WorldWideScience

Sample records for saliva electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Human resources handbook [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

  3. Agripedia glossary [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glossary of terms used in the classes contained within Agripedia, an Internet accessible interactive multimedia instructional resource developed by the University of Kentucky's College of Agriculture.

  4. Fundamentals of Electronics Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website from UBM Tech provides links to a variety of technical papers, webinars, videos and tutorials pertaining to fundamental electronics. At the top of the page, users will find current spotlight resources.

  5. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrauskiene, Zibute

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomicalgrowth of e-resources—e-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally onacquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a bird’s eye viewof various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  10. Saliva and dental erosion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  11. Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software

    OpenAIRE

    Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

    2012-01-01

    The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

  12. TJ training journal [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training Journal is the UK's only dedicated publication for the Training and Learning & Development Industry. Aimed at everyone from the head of corporate learning & development through to the independent trainer, Training Journal provides the industry with a huge resource of information. Having been established for over 40 years, Training Journal has always been at the forefront of the industry, discussing the latest trends and research and helping to shape opinion and drive

  13. Monash University Library Electronic Resources Directory: Extending the Library Catalogue to Access Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electronic Resources Directory of Monash University (Melbourne, Australia), designed for locating electronic resources of the library. It both provides information about these resources as well as direct links to them where appropriate. Use of the World Wide Web for the directory has obvious advantages for a university where global…

  14. Transcriptomic Analyses of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. Salivary mRNA transcriptomic analyses create a new paradigm in the emerging field for noninvasive molecular diagnosis. In this chapter, we will overview the development of sensitive and robust microarray and multiplex quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR assays for the discovery and validation of mRNA biomarkers in human saliva. Total RNA isolated from human saliva is use...

  15. Commercial saliva collections tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases. PMID:23505755

  16. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

  17. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  18. EETimes Network: The Worldwide Electronics Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EEdesign (last mentioned in the February 15, 2002 NSDL Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology is one of many Web sites that are part of the EETimes Network. This new resource for electrical engineering (EE) and electronics professionals integrates the online versions of global technical newspapers. It also serves as a central access point to sites for specific industries that are part of the EETimes Network. For instance, there are features for communications, analog design, embedded systems, semiconductors, and microwave engineering. All of this provides an excellent way to keep up to date on breakthrough technologies, market developments, and business dealings. This site is also reviewed in the August 16, 2002 Scout Report.

  19. Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T

    2010-01-01

    For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly saliva can reflect the physiological state of the body, including emotional, endo...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thyroxine (T4) in saliva has been described. Fifty euthyroid control subjects, 14 euthyroid pregnant women, 23 thyreotoxic and 10 hypothyroid patients were examined. Serum T3, T4, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and TSH were measured simultaneously. The mean level of T4 in saliva in controls was 1.10 +- 0.07 nmol/l. There was a good correlation between the saliva and serum T4 concentrations (r = 0.74) and between saliva T4 values and the T4/TBG ratio (r = 0.83). The saliva T4 levels, like serum free T4, were not dependent on fluctuations of serum TBG concentrations. In euthyroid pregnant women, saliva T4 levels were within the normal range while the serum T4 and TBG were increased. There was a good agreement of saliva T4 values with the functional state of the thyroid. Thus, the RIA of saliva T4 could replace the laborious determination of serum free T4. It can especially be useful in instances with abnormal values of TBG, as it is in pregnancy, in congenital deficiency of serum TBG or in subjects with hereditary elevated TBG levels. (author)

  1. Protein Electrophoresis in Saliva Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lamy, Elsa; Costa, Ana R.; Antunes, Celia M.; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The following sections will give an overview about the use of electrophoresis in saliva studies. Methodological issues and the major advantages and limitations for the use of this technique in human and animal saliva studies will be presented. We will finish the chapter by presenting alternatives to electrophoresis for the study of salivary proteome.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doži? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

  3. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1?m fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1?m microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  4. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  5. Proteomics of saliva: personal experience

    OpenAIRE

    Scarano, E.; Fiorita, A.; Picciotti, Pm; Passali, Gc; Calo?, L.; Cabras, T.; Inzitari, R.; Fanali, C.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Paludetti, G.

    2010-01-01

    The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than ...

  6. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  7. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  8. Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

  9. D-Lib magazine [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents "D-Lib Magazine," a monthly electronic publication related to digital libraries. Includes commentaries and news articles. Offers an archive of back issues and a site search engine. Provides access to working groups, digital library research

  10. Marketing of Electronic Resources in IIT Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat Jotwani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian Institute of Technology (IIT libraries at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, and Roorkee have been subscribing to over 15000 e-journals, e-books, databases, and other e-resources either individually or in consortia mode and spending a substantial part of their acquisition budget for over a decade now. This paper attempts to study the marketing efforts being made by these libraries to improve the awareness and increase the usage of these resources. Marketing-related data were collected through a questionnaire, personal visits, and discussions with the librarians, and the usage data were obtained from publishers. Data analysis revealed that e-resources in all IITs are being heavily used as the number of downloads have increased from 32,33,818 to 75,23,371 reflecting a growth of 132 % over a period of 9 years. The IIT libraries adopt multipronged approach and use 27 marketing techniques to promote their resources. The study also showed that there were downward fluctuations in usage in different years. It is suggested that these libraries shall regularly re-look at the marketing strategies and techniques; study their impact on the awareness and usage of the e-resources; identify and remove the bottlenecks; and make additional efforts including interacting with the users to ensure optimum utilisation of these resources.

  11. Radiation tolerant nuclear electric cell [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electric cell comprises layers of moderating material 1 &8, nuclear fuel 2 &7, cathode 3, anode 6, and semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 adjacently stacked one above another. Ionic compounds with high proton numbers are used to form the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5. Highly energetic heavy ion daughter nuclides from the nuclear fuel layers 2 &7 penetrate into the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5. The collision of heavy ions with the valence band electrons in the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 creates electron-hole pairs which provide electricity. If the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 are fissile, then the nuclear fuel layers 2 &7 can be removed.

  12. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  13. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  14. Electronics Learning-Resources on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles D. H.

    The links on this page are to background information which students taking electronics courses (particularly PHY2003, PHY3128) may find helpful. The descriptors used in the tables are explained at the bottom of the page. Topics include Circuit Analysis and Complex Variables, Techniques and Good Practice, Oscilloscopes, Passive Components, Diodes, Transistors, Op-Amps, Filters, Digital Signal, Processing, Applications and Circuits, Monostables and Astables, and Microcontrollers and PICsSpice: Learning and using Spice

  15. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  16. The proteome of human saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  17. The impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process using ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.

    OpenAIRE

    Love-Rodgers, Christine; Stewart, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    As part of a UK wide study attempting to assess the impact libraries have on the work and study of their members, Edinburgh University Library (EUL) decided to “measure the impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process”, using the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars. The project methodology included analysis of the databases’ coverage of University of Edinburgh research publications and surv...

