiva, siempre que el odontólogo asuma la responsabilidad y la competencia de prescribir el tipo de adhesivo en relación con condiciones específicas del paciente para evitar situaciones indeseables como efectos sistémicos por la ingesta excesiva y prolongada de sales de zinc incluidas en algunas presentaciones comerciales de adhesivos para prótesis. Abstract in english Complete dentures may present biomechanical problems related to retention and stability, which can arise from professional errors during functional tissue impression, as well as during prostheses design and manufacturing, in addition to errors during the laboratory phase by technicians or simply by [...] biological changes of adjacent tissues, such as bone resorption, maxillaries atrophy, and decreased salivary flow. The latter is a circumstance of major concern because saliva plays an important role in prosthesis retention as a "natural adhesive"; therefore, various alternative retention methods have been suggested over time, especially in terms of complementary adhesive systems whose properties have been improved by including other compounds such as synthetic polymers, antimicrobial agents, colorants, additives, and preservatives, which are available in different commercial presentations. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties of saliva as a natural adhesive and the possibility of improving denture retention when it lacks the ability to guarantee the desired results by additional adhesive systems, which are a safe and effective alternative, provided that the dentist is responsible and competent enough to prescribe the right adhesive in relation to specific patient conditions to avoid undesirable situations such as systemic effects due to prolonged excessive intake of zinc salts included in some commercial presentations of denture adhesives.

  15. Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

    2012-09-01

    Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

  16. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  17. Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abarghooyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

  18. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program

  19. Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.A., Mariano; R.G., Oliveira; M.A., Fernandes; E.C.S., Rigo.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not pr [...] omote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corrosion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

  20. Cancer biomarker discovery in saliva by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran S. Ambatipudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The quest for biomarkers has been much pursued to aid in the early diagnosis, monitor post-treatment progress and development of targeted therapies. Nevertheless, the translation of biomarker discovery to clinical use has been limited due to multiple reasons such as the long path from discovery to clinical assays, limitation of samples and incoherent pipeline for biomarker development. To date, diagnosis of cancer has been based on biopsies and histological examinations and often becomes difficult to get repeated sampling from patients for confirmation. Consequently, it is important for clinical researchers to look at multiple body fluids and different molecular techniques to identify biomarkers. One such bodyfluid is saliva, which is easily and non-invasively collected and contains thousands of potential protein biomarkers. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry based proteomics hold great promise to identify potential biomarkers. This review presents an overview of the potential use of saliva and mass spectrometry for global discovery and validation of biomarkers.

  1. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION / A ontogenia da secreção de saliva em lactentes e a proteção pré-epitelial do esôfago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgard Ferro, COLLARES; Maria Inez Machado, FERNANDES.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto Vários estudos têm indicado que a esofagite de refluxo é rara em lactentes no primeiro ano de vida a despeito da elevada ocorrência de regurgitação nesta fase da vida. Há evidências da importância da saliva para a proteção pré-epitelial da mucosa esofágica. Resultados Um estudo longitudina [...] l conduzido em lactentes saudáveis indicou que a capacidade estimulada da secreção de saliva (volume de saliva/kg de peso) foi significativamente elevada no primeiro ano de vida comparada com crianças com mais idade e adultos jovens. Este padrão também foi observado nas primeiras semanas de vida de recém-nascidos com baixo peso e persistiu em lactentes com desnutrição proteico-calórica grave (marasmo) Conclusão A grande habilidade para secretar saliva é uma importante condição fisiológica que pode proteger o lactente da agressão ácido/péptica do esôfago durante os primeiros estágios do seu desenvolvimento. Abstract in english Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study [...] conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight) was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus). Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  2. Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

  3. Usage of Electronic Resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thanuskodi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has thrown a new challenge to the libraries. The technology has shown a great impact on the services of the libraries. Libraries use IT for better services and satisfying diverse user needs. Libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals, and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-zines. This has increased the global dissemination of information. Electronic resources (e-resources are easily accessible in the remote areas. The e-resources solve storage problems and control the flood of information. Print sources are being digitised. There is a great need to study the use of e-resources and investigate the factors that are a hindrance to their use. The present study is an attempt to examine the usage of electronic resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University. Study revealed that MPhil students respondents took the first position in their overall methods of searching e-resources, postgraduate student respondents the second position, PhD Scholar respondents the last position. The study confirmed that respondents were aware of the e-resources and various types of e-resources, e-database, and e-journals. The study recommended the improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more e-resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University.

  4. Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples / Detecção de anticorpos anti-VHA em amostras de saliva utilizando teste imuno-enzimático

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Takano, OBA; Angela Maria Miranda, SPINA; Cláudia Patara, SARACENI; Marcílio Figueiredo, LEMOS; Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade, SENHORAS; Regina Célia, MOREIRA; Celso Francisco Hernandes, GRANATO.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de identificar infecções presentes ou passadas utilizando fluidos corpóreos que seriam mais facilmente coletados do que o sangue, principalmente em crianças, facilitaria grandemente a investigação e o acompanhamento de surtos de hepatite A, que ocorrem com muita freqüência em nosso m [...] eio. Nosso estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de avaliar a detecção dos anticorpos anti-VHA, da classe IgA, IgM, e anticorpos totais em amostras de saliva, usando amostras de soro como padrão. Foram estudadas 43 amostras pareadas de saliva e de soro, colhidas de 24 crianças e de um adulto durante um surto de hepatite A, e de 18 funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Empregando saliva como amostra clínica, a sensibilidade para a detecção de anti-VHA IgM foi de 100,0%, de anti-VHA IgA foi de 80,8% e de anti-VHA total foi de 82,1%. Não houve nenhum resultado falso-positivo, sendo a especificidade de 100%. A concordância foi alta entre os resultados das amostras de saliva e soro na detecção dos anticorpos, indicando que amostras de saliva podem ser utilizadas no diagnóstico de infecção aguda pelo VHA e na seleção de indivíduos para vacinação contra o VHA, para conter surtos. Abstract in english The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and tota [...] l antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

  5. Interleukin-6 levels in relation to psychosocial factors: studies on serum, saliva, and in vitro production by blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, E; Leanderson, P; Kristenson, M; Ernerudh, J

    2006-05-01

    Psychosocial factors and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are both related to risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate how a broad range of psychosocial factors related to levels of IL-6 in different media. Fifty-nine men and women aged 30-65 were recruited from a larger study and selected to cover a broad range of psychosocial status. IL-6 levels were analyzed in serum, in saliva collected at home at three different time points during a day, and in the supernatant of cell cultures stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide. After adjustments for age, gender, self-reported health problems, and lifestyle factors, IL-6-levels in serum were negatively correlated with coping and self-esteem, and positively correlated with cynicism, hostile affect, hopelessness, depression, and vital exhaustion. In saliva samples, at all time points, IL-6 levels were positively correlated to cynicism, and IL-6 levels 30 min after awakening were also positively correlated with hopelessness, depression, and vital exhaustion. After adjustment for age and gender, cynicism, depression, and vital exhaustion were negatively correlated to IL-6 levels in the supernatant of cell cultures stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide, but this effect was lost after control for self-reported health problems and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, we found that IL-6 levels in serum and saliva were negatively related to psychosocial resources and positively related to psychosocial risk factors. These data strengthen the argument that IL-6 is involved in mediating the risk for disease development that has been associated with psychosocial factors. PMID:16183246

  6. Corrosion of gold alloys and titanium in artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of gold alloys and one type of pure titanium have been submitted to corrosion in artificial saliva for periods of up to about 2 months. The release of copper, gold and silver from the gold alloys as well as titanium from the titanium matrix was measured with nuclear tracer technique. The physical/chemical state of the corrosion products of gold alloys referring to the ionic state or presence in particulate form has been examined retaining the particulate matter on a glass filter. Copper was observed to be mainly present in the ionic state. Considerable amounts of gold were observed to be retained on the glass filter explained by the presence of gold in particulate form or as a compentent of a dispersed collloidal phase. The estimation of the release of titanium was registered by the tracer nuclide 46Sc assuming particulate matter to be deteriorated from the titanium surface. (author)

  7. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  8. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  9. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  10. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  11. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

  12. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  13. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  14. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to take into consideration the altered mucin glycosylation and saliva rheological properties when designing synthetic or purified mucins for saliva substitutes and dry mouth therapy. PMID:26446936

  15. PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuma Philip E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. Methods Urine and saliva were obtained from 47 thick film positive and 4 negative individuals one day after collection of blood slides and filter paper blood spots. P. falciparum DNA was extracted from blood, urine and saliva, in separate groups, using the Chelex method or Qiagen DNEasy® kit (urine and saliva only. Blood, urine and saliva extracts were subjected to PCR in separate batches. Amplicons from the various sample types were examined for MSP2 polymorphisms and restriction fragment patterns on DHFR amino acid codon 59. Results and discussion Malaria infections exhibited primarily low-grade parasite densities, with a geometric mean of 775 asexual parasites/?l. Regularly matching polymorphic MSP2 genotypes were found between the corresponding urine, saliva and peripheral blood amplicons of each individual, with different inter-individual polymorphic genotypes. Amplicon yields were significantly dependent on DNA extraction method, parasite density and primer set (p ® kit extraction had more than 2× higher amplicon yield than the Chelex method, for both urine and saliva. Amplicon yields were 1.6 fold higher from saliva than urine. For each unit increase in log parasite density, the probability of amplicon enhanced 1.8 fold. Highest amplicon yields were obtained from the primer set with the shortest PCR product. Conclusion P. falciparum infection is detectable by PCR on human urine and saliva samples. Subject to further refinement of extraction technique and amplicon yields, large-scale malaria parasite screening and epidemiological surveys could be possible without the need to collect blood and use of needles or sharps.

  16. Metal content of saliva of patients with and without metal restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhammer, P; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T; Schmalz, G

    2004-12-01

    Many in vitro studies have confirmed the corrosion of dental alloys. However, in vivo corrosion studies, for example, recording of the release of metal ions into saliva, are scarce, and data on the repeatability of the metal content measurements of saliva are lacking. The present study examined the metal content of saliva of patients with and without metal restorations and assessed the repeatability of these data. The composition of each patient's oral cast alloys was analyzed using the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of metal biopsy specimens and was compared to the metals found in saliva. Saliva analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Chemical analysis comprised the metals Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Ni, Pd, Pt, Sn, and Zn. The metals Ag, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn were found in saliva of patients without metal restorations, but these data showed statistically significant differences in the metal content between consecutively performed samples per patient. The metals Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn were identified in saliva of patients with metal restorations being higher in concentration than in control patients. In 77% of the cases at least one metal of the restoration was found in the patient's saliva. However, the metal content showed statistically significant differences between replicate samples of the same patient taken at different times. The metal content of saliva is affected among other things by intraoral metal restorations, but present data do not support the idea that it is a reliable indicator for the systemic exposure to metals released from dental alloys. PMID:15378404

  17. The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Top Adler, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be used for non-invasive disease monitoring in horses as in humans, pigs and dogs

  18. Measuring the quantity of phosphor in the saliva after application of fluoride gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukleva, M; Bozukova, T; Karakasidu, M

    1999-01-01

    The transition of active ingredients from the prophylactic agents into the saliva leads to an increase of its mineralizing potential. The aim of the present study was to measure the quantity of phosphor in the saliva after application of a gel containing both fluoride and phosphate ions. The quantity of phosphor is measured photometrically according to the Chen method. Results show a sharp increase in the quantity of phosphor in the saliva after application. It gradually decreases with time and after 2 hours it reaches the initial level. PMID:10462943

  19. Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji Takahashi; Shigeru Watanabe; Takashi Ogihara; Koji Watanabe; Kun Xuan; Xiaojing Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2), a sports drink (pH 3.5), and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8). Distille...

  20. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Zsofia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 ?g DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses.

  1. Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnes de Fátima Faustino, Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da, Silva; Thelma Lopes da, Silva; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães, Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish [...] used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h) and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p

  2. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Denaxas, S. C.; George, J.; Herrett, E; Shah, A.D.; Kalra, D.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Timmis, A. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hemingway, H.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

  3. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

  4. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  5. Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos / Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ninoska Tahis, Viera Sirit; Thais Teresita, Morales Rojas; Alejandra Isabel, Morón Medina; Rita Mireya, Navas Perozo; Adriana Beatriz, Pedreañez Santana.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las con [...] centraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales. Abstract in english At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA) and O2- in the saliva and [...] blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL), RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL). There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

  6. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  7. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  8. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

  9. Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Victor H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both patients were subjected to real time RT-PCR for DENV detection and quantification. Dengue RNA was detected in serum, urine and saliva samples of both patients. Patient 1 was infected with DENV-2 and patient 2 with DENV-3. Data presented in this study suggest that urine and saliva could be used as alternative samples for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection when blood samples are difficult to obtain, e.g., in newborns and patients with hemorrhagic syndromes.

  10. Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Telma R; Oliveira, Anibal S; Alfonso, Helda L; Galvão, Larissa R; Amarilla, Alberto A; Poloni, Dimair F; Figueiredo, Luiz T; Aquino, Victor H

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both patients were subjected to real time RT-PCR for DENV detection and quantification. Dengue RNA was detected in serum, urine and saliva samples of both patients. Patient 1 was infected with DENV-2 and patient 2 with DENV-3. Data presented in this study suggest that urine and saliva could be used as alternative samples for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection when blood samples are difficult to obtain, e.g., in newborns and patients with hemorrhagic syndromes. PMID:20105295

  11. Microsoft Word - PAGE Study Case letter-MR Saliva.doc

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAGE STUDY Case letter- MR& Saliva Revised 6/16/2006 1. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services Name *** , 2006 Address Address Dear (Title/Name),

  12. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with f...

  13. The corrosion of dental amalgam in artificial salivas: an electrochemical impedance study

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. A. Brett; Trandafir, Florin

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical impedance study of the corrosion of Tytin dental amalgam was carried out in electrolytes similar to artificial saliva with or without lactic acid, and in standard inorganic artificial saliva with higher ionic concentration. Spectra were recorded in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen to show the importance of the formation of oxide film and the adsorption of the organic component, as well as the exposed surface microstructure. The data, supported by open circuit po...

  14. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis. PMID:20597210

  15. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peneluppi Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05.

  16. Propranolol concentrations in blood serum, seminal plasma and saliva in man after a single oral dose.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, P; Grech, E. D.; Pearson, R.M.; Ridgway, E J; Turner, P.

    1984-01-01

    A single dose of 80 mg racemic propranolol hydrochloride was administered by mouth to six healthy male volunteers. The mean concentration achieved in seminal plasma at 2 h after dosing was almost identical to that in blood serum. The concentrations of propranolol in seminal plasma and saliva were much less than those known to reduce sperm motility by 50% in vitro. The concentrations in saliva did not reflect those in blood serum. Propranolol in the dose administered in this study is unlikely ...

  17. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

  18. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelle Peneluppi, Silva; José, Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda, Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva, Machado; Luciane Dias de, Oliveira; Juliana Campos, Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and c [...] ontrolling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

  19. Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Victor H; Figueiredo Luiz T; Poloni Dimair F; Amarilla Alberto A; Galvão Larissa R; Alfonso Helda L; Oliveira Anibal S; Poloni Telma R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both patients w...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL O-GLYCANS ISOLATED FROM TEAR AND SALIVA of OCULAR ROSACEA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, Sureyya; An, Hyun Joo; Vieira, Ana C.; Park, GunWook; Kim, Jae Han; Mannis, Mark J.; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2013-01-01

    O-glycans in saliva and tear isolated from patients suffering from ocular rosacea, a form of inflammatory ocular surface disease, were profiled and their structures were elucidated using high resolution mass spectrometry. We have previously shown that certain structures, particularly sulfated oligosaccharides, increased in the tear and saliva of rosacea patients. In this study, the structures of these glycans were elucidated using primarily tandem mass spectrometry. There were important simil...

  1. Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Dervisevic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28 in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19, moderate disease activity (n=19 and high disease activity (n=25. NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3 to nitrite (NO-2 was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3 was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05. We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05. Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

  2. A comparative study of saliva and serum paracetamol levels using a simple spectrophotometric method.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Adithan; Thangam, J

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between saliva and serum paracetamol levels was investigated in ten healthy male volunteers. The salivary and serum paracetamol levels showed significant correlation with each other. The salivary and serum paracetamol concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary and serum paracetamol half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of paracetamol concentration in saliva and serum failed to show significant correla...

  3. Welfare assessment in the Indian rhino and Asian elephant through cortisol measurement in saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Menargues Marcilla, María Asunción; Urios Moliner, Vicente; Navarrete, José María; López González, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    At Estación Biológica Terra Natura (University of Alicante, Spain), we are developing a stress assessment program in the Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) at Terra Natura’s Theme Park. We are attempting to test the effect of environmental enrichment techniques applied in their enclosures, through cortisol measurement in saliva. We obtain the saliva daily and the cortisol level is analysed using RIA (Radio Immuno Assay techniques), at the endocrinology...

  4. Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene™ DNA self-collection kit

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Ana P; Oliveira Isabel O; Santos Betânia R; Millech Cristini; Silva Liziane P; González David A; Hallal Pedro C.; Menezes Ana M B; Araújo Cora L; Barros Fernando C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8?months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Methods Saliva samples were colle...