  18. Developing an Electronic Resource Management System: Verde from Ex Libris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Sadeh

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the number of electronic resources and the complexity of managing e-collections has posed new challenges for libraries and hence requires the development of new tools. To meet this need, Ex Libris is developing a new product, an electronic resource management (ERM system. The development process began in 2002 and has benefited from the company's 25 years of experience in providing libraries with various products - an integrated library system, digital asset management system, library portal, and link server. Working with an international focus group and development partners and interacting with the Digital Library Federation's Electronic Resource Management Initiative (DLF ERMI committee, Ex Libris explored the various aspects of the e-resource life cycle. As a result, the Ex Libris ERM system was designed to address the issues raised through this collaboration and the DLF requirements. The interface of the system represents all of its components; it includes navigation options and facilitates workflows that support the various activities that librarians perform when dealing with electronic resources. This paper describes the development process of the Ex Libris ERM system. The emphasis is on the particular functionality required for managing e-resources and the ways in which existing systems in the library arena can handle specific tasks.

  19. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  20. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  1. Antiviral activities in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, D; Abrams, W R; Barber, C A; Weissman, D; Rehtanz, M; Golub, E

    2011-04-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses-gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection. PMID:21441478

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of tick saliva

    OpenAIRE

    MI Camargo Mathias; KC Scopinho Furquim; PH Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are bloodsucking ectoparasites that cause great damage to host organisms, so these ectoparasites are of great importance in medicine and veterinary medicine. All the biological success achieved by ticks is due to the action of bioactive components present in their saliva, which are synthesized by the salivary glands. These components have great diversity of functions such as enabling feeding and the permanence of ectoparasites on hosts, since they modulate immune system acting as comple...

  3. Antiviral Activities in Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud, D.; Abrams, W. R.; Barber, C. A.; Weissman, D.; Rehtanz, M.; Golub, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses—gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial...

  4. Electronic Resources Security: A look at Unauthorized Users

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Tones White

    2010-01-01

    Much of the literature written on electronic resources security focuses on systematic downloading.  However, when the unauthorized use from two cases of stolen identities at the University of Saskatchewan was studied in more depth, a different pattern emerged.  By analyzing proxy server data, we found that the unauthorized use was coming from all over the world, was focused on science, technology and medical resources, and included both small-scale and excessive downloading.  This article ...

  5. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  6. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  7. Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin

    OpenAIRE

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Aken, G.A., van

    2005-01-01

    Upon consumption of emulsions, mixing with saliva occurs. This article shows that whole saliva and a model mucin (pig gastric mucin, PGM) are able to induce extensive droplet flocculation. Saliva samples collected from several subjects at different times of the day always showed flocculation. However, there was a clear variation between samples from different individuals with respect to the structure of the flocs and reversibility of flocculation upon dilution. Several aspects of PGM-induced...

  8. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?-a?lamo, Silvia; Manchen?o-franch, Aisha; Marzal-gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-fabuel, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of de...

  9. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  10. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources

  11. What Is the Future of Electronic Resource Management Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie; King, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    In a time of constant change, sometimes it is worthwhile to ruminate on the future and how things ought to be. "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" wanted to capture some of these ruminations from around the field in a new column called "E-Opinions from the Field" where readers are asked to send in their thoughts on a topic and respond…

  12. Think Locally: A Prudent Approach to Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson-Sundell, Nat

    2011-01-01

    A few articles have drawn some amount of attention specifically to the local causes of the success or failure of electronic resource management system (ERMS) implementations. In fact, it seems clear that local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail. This statement might seem obvious, but the…

  13. Oestradiol in saliva during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J; Stewart, C R; Merrick, A Y

    1980-07-01

    Sixteen women provided saliva samples throughout a menstrual cycle and the concentration of oestradiol was measured. Blood samples were taken around mid-cycle and the luteinizing hormone peak was used to diagnose the timing of ovulation. The levels of oestradiol in saliva followed the same pattern as in blood. The peak of oestradiol in saliva could be used to predict accurately the time of onset of the next menstrual period. The analysis of saliva could be useful in the investigation of women in whom serial venepunctures are not possible. PMID:7426520

  14. The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources (or NETEC) is a site created with substantial funding from the National Science Foundation. Drawing on the teaching experiences and resources developed by many concerned persons in industry and academic settings, the Clearinghouse contains everything from course materials for material engineering to journal articles that deal with the science (and art) of teaching in the subfields of engineering. First-time visitors may wish to register on the homepage, and then proceed to browse through the â??Clearinghouse Resourcesâ? area. Here they can click on an alphabetized list of terms, such as digital electronics and skill standards, and look through the available materials. Of course, there is a great deal more available here than the very fine educational resources, as visitors can also look over online job boards and mentorship opportunities.

  15. ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Marci.

    2003-01-01

    The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

  16. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of human saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. K.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1994-01-01

    FT-IR spectra of male and female dried human saliva were obtained. The assignments of the observed spectral peaks are presented. The possibility of the application of FT-IR spectroscopy of human saliva in monitoring the status of a wide variety of human diseases is discussed.

  18. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.

  20. Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

  1. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  2. Direct radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y C; Chatterton, R T; Vogelsong, K M; May, L K

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a simple, direct radioimmunoassay for progesterone in saliva. The correlation coefficient (r) between the direct assay and an extraction procedure was 0.92 (n = 65, P saliva, other plastic and glass surfaces were satisfactory for the procedure. Intraassay and interassay CVs from values greater than 300 pmol/L were 12.0 and 12.4%, respectively. The assay sensitivity was 48 pmol/L. Collection of saliva is a more convenient and less invasive technique for frequent sample collection than phlebotomy, and is useful for monitoring ovulation and assessment of luteal function in women clinically. PMID:9134474

  3. Next Generation Networks for Distributed Electronic Resources: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Soysal, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the lifestyle of the people, new applications, technological developments and the telecommunication market drive the adoption Next Generation Network (NGN) as the new network architecture. NGN has a service-centric architecture which promotes agile creation of services and then maintenance of these services with end-to-end QoS support. In the current era, every internet user is a potential electronic resource user. Due to the transition from the traditional mode of collect...

  4. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  5. Proteomics and its applications for biomarker discovery in human saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua; Wong, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Human saliva is a biological fluid with enormous diagnostic potential. Because saliva can be non-invasively collected, it provides an attractive alternative for blood, serum or plasma. It has been postulated that the blood concentrations of many components are reflected in saliva. Saliva harbors a wide array of proteins, which can be informative for the detection of diseases. Profiling the proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers ...

  6. Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, R.G.; Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in saliva has increased in the last few years for its potential to diagnose viral, bacterial and systemic diseases. The use of saliva as research material may pose particular problems due to its inherent ...

  7. SAGES Update: Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheri, Lewis L.; Campbell, Timothy C.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Patel, Shraddha V.; Feighner, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, open-source software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. This demonstration will illustrate several new innovations and update attendees on new users in Africa and Asia. Introduction The new 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR), a legally binding instrument for all 194 WHO member countries, significantly expanded the scope of reportable conditions and are intended to help prevent and respond to global public health threats. SAGES aims to improve local public health surveillance and IHR compliance with particular emphasis on resource-limited settings. More than a decade ago, in collaboration with the US Department of Defense (DoD), the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE). ESSENCE collects, processes, and analyzes non-traditional data sources (i.e. chief complaints from hospital emergency departments, school absentee data, poison control center calls, over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales, etc.) to identify anomalous disease activity in a community. The data can be queried, analyzed, and visualized both temporally and spatially by the end user. The current SAGES initiative leverages the experience gained in the development of ESSENCE, and the analysis and visualization components of SAGES are built with the same features in mind. Methods SAGES tools are organized into four categories: 1) data collection, 2) analysis & visualization, 3) communications, and 4) modeling/simulation/evaluation. Within each category, SAGES offers a variety of tools compatible with surveillance needs and different types or levels of information technology infrastructure. SAGES tools are built in a modular nature, which allows for the user to select one or more tools to enhance an existing surveillance system or use the tools en masse for an end-to-end electronic disease surveillance capability. Thus, each locality can select tools from SAGES based upon their needs, capabilities, and existing systems to create a customized electronic disease surveillance system. New OpenESSENCE developments include improved data query ability, improved mapping functionality, and enhanced training materials. New cellular phone developments include the ability to concatenate single SMS messages sent by simple or Smart Android cell phones. This ‘multiple-SMS’ message ability allows use of SMS technology to send and receive health information exceeding normal SMS message length in a manner transparent to the users. Conclusions The SAGES project is intended to enhance electronic disease surveillance capacity in resource-limited settings around the world. We have combined electronic disease surveillance tools developed at JHU/APL with other freely-available, interoperable software tools to create SAGES. We believe this suite of tools will facilitate local and regional electronic disease surveillance, regional public health collaborations, and international disease reporting. SAGES development, funded by the US Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, continues as we add new international collaborators. SAGES tools are currently deployed in locations in Africa, Asia and South America, and are offered to other interested countries around the world.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of oestrone in male saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radioimmunoassay for oestrone in male saliva is briefly described. The assay has a sensitivity of 3 pg/tube and intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 5.1% and 8.3% respectively. A statistically significant correlation between salivary and plasma levels of oestrone was shown in 14 healthy men. This indicates the possibility of assaying saliva rather than plasma in endocrinological investigations. (U.K.)

  9. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
    Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  10. COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????????

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

  11. Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Barry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1 the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2 the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO. Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb.ucla.edu/SALO/ as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics domain and to saliva-related diagnostics following the principles of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. Conclusions The Saliva Ontology is an ongoing exploratory initiative. The ontology will be used to facilitate salivaomics data retrieval and integration across multiple fields of research together with data analysis and data mining. The ontology will be tested through its ability to serve the annotation ('tagging' of a representative corpus of salivaomics research literature that is to be incorporated into the SKB.

  12. Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

  13. Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Jean E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek® was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97% for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

  14. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?nar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  15. Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis

  16. Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; GOYAL, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulize...

  17. The study of the method for determining PRL in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values of PRL in saliva and serum were determined by RIA in 70 cases. At the sametime, the total protein content was determined, the volume and value of salivary PRL were estimated for linear test. It is found that the salivary total protein is correlated with the saliva PRL (P0.05). The authors recognize that PRL presents in the saliva. Determining PRL in saliva may have some significance for tracing the personal PRL level

  18. Detection of feline leukemia virus infection in saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, H.; Jarrett, O.

    1987-01-01

    The question was investigated whether feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection may be diagnosed by testing saliva in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva was collected with commercially available swabs, eluted from the swabs, and tested in the ELISA. A comparison of results with saliva and serum samples from 60 specific-pathogen-free cats, 9 experimentally infected cats, and 1,117 field cats led to the following conclusions. False-positive saliva results, if any occurred, were r...

  19. Effects of radiotherapy on human parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in parotide salivary function, as determined by flow rate and protein secretion, were measured in 31 cancer patients given radiotherapy to the head and neck. After the first week of treatment, a 50% decrease in salivary flow rate and a 60% decrease in protein secretion rate were observed. Salivary function remained at or below these levels during the next 3 week of treatment. Proteins in saliva were affected unequally, with the family of glycoproteins exhibiting greater sensitivity than amylase. Chromatography or irradiated (60 Gy) and unirradiated whole parotid saliva suggests that the observed alterations in salivary protein may be due to radiation effects on protein synthesis rather than on the proteins themselves

  20. Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  1. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Solution at York University

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron August Lupton; Marcia Kay Salmon

    2012-01-01

    Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, d...

  2. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  3. Electronic Resource Management 2.0: Using Web 2.0 Technologies as Cost-Effective Alternatives to an Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Designed to assist with the management of e-resources, electronic resource management (ERM) systems are time- and fund-consuming to purchase and maintain. Questions of system compatibility, data population, and workflow design/redesign can be difficult to answer; sometimes those answers are not what we'd prefer to hear. The two primary functions…

  4. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Álamo, Silvia; Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis - much the same as blood analysis - aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren's syndrome and c?liac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing's syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis. PMID:24558562

  5. Diagnostic Value of Saliva in Oral and Systemic Diseases: A Literature Rewiew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Adriane Bezerra de MOURA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The value of saliva as a diagnostic resource of oral and systemic diseases has been object of study of several researchers that intend to add a possible complementary examination. The analysis of saliva, as analyses based on the use of blood, has two goals: first, to identify individuals with disease, and second, to follow the evolution of the affected individual, evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. Among the advantages of the use of this resource, it may be mentioned ease of material collection and handing, which are important points in the technical operationalization of this type of examination. Saliva can be useful in the evaluation of caries risk as well as in the diagnosis of other diseases by means of syalometric and syalochemical methods (flow salivary. These methods allow that substances are dosed and thus contribute to the diagnosis of diseases from the assessment of the levels of inorganic and organic elements, such as hormonal dosages, analysis of biological, viral, bacterial and fungal agents, in addition to bacterial markers that are useful in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. It is necessary to consider a hierarchical model used for diagnostic evaluation of the technology, which consists in five basic levels of analysis in which the efficacy of the entire diagnostic test should be evaluated: the analytical, which considers the accuracy and exactness; the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; the efficacy of the result for the patient based on the medical decision making; the operational evaluation, which considers the predictive value and the test efficiency; and the cost/benefit.Purpose: To perform an ample literature review on the use of saliva as a diagnostic resource of diseases and monitoring of oral and systemic health.Conclusion: The advances in the studies of diagnostic methods that use saliva as a biological mean for diagnosis and surveillance of oral and systemic conditions present promising results, which could constitute an examination resource used in routine practice.

  6. Bridging the Two Cultures: A Collaborative Approach to Managing Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, John; Ryan, Patti

    2002-01-01

    Highlights an example of cross-discipline collaboration in an academic library and describes a collaborative approach to managing electronic resources that is used at York University (Canada). Explains a model in which a science librarian and a humanities/social science librarian work together to manage electronic resources. (Author/LRW)

  7. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free) and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  8. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  9. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  10. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  11. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  12. "Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

  13. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  14. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Perio...