  5. PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples

    OpenAIRE

    Thuma Philip E; Shiff Clive J; Simoloka Christopher; Mharakurwa Sungano; Sullivan David J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. Methods Urine and saliva were obtained from 47 thick film positive and 4 negative individuals one day after collection of blood slides...

  6. DNA yield and quality of saliva samples and suitability for large scale epidemiological studies in children

    OpenAIRE

    Koni, A.C.; Scott, R A; Wang, G; Bailey, M.E.S.; Peplies, J.; Bammann, K.; Pitsiladis, Y P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate two saliva collection methods for DNA yield and quality as applied to a large, integrated, multicentre, European project involving the collection of biological material from children. Design: Cross-sectional multicentre comparative study in young children. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 14 019 children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effe...

  7. Saliva concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide 2-mononitrate and isosorbide 5-mononitrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, I. W.; Major, R M; Chasseaud, L F; TAYLOR, T

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and its active metabolites, isosorbide 2-mononitrate (2-ISMN) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) were examined. In the case of 5-ISMN (r = 0.98, P less than 0.01), saliva concentrations are probably reliable indices of the plasma concentrations of this drug and their measurement should provide a useful non-invasive procedure to assess compliance during the clinical use of products containing either ISDN o...

  8. Observações complementares sôbre a presença do Toxoplasma gondii na saliva de pacientes com toxoplasmose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carlos Levi

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de inoculação no peritônio de camundongos, demonstraram, os autores a presença do Toxoplasma gondii na saliva de 12 (60% indivíduos com toxoplasmose, em estudo no qual 20 doentes foram considerados. Esta verificação é comunicada como complementação a outra, anterior e preliminar, relativa ao mesmo assunto. A importância da presença do parasito na saliva mereceu destaque, em virtude do significado que ela pode ter em relação à transmissão da toxoplasmose.

  9. Relations between rheological properties, saliva-induced structure breakdown and sensory texture attributes of custards

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, A.M.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wijk, R.A., de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The relevance of initial rheological properties and mechanical and enzymatic structure breakdown in determining selected sensory texture attributes of custards was studied. The so-called structure breakdown cell was used to characterize saliva-induced breakdown, i.e., by monitoring digestion of starch by amylase from saliva. Based on rheological parameters, some attributes could be predicted well, while others more poorly or were not predicted. Predictable attributes were primarily determined...

  10. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  11. Sicca symptoms, saliva and tear production, and disease variables in 636 patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Till; Kvien, Tore Kristian; Jensen, J. L.; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To estimate the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms (SISY) or reduced saliva and tear production; (2) to relate SISY and sicca signs to measures of disease activity, damage, and health status; and (3) to examine the relation between symptoms and objective signs of tear and saliva production in a large sample of representative patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: From an unselective county RA register 636 patients (age 20-70 years) were examined with Schir...

  12. Increased saliva oestriol to progesterone ratio before preterm delivery: a possible predictor for preterm labor?

    OpenAIRE

    Darne, J; McGarrigle, H. H.; Lachelin, G C

    1987-01-01

    Saliva oestriol, oestradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured in 23 women who went into spontaneous preterm labour. The patients fell clinically and biochemically into two groups. The 13 who went into preterm labour with intact membranes had a saliva oestriol to progesterone ratio greater than one in every case and greater than the 95th centile for their length of gestation in 12 cases; by contrast, all those who went into spontaneous preterm labour after prolonged rupture of the...

  13. Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella; Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti; Maria Fernanda Borro Bijella; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2005-01-01

    There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control) and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes afte...

  14. Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Gretel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX, medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g, SHAM (n=12 y ovariectomizadas (OVX (n=12. Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría. En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml como FAO (UI/l en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, pBone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopeptide (CTX and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark and b-AP (IU/L (Wiener, colorimetrically. Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p<0.05 y 71±29 vs. 104±23; p<0.01, respectively. Saliva presented the same behaviour (3.6±0.5 vs. 6.4±2.9; p<0.02 y 73±29 vs. 90±8; p<0.003, respectively. When saliva CTX and b-AP were plotted against serum concentration significant positive correlations were obtained: r=0.58, p<0.05 and r=0.59; p<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the present results are promisory in the sense of the potential use of a salivary-based test for evaluating bone remodeling. However, the use of this methodology for clinical practice needs extensive additional investigations.

  15. Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation. PMID:25616553

  16. SMARTE: RESTORING THE ENVIRONMENT, REVITALIZING COMMUNITIES - NOV. 15, 2006 - ELECTRONIC TOOLS AND RESOURCES SESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools -electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and...

  17. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation achieved using 1.5 mg/kg.

  18. Growth of Candida albicans in human saliva is supported by low-molecular-mass compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Van't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-12-01

    Saliva plays a key role in the maintenance of a stable oral microflora. It contains antimicrobial compounds but also functions as a substrate for growth of bacteria under conditions of low external nutrient supply. Besides bacteria, yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, commonly inhabit the oral cavity. Under immunocompromised conditions, instantaneous outgrowth of this yeast occurs in oral carriers of C. albicans, suggesting that this yeast is able to survive in the oral cavity with saliva as sole source of growth substrate. The aim of the present study was to identify the salivary constituents that are used by C. albicans for growth and survival in saliva. In addition, we have explored the effect of growth in saliva on the susceptibility of C. albicans to histatin 5, a salivary antifungal peptide. It was found that C. albicans was able to grow in human saliva without addition of glucose, and in the stationary phase could survive for more than 400 h. Candida albicans grown in saliva was more than 10 times less susceptible for salivary histatin 5 than C. albicans cultured in Sabouraud medium. PMID:26392045

  19. Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cadaxo Rochael

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

  20. In situ assessment of the saliva effect on enamel morphology after microabrasion technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Núbia Inocencya Pavesi, Pini; Débora Alves Nunes Leite, Lima; Renato Herman, Sundfeld; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Flávio Henrique Baggio, Aguiar; José Roberto, Lovadino.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated saliva effects on enamel morphology surface after microabrasion technique. METHODS: Enamel blocks (16 mm2) obtained from bovine incisors were divided into 9 groups as follows: one control group (no treatment), four groups with microabrasion treatment using 35% phospho [...] ric acid and pumice (H3PO4+Pum) and other four groups treated with 6.6% hydrochloric acid and silica (HCl+Sil). One group of each treatment was submitted to 4 frames of saliva exposure: without exposure, 1-h exposure, 24-h exposure, and 7-days exposure on in situ regimen. Nineteen volunteers (n=19), considered as statistical blocks, used an intraoral appliance containing the specimens, for 7 days. Enamel roughness (Ra) was tested before and after treatment, and after saliva exposure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to evaluate qualitatively the enamel morphology. RESULTS: All groups exhibited increased Ra after microabrasion. With regards to saliva exposure, the treatment with HCl+Sil presented more susceptibility to the saliva action, but no period of time was efficient in re-establishing this characteristic compared with the control group. CLSM analysis showed reduction of the micro-abrasive damages during the experimental times. CONCLUSIONS: Seven days of saliva exposure were not sufficient for the treated enamel to reach its normal characteristics compared with the control group.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva for its use in forensic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has long been known for its diagnostic value in several diseases. It also has a potential to be used in forensic science. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from saliva with those extracted from blood in order to assess the feasibility of extracting sufficient DNA from saliva for its possible use in forensic identification. Materials and Methods: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers and DNA extraction was performed through Phenol Chloroform technique. The quantity and quality of isolated DNA was analyzed by spectrophotometery and the samples were then used to amplify short tandem repeat (STR F13 using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mean quantity of DNA obtained in saliva was 48.4 ± 8.2 ?g/ml and in blood was 142.5 ± 45.9 ?g/ml. Purity of DNA obtained as assessed by the ratio of optical density 260/280, was found to be optimal in 45% salivary samples while remaining showed minor contamination. Despite this positive F13 STR amplification was achieved in 75% of salivary DNA samples. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that saliva may prove to be a useful source of DNA for forensic purpose.

  2. Cross-species comparison of mammalian saliva using an LC-MALDI based proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Cova, Marta; Abrantes, Joana; Ferreira, Rita; Trindade, Fábio; Barros, António; Gomes, Pedro; Colaço, Bruno; Amado, Francisco; Esteves, Pedro J; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Despite the importance of saliva in the regulation of oral cavity homeostasis, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively compare the saliva of different mammal species. Aiming to define a proteome signature of mammals' saliva, an in-depth SDS-PAGE-LC coupled to MS/MS (GeLC-MS/MS) approach was used to characterize the saliva from primates (human), carnivores (dog), glires (rat and rabbit), and ungulates (sheep, cattle, horse). Despite the high variability in the number of distinct proteins identified per species, most protein families were shared by the mammals studied with the exception of cattle and horse. Alpha-amylase is an example that seems to reflect the natural selection related to digestion efficacy and food recognition. Casein protein family was identified in all species but human, suggesting an alternative to statherin in the protection of hard tissues. Overall, data suggest that different proteins might assure a similar role in the regulation of oral cavity homeostasis, potentially explaining the specific mammals' salivary proteome signature. Moreover, some protein families were identified for the first time in the saliva of some species, the presence of proline-rich proteins in rabbit's saliva being a good example. PMID:25641928

  3. A validation study of the Facial-Oral Tract Therapy Swallowing Assessment of Saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Jensen, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the validity and reliability of the Swallowing Assessment of Saliva in detection of aspiration risk. DESIGN: Validation study. SETTING: Inpatient neurorehabilitation centre. SUBJECTS: Adult patients with acquired brain injury. A total of 43 patients for concurrent validity and 33 other patients for inter-rater reliability. INTERVENTIONS: Concurrent validity was established with blinded Swallowing Assessment of Saliva and endoscopic evaluation within a 24-hour time interval. Inter-rater reliability was established with two blinded Swallowing Assessments of Saliva within a one-hour time interval. MAIN MEASURES: The Swallowing Assessment of Saliva is a seven-item scale with a combination of swallowing and non-swallowing items. It is based on the Facial-Oral Tract Therapy approach. RESULTS: The Swallowing Assessment of Saliva had a sensitivity of 91%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (59; 100), a specificity of 88% %, 95% CI (71; 97) and a kappa coefficient of 0.87 ±0.17 in detection of aspiration risk. Furthermore, analyses showed that experienced and inexperienced occupational therapists performed equally in detection of aspiration risk. CONCLUSION: The Swallowing Assessment of Saliva is a simple, sensitive and reliable assessment for detecting aspiration risk in patients with acquired brain injury.

  4. Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

  5. Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    CERN Document Server

    Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

  6. Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry / Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Papile Maciel, Carvalho; Arsenio, Sales-Peres; Lucilene Arilho, Ribeiro-Bicudo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. METODOLOGIA: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a [...] 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%). Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This study evaluated the quality of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to human identification. METHODS: The saliva samples of 20 subjects, collected in the form of saliva in natura and from mouth swabs and stored at -20ºC, were analyzed. After 7 days, the DNA was e [...] xtracted from the 40 saliva samples and subjected to PCR and electrophoresis. After 180 days, the technique was repeated with the 20 swab samples. RESULTS: The first-stage results indicated that DNA was successfully extracted in 97.5% of reactions, 95% of saliva in natura and 100% of swab saliva samples, with no statistically significant difference between the forms of saliva. In the second phase, the result was positive for all 20 analyzed samples (100%). Subsequently, in order to analyze the quality of the DNA obtained from human saliva, the SIX3-2 gene was tested on the 20 mouth swab samples, and the PCR products were digested using the MbO1 restriction enzyme to evaluate polymorphisms in the ADRA-2 gene, with positive results for most samples. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the quantity and quality of DNA from saliva and the techniques employed are adequate for forensic analysis of DNA.

  7. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Saturday U. Omeluzor; Susan U. Ogbuiyi

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was...

  8. ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?

    OpenAIRE

    MAKRI, S.; Blandford, A; Cox, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

  9. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  10. Student Effort, Media Preference, and Writing Quality when Using Print and Electronic Resources in Expository Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Farrell, Courtney A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the Internet as a research tool on elementary students' quality of writing, their perceptions of effort expended, and their resource media preference in writing an expository paper. We gathered data from 56 upper-elementary students as they wrote expository papers using print resources,…

  11. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Anzai-Kanto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório.

  12. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures / Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki, Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo, Hirata; Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff, Melani; Rogério Nogueira, Oliveira.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte [...] amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discus [...] s the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

  13. Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

  14. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANDERAS-TARABAY JOSÉ ANTONIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.

  15. Proteomic investigation of whole saliva in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Manconi, Barbara; Fanni, Daniela; Demelia, Luigi; Sorbello, Orazio; Iavarone, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2015-10-14

    Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism, manifesting hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Early diagnosis is often unfeasible and a unique diagnostic test is currently inapplicable. We performed the qualitative/quantitative characterization of the salivary proteome/peptidome of 32 Wilson's disease patients by an integrated top-down/bottom-up approach. Patients exhibited significant higher levels of S100A9 and S100A8 proteoforms, and their oxidized forms with respect to controls. Oxidation occurred on methionine and tryptophan residues, and on the unique cysteine residue, in position 42 in S100A8, and 3 in S100A9, that generated glutathionylated, cysteinylated, sulfinic, sulfonic, and disulfide dimeric forms. Wilson's disease patient saliva showed high levels of two new fragments of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and of ?-defensins 2 and 4. Overall, the salivary proteome of Wilson's disease patients reflected oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions characteristic of the pathology, highlighting differences that could be useful clues of disease exacerbation. PMID:26254010

  16. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using 3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

  17. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeh M. Daher; Ali Shaqour

    2010-01-01

    Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

  18. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system. PMID:26351732

  19. Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

  20. Teaching Information Literacy Using Electronic Resources for Grades K-6. Professional Growth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeele, Linda, Ed.

    This notebook is a compilation of 51 lesson plans for grades K-6 written by various authors and focusing on the integration of technology into the curriculum. Lesson plans include topics such as online versus traditional card catalog, exploring the technology in the media center, electronic encyclopedias and CD- ROMs, using and producing a video…

  1. Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-12-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

  2. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  3. Effects of radiation and ?-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chitra S; Shyamala Devi C

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC) were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT) and simultaneous supplementation with ? - toc...

  4. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Laura C; Whetzel Courtney A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Typical saliva coll...

  5. Therapeutic carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) monitoring in children using saliva as a biologic fluid / Monitoramento terapêutico de carbamazepina e ácido valproico em saliva de crianças

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Maldonado; Pietro, Fagiolino; M., Vázquez; A., Rey; I., Olano; R., Eiraldi; C., Scavone.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente por 3 anos a partir de dados salivares, as terapias com carbamacepina (CBZ) e ácido valproico (VPA) em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de saliva estimuladas com ácido cítrico por método FPIA em 103 pacientes (i [...] dades 1-14 anos) em monoterapia com CBZ ou VPA ou terapia combinada CBZ-VPA. RESULTADOS: Níveis salivares de VPA se relacionaram linearmente com a dose diária, e a relação não linear foi encontrada em pacientes com CBZ. VPA não alterou as concentrações salivares de CBZ, porém a CBZ reduziu os níveis salivares de VPA em pacientes com terapia combinada. Pacientes refratários apresentaram altas concentrações de VPA. Os níveis de CBZ em pacientes não controlados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos pacientes controlados quando as doses diárias foram mais elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: Saliva estimulada com ácido cítrico é adequada para o monitoramento terapêutico. Níveis da droga na saliva em pacientes que não responderam ao tratamento pode ser explicado pelo transporte de efluxo generalizado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. METHODS: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 [...] years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA combined therapy. RESULTS: VPA salivary levels were linearly related with daily dose, but a non-linear relationship was found for CBZ, in patients under monotherapy. VPA did not alter saliva CBZ concentration. Conversely, CBZ reduced VPA salivary levels. Non-responsive children displayed higher VPA concentrations. CBZ levels in uncontrolled patients showed non-significant difference in relation with controlled subjects even though their daily doses were higher. CONCLUSION: Citric acid stimulated saliva is reliable enough to perform therapeutic drug monitoring. Saliva drug levels in non-responsive patients would be explained according to the generalized efflux transporter overexpression hypothesis.

  6. Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09 after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09 após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. A quantidade média ± dp (mg de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado clinicamente. Por outro lado, essa goma de mascar deveria ser evitada por crianças na idade de risco para a fluorose dentária.

  7. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  8. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  9. Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

  10. Metabolomics analysis of saliva from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, G; Saegusa, J; Irino, Y; Tanaka, S; Tsuda, K; Takahashi, S; Sendo, S; Morinobu, A

    2015-11-01

    The recent development of salivary proteomics has led to the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosing patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Here we sought to identify differentially produced salivary metabolites from pSS patients and healthy controls (HCs) that might be used to characterize this disease. We obtained salivary samples from 12 female pSS patients (mean age 44.2?±?13.01) and 21 age-matched female HCs. The metabolite profiles of saliva were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total metabolite levels in each of the samples were calculated and compared across the study participants. A total of 88 metabolites were detected across the study samples, 41 of which were observed at reduced levels in the samples frompSS patients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a loss in salivary metabolite diversity in the pSS patient samples compared to the HC samples. The reduced presence of glycine, tyrosine, uric acid and fucose, which may reflect salivary gland destruction due to chronic sialoadenitis, contributed to the loss of diversity. Comparative PCA of the pSS patients revealed the presence of two subpopulations based on their metabolite profiles, and these two subpopulations showed a significant difference in the prevalence of major salivary glanditis (P?=?0·014). In this study, we found that the salivary metabolite profile of pSS patients was less diverse than that of HCs and that the metabolite profiles in pSS patients were affected by the presence of major salivary glanditis. PMID:26201380

  11. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do?an At?lgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

  12. The Impact of the Electronic Resources in Portuguese Academic Libraries: Results of a Qualitative Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Luiza; Pires, Cesaltina

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years there have been big changes in the Portuguese academic libraries services as in other academic libraries over the world. These changes include the adoption of automatic catalogues and the electronic access to bibliographic data bases and scientific journals in full text. Nowadays physical and digital sources are together. Professors, students and researchers are able to access simultaneous to a great amount of quality information pay and open access. The Portugue...