  15. Saliva aldosterone concentration in healthy infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Few, J. D.; Mangat, T. K.; Oppe, T. E.; James, V. H.

    1986-01-01

    Aldosterone and glucocorticoid (cortisol + cortisone) concentrations were measured in 106 saliva samples from healthy infants. Most aldosterone values fell within the adult range (0-0.15 nmol/l (0-5.4 micrograms/100 ml)), but 10 were greater than 0.2 nmol/l (7.2 micrograms/100 ml). Aldosterone concentration was not related to sex, ethnic origin, time of collection, distress, or cortisol concentration but decreased with age.

  16. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  17. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L

    2012-11-15

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

  18. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mo?nica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Morenocruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by...

  19. Effects of Different Tastants on Parotid Saliva Flow and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Neyraud, E.; Heinzerling, C.I.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mesmin, C.; Dransfield, E

    2009-01-01

    Saliva from parotid glands plays a role in taste perception. Parotid saliva is also stimulated by tastants. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different tastants on the parotid salivary response in six subjects. Five tastants were given in different concentrations in solution and held in the mouth for 10 s. The flow rate, protein concentration, and pH of secreted parotid saliva were monitored continuously for 5 min. Stimulation by tastants on flow rate response consists of ...

  20. Tick-host interactions: saliva-activated transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuttall, PA; Labuda, M

    2004-01-01

    The skin site at which ticks attach to their hosts to feed is the critical interface between the tick and its host, and tick-borne pathogens. This site is highly modified by the pharmacologically active molecules secreted in tick saliva. For pathogens, it is an ecologically privileged niche that many exploit. Such exploitation is referred to as saliva-activated transmission (SAT) - the indirect promotion of tick-borne pathogen transmission via the actions of bioactive tick saliva molecules on...

  1. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, K. W.; Mccrossan, J.; Mackenzie, D.; Macfarlane, C. B.; Speirs, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampi...

  2. Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Gre?gory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michèle; Choumet, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the tr...

  3. Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva / Recovery of Veillonella from saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.I., Gutiérrez De Ferro; R.E., Ruiz De Valladares; I.L., Benito De Cárdenas.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería ú [...] til para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with [...] oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

  4. Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

  5. ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

  6. The effect of pretreatment of saliva on steroid hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, E P; Hofman, J A

    1990-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the pretreatment (sonification or centrifugation) of saliva samples on the concentration of several steroid hormones as measured with highly specific RIA after extraction and chromatography. It appeared that sonification of saliva resulted in significantly higher values for progesterone, cortisone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and oestradiol (10-49% increase), compared with the levels recorded after centrifugation. No differences were demonstrated for the concentrations of cortisol and androstenedione, except that a sex-dependent difference effect was observed in the values for androstenedione: concentrations measured in sonificated male saliva were lower than those measured in supernatant saliva. PMID:2081963

  7. Use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovi? Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a secretion of the salivary and mucous glands and is of major importance in the maintainance of oral health. Over the last few decades, saliva has been evaluated as a diagnostic fluid in medicine for determining systemic disease markers as well as for monitoring numerous drugs, narcotics, and hormones. The biochemical analysis of saliva is particularly important in dentistry. The estimation of the risk of appearance and diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progression, evaluation of therapy efficacy for caries, periodontitis, premalignant and malignant oral lesions, as well as infectious diseases of the oral cavity, can be assessed by analyzing different constituent: of saliva, individuals at risk of caries can be identified using test: that determine saliva flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, and colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic bacteria. Today, these rapid and simple diagnostic tests are used routinely in caries risk determination. The study and use of saliva-based diagnostics have increased over the last few decades. Clinical testing of saliva shows much promise. However, there is a need for much additional research in this area, before the true clinical value of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry can be determined.

  8. A comparative analysis of the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students at two Kenyan universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ingutia-oyieke, Lilian; Dick, Archie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures, the levels of access, and the electronic resources usage patterns at two academic libraries in Kenya. The focus is on the use by undergraduate students at the private University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and the public Kenyatta University (KU) of electronic resources to support formal and informal learning. The article also briefly explores the perceptions of library managers with regard to teach...

  9. Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallinath Kumbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and observation to add clarity.Findings: The study assesses the faculty awareness and use of electronic resources in their academic and research needs. Besides, familiarity about search patterns for effective retrieval.Research Limitations: The study is limited to the faculty of the Autonomous Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU in Bengaluru Region of Karnataka State, India.Keywords: e-resources; search pattern; e-resource use; Autonomous Engineering Colleges.Paper Type: Survey cum Research

  10. Using Electronic Repositories as a Student Resource for MSE Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicblau, Aaron

    In the majority of engineering disciplines, MSE provides resources and applications with many other areas of engineering, e.g., design, structures, mechanics, and manufacturing. For the students to transfer and implement their MSE knowledge, they must have easy access to all their information. The eportfolio is a repository of the students entire academic MSE content and provides a wealth of knowledge applicable to all engineering disciplines. This repository combines not only lecture and textbook material, but also every assignment (in assessed format), all quizzes (with answers) laboratory activities (in audiovisual format), student oral presentations (podcast), and lectures in asynchronous format. This allows all of the data and information accumulated by students throughout their varying MSE course collected in one place, and is able to act as a quick resource and information kit for future use as the eportfolio is quickly accessed. Student and graduate responses have been positive especially for those in the workforce who require immediate and correct information.

  11. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Pereira Saporeti; Enio Tonani Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco Sales

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four i...

  12. ?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

  13. Resource note: Theoretical atomic-electron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annotated bibliography of calculations of electron binding energies of neutral atoms is presented. The subject is summarized in a brief introduction. Published calculations are tabulated; entries are characterized according to range of atomic numbers; type of atomic model; nuclear charge distribution; and inclusion of relaxation, Breit interaction, and quantum-electrodynamic effects. The table is supplemented with a chronological list of selected papers on atomic structure calculations and with a list of references to some useful computer programs. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  14. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates ? 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p <0.001). However, significantly lower unstimulated (p <0.05)and stimulated (p <0.01) saliva flow rates were obtained after radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p <0.01) and in a period after sucking the candies (p <0.01). HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p <0.001 and p <0.05). Conclusions. Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

  15. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  16. Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva / Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A, Salazar; Claudio, Vásquez; Alejandro, Almuna; Gonzalo, Oporto; Roberto, Santana; Christian L, Herrera; Antonio, Sanhueza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de [...] este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años), provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL). Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is im [...] plement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd) from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile) participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL). In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

  17. Electronic resources and institutional repositories in informal scholarly communication and publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Russell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of institutional repositories is to aid the management and dissemination of the increasingly copious amount of scholarly electronic resources produced by academics. To date most research has focused on the impact for formal scholarly publishing. The purpose of this exploratory study is to discover the impact of IRs on the visibility and use of digital resources with particular focus on resources outside the formal publishing framework. An online survey and interviews wi...