  13. ??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????????

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

    ???89-102

  14. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  15. Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil / Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange Artimos de, Oliveira; Marilda Mendonça, Siqueira; David W.G., Brown; Pamella, Litton; Luís Antonio B., Camacho; Sílvia Thees, Castro; Bernard J., Cohen.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a validade da utilização da saliva no diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola. Quarenta e cinco amostras pareadas de sangue e de saliva, coletadas de 1 a 29 dias após o início da doença, foram testadas para detecção de imunoglobulina (Ig) M específica por radioimun [...] oensaio com captura (MACRIA). Anticorpos IgM específicos contra rubéola foram detectados em todas as amostras sangüíneas e em 38 (84,4%) das amostras de saliva. A especificidade do teste na saliva foi de 96%. Estes resultados indicam que a utilização da saliva pode ser uma alternativa válida para obtenção de espécimens clínicos na investigação de casos recentes de rubéola, especialmente nas atividades de vigilância epidemiológica e controle da virose. Abstract in english This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by [...] antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

  16. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in saliva and gingival tissues, respectively. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Reduced salivary TFF1 and TFF3 concentrations were observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Decreased TFF3 expression in gingival tissues of patients with CP was demonstrated (P = 0.041). Levels of salivary TFF3 concentrations were negatively correlated with periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (formerly known as Bacteroides forsythus). CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of TFFs in saliva and gingival tissues was detected in patients with CP. The results suggest that TFF3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  17. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante, SOUZA; Marisa, MALTZ; Lina Naomi, HASHIZUME.

    2014-08-26

    Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four t [...] reatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

  19. Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis. PMID:25025096

  20. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

  1. Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja WeirsØe; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    Background: Binge eating episodes in persons with bulimia nervosa may to some extent be a result of disturbed sensations of hunger and satiety. It has been hypothesized that abnormal appetite sensations may be due to bulimia nervosa-related alterations in the release of hormones that are known to be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa than in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake of potentially xerogenic medication. Subjects with bulimia nervosa experienced reduced hunger, which could not be explained by pre- or postprandial alterations in circulating ghrelin, leptin, insulin, or glucose concentrations. Conclusions: There were no apparent differences in the composition of blood and saliva between bulimia nervosa and control subjects, and meal-induced compositional changes in blood were not directly mirrored in saliva composition.

  2. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  3. Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršljak Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

  4. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of E. faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure in the same patient. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry Department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-37 degree C for 48 hrs. E. faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, gramstain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E. faecalis in saliva was 34% and in root canal it was 58%. Frequency between the presence of E. faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of E. faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  5. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng ?l-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  6. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of E.faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure Study. Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Duration of this study was one year. Patients and Method: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-370 C for 48 hours. E.faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E.faecalis in saliva was 34% and 58% in root canal samples. Frequency of the presence of E.faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p=0.000). Conclusion: The presence of E.faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  7. Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lif Holgerson, P; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Sjöström, I; Oberg, M; Twetman, S

    2006-01-01

    The study consisted of two sets of experiments, one in saliva and one in dental plaque. The xylitol concentration in saliva was determined enzymatically in 12 children (mean age 11.5 years) after a standardised use of various xylitol products: (A) chewing gums (1.3 g xylitol), (B) sucking tablets (0.8 g xylitol), (C) candy tablets (1.1 g xylitol), (D) toothpaste (0.1 g xylitol), (E) rinse (1.0 g xylitol), and (F) a non-xylitol paraffin. Unstimulated saliva was sampled 1, 3, 8, 16 and 30 min after use. The concentration in dental plaque was determined after mouthrinses with contrasting amounts of xylitol (LX = 2.0 g, HX = 6.0 g, and control) and supragingival plaque was collected and pooled after 5, 15 and 30 min. The mean xylitol concentration in saliva at baseline was approximately 0.1 mg/ml. All xylitol-containing products resulted in significantly increased levels (p xylitol-containing products gave elevated concentrations of xylitol in unstimulated whole saliva and dental plaque for at least 8 min after intake. PMID:16946607

  8. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Turse, Joshua E; Scoles, Glen A; Purvine, Samuel O; Nicora, Carrie D; Clauss, Therese R W; Ueti, Massaro W; Brown, Wendy C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. PMID:25110293

  9. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Anisur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

  10. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): a central electronic resource for locating and integrating mouse tumor pathology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, D A; Krupke, D M; Neuhauser, S B; Richardson, J E; Bult, C J; Eppig, J T; Sundberg, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. The MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line, and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. The MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. The MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tumor data from different scientific research areas and facilitates integration of molecular, genetic, and pathologic data. Current status of MTB, search capabilities, data types, and future enhancements are described in this article. PMID:21282667

  11. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  12. Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

  13. Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

  14. Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel et al.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%. Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA.

  15. Parotid salivary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, E J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; de Vos, V

    1988-12-01

    Specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (Loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. The composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. The parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. Myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. The saliva is hypotonic and contains relatively low concentrations of sodium and glucose and high concentrations of potassium, urea, calcium and phosphorus. Absence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase negates a digestive role and the voluminous secrete evidently aids swallowing by moisturising and lubricating the large mass of ingested leaves, grass and bark. PMID:3210214

  16. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  17. Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

  18. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  19. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

  20. Surveillance of measles in England and Wales: implications of a national saliva testing programme.

    OpenAIRE

    RAMSAY, M.; Brugha, R; Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of a mass vaccination campaign against measles-rubella in England and Wales was assessed using the results of a saliva test for measles-specific IgM, which was offered to all notified cases of measles. By means of clinical data supplied by the reporting doctors, we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of various clinical case definitions in predicting a confirmed case. A saliva sample was obtained within the appropriate time period for 3442/7574 (45.4%) of notified cases; the ...

  1. Aphid watery saliva counteracts sieve-tube occlusion: a universal phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Will, T; Kornemann, S.R.; Furch, A.C.U.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Bel, A.J.E., van

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+-binding proteins in the watery saliva of Megoura viciae counteract Ca2+-dependent occlusion of sieve plates in Vicia faba and so prevent the shut-down of food supply in response to stylet penetration. The question arises whether this interaction between aphid saliva and sieve-element proteins is a universal phenomenon as inferred by the coincidence between sieve-tube occlusion and salivation. For this purpose, leaf tips were burnt in a number of plant species from four different families...

  2. Biochemical indicators of dental caries in saliva: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, M N; Hegde, N D; Ashok, A; Shetty, S

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, copper and zinc levels in saliva of caries-active and caries-free individuals. Eighty healthy adults were divided according to WHO criteria: caries-free (DMFT = 0) and caries-active (DMFT >10). Saliva collected was estimated for SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels using the atomic nitro blue tetrazolium chloride reduction method and absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The Student t test was applied. In conclusion, SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels increased in the caries-active group and showed statistically significant results. PMID:24504381

  3. [The neutral lipid and total phospholipid content of the saliva in gingivitis and periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereliuk, V I

    2000-03-01

    With the aid of a high-performance thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography, an increase has been found out in the mixed saliva content of long chain fatty acids, triacylglycerin, diacylglycerin, cholesterin, cholesterol esters, and total phospholipids in parodontium tissues inflammation (gingivitis, parodontitis). In the gingiva fluid in parodontitis, the content of volatile fatty acids (C3-C6) and their isomeric forms was found to have gotten increased. Based on comparison of the content of certain lipid fractions in mixed and parotid saliva it has been shown that the main source of augmentation of fatty acid is the gingiva fluid, neutrophiles, and anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:10862472

  4. Cell-to-cell interaction of Streptococcus sanguis and Propionibacterium acnes on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciardi, J E; McCray, G F; Kolenbrander, P E; Lau, A

    1987-01-01

    Cell-to-cell interaction (coaggregation) between Propionibacterium acnes PK93 and Streptococcus sanguis DL1 was measured on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (SHA) at bacterial concentrations between 1.3 X 10(6) and 6.7 X 10(8) cells per ml. Four hundredfold more DL1 than PK93 cells adhered to the saliva-coated beads, and the adherence of S. sanguis was proportional to cell input. SHA precoated with 3 X 10(8) DL1 cells bound 75 to 80% of available PK93 cells at all input amounts tested, up t...

  5. A simple collection method for saliva in children: potential for home monitoring of carbamazepine therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, K Y; LEE, D.; Byron, D; Naidoo, D.; Bye, A

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method of monitoring plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs which uses salivary samples, and is suitable for home monitoring in children. To validate the method, paired plasma and saliva samples from 39 children aged between 2 and 15 years were assayed for carbamazepine and its active metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide by h.p.l.c. The method uses a gauze-wrapped cotton ball with attached string, to absorb saliva which is then separated using a syringe and plunge...

  6. Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ?l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ?g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously. (Auth.)

  7. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  8. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  9. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  10. Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum / Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro, Bijella; Fernanda Lourenção, Brighenti; Maria Fernanda Borro, Bijella; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 [...] e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle) e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09) após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifte [...] en 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control) and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09) after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p

  11. Bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Vianna, Pereira; Luciana, Leomil; Fabíola, Rodrigues-Albuquerque; José Odair, Pereira; Spartaco, Astolfi-Filho.

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana da saliva de pacientes com diferentes índices de higiene bucal através da construção de duas bibliotecas do gene 16S rRNA. Cada biblioteca foi composta por amostras de saliva de pacientes com índice de biofilme dental de Silness-Löe [...] diferenciado, sendo a primeira (A) com índice de 1,0 a 3,0 (denominada de alto índice) e a segunda (B), entre 0 a 0,5 (denominada de baixo índice). O DNA da saliva foi extraído e o gene 16S rRNA foi amplificado, clonado e sequenciado. As sequências obtidas foram comparadas com aquelas armazenadas no GenBank do NCBI e RDP. A saliva de pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental apresentou cinco gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella e Peptostreptococcus e 33,3% de bactérias não-cultivadas, agrupados em 23 unidades taxonômicas operacionais (UTOs). A saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental, foi diferente significativamente da primeira (p=0,000) e foi composta de 42 UTOs, distribuídas em 11 gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces, além de 24,87% de bactérias não-cultivadas. Pode-se concluir que existe maior diversidade bacteriana na saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental em relação a pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes using of two 16S rRNA gene libraries. Each library was composed of samples from patients with different averages of the differentiated Silness-Löe biofilm index: t [...] he first library (A) with an index between 1.0 and 3.0 (considered a high index) and the second library (B) between 0 and 0.5 (considered a low index). Saliva DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and cloned. The obtained sequences were compared with those stored at NCBI and RDP GenBank. The saliva of patients with high index presented five known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella and Peptostreptococcus - and 33.3% of nonculturable bacteria grouped into 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The saliva of patients with low index differed significantly from the first library (p=0.000) and was composed of 42 OTUs distributed into 11 known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces - including 24.87% of nonculturable bacteria. It was possible to conclude that there is greater bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with low dental plaque in relation to patients with high dental plaque.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Association of Research Libraries' E-Metrics Participant Feedback about the Evolution of Measures for Networked Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrillidou, Martha; Giersch, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) E-Metrics Project is an ongoing effort to develop new measures that describe and measure networked electronic resources and also to underscore the need for measuring the value of such resources. This article presents results from an ongoing iterative qualitative study with the following goals: (a) to…

  13. Tick saliva inhibits dendritic cell migration, maturation and function, while promoting development of Th2 responses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skallová, Anna; Iezzi, G.; Ampenberger, F.; Kopf, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 180, ?. 9 (2008), s. 6186-9192. ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : dendritic cell * tick saliva * Th2 * immune responses Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  14. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colarado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both ...

  15. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine. The median output of EGF in gastric juice was reduced from 45.6 pmol/12 h (total range 17.5-65.0) in unoperated controls to less than 0.06 pmol/12 h (total range less than 0.06-1.82) in rats given cysteamine after extirpation of the submandibular glands. The contents of EGF in the submandibular glands was unchanged during cysteamine treatment. Furthermore, the effects of intragastric instillation of exogenous EGF, infusion of saliva without EGF, and infusion of saliva with a high concentration of EGF on the development of cysteamine-induced gastric lesions were investigated in rats without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may be physiological.

  16. Annexin-A1 protein and its relationship to cortisol in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Robert C; Moradi-Bidhendi, Niloufar; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Branceleone, Vincenzo; Zariwala, M Gulrez; Brady, Daniel; Jessop, David S; Perretti, Mauro; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-05-01

    Salivary cortisol is commonly used as a clinical biomarker of endocrine status and also as a marker of psychosocial stress. Annexin-A1 (AnxA1) is an anti-inflammatory protein whose expression is modulated by glucocorticoids. Our principal objectives were to (i) detect the presence of and (ii) measure AnxA1 protein in whole human saliva and to (iii) investigate whether salivary cortisol and AnxA1 are correlated in healthy humans. A total of 37 healthy participants (male and female) were used in the study. Saliva was collected using salivette tubes. Salivary cortisol and AnxA1 protein were sampled at between 3 and 6 time points over 24h and measured for cortisol and AnxA1 protein using specific ELISA's. The presence of salivary AnxA1 protein was confirmed by Western blotting. AnxA1 protein is detectable in whole human saliva, as detected by Western blot analysis and ELISA. A diurnal rhythm was evident in both salivary cortisol (P0.05), whereas salivary cortisol was significantly elevated between time 0 and 30 min post waking (Pcortisol, indicating that cortisol is most likely a regulator of AnxA1 in human saliva. PMID:23017499

  17. [The levels of electrolytes and nitric oxide in saliva of students under mental-emotional exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, E S; Minosyan, S M; Abrahamyan, N T

    2014-01-01

    The influence of examination-induced psycho-emotional stress on students' hemodynamic parameters, nitric oxide (NO) level and electrolyte composition of saliva was investigated. Before examinations, the examinees with a sympathotonic response (75.0%) showed the increase of heart rate levels and blood pressure indices, the decline of salivary NO excretion that was retained within 24-hours after an exam. There was a significant negative correlation between the amount of NO and the values of blood pressure. The examinees with a parasympathetic response (25%) showed the elevated salivary NO level and lowered blood pressure indices in the pre- and post- examinational periods. Throughout the examination period the increased autonomic tone of the organism contributes to the changes of the electrolyte composition of saliva. In pre-examination period the examinees with sympathotonic response demonstrated a significant decrease of the concentration of Na+ in saliva, that persisted after exams also. Hyponatremia was associated with the increased K+ and decreased Na+/K+ ratio. Before exams the level of Na+ in the saliva of the students of the II group increased, at the same time concentration of K+ decreased. After the exam there was a reduction of Na+, which, however, did not reach the initial level. PMID:25842505

  18. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  19. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zden?k; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  20. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 41, ?. 6 (2011), s. 591-594. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  1. Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except sodium studied in the diabetic group with periodontal disease in comparison to the non-diabetic groups without periodontal disease. It is concluded in this study these salivary parameters may be considered as a valuable aid in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

  2. Comparison of the Amount of IL-1ß in Periodontally Involved Patients’ Saliva and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease,characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and resorption of the alveolar bone around the teeth with formation of periodontal pocket. Cytokines such as IL-1? are one of the components of host’s immune system and seem to play an important role in periodontitisPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of IL-1? as a per-inflammatory cytokine in the saliva of periodontally involved patients (generalized aggressive periodontitis and mild to moderate periodontitis and subjects with normal periodontium.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 24 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 23 subjects with healthy periodontium was collected. The concentration of IL-1? was measured in the saliva samples by ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was used for analysis of data.Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between mean level of IL-1ß in generalized aggressive periodontitis vs. control groups and chronic mild to moderate periodontitis vs. control groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the mean concentration of IL-1ß in the saliva of periodontally involved patients was greater than that of healthy subjects and this cytokine can be agood marker for determining the status of periodontal tissues.

  3. Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children

    OpenAIRE

    Zahir S; Sarkar S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements in mixed saliva. It was observed that Cu, Pb, Na showed significant variation in case of one surface as compared to caries free group. Between the non-caries and multiple caries group Cu, Pb, K showed no significant variation Zn showed highly significant variation.