  18. Detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in serum and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, N M; Chandrasekaran, A; Paul, S A

    1997-04-01

    In this study we report the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in paired serum and saliva collected from 118 HIV-1 infected patients and 80 normal controls in Madras, South India. Saliva was collected using Omnisal (R) collection device. All the reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot test (WB), while all the control serum and saliva were negative for HIV-1 antibodies. 107 (90.6%) HIV individual's serum and saliva contained antibodies to HIV-1. When these reactive samples were tested by WB test for confirmation the following results were obtained; 68% HIV individuals' paired serum and saliva were positive; while 9% of serum samples were positive and the saliva specimens were negative on WB. 3% of paired samples showed indeterminate Western blot pattern in contrast to 10% of serum showed full WB pattern while the saliva result was indeterminate. It is suggested that saliva testing may be appropriate for surveillance and epidemiological studies. However, if used for individual HIV diagnosis it is imperative to use a confirmatory test. PMID:12521084

  19. Lubrication of selected salivary molecules and artificial salivas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Mendoza, B; Reddy, M S; Scannapieco, F A; Levine, M J; Hatton, M N

    1989-01-01

    The lubrication regime displayed by human salivas (parotid and submandibular-sublingual), purified salivary molecules (the mucins MG1 and MG2 and alpha-amylases), and selected artificial salivas (Oracare D, Saliva Substitute, and Orthana) was assessed in vitro using a friction-testing device. Thin-film (boundary) lubrication was observed for all of the salivary samples and two of the artificial salivas examined. Oracare D, a glycerol-based artificial saliva, was the exception since it lubricated by a thick-film (hydrodynamic) regime. On a molar basis, the best lubricants of the purified salivary molecules were MG1 greater than MG2 approximately nonglycosylated alpha-amylases approximately glycosylated alpha-amylases. PMID:2484182

  20. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  1. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  2. Marshmallows used as saliva stimulant do not affect cortisol concentrations: finally a palatable alternative for toddler saliva collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Andrea D; Parker, C Richard; Dixon, Wallace E; Salley, Brenda

    2007-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to validate marshmallows as a saliva stimulant for use with toddlers. First, cortisol concentrations from 14 subjects (ages 6-46 years) were compared using three saliva collection methods: (1) plain cotton dental roll, (2) dental roll with one mini-marshmallow, and (3) expectorating into a collection tube using no cotton or stimulant. EIA was used for analyses. There were no significant differences among cortisol concentrations. Second, saliva collection compliance rate was compared for 21-month-olds (n = 51) using either flavored drink crystal- (compliance rate = 16.7%) or marshmallow-flavored (compliance rate = 60%) dental rolls for saliva collection (chi(2) (1) = 4.02, p = .045). These studies indicate that marshmallow is a viable option for saliva stimulation to determine toddler cortisol concentrations using EIA. PMID:17943982

  3. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  4. Transmisión del hiv por la saliva: ¿mito o realidad? / Hiv transmission through saliva: myth or reality?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Barbosa de Souza; Candice, Ramos Marques; Jair, Carneiro Leão.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El impacto causado por el SIDA en los profesionales de salud y la presencia del HIV en diversos fluidos corporales ha estado generando una discusión sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus a través de la saliva. El manejo frecuente del cirujano dentista frente a la secreción salivar exige de e [...] ste profesional el conocimiento necesario respecto a esta posible vía de transmisión. Al revisar la literatura, describiendo los puntos clave en lo tocante al asunto, se concluye que, probablemente, la baja concentración del virus en la saliva y la presencia de componentes salivares anti-HIV serían factores responsables por un reducido riesgo de transmisión oral del HIV. Pero, la existencia de soluciones de continuidad en la mucosa oral crea una vía de contaminación no debiendo, por lo tanto, esta posibilidad ser descuidada. Abstract in english The AIDS impact over healthcare professionals and the presence of HIV in body fluids has generated a concern about the possibility of transmission of the virus through the saliva. Frequent handling of the dental surgeon on salivary secretion demands from this professional the necessary knowledge in [...] relation to this possible way of transmission. This review of the literature describes key points regarding this subject, and some conclusions could be drawn: probably, the low concentration of HIV in saliva and the presence of anti-HIV salivary components would be responsible factors for a reduced risk of oral HIV transmission. However, the existence of a portal of entry on oral mucosa creates a possibility of contamination, which should not be neglected.

  5. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira; Fábio Ramôa Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti Corrêa; Osvaldo di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  6. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  7. Disseminating Context-Specific Access to Online Knowledge Resources within Electronic Health Record Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiol, Guilherme Del; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J.; Iskander, Andrew; Kalluri, Aditya S. D.; Jing, Xia; Hulse, Nathan C.; Long, Jie; Overby, Casey L.; Schardt, Connie; Douglas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians’ patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians’ questions and provide automated links to relevan...

  8. La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Medina Madrid

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

  9. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

  10. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  11. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  12. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

  13. Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aristidis Arhakis; Vassilis Karagiannis; Sotirios Kalfas

    2011-01-01

    Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method) or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method) were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling) of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva...

  14. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  15. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa KINANI; Rachida NAJIH; Abdelilah CHTAINI

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  16. Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.)

  17. Determination of ovarian steroid hormone levels in saliva. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Walker, R F; Walker, S M; Griffiths, K

    1987-04-01

    Assessment of ovarian activity based on saliva samples has proven particularly useful in studies of women in well-developed countries and is potentially of even greater value in women of lower socioeconomic status in Third World countries. Assay techniques suitable for measuring low concentrations of steroids in saliva have become available only recently, so data derived from salivary sampling regimens are far less extensive than those based on plasma or urinary sampling procedures. Collecting saliva is an attractive alternative to the more conventional procedures because of the ease of frequent collection and freedom from religious and social constraints. Simple, direct assays for salivary progesterone have been established, but those for estradiol require considerably more research before becoming useful in routine practice. Predicting ovulation with data derived from saliva sampling awaits the development of more suitable assays for salivary estradiol. PMID:3585869

  18. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Kinani, Latifa; Najih, Rachida; Chtaini, Abdelilah

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  19. Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chih-ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; Mcdevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

    2010-01-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

  20. Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  1. Potential applications of human saliva as diagnostic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnola, M.; PICCIOTTI, P.M.; Messana, I.; Fanali, C; FIORITA, A.; Cabras, T; Calò, L.; PISANO, E.; PASSALI, G.C.; IAVARONE, F.; PALUDETTI, G.; Scarano, E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of human saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic fluid has until recently been somewhat disregarded. Although sample collection is non-invasive, physiological and genetic variations were largely responsible for its infrequent application in the past. Recently, several proteomic studies contributed to partial elucidation of the salivary proteome (more than 2400 protein components have been characterized), both in terms of composition, contributions to whole saliva and genetic/physiologic...

  2. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and...

  3. Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different dise...

  4. Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats' saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Sj, Aledavood; Zahraei-salehi, T.; Oskouizadeh, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were...

  5. Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Lamanda, Andreas; Cheaib, Zeinab; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and ?-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting ...