  4. Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring of 125I in saliva of workers internally contaminated with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sum peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of 125I in saliva ranged 4.65 +- 2.1cBq (1.26 +- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +- 1.9cBq (5.62 +- 0.51pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +- 0.64) x 10-9 to (3.6 +- 0.073) x 10-8 and the average was (8.1 +- 1.1) x 10-9. The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 x 10-5 to 5.4 x 10-6. The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 ?Gy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 ?Gy (474mrad). Monitoring of 125I in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of saliva. Application in clinical chemistry, environmental and occupational toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of 21 chemical elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Zn) in mixed non-stimulated saliva of 52 relatively healthy people were assessed by activation using 14 MeV neutrons and nuclear reactor neutrons. The study included 45 women and 7 men, aged 18 to 35. the dependence of salivary compositions upon sex, age, time-of-day and time-of-year was studied. The saliva of 22 men, involved in the clean-up operation after the Chernobyl accident, was also studied. There existed clear circadian variations in the amount of Na, Sc and Cr contained in the saliva and a tendency to circadian variations for the amount of Cl, Co, Br and Rb. Neither sex, age, nor time-of-year influenced the contents of 21 chemical elements examined. The only exception to this finding was with Hg, whose content increases with age. the analysis of the cleaners' saliva made it possible to find considerable metabolic changes of Ca and some other chemical elements. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

  7. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

  8. The effect of xylitol chewing gum on mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Soo-Ampon, Surin

    2004-12-01

    Dental caries are one of the most common infectious diseases occurred in Thai children. The chewing of xylitol, sorbitol, and even sugar gum has been suggested to reduce caries rates. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of xylitol chewing gum on mutans streptococci (MS) in saliva and dental plaque. Ninety-one children, aged 10-12 years, with more than 1 x 10(5) MS per milliliter of saliva were included in this study. They were divided into three groups balanced according to their MS counts at baseline: one control group (no supervised gum use), and two xylitol groups (supervised 55% and 100% xylitol gum use). Whole saliva and pooled plaque samples were obtained after 90 school days. When comparing the MS counts between the groups, those chewing 100% and 55% xylitol gum showed significant reductions (p xylitol gum caused significant reductions on salivary MS scores (p xylitol group. The results suggest that the use of xylitol chewing gum can reduce the levels of MS in plaque and saliva. PMID:15916109

  9. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

    1996-03-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

  10. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor : 3.941, year: 2013

  11. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BelstrØm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Frequency and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of around 300 bacterial taxa/clusters in samples were used as parameters for investigation. Differences at taxon/cluster values between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort.

  12. Thickened Saliva after Effective Management of Drooling with Botulinum Toxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Corrie E.; van Hulst, Karen; van den Hoogen, Frank J. A.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Roeleveld, Nel; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Jongerius, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of saliva after submandibular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections. Method: We enrolled 15 children (11 males and six females; age range 3-17y, mean age 9y 10mo) diagnosed with spastic (n=9) or dyskinetic (n=6) quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP); Gross Motor Function…

  13. Tick saliva suppresses IFN signalling in dendritic cells upon Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 34, ?. 1 (2012), s. 32-39. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cells * interferon signalling * tick saliva Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2012

  14. Effect of Saliva on Load-Deflection Characteristics of Superelastic Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Ghadirian, H.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Shahhoseini, T.; Haj-Fathalian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Most published results about the characteristics of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests on the as-received wires.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of superelastic NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared. Five specimens of each wire were tested in the as-received condition (T0) to provide baseline information and the remaining wires were divided into two groups of five. Half of them were kept inside artificial saliva for one month (T1), while the others were kept in air (T2). After 30 days, three-point bending test was done in a dental arch model and data from selected points on the unloading phase of the generated graphs were used for statistical analysis. Results: Force I and Truflex showed significantly greater force than Sentalloy. The load values of Truflex and Force I after one month exposed to artificial saliva (T1) decreased significantly, but Sentalloy was not affected significantly. The plateau gap values were not considerably different among T0, T1 and T2. Conclusion: Saliva decreased the load of Force I and Truflex significantly, but it did not have a statistically significant effect on Sentalloy. PMID:23323178

  15. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 5, ?. 1 (2012), s. 229. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  16. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Surface Roughness of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Beresescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The glass ionomer cements are used clinically in different areas of restorative dentistry. The life span of dental restorations depends on the properties of the material such as durability, wear resistance and type of damage to the tooth. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of arficial saliva with different pH on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cements (GIC. The factors under study are three types of glass ionomer cements(one conventional glass ionomer cement, one resin modified glass ionomer and one polyacid-modified composite and artificial saliva at three different pHs (3, 7, 9. The association between GICs and storage media resulted in four groups. The analysis surface roughness was quantitatively carried out by means of a surface roughness measuring instrument (A Perthograph R100. The measurement procedure were repeated for 1, 7, 14, 28 days. No significant difference in surface roughness existed between distilled deionizer water and artificial saliva with pH 5 or 9. At 28 days, Ketac Molar was found to have suffered the greatest increase in surface roughness, after immersion in artificial saliva with pH3. As long as the material is being tolerated and protected by the dental structure, its resistance to abrasion will be satisfactory. All the materials have increasing trends of surface roughness as the immersion time increased.

  17. The blistering of a viscoelastic filament of a droplet of saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian; Sattler, Rainer; Eggers, Jens

    2009-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video of the break up of a droplet of saliva is shown. First a viscoelastic filament is formed and than the blistering of this filament is shown. Finally, a flow induced phase separation takes place nanometer sized solid fiber remains that consist out of the biopolymers.

  18. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno B., Andrade; Clarissa R., Teixeira; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A saliva de artrópodes hematófagos é rica em moléculas com funções diversas que mediam uma alimentação sangüínea bem sucedida. Estas moléculas agem não apenas como armas contra a resposta hemostática, inflamatória e imunológica do hospedeiro funcionando também como ferramentas para o estabelecimento [...] de patógenos. Parasitas, vírus e bactérias aproveitando-se deste arsenal dos vetores adaptaram-se facilitando seu estabelecimento no hospedeiro. Hoje, várias moléculas salivares foram identificadas e caracterizadas como novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de vacinas futuras. Neste trabalho, centramos em informação recente sobre a saliva de vetores e as moléculas responsáveis por modificar a resposta hemostática e imunológica assim como seu papel na transmissão de doenças. Abstract in english The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Paras [...] ites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  19. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Majem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information.

  20. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

  1. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  3. Surface characterizations and corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva of various degrees of acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2005-09-15

    This study investigated the surface characterizations and corrosion resistance of as-received commercial nickel-titanium (NiTi) dental orthodontic archwires from different manufacturers using a cyclic potentiodynamic test in artificial saliva with various acidities. An atomic force microscope was used to evaluate the surface topography of the NiTi wires. The surface chemical analysis of the passive film on the NiTi wires was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. A scanning electron microscope, together with an energy-dispersive spectrometer, was used to analyze the surface characterizations of the NiTi wires before and after the corrosion tests. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the corrosion-resistance parameters with the factors of wire manufacturer and solution pH. The results showed that the surface structure of the passive film on the tested NiTi wires were identical, containing mainly TiO2, with small amounts of NiO. A different surface topography was observed on the NiTi wires from various manufacturers. The corrosion tests showed that both the wire manufacturer and solution pH had a statistically significant influence on the corrosion potential, corrosion rate, passive current, breakdown potential, and crevice-corrosion susceptibility. The difference in the corrosion resistance among these NiTi dental orthodontic archwires did not correspond with the surface roughness and pre-existing defects. PMID:16025472

  4. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng ?l-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog’s mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng ?l-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  5. Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

  6. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Alessandro Soares Nunes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic fluid in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones. It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

  7. An electrochemical immunoassay for the screening of celiac disease in saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adornetto, Gianluca; Fabiani, Laura; Volpe, Giulia; De Stefano, Alessia; Martini, Sonia; Nenna, Raffaella; Lucantoni, Federica; Bonamico, Margherita; Tiberti, Claudio; Moscone, Danila

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for the initial diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) in saliva samples that overcomes the problems related to its high viscosity and to the low concentration of anti-transglutaminase antigen (tTG) IgA in this medium has been developed for the first time. The system uses magnetic beads (MBs) covered with tTG, which reacts with the anti-tTG IgA antibodies present in positive saliva samples. An anti-human IgA, conjugated with alkaline phosphate (AP) enzyme, was used as the label and a strip of eight magnetized screen-printed electrodes as the electrochemical transducer. In particular, two different immunoassay approaches were optimized and blindly compared to analyze a large number of saliva samples, whose anti-tTG IgA levels were independently determined by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The obtained results, expressed as Ab index, were used to perform a diagnostic test evaluation through the construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The approach, involving a pre-incubation between the anti-human IgA-AP and saliva samples prior to the addition of MBs-tTG, showed a cutoff of 0.022 with 95 % clinical sensitivity and 96 % clinical specificity. The area under the ROC curve is equal to 1, a result that classifies our test as "perfect." This study demonstrates that it is possible to perform the screening of CD with a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive method able to detect anti-tTG antibodies in saliva samples, which are easily obtained by non-invasive techniques. This aspect is of fundamental importance to screen a large number of subjects, especially in the pediatric age. Graphical Abstract ELIME assay Plus. PMID:26168969

  8. Saliva ?-Synuclein and A High Extinction Coefficient Protein: A Novel Approach in Assessment Biomarkers of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S. M.; Mshatat, Sabah F.; Abdulla, Hajer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the appearance of intracytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies in which its principal component is ?-synuclein. Aim: This study aimed to determine salivary ?-synuclein and the extinction coefficient of the saliva protein as biomarkers of PD. Materials and Methods: This observational study was done in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine in cooperation with Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry at Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq from September 2013 to March 2014. A total number of 20 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Unstimulated saliva obtained from each participant obtained for determination of salivary flow rate, saliva protein and ?-synuclein using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results: Total saliva protein and uncontaminated protein with nucleic acids are significantly higher in PD compared with healthy subjects. The mean extinction coefficient of that protein is 27.25 M.cm-1 which significantly (P < 0.001) less than corresponding value of healthy subjects (33.48 M.cm?1 ). Saliva ?-synuclein level is significantly less in PD (65 ± 52.2 pg/ml) than healthy subjects (314.01 ± 435.9 pg/ml). Conclusions: We conclude that saliva ?-synuclein serves as a biomarker for PD if its level compared with healthy subjects, and a specific protein with extinction coefficient 27.25 M.cm-1 is detected in saliva of Parkinson's patients. PMID:25599051

  9. Effect of saliva contamination on the microshear bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesive systems to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H M; Oh, T S; Pereira, P N R

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of saliva contamination and decontamination methods on the dentin bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesive systems. Three commercially available "all-in-one" adhesives (One Up Bond F, Xeno III and Adper Prompt) and one resin composite (Filtek Z-250) were used. Third molars stored in distilled water with 0.5% thymol at 4 degrees C were ground with #600 SiC paper under running water to produce a standardized smear layer. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to contamination methods: no contamination, which was the control (C); contamination of the adhesive surface with fresh saliva before light curing (A) and contamination of the adhesive surface with fresh saliva after light curing (B). Each contamination group was further subdivided into three subgroups according to the decontamination method: A1-Saliva was removed by a gentle air blast and the adhesive was light-cured; A2-Saliva was rinsed for 10 seconds, gently air-dried and the was adhesive light-cured; A3-Saliva was rinsed and dried as in A2, then the adhesive was re-applied to the dentin surface and light-cured; B1-Saliva was removed with a gentle air blast; B2-Saliva was rinsed and dried; B3-Saliva was rinsed, dried and the adhesive was re-applied and light cured. Tygon tubes filled with resin composite were placed on each surface and light cured. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Microshear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine (EZ test), and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Duncan test to make comparisons among the groups (p0.05). Bond strengths of all B groups were significantly lower compared to the controls (p0.05). PMID:16536204

  10. Low hepatitis B prevalence among pre-school children in Denmark : saliva anti-HBc screening in day care centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Georgsen, JØrgen

    2002-01-01

    Although Denmark has a low hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, HBV transmission has been reported in Danish day-care centres. The aim of this study was to validate saliva anti-HBc testing as a method for HBV screening, the applicability of saliva sampling to pre-school children, and to determine the HBV prevalence in Danish day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrants. For validation, paired saliva and plasma samples were obtained from blood donors and injecting drug users. Employees and children in day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrant children were offered saliva screening followed by blood test if positive. The specificity and sensitivity of anti-HBc tests on saliva was 100% (102 blood donors and four injecting drug users) and 85.9% (61 of 71 anti-HBc-positive injecting drug users), respectively. In all samples from HBsAg (n = 7) or anti-HBc IgM-positives (n = 9), anti-HBc was detected in saliva. Adequate saliva samples were obtained from 93% (588/634) of children and 100% (166/166)of employees participating in the day-care centre survey. Among children 55% were of non-Scandinavian origin and only one (0.2%, 95% CI [0.0; 1.0]) was HBV positive. Among employees the corresponding values were 22% and 7 (4.2%). The positive predictive value of the saliva test was 25% (1/4) among children and 88% (7/8) among adults. In conclusion, saliva testing is feasible for HBV screening among children in low prevalence populations, but any anti-HBc reactivity should be confirmed by plasma analysis. The HBV prevalence in pre-school children in Denmark is low even among immigrants from endemic areas.

  11. Effect of radiation therapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of blood and saliva in oral cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is reported to induce oxidative stress in oral cancer patients. Saliva as a diagnostic tool has received increasing attention in recent years. Saliva analysis is proposed to be a noninvasive, sensitive tool for the evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy in oral cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of radiation therapy on malondialdehyde, the marker of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity in blood and saliva of oral cancer patients. We also aimed to assess the correlation between blood and saliva with respect to malonaldehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Thirty, clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients visiting the Oncology Department were the subjects. Thirty age- and sex-matched normal, healthy controls were included. Blood and saliva samples were collected from controls, and from oral cancer patients before and after radiation therapy. The samples were analyzed for MDA and TAC by standard spectrophotometric methods. Oral cancer patients showed significantly higher MDA level and lower TAC in blood and saliva when compared to controls. One week after radiation therapy, there was significant increase in MDA and decrease in TAC in oral cancer patients. After the completion of radiation therapy of six weeks, MDA level decreased and TAC increased, restoring the values near-to-controls. The pattern of change in MDA and TAC was similar between blood and saliva. There was significant correlation between blood and saliva with respect to MDA and TAC in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients showed increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capacity. After radiation therapy of one week, oxidative stress increased further, and after six weeks of radiation therapy there was amelioration of antioxidant status. Saliva could be a sensitive and convenient laboratory tool for diagnosis of oral cancer and evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy. (author)

  12. Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R.; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Hill, Sandra E.; Wolf, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the microstructure and rheology of xanthan solutions. In this work the effect of saliva on the rheology of CMC and xanthan solutions was compared. Solutions of molecularly dissolved xanthan gum and CMC mixed with water or human whole saliva at a ratio of 5:1 showed little impact of the presence of saliva on steady shear or dynamic viscosity for the two hydrocolloids. In filament thinning experiments saliva addition significantly increased filament break-up time for xanthan gum while it had little effect on the break-up time of the CMC filament. Also, filament thinning appeared a lot less even and was not as reproducible in the case of xanthan gum. Addition of CMC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to xanthan gum solutions showed a similar increase in break-up time to saliva, but to see this effect the viscosity of the added CMC or HPMC solution had to be very much higher than the viscosity of saliva. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of xanthan gum and the reported extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:25284950

  13. Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF

  14. Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell / Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell’s palsy patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto, Lazarini; Melissa Ferreira, Vianna; Mônica Porto Alves, Alcantara; Rodolfo Alexander, Scalia; Hélio Hehl, Caiaffa Filho.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persiste [...] ntes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR), diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante se comparado ao grupo controle, no qual não foi obtido nenhum caso de positividade. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a presença do HSV-1 na saliva de pacientes portadores de PFP de Bell indica que a reativação viral pode ser a etiologia desta doença. A detecção do vírus na saliva destes pacientes não influencia o prognóstico da doença. Abstract in english The first herpes virus to be described was types 1 and 2, whose denomination is herpes simplex 1 and 2 or HSV -1 and HSV -2. These viruses have specific biological characteristics, such as the ability to cause different kinds of diseases, as well as to establish host’s latent or persistent lifetime [...] infections and also of being reactivated, causing lesions that can be located at the same site of the initial primary infection or close to it. It is suggested that this virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be related to Bell’s palsy. In this situation, the viruses that would be latent in this ganglion, would suffer reactivation and replication, then be diffused through the facial nerve and its branches, among them the chorda tympani nerve, which by stimulating salivary secretion would enable the identification of the viral DNA in the patients’ saliva. Until recently, a great number of patients was diagnosed as holders of this kind of paralysis, named idiopathic or Bell’s palsy. With the introduction of the technique studying the viral DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), several authors have found herpes simplex virus type I DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in the lachrymal secretion, in the saliva and in the geniculate ganglia of patients with Bell’s palsy. AIM: observe the occurrence of herpes simplex type I virus using PCR technique in the saliva of patients with Bell’s palsy and relating it to the clinical evolution of these cases. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated 38 patients with Bell’s palsy submitted to anamnesis, clinical and ENT examination and saliva sampling for viral DNA detection by PCR technique. The control group was ten normal adults. RESULTS: We found posit

  15. Improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel by nanocrystalline and electrochemical nitridation in artificial saliva solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2015-12-01

    The fluoride ion in artificial saliva significantly changed semiconductor characteristic of the passive film formed on the surface of 316L stainless steels. The electrochemical results showed that nanocrystalline ??-martensite improved corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in a typical artificial saliva compared with coarse grained stainless steel. Moreover, comparing with nitrided coarse grained stainless steel, corrosion resistance of the nitrided nanocrystalline stainless steel was also improved significantly, even in artificial saliva solution containing fluoride ion. The present study showed that the cryogenic cold rolling and electrochemical nitridation improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel for the dental application.

  16. The Influence of Various Mucoadhesive Polymers on In Vitro Performance of the Resulting Artificial Saliva Pump Spray Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mehravaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological behavior and mucoadhesive nature of saliva substitutes, by incorporating various mucoadhesive polymers into an artificial saliva pump spray formulation. For this purpose various mucoadhesive polymers including cellulosic polymers in the range of 0.1-1.0% and Carbomers such as C974p, C971, C934p and C971 in the range of 0.01-0.1% were added to a formulated aqueous-based artificial saliva pump spray formulation, containing fixed amounts of some essential electrolytes. The pH of the formulations was between 6.3-7.4. The formulations were examined in terms of appearance, taste, odor, spray-ability, short-term thermal and mechanical stability, pH, viscosity and rheological behavior, particle size distribution, as well as invitro mucoadhesive strength (MS. The mucoadhesivity ratio (MR was also calculated as follows: MR=MStest/MScontrol, using natural saliva as the control. Natural saliva showed a pseudoplastic rheological behavior, with a viscosity in the range of 12.85-28.15cP. Hence, artificial saliva samples having viscosities within this range were selected. The rheological behavior and viscosity of the test samples as well as the natural saliva were subsequently determined. Similar to that found for the natural saliva, all the prepared formulations showed a pseudoplastic rheological behavior. Among the polymers, C974p had the highest viscosity (25.97±0.11 cPp and mucoadhesive strength (34.84±0.21 mN/cm2 followed by hydroxypropylmethylcellulose which had a viscosity of 25.48±0.11 cPp and a mucoadhesive strength of 34.03±0.24 mN/cm2. Furthermore, the mucoadhesivity of C974p containing artificial saliva was 1.186 times greater than natural saliva and 1.387 times more than water. In conclusion, it seems that the presence of mucoadhesive polymers within the artificial saliva pump spray formulations could help to improve the adhesive nature of the formulation to mucosal surfaces, making it even more effective than the natural saliva.

  17. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves; Carla B Cunha; Solange C. U. Busek; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV p...

  18. Analysis of enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children with gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri?kovi?-Janji? Olivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. By analyzing activity of some of the enzymes normally present in the saliva and the level of malondialdehyde in gingivitis, it is possible to estimate the functional condition of parodontium, and the examined parameters can be considered as biochemical markers of its functional condition. The aim of this paper was to examine activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children affected with gingivitis, as well as the values of the mentioned parameters in relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva. Methods. The research included 120 children at the age of 12.2 with permanent dentition. Löe and Silness gingival index was used to estimate the condition of gingiva, based on which the children were classified into four groups: the children with healthy gingiva (the control groups, the children with mild, moderate and severe inflammation of gingiva (the study group. Enzymes of the saliva were determined by the use of original tests and measured by the autoanalyser (Bio Systems A25, Spain. A modified method with tiobarbituric acid was used to determine malondialdehyde in nonstimulated mixed saliva. Results. The results of the examined enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of the study groups showed statistically considerably higher values for the level of malondialdehyde (p < 0.001, for the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase (p < 0.01, as well as for alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05 in comparison with the control group, whereas the activity of lactate dehydrogenase did not show a statistically significant increase. In relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva, the results of the examination of the enzyme activity in the study groups showed statistically significantly higher values in the group with severe inflammation in comparison with those with mild, as well as the moderate inflammatory, except for the gamma glutamyl transferase, and in the group with moderate inflammation compared to that with the mild one, except for alanine aminotransferase. The results of the examination of the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of the study groups did not show a statistically significantly increase in relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva. Conclusion. There is a higher level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity together with the higher level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children with gingivitis in comparison with the activity of the same enzymes and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children without gingivitis. The activity of the examined enzymes in the saliva of children with gingivitis increases in relation to the intensity of the pathological process, whereas the level of malondialdehyde shows no significant difference in relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva.

  19. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy / Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássio de Barros, Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli, Polizello; Augusto César Cropanese, Spadaro.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clínicos e algumas propriedades bioquímicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e após o tratamento radioterápico para câncer de cabeça e pescoço (grupo experimental) e de 21 pacientes sem câncer (grupo controle). O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessário (segun [...] dos) para produção estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente à utilização de um método colorimétrico simples. A concentração de proteína total salivar foi determinada pelo método de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada através dos açúcares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo método do ácido dinitrossalicílico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletroforético foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12%) para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de proteína. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, redução estatisticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring t [...] he time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentration was determined by the Bradford4 method. Amylase activity was measured by reducing sugars released from a soluble starch substrate, quantified by the dinitrosalicylic method. The electrophoretic profile was evaluated in polyacrylamid gel (12% SDS-PAGE) using samples of 5 mg of salivary protein. A statistically significant reduction (p

  20. La saliva en el mantenimiento de la salud oral y como ayuda en el diagnóstico de algunas patologías / The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Llena Puy.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La saliva es una secreción compleja proveniente de las glándulas salivales mayores en el 93% de su volumen y menores en el 7% restante. El 99% de la saliva es agua mientras que el 1% restante está constituido por moléculas orgánicas e inorgánicas. Si bien la cantidad de saliva es importante, también [...] lo es la calidad de la misma. Se revisará los componentes de la saliva y sus funciones en el mantenimiento de la salud oral los principales factores causales que alteran la secreción salival, se comentará la importancia de la saliva en el desarrollo de la enfermedad de caries y en la formación de la placa bacteriana, y se analizará su papel como material de ayuda para el diagnóstico de algunas patologías. Las variaciones en el flujo salival pueden verse afectadas por múltiples factores fisiológicos y patológicos, de forma reversible o irreversible. Juega un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento de la integridad de las estructuras bucales, en la vida de relación, en la digestión y en el control de infecciones orales. El papel de la saliva en la protección frente a la caries podemos concretarlo en cuatro aspectos, dilución y eliminación de los azúcares y otros componentes, capacidad tampón, equilibrio entre la desmineralización / remineralización y acción antimicrobiana. La saliva como alternativa para el diagnóstico, de algunas enfermedades, como elemento para monitorizar la evolución de determinadas patologías o la dosificación de medicamentos o drogas proporciona una vía prometedora. La accesibilidad en su obtención y la correlación positiva entre múltiples parámetros en el suero y en la saliva son algunas de las ventajas que ofrece como instrumento diagnóstico. Abstract in english Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of sali [...] va, its functions in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion will be reviewed, the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation will be discussed and its rôle as an aid to diagnosing certain pathologies will be examined. Variations in salivary flow can be affected, reversibly or irreversibly, by numerous physiological and pathological factors. Saliva plays an essential rôle in maintaining the integrity of the oral structures, in personal relationships, in the digestion and in controlling oral infection. The part that saliva plays in protecting teeth from caries can be summarised under four aspects: diluting and eliminating sugars and other substances, buffer capacity, balancing demineralisation / remineralisation and antimicrobial action. Saliva is a promising option for diagnosing certain disorders and monitoring the evolution of certain pathologies or the dosage of medicines or drugs. Its advantages as a diagnostic tool include its being easy to obtain and the positive correlation between many parameters in serum and saliva.

  1. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  2. Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva / Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.V., Madera Anaya.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión muestra los principales biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. El aspecto clínico y el grado de displasia de las lesiones precancerosas de la cavidad bucal sugieren su capacidad de malignidad; sin embargo, éstas generalmente son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados, disminuyendo la pr [...] obabilidad de supervivencia, lo que justifica el diseño de nuevas pruebas diagnósticas que determinen el grado de alteración celular, permitan comprender el proceso degenerativo en el cáncer y establezcan diagnósticos precoz. Esta búsqueda para mejorar los métodos diagnósticos, apunta a que sean sensibles, específicos y menos invasivos, por lo cual el estudio de diferentes biomarcadores en saliva que desde una perspectiva molecular proporcionan información adicional al examen clínico e histopatológico, es considerada como una alternativa eficaz y más cómoda con respecto a los ensayos en sangre. Los biomarcadores que se han descrito en saliva algunos mostrando mayor relación con la carcinogénesis oral son: Ciclina D1, cyfra 21-1, endotelina-1, galectinas 1, 3 y 7, Ki67, lactato deshidrogenasa, metaloproteinasas 2 y 9, proteína p53, proteína de unión a calcio (S100P) y telomerasa. Abstract in english This review shows the main oral cancer biomarkers in saliva. The clinical appearance and the degree of dysplasia, precancerous lesions of the oral cavity suggests its ability to malignancy, but these are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, decreasing the likelihood of survival, justifying the desi [...] gn of new diagnostic tests to determine the degree of cell alteration as to understand the degenerative process in cancer diagnosis and establish early. This search for improved diagnostic methods, aims to be sensitive, specific and less invasive, so the study of biomarkers in saliva from a molecular perspective provide additional information to clinical and histopathological examination is considered as a more comfortable and effective to establish a diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been described in saliva some showing more related to oral carcinogenesis are cyclin D1, Cyfra 21-1, Endothelin-1, Galectins 1, 3 and 7, Ki67, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, p53 protein, protein calcium-binding (S100P) and Telomerase.

  3. Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

  4. Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida / Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H. N., Yoshimura; M. M., Pinto; C. C., Gonzaga; P. F., Cesar.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos par [...] âmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG), com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas. Abstract in english The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) par [...] ameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

  5. Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Yoshimura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos parâmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG, com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas.The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG parameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

  6. Quantitative determination of naltrexone, 6 beta-naltrexol and 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-6 beta-naltrexol (HMN) in human plasma, red blood cells, saliva and urine by gas liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebey, K

    1981-01-01

    Two gas liquid chromatographic methods differing mainly in sensitivity are described for the quantitative determination of naltrexone (NT) and its metabolites in human biofluids. Flame ionization detection of the N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) derivatives provided sufficient separation and sensitivity for quantitative of the bases in urine. However, the thousand times lower levels in serum, red blood cells (RBC) and saliva necessitated the use of more sensitive electron capture detection methods of the pentafluoro derivatives of NT and its metabolites. The 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-6 beta-naltrexol (HMN) and 6 beta-naltrexol (beta-OL) pentafluoro derivatives had nearly identical gas liquid chromatographic retention times in a number of stationary liquid phases. Thus, their separation had to be achieved prior to chromatography. Differential extraction was based on the different partition characteristics of HMN and 6 beta-naltrexol between aqueous and organic solvents. Applicability of the methods was tested using the biofluids of four subjects taking 2 x 200 mg naltrexone per day chronically. Blood, saliva and urine samples were collected at the same time (prior to drug administration), which was 16 and 24 hours after the doses. In the plasma the relative percentages of the bases were 73.5 beta-OL; 23.1 HMN and 3.4 NT. The same in the urine were 76.6 beta-OL, 14.4 HMN and 9.0 NT. The lipophilic nature of HMN and the hydrophilic property of beta-OL may have influenced their distribution into RBC and saliva. In the RBC 96.1% HMN and only trace amounts of beta-OL distributed and in saliva 92.3% of beta-OL and no HMN was found; the difference in both cases was made up by naltrexone to 100%. PMID:6791012

  7. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  8. Potential of human saliva for nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and for health-related biomarker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Eggers, Nina; Eller, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for metabolic profiling of human saliva samples was investigated. High-resolution (1)H NMR spectra were obtained, and signals were assigned to various metabolites mainly representing small organic acids and amino acids. In addition, the use of human saliva for metabolomic studies was evaluated, and multivariate data analysis revealed that the 92 morning and night samples from 46 subjects could be discriminated with a pred...

  9. Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R., III

    2011-01-01

    In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spec...

  10. Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R.; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Hill, Sandra E.; Wolf, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the mic...

  11. Development of a biotin-streptavidin-enzyme immunoassay for the determination of cortisol in blood and saliva of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using microtitre plates has been developed for the determination of cortisol in blood and saliva of dogs. The specific antibody was raised in rabbits against cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime (CMO)-bovine serum albumin. For labelling N-biotinyl-1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane was linked to cortisol-3-CMO. The amount of antibody bound biotinylated steroid was measured after incubation with streptavidinperoxidase and enzymatic reaction with tetramethylbenzidine as substrate. The sensitivity of the EIA was 1 fmol/well. The coefficient of variation within an assay was 10 % and between assays 14 %. Blood and saliva samples from ten experimental bitches (beagle) were estimated to check the new assay. For comparison the plasma samples were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and EIA. The coefficient of correlation between these two methods was 0.98. For RIA the plasma was extracted with ether whereas for EIA a precipitation of the proteins with methanol and dilution of the supernatent was carried out. The saliva samples were determined using 10 ?l aliquotes without purification. The variation over the time of one day between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. was compared in plasma and saliva on three occasions. Furthermore the concentration was measured after stimulation with ACTH or suppression with dexamethason. Without application the concentrations ranged from 38.6 to 182.0 nmol/l in blood and from 2.4 to 27.5 nmol/l in saliva. After administration of ACTH the concentration in plasma and saliva increased to values of 180.0 to 392.0 nmol/l and of 17.5 to 105.0 nmol/l respectively. The lowest concentrations were found after application of dexamethasone: 7.7 ± 1.1 nmol/l in plasma and 2.4 ± 1.9 nmol/l in saliva. With this method the function of the adrenal cortex can be monitored by collecting saliva samples. (Author)

  12. A Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods With Preschool Children: The perspectives of Children, Parents, and Childcare Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrelly, Christine; Hennessy, Eilis

    2013-01-01

    Saliva offers developmental researchers and pediatric clinicians significant opportunities to measure numerous biological markers. However, many preschool-aged children refuse to participate in saliva collection. Identifying collection methods known to be acceptable to participants may help in maximizing participation. To this end, this study aimed to determine the relative acceptability of three different collection methods (passive drool, hydrocellulose microsponges, and polymer swabs) to c...

  13. Quantitative Nano-structural and Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy bio-molecular analysis of human saliva derived exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shivani; Gillespie, Boyd M; Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structure, surface biochemistry and mechanical characteristics. These distinct nanometer sized bio-particles are secreted from the surface of oral epithelial cells into saliva, and are of interest as oral-cancer biomarkers. We use high- resolution AFM to show single vesicle quantitative differences between exosomes derived from normal and oral cancer patient’s saliva. Compared to normal exosomes (circular; 67.4 ± 2.9 nm), our findings...

  14. Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release. PMID:25075966

  15. XPS study of Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo dental alloys treated in artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Importance of the usage of non-allergic alloys Co-Cr-Mo relative to the more allergic Ni- Cr-Mo alloys well known in the field of biomedical science. The aim of the present study was to compare the surface layers by XPS (Al K? X-ray excited Photoelectron Spectroscopy) method from the point of view of corrosion and passivation of the mentioned alloys. Sample preparation were made in Bucharest in a NIPNE cooperation: Co-Cr- Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo discs of diameter of 8 mm with a thickness of about 1.3 mm were treated in artificial saliva solutions. XPS measurements were made in Debrecen in ATOMKI by a home made electron spectrometer based on a hemispherical analyzer in fixed retardation ratio mode using the retardation ratios of k=4 for survey scan and k=8 (k=Ekinetic/Epass) for more detailed narrow scan spectra. In this way the relative energy resolution was 0.125 % at k=4 and 0.0625 % at k=8, respectively. Survey and detailed XPS spectra were taken as a function of depth of a few times 10 nm measured from the top surface by the help of Ar+ ion etching (AG21 ion source, VG Microtech). Elemental composition and chemical states were studied. The angle of incidence of the ions were 40 degrees relative to the surface normal of the specimen to increase the ion sputtering yield and the same time to decrease the matrix effects caused by the ion beam, that is as much as possible to decrease the preferential sputtering. The data evaluation was made by a home-made computer software of EWA. The XPS peak components of different chemical states of Cr and the relative atomic concentrations of the different components (oxide and metal) were determined from the peak area of XPS using the Voight peak shape. The survey scan spectra showed not only the main components of the alloys, but the chemical components characteristic for the chemical treatment of the alloys, like Na, Cl, etc. The main conclusions are: the Cr was in the form of Cr3+ in the top surface. The metal to oxide ratios from Cr 2p XPS spectra vs. Ar+ etching for all the samples changed very much. The other two main components of the alloys, Co and Ni were in metallic form except in the as received spectra. As a function of the alloy composition and the saliva solution treatment (time, temperature, concentration of NaCl, etc.) the Cr-oxide layer thickness changed dramatically

  16. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Dental/Implant Alloys in Artificial Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohit; Ramesh Kumar, A. V.; Singh, Nirbhay; Adya, Nidhi; Saluja, Bobin

    2008-10-01

    The corrosion behavior and passive film characteristics of various dental alloys such as Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, Cu-Ni-Al, and commercially pure Ti (c.p. Ti) were evaluated in artificial saliva medium by utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization, and cyclic polarization studies. EIS studies were carried out for various durations viz. 1 h, 1 day, and 7 days to evaluate the stability of passive film and change in corrosion characteristics with respect to time. Electrochemical parameters such as Ecorr, icorr, corrosion rate, passive film characteristics with respect to time were obtained from various studies mentioned above. The corrosion resistance decreased in the order Cu-Ni-Al > cp Ti > Co-Cr (Commercial) > Ni-Cr > Co-Cr (DRDO developed) in artificial saliva solution.