  6. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

  7. Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whole saliva flow and composition in males affected by HED and female carriers all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. HYPOTHESIS AND AIM: As salivary glands derive from ectoderm, we hypothesized that whole saliva flow and composition are altered in males affected by HED and female carriers. DESIGN: Saliva flow and composition were examined in a group of affected males and in a group of female carriers, all confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and compared with healthy male and female controls. RESULTS: Affected males and female carriers had reduced whole saliva flow and saliva with high concentrations of most inorganic salivary constituents as well as total protein. However, affected males and female carriers seemed to have reduced amylase activity and concentration relative to their total protein concentration. CONCLUSION: Saliva flow and composition may be used as part of a comprehensive clinical examination to identify potential female carriers of HED. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

  8. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

  9. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  10. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in the saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the radioimmunoassay of 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in the saliva. The limit of detection is 1.96 fmole/tube. Salivary 17?-hydroxyprogesterone was measured in control subjects. Values found were of 296+-115 pmol/l in the male, and 251+-23 pmol/l in the female during the follicular phase and 401+-94 pmol/l during the luteal phase, and 115+-30 pmol/l in the prepubertal child. Concentrations were much higher in the newborn and decreased during the first days of life. Variations in salivary concentrations were compared with those in plasma 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone during the 24-hour period and with the Synacthene stimulation test. The excellent correlation (r=0.0969) between salivary 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone and plasma 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone in 28 patients being treated for 21 hydroxylase deficiency makes it possible to suggest salivary assay in place of plasma assay in the therapeutic follow-up of such patients

  12. Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Movahed S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter. Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001; however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

  13. Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

  14. Adhesion and surface-aggregation of Candida albicans from saliva on acrylic surfaces with adhering bacteria as studied in a parallel plate flow chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, K W; Bos, R; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    1999-05-01

    Adhesive interactions between Candida albicans and oral bacteria are generally thought to play a crucial role in the microbial colonization of denture acrylic, which may lead to denture stomatitis. This study investigated the influence of saliva on the adhesive interactions between C. albicans and Streptococcus sanguis or Actinomyces naeslundii on denture acrylic. First, bacteria were allowed to adhere to the acrylic surface from a flowing suspension, and subsequently yeasts were flowed over the acrylic surface. The organisms were assayed in the presence or absence of human whole saliva. All experiments were carried out in a parallel plate flow chamber and enumeration was done in situ with an image analysis system. In the absence of adhering bacteria, adhesion of C. albicans from buffer was more extensive than from saliva. However, in the presence of adhering bacteria, yeast adhesion from saliva was increased with respect to adhesion of yeasts from buffer, indicating that specific salivary components constitute a bridge between bacteria and yeasts. In all cases, yeast aggregates consisting of 3 to 5 yeast cells were observed adhering to the surface. A surface physico-chemical analysis of the microbial cell surfaces prior to and after bathing the microorganisms in saliva, suggests that this bridging is mediated by acid-base interactions since all strains show a major increase in electron-donating surface free energy parameters upon bathing in saliva, with no change in their zeta potentials. The surface physico-chemical analysis furthermore suggests that S. sanguis and A. naeslundii may use a different mechanism for adhesive interactions with C. albicans in saliva. PMID:10510723

  15. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus and…

  16. Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

  17. CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Soell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals at the same time interval in the morning without any oral stimuli. Circadianic periodics in protein productions have been avoided. The presence of chromogranin A and its derived peptides was determined in whole saliva, after centrifugation at 40C for 12 min at 14 000 rpm, by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Immunoblotting (Western Blot. To ensure same protein concentrations Bradford protein quantification assay has been performed before.For the first time, we have determined an overexpression of chromogranin A in saliva of diabetic patients in 100% of the individuals.Chromogranin A, a circulating biomarker for epithelial tumours, is also overexpressed in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients. To confirm our results, more studies with a large amount of patients is necessary.

  18. Protective effects of human saliva on experimental murine oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagata-Kiyoura, Yusuke; Abe, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Nitta, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    The protective effects of human saliva, known to contain various proteinaceous factors that have anti- Candida activity in vitro on oral candidiasis in the mouse model, were examined in vivo. Oral candidiasis was established by oral inoculation of viable Candida albicans (C. albicans) cells to ICR mice, 24 h after administration of predonisolone. These mice received orally 0.1 ml human saliva or sterile distilled water into the oral cavity a total of five times at specific intervals: 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h after inoculation. Seventy-two hours after inoculation with C. albicans, viable C. albicans cells in the oral cavity of the mice were counted and a subjective score for the extent of white patches on the tongue surface determined. The results showed that viable counts were significantly lower in the human saliva group than in the distilled water group (P white patches on the tongue were also significantly lower in the saliva group than in the distilled water group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that administration of human saliva may inhibit the colonization of the oral cavity by C. albicans in mice and the subsequent onset of oral candidiasis. PMID:15365870

  19. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  20. Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

  1. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  2. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  3. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulovi?, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  4. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulovi?, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ?19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ?81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ?18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (?3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (?6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (?31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (?24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  5. Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Grégory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michèle; Choumet, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Methods C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. Findings After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. Interpretation Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV. PMID:23785528

  6. Simultaneous culture of saliva and jejunal aspirate in the investigation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, I.; Worsley, B W; Cobden, I.; Cooke, E. M.; Shoesmith, J G; Axon, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Both saliva and jejunal aspirate were cultured from 22 patients with suspected small bowel bacterial overgrowth and from eight controls. Large numbers of organisms (greater than 10(6)/ml) were recovered from the jejunal aspirate of 16 subjects, in five of whom the same organisms were present in similar relative proportions in the saliva, suggesting contamination of the sample with saliva, while in 11 the jejunal organisms differed from those in saliva. In eight of these the jejunal flora was ...

  7. Evaluation of Whole Saliva Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Azizi; Fatemeh Sarlati; Azam Parchakani; Somayeh Alirezaei

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Periodontitis is the inflammation of the supporting tissues of teeth. In this disease, overproduction of free radicals by polymorphonuclears (PMNs) will result in the imbalance between saliva’s oxidants and antioxidants. Therefore, due to insufficient levels of anti-oxidants, free radicals can start chain reactions that eventually will lead to destruction of periodontal tissues. The purpose of this research is to compare the amount of whole saliva’s antioxidant cap...

  8. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our re...

  9. Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance wit...

  10. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

  11. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Kym F. Faull; Gilligan, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes...

  12. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-01-01

    During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1) Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2) Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17) selected by their general diseases and con...

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL MARECI; CATALIN BOCANU; GHEORHE NEMTOI; DELIA AELENEI

    2005-01-01

    Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is...