  17. Bubaline Progesterone Concentrations in Serum, Fore-milk and Saliva During Different Phases of Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Qureshi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay technique was used to determine the concentrations of progesterone in serum, fore-milk and saliva of 40 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during pro-oestrus, oestrus, met-oestrus and di-oestrus. Progesterone concentrations during oestrus were uniformly lower in all experimental body fluids; the highest concentrations were found during the mid luteal phase. Although the hormonal trend was similar but salivary progesterone concentrations in general were lower during all phases of oestrus cycle. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of progesterone in serum with those of fore-milk (r= 0.82 (P< 0.01 and saliva (r= 0.75 (P< 0.01.

  18. Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Several austenitic stainless steels suitable for high temperature applications because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties were investigated as biomaterials for dental use. The steels were evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, cyclic polarization curves, measurements of open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance. The performance of steels was evaluated in two types of environments: artificial saliva and mouthwash solution at 37°C for 48 hours. In order to compare the behavior of steels, titanium a material commonly used in dental applications was also tested in the same conditions. Results show that tested steels have characteristics that may make them attractive as biomaterials for dental applications. Contents of Cr, Ni, and other minor alloying elements (Mo, Ti, and Nb) determine the performance of stainless steels. In artificial saliva steels show a corrosion rate of the same order of magnitude as titanium and in mouthwash have greater corrosion resistance than titanium. PMID:26064083

  19. Oxidative stress assessed in saliva from patients whit acute myocardial infarction: A preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C, Rubio; Paula M, González; Cecilia, Ramos; Pablo G, Lewin; Silvia M, Friedman; Susana, Puntarulo; Liliana N, Nicolosi.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia que permite establecer una asociacion entre la generacion de especies reactivas del oxigeno y el dano tisular en el sindrome coronario agudo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar en saliva de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), la presencia de reactantes de estres ox [...] idativo a las 24 y 48 horas. Materiales y metodos: se efectuo un estudio prospectivo de comparacion entre pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma y sujetos sin patologia clinica evidente. La produccion de especies reactivas de oxigeno fue evaluada mediante la tasa de oxidacion de la 2'7' diacetato de diclorohidrofluoreceina (DCFH-DA) y la actividad antioxidante de la enzima catalasa (CAT) en saliva de pacientes con IAM a las 24 y 48 h de producido el sindrome coronario agudo. Simultaneamente, se determinaron en suero los biomarcadores diagnosticos de IAM. Resultados: se incorporaron 10 pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del ST que fueron comparados con 10 sujetos del grupo control. La edad promedio fue 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs 48.7 ?} 4.1 anos, respectivamente (p0.05). La media de la velocidad de oxidacion de la DCFH-DA fue mayor a las 24 h en los pacientes con IAM (p=0.004). Estas diferencias se mantuvieron a las 48 h del infarto sin cambios significativos. No se encontraron diferencias en las medias de actividad de la enzima catalasa entre IAM y control (p>0.05). Se encontro una relacion entre CAT48 y DCFH-DA48 (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusiones: En esta poblacion se han detectado reactantes de estres oxidativo en saliva de pacientes con IAM. Relevancia clinica: nuevos estudios con mayor numero de casos seran necesarios para confirmar estas observaciones y evaluar la utilidad de la saliva en el diagnostico, evolucion y pronostico del sindrome coronario agudo. Abstract in english There is evidence that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increasing production of reactive oxygen species and tissue injury. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oxidative stress indices in saliva 24 and 48h after AMI. Materials and methods: We designed a prospectiv [...] e study comparing salivary levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with AMI with elevation of the ST segment in electrocardiogram versus clinically healthy subjects. Oxidative stress indices including the rate of oxidation of 2'7' dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were evaluated in saliva from patients with AMI at 24 and 48 hours. At each sampling time, blood was drawn for serum markers of myocardial infarction. Results: This study included ten patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and ten clinically healthy controls. Mean age was 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs. 48.7 ?} 4.1 years (p0.05) for AMI vs. controls, respectively. Our results demonstrated an increase in the rate of oxidation of DCFH-DA in the myocardial infarction group as compared with controls (p=0.004), which remained unchanged at 48h. There was no difference in salivary catalase activity between controls and AMI subjects at 24h or at 48h post-diagnosis (p=0.157). The relationship between CAT48 and DCFH-DA48 was fairly significant (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that biomarkers of oxidative stress are detectable in saliva of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clinical Relevance: Future studies using a larger population are needed to confirm these observations and to explore the possibility of using the saliva to monitor evolving diagnosis and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome.

  20. Xylitol concentrations in the saliva of children after chewing xylitol gum or consuming a xylitol mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, T; Renko, M; Kontiokari, T; Uhari, M

    2002-01-01

    Xylitol prevents otitis media when given to children regularly five times per day. To find a more convenient dosing schedule, an enzymatic assay was used to measure xylitol concentrations in the saliva of 65 children after giving them xylitol chewing gum or syrup in doses equal to those used in clinical trials. Although concentrations high enough to have an antimicrobial effect were attained, the xylitol disappeared from the saliva within 15 min. This finding indicates that high peak concentrations are more important for efficacy than the amount of time the xylitol concentration exceeds that needed to produce an antimicrobial effect. A schedule with the same single doses given less frequently could be clinically effective in preventing otitis media. PMID:11913502

  1. Evaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males using mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Samak, Mahmoud; Aljaberi, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The biochemical status in the saliva of 12 males before/after using mobile phone has been evaluated. Radio frequency signals of 1800 MHz (continuous wave transmission, 217?Hz modulate and Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM - non-DTX]) with 1.09 w/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) value were used for 15 and 30?min. Cell phone radiation induced a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD); there was a statistically significant effect of talking time on the levels of SOD, F(2, 33)?=?8.084, p?exposure to electromagnetic radiation may exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva of cell phone users. PMID:24499288

  2. Influência da mucina no mecanismo de corrosão de uma amálgama dentária em saliva artificial / Influence of mucin on the corrosion mechanism of dental amalgams in artificial saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Carvalho; Christopher M. A., Brett.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a influência da adsorção da proteína mucina nas propriedades de superfície e na corrosão da amálgama dentária rica em cobre Tytin®. Diferentes concentrações da mucina, numa solução de saliva artificial inorgânica, de alta concentração iónica, foram estudadas para tempos de [...] imersão de 4 horas e tempos de imersão mais longos até 96 horas. As técnicas utilizadas foram de potencial em circuito aberto e a sua variação com o tempo, curvas de polarização e espectroscopia de impedância electroquímica. Verificou-se a adsorção da mucina na superfície da amálgama assim como o seu papel na prevenção da formação de uma camada de óxido passivo. Abstract in english In this work the influence of adsorption of mucin protein on the surface properties and on the corrosion behaviour of the high-copper dental amalgam Tytin® has been studied. Different concentrations of mucin, in a solution of an inorganic, artificial saliva of high ionic concentration, were studied [...] for immersion times of 4 hours and for longer immersion times up to 96 hours. Techniques used were open circuit potential and its variation with time, polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidence was found for the adsorption of mucin on the amalgam surface and also for its role in the prevention of the formation of a passive oxide layer.

  3. Alternative recruitment strategies influence saliva sample return rates in community-based genetic association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutta, MF; Hobson, L; Lambie, J; Scaman, ESH; Burton, MJ; Giele, H; Jamieson, SE; Furniss, D

    2013-01-01

    Collection of saliva for DNA extraction has created new opportunities to recruit participants from the community for genetic association studies. However, sample return rates are variable. No prior study has specifically addressed how study design impacts sample return. Using data from three large-scale genetic association studies we compared recruitment strategy and sample return rates. We found highly significant differences in sample return rates between the studies. In studies that recrui...

  4. Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos; Antônio Eduardo Sparça, Salles; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Cláudia Helena da, Silva-Lovato; Valéria Oliveira, Pagnano; Evandro, Watanabe.

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou os níveis de biofilme em próteses totais maxilares e mandibulares, e analisou o número de unidades formadoras de colônias de leveduras, após o uso de agentes auxiliares da escovação e saliva artificial. Vinte e três usuários de próteses totais com hipossalivação e xerostomia for [...] am orientados a escovar as dentaduras 3 vezes ao dia durante 3 semanas com os seguintes produtos: Corega Brite (dentifrício para prótese), sabonete líquido neutro, Corega Brite associado com o uso do Oral Balance (saliva artificial) ou água de torneira. Para a quantificação do biofilme, as superfícies internas das próteses totais foram evidenciadas, fotografadas e o biofilme quantificado com o auxílio de um software. Para a análise microbiológica, o biofilme foi removido por escovação, coletado, diluído, semeado em meio seletivo CHROMagar™ Candida e incubado a 37°C por 48?h. A análise de variância para dois fatores (p Abstract in english This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to br [...] ush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48?h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p

  5. Intravitam Diagnosis of Human Rabies by PCR Using Saliva and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Crepin, P.; Audry, L.; Rotivel, Y.; Gacoin, A.; Caroff, C.; Bourhy, H.

    1998-01-01

    An optimized reverse transcription (RT)-PCR protocol for the intravitam detection of rabies virus genomic RNA was tested with clinical samples obtained from 28 patients suspected of having rabies, 9 of whom were confirmed to have had rabies by postmortem examination. RT-PCR using saliva combined with an immunofluorescence assay performed with skin biopsy samples allowed detection of rabies in the nine patients.

  6. Speech, eating and saliva control in rare diseases - a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögreen, L; Mogren, Å; Andersson-Norinder, J; Bratel, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to study the background to and the manifestations of affected intelligibility of speech and reported difficulty with eating and saliva control in rare diseases. In Sweden, a disease or disorder is defined as rare when it affects no more than 100 individuals per million population and leads to a marked degree of disability. In 1996-2008, 1703 individuals with 169 rare diseases (3-67 years) answered a questionnaire about oral health and oro-facial function and 1614 participated in a clinical examination. A control group of 135 healthy children was included. Oromotor impairment was a frequent finding (43%) and was absent among the controls. Half the children in the youngest age group (3-6 years) had moderate/severely affected intelligibility or no speech compared with one-third in the other age groups. The most frequent eating difficulties were related to chewing and were found in approximately 20% of the individuals in the study group. Artificial nutrition was most common in children aged 3-6 years (9·2%), followed by children aged 7-12 years (4·9%), adolescents aged 13-19 years (3·3%) and adults (1·4%). Impaired saliva control was common (31·2%) and strongly and significantly correlated with oromotor dysfunction, intellectual disability, open mouth at rest and epilepsy. In conclusion, oromotor impairment and oro-facial dysfunctions, such as affected intelligibility, eating difficulties and impaired saliva control, are frequent in individuals with rare diseases. There is a strong correlation between oromotor impairment and affected intelligibility, eating difficulties and impaired saliva control in individuals with rare diseases. PMID:26094963

  7. Action of mouthwashes on Staphylococcus spp: isolated in the saliva of community and hospitalized individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Denise de Andrade; Paula Regina de Souza; Carolina Contador Beraldo; Evandro Watanabe; Mery Elen Lima; Vanderlei José Haas

    2009-01-01

    The use of mouthwashes in critical patients has been a source of concern for health professionals due to the diverse range of products, causing uncertainty about which is the most indicated. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolated in the saliva of individuals from the community and patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) as to antiseptic mouthwashes. The following oral antiseptics were assessed: cetylpyridinium chloride solution, Listerine® and Neen®. Calc...

  8. Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci

    2012-01-01

    Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron defici...

  9. Radioimmunoassay for the determination of alosetron in human urine and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the sub-ng ml-1 determination of alosetron, a potent and selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in human urine and saliva is described. The antiserum was raised in Soay sheep following primary and booster immunizations with an immunogen prepared by conjugating alosetron-p-azobenzoic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The radioligand consisted of alosetron specifically 125-iodinated on the 2-position of the imidazole group. (Author)

  10. Microleakage of human saliva through dentinal tubules exposed at the cervical level in teeth treated endodontically.

    OpenAIRE

    Berutti, Elio

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of saliva recontamination occurring between the root canal wall and sealer through dentinal tubules exposed after the cementum was removed at the cervical level by root planing and treatment with citric acid. Thirty-four extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly placed into five groups after chemomechanical preparation and obturation with gutta-percha and sealer; the sealer was allowed to set for 48 h. A ring 3 mm high, at the cervical leve...

  11. Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, J.; Lipoldová, Marie; Volf, P.; Rohoušová, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2009), s. 766-770. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021620828; GA ?R(CZ) GP206/06/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti-saliva IgG * cellular response * Phlebotomus sergenti Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2009

  12. Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.

    1981-01-01

    Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans...

  13. Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

  14. Promotion of Streptococcus mutans glucose transport by human whole saliva and parotid fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Germaine, G. R.; Tellefson, L M

    1985-01-01

    Human saliva and parotid fluid have two effects on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans: a reduction in the overall rate of uptake, and the promotion of a biphasic mode of uptake. The former effect had been previously shown to result from lactoperoxidase-mediated inhibition of transport or metabolism or both. The objective of the present study was to uncover the basis of the second effect. Biphasic glucose uptake consisted of a rapid phase of low capacity and short duration (approximately 1...

  15. Simultaneous degradation by corrosion and wear of titanium in artificial saliva containing fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, J. C. M.; Barbosa, S. L; Ariza, E.; Celis, J-P.; Rocha, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of titanium-based oral rehabilitation systems can occur by corrosion and wear processes taking place simultaneously (tribocorrosion) and influenced by the presence of fluorides. In this study, the tribocorrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva solutions containing fluorides is investigated. Before sliding tests were started up, electrochemical measurements such as open circuit potential (OCP) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to get information on the c...

  16. ?-2-Macroglobulin in Saliva Is Associated with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Carolina; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Baeza, Mauricio; Beltran, Caroll; Escobar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) require an adequate glycemic control to avoid diabetic complications. Currently, saliva biomarkers are used as a diagnostic tool and can be indicative of the degree of progression and control of various diseases. Several studies indicate that ?-2-macroglobulin levels are elevated in diabetic patients. Methods. 120 subjects with DM2 were enrolled and classified into two groups according to their glycemic control (percentage of glycated h...

  17. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor gene associated with resistance to lactamic agents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ludmila Coutinho, MORAES; Clarissa Cavalcanti, FATTURI-PAROLO; Maria Beatriz Cardoso, FERREIRA; Marcus Vinicius Reis, SÓ; Francisco, MONTAGNER.

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the presence of Prevotella strains and genes associated with resistance to lactamics in different oral niches from patients with/without primary endodontic infections. Saliva (S) and supragingival biofilm (SB) were collected from three patient groups: Group I – no endod [...] ontic infection (n = 15); Group II – acute endodontic infection (n = 12); and Group III – chronic endodontic infection (n = 15). Root canal (RC) samples were collected from Groups II and III. The presence of P. intermedia, P nigrescens, P. tannerae and cfxA/cfxA2 gene was assessed by PCR. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected in all environments within the same patient. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was present in 23.81% of S samples, 28.57% of SB samples, and 7.41% of RC samples. Prevotella species were detected in 53.97%, 47.62% and 34.56% of the S, SB, and RC samples, respectively. P. intermedia had a high frequency in saliva samples from Group 3. Saliva samples from Group 1 had higher detection rates of P. nigrescens than did Groups 2 and 3. Patients without endodontic disease had high frequencies of P. nigrescens in the SB samples. The presence or absence of spontaneous symptoms was not related to the detection rates for resistance genes in the RC samples. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor resistant bacteria. The presence of symptomatology did not increase the presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in the supragingival biofilm and inside root canals.

  18. LACK OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HERPESVIRUS DETECTION IN SALIVA AND GINGIVITIS IN HIV?INFECTED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. OTERO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and cytomegalovirus (CMV by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4% HIV-infected children and 13 (27% control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%, followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%. The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104 or healthy control children (p = 0.251, or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447. Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001. These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.

  19. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na131I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 131I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na131I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  20. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Cereal Aphid Saliva Reveals Both Ubiquitous and Adaptive Secreted Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sohail A. K.; Carolan, James C; Wilkinson, Tom L.

    2013-01-01

    The secreted salivary proteins from two cereal aphid species, Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum, were collected from artificial diets and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching MS data against the official protein set from the current pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome assembly and revealed 12 and 7 proteins in the saliva of S. avenae and M. dirhodum, respectively. When combined with a comparable dataset from A. pisum, only three i...

  2. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease

  3. New Saliva DNA Collection Method Compared to Buccal Cell Collection Techniques for Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ROGERS, NIKKI L.; COLE, SHELLEY A.; LAN, HAO-CHANG; Crossa, Aldo; Demerath, Ellen W

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene™ DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel elect...

  4. To Spear or Not to Spear: Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Donzella, Bonny; Talge, Nicole M.; Smith, Tiffany L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2008-01-01

    The eye spear, or an absorbent sponge-like material, has been proposed as a useful method of obtaining repeated saliva samples from infants and young children for cortisol determination. This brief report examines possible interference effects of different types of eye spears under conditions of relatively high and low cortisol levels, with or without the use of oral stimulant, and using two common assays. In Study 1, one type of eye spear was compared to passively collected drool using two d...