  14. Age-related variations of protein carbonyls in human saliva and plasma: is saliva protein carbonyls an alternative biomarker of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Yanyi; Liu, Hongchen; Che, Yuwei; Xu, Yingying; E, Lingling

    2015-06-01

    Free radical hypothesis which is one of the most acknowledged aging theories was developed into oxidative stress hypothesis. Protein carbonylation is by far one of the most widely used markers of protein oxidation. We studied the role of age and gender in protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma among 273 Chinese healthy subjects (137 females and 136 males aged between 20 and 79) and discussed the correlation between protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma. Protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma were, respectively, 2.391?±?0.639 and 0.838?±?0.274 nmol/mg. Variations of saliva and plasma different age groups all reached significant differences in both male and female (all p?Gender was discovered to be unrelated to saliva and plasma protein carbonyl levels (all p?>?0.05). Saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were positively related (r?=?0.4405, p?saliva and plasma protein carbonyls/ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) ratios were proved to be significantly correlated with age (r?=?0.7796 and r?=?0.6938, all p?saliva protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio and plasma protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio were also correlated (r?=?0.5573, p?saliva protein carbonyls seem to be an alternative biomarker of aging while the mechanisms of protein carbonylation and oxidative stress and the relationship between saliva protein carbonyls and diseases need to be further investigated. PMID:25943699

  15. Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

    2015-06-01

    The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

  16. Use of Saliva Specimens for Monitoring Indinavir Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wintergerst, Uwe; M. Kurowski; Rolinski, B; Müller, M; Wolf, E; Jaeger, H; Belohradsky, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    Indinavir concentrations were determined in plasma and saliva over a random period of 4 h. On average, levels in saliva were 70% ± 38% of the corresponding levels in plasma. These findings suggest that saliva might serve as an appropriate specimen for monitoring of plasma indinavir levels in patients treated with indinavir.

  17. Evaluation of Whole Saliva Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Periodontitis is the inflammation of the supporting tissues of teeth. In this disease, overproduction of free radicals by polymorphonuclears (PMNs will result in the imbalance between saliva’s oxidants and antioxidants. Therefore, due to insufficient levels of anti-oxidants, free radicals can start chain reactions that eventually will lead to destruction of periodontal tissues. The purpose of this research is to compare the amount of whole saliva’s antioxidant capacity in people with major periodontitis with that of healthy people. Methods and materials: In this case-control study, the amount of antioxidants capacity and saliva antioxidants were measured in 43 cases with periodontitis, as well as in 43 healthy people (controls; and the measurements were compared between the two groups. The amount of antioxidants capacity and their saliva antioxidants capacity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma and with the help of a Spectrophotometer. Findings: Average and Standard deviation of saliva’s antioxidants was 184.25 ± 63.209 in subject group and 399.419 ± 90.298 micro moles in control group. Using the T-TEST revealed that the difference in capacity of whole saliva’s antioxidants in two groups is significant. Conclusion: whole saliva’s antioxidants capacity is less among patients with periodontitis compared to control group.

  18. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  19. Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Aledavood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110 from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110, and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

  20. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (Pzoster patients.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa KINANI

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa KINANI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  3. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment wpes of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  4. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz; Leandro Freitas Silva; José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira; Gomes, Jose? Anto?nio Da Cunha P.; Lúcio Sathler

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artifici...

  5. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

  6. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

  7. Efficacy of various cleaning solutions on saliva-contaminated zirconia for improved resin bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Son, Jun-Sik; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of cleaning solutions on saliva-contaminated zirconia in comparison to air-abrasion in terms of resin bonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS For saliva-contaminated airabraded zirconia, seven cleaning methods)-no contamination (NC), water-spray rinsing (WS), additional airabrasion (AA), and cleaning with four solutions (Ivoclean [IC]; 1.0 wt% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], 1.0 wt% hydrogen peroxide [HP], and 1.0 wt% sodium hypochlorite [SHC])-were tested. The zirconia surfaces for each group were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three bonded resin (Panavia F 2.0) cylinders (bonding area: 4.5 mm2) were made on one zirconia disk specimen using the Ultradent jig method [four disks (12 cylinders)/group; a total of 28 disks]. After 5,000 thermocycling, all specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The fractured surfaces were observed using an optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS Contact angle measurements showed that groups NC, AA, IC, and SHC had hydrophilic surfaces. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed similar elemental distributions between group AA and groups IC and SHC. Groups IC and SHC showed statistically similar bond strengths to groups NC and AA (P>.05), but not groups SDS and HP (Presin bond strength. PMID:25932305

  8. Condiciones optimas de manipulación para la cuantificación de fibronectina en saliva / Optimal assay conditions for quantifying fibronectin in saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª Carmen, Llena Puy; Consuelo, Montañana Llorens; Leopoldo, Forner Navarro.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La fibronectina (Fn) es una glucoproteína presente en múltiples fluidos y tejidos orgánicos, tanto en condiciones fisiológicas como patológicas. También en la saliva puede detectarse aunque en muy pequeñas cantidades y frecuentemente en cadenas fragmentadas, induce agregación bacterian [...] a y sus niveles se reducen cuando aumentan los niveles de bacterias cariogénicas o periodontopatógenas. La capacidad infectiva de la saliva de los pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodificiencia humana (VIH) se ha relacionado con los niveles de esta proteína. En algunas enfermedades crónicas de la mucosa oral como es el liquen plano, la concentración de Fn salivar se encuentra reducida. También su cuantificación varía en presencia de algunos tumores como el carcinoma oral de células escamosas, aunque no puede considerarse un factor específico. Objetivo: Debido a la baja concentración de Fn en la saliva y a su labilidad en la forma soluble, las condiciones de recogida y conservación de las muestras son extremadamente importantes, por ello nos proponemos en el presente trabajo estandarizar dichas condiciones con el fin de poder cuantificarla de manera óptima. Material y método: Se determinó la concentración de Fn en saliva humana de 20 personas sanas de edades comprendidas entre 28 y 54 años mediante técnica de ELISA, comparando la concentración de la proteína en muestras frescas, conservadas 24 h a 4ºC, o congeladas a - 40ºC durante diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados y conclusiones: Tras comparar diferentes formas de conservación de las muestras de saliva, observamos que las condiciones óptimas son: recoger las muestras en tubos de vidrio, cuantificarlas inmediatamente tras su recogida o como máximo 24 horas después, conservándolas a 4ºC. La congelación y posterior descongelación para su cuantificación induce pérdidas de hasta el 60 % de la proteína. Abstract in english Introduction: Fibronectin (Fn) is a glycoprotein that is present in many body fluids and tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. It can also be detected in the saliva, although only in very small quantities and frequently in broken chains. It induces bacterial aggregation and its [...] levels fall when those of cariogenic or periodontal pathogenic bacteria rise. The infective capacity of the saliva of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been linked to the levels of this protein. In some chronic conditions of the oral mucosa, such as oral lichen planus, the concentration of salivary fibro-nectin is lower than usual. Fibronectin quantity also varies in the presence of some tumours, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, although it cannot be considered a specific factor. Aims: Due to the low Fn concentration in saliva and its lability in the soluble form, sample collection and conservation conditions are extremely important. The aim of this study is therefore to standardise these conditions so that the Fn can be quantified in an optimum manner. Materials and methods: The Fn concentration in human saliva was determined in 20 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 54 by means of the ELISA technique and the concentration of the protein in fresh samples kept at 4ºC for 24 hours was compared with that of frozen samples kept at -40ºC for different periods of time. Results and Conclusions: After comparing different ways of conserving the saliva samples, we found that the optimum conditions were to collect the samples in glass tubes and to quantify them immediately after collection or conserve them at 4ºC and quantify them within a maximum of 24 hours. Freezing and later thawing for quantification induced losses of up to 60% of the protein.