  5. Optical characterization of core-shell quantum dots embedded in synthetic saliva: Temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Juliana F; Pilla, Viviane; Silva, Anielle C A; Dantas, Noelio O; Messias, Djalmir N; Andrade, Acácio A

    2015-10-01

    The present work reports the spectroscopic and thermo-optical properties of CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in synthetic saliva. Spectroscopy studies were performed applying nonfunctionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs (3.4, 3.9 and 5.1nm cores) and hydroxyl group-functionalized ultrasmall CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (1.6nm core) suspended in artificial saliva at different potential of hydrogen (pH) values. Saliva was chosen because it is important in a variety of functions such as protecting teeth through the buffering capacity of the formed biofilm, hydration, and dental remineralization. Thermo-optical characterizations using the thermal lens (TL) technique were performed in QD-biofluids for different QD sizes and pH values (3.9-8.3) of the synthetic oral fluids. Transient TL measurements were applied to determine the fluorescence quantum efficiency (?) in QD-biomaterial systems. High ? value was obtained for ultrasmall CdSe/CdS QDs. Fluorescence spectral measurements of the biomaterials support the TL results. In addition, for nonfunctionalized (3.4 and 5.1nm) and hydroxyl group-functionalized QDs, the temporal behavior of the fluorescence spectra was accomplished about approximately 1200h at two different biofluid pH values (3.9 and 8.3). The temporal fluorescence intensity result is dependent on the pH of the saliva in which the QDs were embedded, QD functionalization and QD sizes. The time for an approximately 50% decrease in the peak intensity fluorescence of CdSe/ZnS QDs (3.4nm core) and ultrasmall CdSe/CdS QDs is respectively 25h and 312h at pH 3.9 and 48h and 360h at pH 8.3. PMID:26313857

  6. Hexapeptide libraries for enhanced protein PTM identification and relative abundance profiling in whole human saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Bandhakavi, Sricharan; van Riper, Susan K.; Tawfik, Pierre N; Stone, Matthew D.; Haddad, Tufia; Nelson L. Rhodus; Carlis, John V.; Griffin, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic range compression (DRC) by hexapeptide libraries increases MS/MS-based identification of lower-abundance proteins in complex mixtures. However, two unanswered questions impede fully realizing DRC’s potential in shotgun proteomics. First, does DRC enhance identification of post-translationally modified proteins? Second, can DRC be incorporated into a workflow enabling relative protein abundance profiling? We sought to answer both questions analyzing human whole saliva. Addressing quest...

  7. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript rev...

  8. Can Saliva Proteins Be Used to Predict the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction among High-Risk Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Aizat Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2015-01-01

    Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Through comprehensive analysis, an array of salivary proteins and peptides may be beneficial as biomarkers in oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss the utility of human salivary proteomes and tabulate the recent salivary biomarkers found in subjects with acute myocardial infarction as well as respective methods employed. In a clinical setting, since acute myocardial infarction contributes to large cases of mortality worldwide, an early intervention using these biomarkers will provide an effective solution to reduce global heart attack incidence particularly among its high-risk group of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The utility of salivary biomarkers will make the prediction of this cardiac event possible due to its reliability hence improve the quality of life of the patients. Current challenges in saliva collection are also addressed to improve the quality of saliva samples and produce robust biomarkers for future use in clinical applications. PMID:25897294

  9. Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Urine and Saliva Samples in Nonhuman Primate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John Maina; Gachie, Beatrice Muthoni; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Waema, Maxwell Wambua; Maranga, Dawn Nyawira; Maina, Naomi Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-borne parasitic zoonotic disease. The disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the most prevalent in Africa. Early diagnosis is hampered by lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques. This study explored the potential of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of T. b. gambiense infection in a vervet monkey HAT model. Six vervet monkeys were experimentally infected with T. b. gambiense IL3253 and monitored for 180 days after infection. Parasitaemia was scored daily. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, and urine samples were collected weekly. PCR and LAMP were performed on serum, CSF, saliva, and urine samples. The detection by LAMP was significantly higher than that of parasitological methods and PCR in all the samples. The performance of LAMP varied between the samples and was better in serum followed by saliva and then urine samples. In the saliva samples, LAMP had 100% detection between 21 and 77?dpi, whereas in urine the detection it was slightly lower, but there was over 80% detection between 28 and 91?dpi. However, LAMP could not detect trypanosomes in either saliva or urine after 140 and 126?dpi, respectively. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of LAMP in diagnosis of HAT using saliva and urine samples. PMID:26504841

  10. Adhesion of oral streptococci to experimental bracket pellicles from glandular saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sug-Joon; Kho, Hong-Seop; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Nahm, Dong-Seok

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functions of bracket pellicles as the binding receptors for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii. Four different types of orthodontic brackets were used: stainless steel, monocrystalline sapphire, polycrystalline alumina, and plastic. The bracket pellicles were formed by incubating orthodontic brackets with fresh submandibular-sublingual saliva or parotid saliva for 2 hours. The pellicles were extracted, and their components were confirmed by gel electrophoresis, immunodetection, and amino acid composition analysis. The roles of the bracket pellicles in the adhesion of oral streptococci were evaluated by incubating tritium-labeled streptococci with pellicle-transfer blots. The results showed that the salivary components adhered selectively according to type of bracket and glandular saliva. The selective adsorption was also proven by the amino acid composition profiles. Among the several salivary proteins, MG2, alpha-amylase, and the acidic proline-rich proteins provided the binding sites for S gordonii. However, none of these proteins in the bracket pellicles contributed to the adhesion of S mutans. These findings suggest that numerous salivary proteins can adhere selectively to the orthodontic brackets, and some of them contribute to the binding of S gordonii. PMID:12923517

  11. Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Karn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6 and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi. Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals.

  12. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  13. Stability of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on titanium in artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matykina, E; Arrabal, R; Mohedano, M; Pardo, A; Merino, M C; Rivero, E

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive PEO coating on titanium with high Ca/P ratio was fabricated and characterized with respect to its morphology, composition and microstructure. Long-term electrochemical stability of the coating and Ti(4+) ion release was evaluated in artificial saliva. Influence of the lactic acid and fluoride ions on corrosion protection mechanism of the coated titanium was assessed using AC and DC electrochemical tests. The PEO-treated titanium maintained high passivity in the broad range of potentials up to 2.5 V (Ag/AgCl) for up to 8 weeks of immersion in unmodified saliva and exhibited Ti(4+) ion release <0.002 µg cm(-2) days(-1). The high corrosion resistance of the coating is determined by diffusion of reacting species through the coating and resistance of the inner dense part of the coating adjacent to the substrate. Acidification of saliva in the absence of fluoride ions does not affect the surface passivity, but the presence of 0.1 % of fluoride ions at pH ?4.0 causes loss of adhesion of the coating due to inwards migration of fluoride ions and their adsorption at the substrate/coating interface in the presence of polarisation. PMID:23073838

  14. Biofilm formation of Candida albicans is variably affected by saliva and dietary sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Samaranayake, Yuthika; Yip, Hak Kong

    2004-10-01

    The pathogenesis of both superficial and systemic candidiasis is closely dictated by properties of the yeast biofilms. Despite extensive investigations on bacterial biofilms, the characteristics of candidal biofilms, and various factors affecting this process remain to be determined. Therefore we examined the effect of human whole saliva and dietary sugars, glucose and galactose on the adhesion and biofilm formation of Candida albicans. Biofilms of C. albicans isolate 192 887 g were developed on polystyrene, flat-bottomed 96-well microtiter plates and monitored using ATP bioluminescence and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assays as well as the conventional colony forming unit (CFU) evaluation. Our data showed that both the ATP and the XTT assays strongly correlated with the CFU assay (ATP versus CFU: r = 0.994, P = 0.006; XTT versus CFU: r = 0.985, P = 0.015). Compared with a glucose-supplemented (100 mM) medium, galactose containing (500 mM) medium generated consistently lower levels of both candidal adhesion and biofilm formation (all P biofilm development over time (96 h). Whist the presence of an immobilised saliva coating had little effect on either the candidal adhesion or biofilm formation, the addition of saliva to the incubation medium quantitatively affected biofilm formation especially on day 3 and 4, without any significant effect on yeast adhesion. To conclude, biofilm formation of C. albicans within the oral milieu appears to be modulated to varying extents by dietary and salivary factors and, further investigations are required to elucidate these complex interactions. PMID:15308423

  15. The effect of bonding agents on the microleakage of sealant following contamination with saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askarizadeh Nahid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims : An issue of concern in dentistry is the inadequacy of adhesion and proper sealing following restoration of a tooth, which can lead to marginal leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bonding agent on the microleakage of a sealant material following contamination with saliva. Materials and Methods : In this experimental research, 48 sound premolars were divided into two groups. The first group received sealant without bonding and the other group was given sealant with bonding. After prophylaxis, the occlusal surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel and the teeth were then placed in fresh human saliva for l0 s. Following this, in the first group fissure sealant (Kerr was applied directly and cured; for the second group sealant was placed and cured after bonding (Single Bond; 3M. All samples were thermocycled (500 cycles; between 5°C and 55°C; dwell time of 30 s. Silver nitrate was used as the leakage tracer. The teeth were sectioned. Microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 40x magnification and the results were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results : In the group that received sealant without bonding extensive microleakage was seen; placement of sealant with bonding significantly reduced microleakage. Conclusion : In the presence of contamination with saliva, use of bonding under the fissure sealant can reduce microleakage

  16. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible. (author)

  17. Trefoil factor family peptides are increased in the saliva of children with mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verey, Fran; NexØ, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mucositis is a painful ulcerative condition of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, occurring in association with chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes. Trefoil factor family peptides (TFF, trefoil peptides), present in saliva, contribute to epithelial restitution and repair and are therefore potentially important in the healing phase of mucositis. This study aimed to assess any changes in the levels of trefoil peptides in oncology patients with and without mucositis. Methods: Saliva was collected from healthy children, pre-treatment oncology patients, neutropenic patients on treatment with no oral disease and mucositic patients. TFF1, 2 and 3 were quantified using ELISA. Results: In healthy children TFF2 and 3 were positively correlated with age (?=0.454, p=0.01 for TFF2; ?=0.410, p=0.05 for TFF3 Spearman rank correlation). TFF3 was higher in mucositis compared to all other groups. A linear regression prediction model indicated that TFF3, but not TFF1 and TFF2, was significantly different in mucositic and healthy controls, suggesting an altered pattern of trefoil peptide secretion (p=0.021). Conclusions: This study is the first to focus on trefoil peptides in paediatric saliva. It shows the correlation between TFF2, TFF3 and age in healthy children. Paediatric mucositis disease occurs in the presence of increased concentrations and an altered pattern of trefoil peptides.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva: a simplified technique using 125I-radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of serial salivary progesterone (P) determinations for evaluation of corpus luteum function compared with sporadic serum samplings is recognized. Salivary P concentrations have previously been determined by a relatively difficult assay which utilizes a tritiated radioligand. The present study was designed to compare this conventional method with a simpler assay utilizing an iodinated radioligand. The values obtained with two different radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems were compared for samples collected throughout the luteal phase of seven normal menstrual cycles and three conception cycles. In the seven nonconception luteal phases as well as in the three conception luteal phases, daily salivary P determinations by the two techniques correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.56; P less than 0.001). For the seven nonconception luteal phases, the salivary P determinations obtained by 125I RIA (Saliva 125I) correlated significantly with the matched serum values (r = 0.54; P less than 0.001). However, the correlation was poor between the salivary P determinations obtained by the 3H RIA (Saliva 3H) and the matched serum values. The simplicity and accuracy of the 125I RIA and the convenience of saliva sampling provide a practical approach to monitor human luteal function

  19. Clinical and diagnostic utility of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid: ?a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Lazaro Alessandro Soares; Mussavira, Sayeeda; Bindhu, Omana Sukumaran

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review presents the latest trends in salivary research and its applications in health and disease. Among the large number of analytes present in saliva, many are affected by diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Further, the non-invasive, easy and cost-effective collection methods prompt an interest in evaluating its diagnostic or prognostic utility. Accumulating data over the past two decades indicates towards the possible utility of saliva to monitor overall health, diagnose and treat various oral or systemic disorders and drug monitoring. Advances in saliva based systems biology has also contributed towards identification of several biomarkers, development of diverse salivary diagnostic kits and other sensitive analytical techniques. However, its utilization should be carefully evaluated in relation to standardization of pre-analytical and analytical variables, such as collection and storage methods, analyte circadian variation, sample recovery, prevention of sample contamination and analytical procedures. In spite of all these challenges, there is an escalating evolution of knowledge with the use of this biological matrix. PMID:26110030

  20. Standard-free method for body fluid samples such as saliva, sweat, snivel and tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed standard-free methods for PIXE analysis of hair, nail, urine and serum, and they have widely been applied to studies on human exposure to some toxic elements caused by pollution in many countries. Although these samples are known to be quite suited for evaluating human exposure to toxic elements, there is a cause where it is required to quantitatively analyze other samples taken from people. We have examined sweat, saliva, snivel and tear, which are expected to be useful for estimating concentration of various elements in a human body. However, sufficient quantities of them are difficult to be taken from a human body and it is required to establish standard-free methods for these samples. In the present work, standard-free methods for sweat and saliva were established and its accuracy and reproducibility are confirmed. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze only a drop of sweat and saliva by means of this method. For snivel and tear, potassium concentration is obtained by the internal-standard method for a small-spot sample and the conversion coefficient required for the standard-free method was evaluated. It is found that analyses of these samples give us useful information about some specific elements. As the standard-free methods are free from dryness of samples, which becomes a serious problem in the case where the internal-standard method is applied, it is expected to give more essential information about elemental concentration in a human body. (author)

  1. Analysis of protein compounds in old persons whole saliva with parodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovi? Silvija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the protein composition of whole saliva in 50 year-old patients an d older with manifested and terminal stages of periodontal disease, in correlation with control group of young healthy persons. Experimental and control group consisted of 30 patients. The periodontal status was determinate by using appropriate periodontal index (Sillness-Loe. Investigations were led by electrophoretic method on aragose gel which was used as a routine method for investigation of human serum proteins. Investigating in very alkaline conditions (pH-H as well as acid conditions (pH=5.9 resulted in separating alkaline and acid glycoprotein fractions in whole saliva. Results showed that there were more separated fractions within basic conditions than within acid conditions. The fraction identification was done by using relative molecule mass determination method by Weber and Osborne. Molecule mass fractions at basic conditions in comparison with the healthy sample (Sz indicated the destruction of big molecular weight alkaline proteins as well as a significant presence of acid fractions, of little molecule masses up to 60 000 (St, consequences due to aging processes in human organism. It can be concluded that changes in protein composition of whole saliva could point out to the direction and development of periodontal disease as well as changes concerning aging of human organism.

  2. Evaluation of physical properties of enamel after microabrasion, polishing, and storage in artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, L S M; Lima, D A N L; De Alexandre, R S; Bertoldo, C E S; Aguiar, F H B; Lovadino, J R, E-mail: deboralima@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, PO BOX 52 University of Campinas-UNICAMP 13414-903, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the effect of microabrasion and polishing on the microhardness and roughness of bovine enamel, and the effect of artificial saliva on the hardness of enamel. Bovine enamel blocks were used, forming the groups (n = 48): GI-37% phosphoric acid and pumice, GII--Opalustre, and GIII--Whiteness RM. The groups were divided into different subgroups: (a) diamond paste, (b) fluoride prophylactic paste, and (c) without polishing. Hardness tests were carried out at the following set times: (T1) initial, (T2) after microabrasion and polishing, (T3) after immersion in artificial saliva for 24 h; and (T4) after seven days of immersion. Surface roughness tests were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance of 5%. Microhardness increased in T2; without polishing, only groups GII and GIII showed an increased microhardness. T3 did not differ from T4; GI, GII and GIII did not provide surface roughness that differed from each other; and all microabrasive systems followed by polishing showed a higher surface smoothness compared with the control groups. It is concluded that microabrasion followed by polishing provided higher hardness and better surface smoothness of the enamel. However, immersion in artificial saliva was not able to increase the enamel hardness.

  3. Biochemical evaluation in human saliva with special reference to ovulation detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagendran S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of salivary sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans with reference to salivary hormones during the normal menstrual cycle. Settings and Design: Fifty women volunteers were selected for the present study. Materials and Methods : Saliva was collected from 50 women and ovulation was detected in women with normal menstrual cycles through basal body temperature (BBT, ultrasound and salivary ferning. Samples were divided into five categories, as prepubertal (6-9 years, pre-ovulatory phase (6-12 days, ovulatory phase (13-14 days, postovulatory phase (15-26 days and menopause (above 45 years. Each sample was subjected to evaluation of the sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans along with salivary hormones. Results : The result revealed that the ovulatory phase has increased sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans during the menstrual cycle when compared with that of the other phases. Consequently, an increased level of hormones such as luteinizing hormone and estrogen during the ovulatory period when compared to that of the pre-ovulatory and postovulatory periods appeared to be noteworthy. Statistically, analysis was performed using one way-ANOVA (LSD; post hoc method to determine the significance as P < 0.001, 0.01, 0.05 in between the reproductive phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion : This study concluded that saliva-specific carbohydrates in the ovulatory saliva make the possibility to develop a biomarker for detection of ovulation by non-invasive methods.

  4. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1? and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  5. Surface disinfection of saliva-contaminated dental X-ray film packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packota, G V; Komiyama, K

    1992-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the most effective method for the surface disinfection of saliva-contaminated dental X-ray film packets. Size 2 Kodak Poly-Soft film packets were placed in the oral cavities of patients and "sham" irradiated. After removal from the oral cavity, some of these packets were left untreated before being placed in transfer vials containing transport medium. Other packets were handled in one of three different ways before being placed in the transfer vials: 1) wiped with a piece of sterile tissue paper to remove visible saliva; 2) wiped once with a sterile piece of gauze soaked with disinfectant and then immediately wiped dry with a piece of tissue paper ("one-wipe" surface-disinfection technique); or, 3) wiped twice with a sterile piece of gauze soaked with disinfectant and allowed to air dry ("two-wipe" surface-disinfection technique). The transport medium was serially diluted and microbiological processing completed to obtain bacterial counts corresponding to the levels of bacterial contamination of the film packet surfaces. The two-wipe surface-disinfection method effectively eliminated bacterial contamination of the film packets, with all of the disinfectants tested being equally effective. The one-wipe technique, using disinfectant, appeared to be slightly less effective. Mere physical removal of the saliva from the film packet, without the use of disinfectant, was the least effective method. PMID:1458359

  6. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

  7. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

  8. Levels of Immunoglobulin A1 in Peri-Implant Fluid and Saliva from Patients with Mucositis: A Preliminary Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilla Christian Gomes, Moura; Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira, Soares; Andreia Espindola, Vieira; Maria Aparecida de, Souza; Paula, Dechichi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Não existem estudos que avaliem a utilização de imunoglobulina A1 (IgA1) como marcador precoce da inflamação peri-implantar. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de IgA1 do fluido sulcular peri-implantar (PISF) e saliva de pacientes parcialmente desdentados como indicador da mucosite. Vinte [...] e sete pacientes foram examinados para determinar a condição peri-implantar com base na profundidade de sondagem e sangramento à sondagem. Saliva e PISF ao redor de implantes dentários foram coletados e os níveis IgA1 foram avaliados pelo teste Elisa. IgA1 na saliva e PISF destes pacientes foram comparados e suas correlações com parâmetros clínicos foram avaliados. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de IgA1 (821,1 ± 290,6; 779,8 ± 401,5) na saliva e PISF (26,6 ± 20,7; 25,1 ± 20,5) de grupos saudáveis e mucosite, respectivamente (p>0,05). Correlação entre os parâmetros clínicos e IgA1 na saliva ou PISF não foi observada em grupos saudáveis ou mucosite (p=0,607; p=0,826, respectivamente). Estes resultados demonstraram que IgA1 não pode ser utilizada como marcador imunológico da mucosite. Abstract in english There are no studies evaluating the possible use of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) as an early marker for peri-implant inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the IgA1 levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) and saliva of partially edentulous patients as an indicator of mucositis. Twenty- [...] seven patients were examined to determine the peri-implant status based on probing depth and bleeding on probing. Saliva and PISF around dental implants were collected and the IgA1 levels were evaluated by Elisa assay. IgA1 in saliva and PISF of these patients were compared and their correlations with clinical parameters were evaluated. Differences in IgA1 levels in saliva (821.1 ± 290.6; 779.8 ± 401.5) and PISF (26.6 ± 20.7; 25.1 ± 20.5) of healthy and mucositis groups, respectively were not observed (p>0.05). Correlation between clinical parameters and IgA1 in saliva or PISF was not observed in healthy or mucositis groups (p=0.607; p=0.826, respectively). These results suggest that IgA1 cannot be used as an immunological marker of mucositis.

  9. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion of quebracho at 50 g/kg DM for 64 d does not appear to alter saliva production in sheep and goats. PMID:23296827

  10. Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Solange Artimos de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig M by antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA. Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4% saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

  11. Effect of Different Saliva Decontamination Procedures on Bond Strength to Dentin in Single Bottle Systems

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    M. Ghavam

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Following the increasing use of composites in restoring anterior and posterior teeth, problems due to its technique sensitivity have become a major concern.One of these problems is the possibility of contamination of dentin with saliva, blood and/or gingival fluid in different stages of bonding procedure, even with application of different methods of isolation. However, by introduction of Single-bottle dentin adhesives,the contamination possibility reduced to two stages. Scientific documents show that saliva contamination reduces bond strength of composites to dentin. Application of simple and efficient methods for reducing or eliminating saliva contamination enables clinicians to carry out dental treatment without any concern about deterioration of clinical longevity of restoration.Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effect of different decontamination methods on the shear bond strength of composite to dentin using a “Single-bottle” adhesive.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two extracted sound human molars and premolars were selected. Enamel of buccal surface was ground flat to expose dentin. The teeth were divided into 9 groups of 8 each. In control group (1 the adhesive “Excite” was used according tothe manufacturer, without any contamination. Conditioned and saliva contaminated dentin was (2 rinsed and blot dried, (3 rinsed, dried and re-etched. In groups 4, 5, 6 uncured adhesive was saliva contaminated and then: (4 only blot dried (5 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication and (6 resurfaced with bur, rinsed, dried and followed by repeating the whole process. In groups 7, 8, 9 cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva and then:(7 rinsed and dried (8 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication (9 same as group (6.Then “Tetric Ceram” composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces. Samples were thermo cycled in 5°C and 55°C water, 30 seconds in each bath with a dowel time of 10 seconds for 500 cycles. Finally, samples were sheared using Instron testing machine andshear bond strength data were subjected to one way ANOVA analysis, and Tukey HSD PostHoc. Mode of failure of samples was examined under Stereomicroscope (×40 and using Log-rank survival data analysis.Results: No statistically difference between mean shear bond strength of groups 1,2,3 was observed (P=0.543. Comparison of groups 4,5,6 with group 1 showed that shear bond strength of group 4 was significantly lower (P<0.001. Mean shear bond strength of groups1,7,8,9 were not significantly different (P=0.150. The major mode of failure was cohesive either in composite or dentin bonding.Conclusion: Blot- drying of saliva-contaminated uncured Single-bottle adhesive significantly decreased shear bond strength of composite to dentin. In other contamination protocols, the effect of treatments applied did not differ.

  12. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Cristina Viana da; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1) while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2) after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal), in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3) final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches were seen at least once during the 20-minute base period. None of the controls had supragastric belches. In the control group, the ingestion of yogurt caused no significant alteration in the number of air swallows, saliva swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches. In the patient group, there was an increase in the number of air swallows. If the subjects were chewing gum during this 20-minute period, there was an increase in the number of saliva swallows in both groups, without alterations of the number of air swallow, gastric belches and supragastric belches. There was no alteration in the number of the saliva swallows, air swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches in both groups for subjects who did not chew gum in the 20-40 minute period after yogurt ingestion. When the subjects were chewing the gum, there was an increase in saliva swallows in the control and patients groups and in air swallows in the patients group.ConclusionGum chewing causes an increase in saliva swallowing in both patients with excessive belching and in controls, and an increase in air swallowing in patients with excessive belching 20 minutes after yogurt ingestion. Gum chewing did not increase or decrease the frequency of gastric or supragastric belches. PMID:26486285

  13. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches were seen at least once during the 20-minute base period. None of the controls had supragastric belches. In the control group, the ingestion of yogurt caused no significant alteration in the number of air swallows, saliva swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches. In the patient group, there was an increase in the number of air swallows. If the subjects were chewing gum during this 20-minute period, there was an increase in the number of saliva swallows in both groups, without alterations of the number of air swallow, gastric belches and supragastric belches. There was no alteration in the number of the saliva swallows, air swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches in both groups for subjects who did not chew gum in the 20-40 minute period after yogurt ingestion. When the subjects were chewing the gum, there was an increase in saliva swallows in the control and patients groups and in air swallows in the patients group.ConclusionGum chewing causes an increase in saliva swallowing in both patients with excessive belching and in controls, and an increase in air swallowing in patients with excessive belching 20 minutes after yogurt ingestion. Gum chewing did not increase or decrease the frequency of gastric or supragastric belches.

  14. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio de Barros Pontes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring the time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentration was determined by the Bradford4 method. Amylase activity was measured by reducing sugars released from a soluble starch substrate, quantified by the dinitrosalicylic method. The electrophoretic profile was evaluated in polyacrylamid gel (12% SDS-PAGE using samples of 5 mg of salivary protein. A statistically significant reduction (p Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clínicos e algumas propriedades bioquímicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e após o tratamento radioterápico para câncer de cabeça e pescoço (grupo experimental e de 21 pacientes sem câncer (grupo controle. O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessário (segundos para produção estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente à utilização de um método colorimétrico simples. A concentração de proteína total salivar foi determinada pelo método de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada através dos açúcares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo método do ácido dinitrossalicílico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletroforético foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12% para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de proteína. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, redução estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,01 para o fluxo salivar (162,47 s ± 28,30 antes e 568,71 s ± 79,75 após e para a capacidade tamponante (pH 5,45 ± 0,14 antes e 4,40 ± 0,15 após. Não foi observada alteração estatisticamente significativa na concentração de proteína. A atividade específica da a-amilase foi significativamente diminuída (p < 0,01 (856,6 ng/mg ± 88,0 antes e 567,0 ng/mg ± 120,6 após. No perfil eletroforético, foram observadas diferenças nas bandas protéicas, principalmente na faixa de peso molecular de 72.000 a 55.000 Da. Clinicamente, os pacientes com xerostomia induzida pela radioterapia apresentaram aumento de lesões na mucosa.

  15. Trefoil factor family peptides in human saliva and cyclical cervical mucus. Method evaluation and results on healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trefoil peptides are 7-12 kDa molecules, se-creted by a variety of mucin-producing epithelial cells from different tissues and believed to be essential for protection and maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosa. Data on concentrations of trefoil peptides in secretions are limited. Methods: We validated in-house ELISA assays, developed for measurement of trefoil peptide concentrations (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) in serum, for use with saliva and cervical mucus. Saliva from healthy individuals (n=30), and cervical mucus as well as blood collected three times during the menstrual cycle from healthy women (n=18) were analyzed. Results: Recovery of all trefoil peptides in the initial supernatants of saliva and (cervical mucus) were 86 and (92)% or more. Recovery of exogenously added trefoil peptides was 93 and (95)% or more. Western blotting showed that antibodies used in the TFF3-ELISA assay recognised one mole-cule of the same size as TFF3 in both saliva and cervical mucus. Median concentrations ofTFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 in saliva and (cervical mucus) were 2.7 (2.7), 0.08 (0.58) and 14 (430) nmol/g protein, with a significant decrease in concentrations in cervical mucus after ovulation. Serum concentrations resembled previously measured values in blood donors and showed no cyclic change. Conclusions: Previously established ELISA assays can be employed for measurement of trefoil peptides in saliva and cervical mucus. TFF3 was the predominant trefoil peptide in both saliva and cervical mucus, and TFF3 in cervical mucus represents the highest concentration measured in a biological fluid to date.

  16. Human saliva as a source of anti-malarial antibodies to examine population exposure to Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Sheila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method would provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia. Methods In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed. IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-119 and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1 were measured by ELISA in paired saliva and blood samples from both sites. Antibody levels were compared as continuous optical density (OD values and by sero-positivity. Results Significant correlations between saliva and plasma antibody levels were seen in Tanzania for both antigens, AMA-1(r2 range 0.93 to 0.89, p 19 (r2 range 0.93 to 0.75, p 2range 0.64 to 0.63, p 19 (sensitivity range 64-77% and specificity range 91-100% & 47-67% and 90-97% respectively over the different sample sets. Conclusions These data demonstrate anti-malarial antibodies can be detected in saliva and correlate strongly with levels in plasma. This non-invasive relatively simple collection method will be potentially useful for general population surveys, and particularly in migratory populations or those with infrequent contact with health services or opposed to blood withdrawal. Further studies will be needed to optimize collection methods, standardize volumes and content and develop controls.

  17. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human saliva and semen stains--results of a third collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E

    2013-01-01

    A third collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Twenty saliva and semen stains, four dilution series (10-0.01 µl saliva, 5-0.01 µl semen) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 20 participating laboratories using an RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction method. Two novel mRNA multiplexes were used: a saliva triplex (HTN3, STATH and MUC7) and a semen pentaplex (PRM1, PRM2, PSA, SEMG1 and TGM4). The laboratories used different chemistries and instrumentation and a majority (16/20) were able to successfully isolate and detect mRNA in dried stains. The simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA from individual stains not only permitted a confirmation of the presence of saliva/semen (i.e. tissue/fluid source of origin), but allowed an STR profile of the stain donor to be obtained as well. The method proved to be reproducible and sensitive, with aslittle as 0.05 µl saliva or semen, using different analysis strategies. Additionally, we demonstrated the ability to positively identify the presence of saliva and semen, as well as obtain high quality DNA profiles, from old and compromised casework samples. The results of this collaborative exercise involving an RNA/DNA co-extraction strategy support the potential use of an mRNA based system for the identification of saliva and semen in forensic casework that is compatible with current DNA analysis methodologies.

  18. DISTINCT CELLULAR MIGRATION INDUCED BY Leishmania infantum chagasi AND SALIVA FROM Lutzomyia longipalpis IN A HEMORRHAGIC POOL MODEL / Migração celular distinta induzida por Leishmania infantum chagasi e saliva de Lutzomyia longipalpis em um modelo de pool hemorrágico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Oliveira, Vasconcelos; Zirlane C. Branco, Coelho; Cristina de Souza, Chaves; Clarissa Romero, Teixeira; Margarida M. Lima, Pompeu; Maria Jania, Teixeira.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O recrutamento de uma população de células específicas após infecção por Leishmania pode influenciar o resultado da doença. A migração celular em resposta a Leishmania ou saliva do vetor tem sido reportada utilizando o modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea, entretanto, a migração celular induzida por Lei [...] shmania associada com o sangue do hospedeiro e saliva do vetor neste modelo ainda não foi descrita. Neste trabalho foi investigada a migração celular no modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea em hamster após a estimulação com a combinação de L. chagasi, sangue do hospedeiro e saliva de Lutzomyia longipalpis. A migração induzida por saliva foi três vezes maior do que a induzida por L. chagasi sozinha. Adicionalmente, L. chagasi associada com sangue e saliva induziu significativamente ainda mais leucócitos no exsudato inflamatório do que o estímulo com Leishmania sozinha. L. chagasi recrutou uma população de células distintas, no entanto, a maioria dessas células parece não ter migrado para o exsudato inflamatório, permanecendo no tecido da bolsa de ar. Estes resultados indicam que L. chagasi pode reduzir o acúmulo de leucócitos para o local inicial da infecção e que quando associada à saliva do vetor e na presença de componentes do sangue aumenta o influxo de mais neutrófilos do que macrófagos, sugerindo que o parasito desenvolveu uma estratégia para minimizar a resposta inflamatória inicial, permitindo uma progressão ilimitada dentro do hospedeiro. Este trabalho reforça a importância de mais estudos sobre os componentes da saliva dos vetores das leishmanioses no processo de transmissão e no estabelecimento da infecção. Abstract in english Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector [...] saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.

  19. Expressão das metaloproteinases da matriz 2 e 9 na saliva de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Expression of matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 in saliva from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsandra Aparecida dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da expressão das metaloproteinases da matriz extracelular (MPM é considerado um importante fator no desenvolvimento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os níveis de expressão da MPM-2 e MPM-9 na saliva de pacientes com DPOC em comparação com indivíduos saudáveis, verificando a viabilidade de usar a saliva para a caracterização de biomarcadores específicos em DPOC. Foram selecionados pacientes com DPOC (n=16 e controles saudáveis (n=9. Em ambos os grupos foram realizados teste espirométrico e obtidas amostras de saliva de cada indivíduo. Os níveis de MPM-2 e MPM-9 na saliva foram determinados pela técnica Western blot. A MPM-2 e a MPM-9 foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com DPOC do que no grupo de indivíduos saudáveis. Foi encontrada moderada correlação negativa entre a concentração de MPM-2 e o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (r= -0,582, p=0,014 em pacientes com DPOC. Estes resultados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo específico de biomarcadores na saliva para predizer e monitorar a obstrução ao fluxo aéreo em pacientes com DPOC.The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP is considered a key factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed at assessing expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in saliva from patients with COPD, comparing them to those of healthy subjects, thus assessing the feasibility of characterizing specific biomarkers for COPD. Patients with COPD (n=16 and healthy controls (n=9 were selected; both groups submitted to spirometry and to collection of saliva samples. Saliva levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by Western blot. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients than in control subjects. In COPD patients, a moderate, negative correlation was found between MMP-2 concentration and forced expiatory volume at the first second (r= -0.582; p=0.014. These findings open new perspectives to study specific biomarkers in saliva to predict and monitor airway obstruction in COPD patients.

  20. Resource conserving energy efficiency. Electronics and hydraulics, a strong team; Ressourcenschonende Energieeffizienz. Elektronik und Hydraulik, ein starkes Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welschof, Bernward [Linde Hydraulics, Aschaffenburg (Germany). Produktmanagement und Vorentwicklung

    2011-05-15

    The control technology (i.e. electronics) enables new concepts in the hydraulics. This can be shown well by means of the operating hydraulics of forklift trucks. The control electronics allows the use of variable displacement pumps. The contribution under consideration presents these pumps and explains key trends in hydraulic drives for the drive functions.