  9. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itunu Bamidele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
    Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

  10. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  11. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  13. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  14. PCR Applications in Identification of Saliva Samples Exposed to Different Conditions (Streptococci Detection based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples. DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius.

  15. Use of Saliva as a Lubricant in Anal Sexual Practices Among Homosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lisa M.; Osmond, Dennis H.; Graves Jones, Alison; Martin, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Compared with other sexually active adults, men who have sex with men (MSM) are more frequently infected with several pathogens including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Because one common element between these organisms is their presence in saliva, we evaluated saliva exposure among MSM in a heretofore relatively unrecognized route—via use of saliva as a lubricant in anal sex. Methods MSM in a San Francisco population–based cohort were interviewed regarding use of saliva by the insertive partner as a lubricant in various anal sexual practices. Results Among 283 MSM, 87% used saliva as a lubricant in insertive or receptive penile–anal intercourse or fingering/fisting at some point during their lifetime; 31%–47% did so, depending upon the act, in the prior 6 months. Saliva use as a lubricant was more common among younger men and among HIV-infected men when with HIV-infected partners. Even among MSM following safe sex guidelines by avoiding unprotected penile–anal intercourse, 26% had anal exposure to saliva via use as a lubricant. Conclusions Among MSM, use of saliva as a lubricant is a common, but not ubiquitous, practice in anal sex. The findings provide the rationale for formal investigation of whether saliva use in this way contributes to transmission of saliva-borne pathogens in MSM. PMID:19131893

  16. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  17. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  18. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  19. Usage of Electronic Resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thanuskodi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has thrown a new challenge to the libraries. The technology has shown a great impact on the services of the libraries. Libraries use IT for better services and satisfying diverse user needs. Libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals, and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-zines. This has increased the global dissemination of information. Electronic resources (e-resources are easily accessible in the remote areas. The e-resources solve storage problems and control the flood of information. Print sources are being digitised. There is a great need to study the use of e-resources and investigate the factors that are a hindrance to their use. The present study is an attempt to examine the usage of electronic resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University. Study revealed that MPhil students respondents took the first position in their overall methods of searching e-resources, postgraduate student respondents the second position, PhD Scholar respondents the last position. The study confirmed that respondents were aware of the e-resources and various types of e-resources, e-database, and e-journals. The study recommended the improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more e-resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University.

  20. Phenytoin-valproate interaction: importance of saliva monitoring in epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, C.; Hamshaw-thomas, A.; Reynolds, F.

    1982-01-01

    Sodium valproate is often used with phenytoin when epilepsy cannot be controlled by a single drug. Sodium valproate depresses phenytoin protein binding and so invalidates plasma phenytoin monitoring as a means of determining precise phenytoin dosage requirements. Plasma and saliva phenytoin and plasma valproate concentrations were measured in 42 patients with epilepsy receiving both drugs. Phenytoin protein binding was also measured by ultrafiltration in 19 of these patients and 19 patients t...

  1. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; KUMAR Prashant; Hugar, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of ...

  2. Sand-Fly Saliva-Leishmania-Man: The Trigger Trio

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabiano; Carvalho, Augusto M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniases are worldwide diseases transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand-fly. Sand-fly biting and parasite inoculation are accompanied by the injection of salivary molecules, whose immunomodulatory properties are actively being studied. This mini review focuses on how the interactions between sand-fly saliva and the immune system may shape the outcome of infection, given its immunomodulatory properties, in experimental models and in the endemic area. Additionall...

  3. Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Valadão Cardoso; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo Marcondes; Adriana Rosa Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the other that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was ad...

  4. Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Valadão, Cardoso; Marcos Horácio, Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de, Araújo.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

  5. Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valadão Cardoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood and the other that does not present aggregation (bovine blood. One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

  6. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  7. Predominant presence of Streptococcus anginosus in the saliva of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, E; Narikiyo, M; Yokoyama, A; Yano, A; Kamoi, K; Yoshikawa, E; Yamaguchi, T; Igaki, H; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Saito, D; Hanada, N; Sasaki, H

    2005-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to be a major risk factor for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. The incidence of esophageal cancer (4.4%) in alcoholics is reported to be much higher than that in the Japanese population as a whole (0.0001%). This suggests the presence of specific factors in chronic alcohol consumption-related carcinogenesis. Recently, data showing a significant correlation between Streptococcus anginosus and carcinogenesis in the upper aerodigestive tract have been reported. In this study, the ratio of S. anginosus to oral bacteria in the saliva of 38 alcoholic patients was investigated to determine if there is an association between alcoholic patients and S. anginosus infection. The level of S. anginosus in the saliva from 22 healthy people, 41 esophageal cancer patients, 32 gastritis patients, and 24 periodontitis patients was also investigated and compared to the level in alcoholic patients. In the saliva from esophageal cancer patients, the level of S. anginosus was not significantly different from that of healthy people. The levels of S. anginosus in periodontitis and gastritis patients were also similar. In alcoholics, however, there was an extremely high level of S. anginosus, suggesting that they, rather than healthy people and general esophageal cancer patients, have a high risk for S. anginosus infection. PMID:16238596

  8. Saliva diagnostics: utilizing oral fluids to determine health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Yakob, Maha; Lima, Patricia; Camargo, Paulo; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    Imagine a time where your health status could be available to you without the pain, discomfort and inconvenience of a physical examination. Distant vision of an inconceivable future or impending reality with potentially immeasurable impact? Recent advancements in the field of molecular diagnostics indicate this is not only possible, but closer than we think. Novel discoveries and substantial advancements have revealed that saliva may contain real-time information describing our overall physiological condition. Researchers are now reporting that, like blood and tissue biopsies, oral fluids could be a source of biochemical data capable of detecting certain diseases. What is even more intriguing is that this phenomenon not only applies to local disorders like oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome, but distant pathologies like autoimmune, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as viral/bacterial infections and even some cancers. These revelations have provided a foundation for the burgeoning field of salivary diagnostics and hence spurred the onset of investigations poised at deciphering the salivary milieu. This paper overviews salivary diagnostics from biomarker development to the multitude of techniques utilized in identifying saliva-based molecular indicators of disease. In doing so, we present oral fluids as an easily accessible noninvasive alternative to traditional diagnostic avenues and not just an essential component of the digestive process. Determining saliva as a credible means of evaluating health status represents a considerable leap forward in health care, one that could lead to enormous translational advantages and significant clinical opportunities. PMID:24862597

  9. The Inhibition Effect of Eugenol to the Biocorrosion of Titanium in Saliva Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa KINANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of eugenol in controlling corrosion of titanium grade 2 in saliva medium containing bacteria at different pH has been evaluated by electrochemical polarization methods, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical data show that the corrosion resistance is greatly enhanced after surface modification. The best protection is obtained with eugenol at pH 7. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that theses inhibitors act by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface. The film, act as a barrier to the transport of the metal ions from the metal to the solution at high concentration of inhibitor acts by establishment of a thin film at the metal surface.

  10. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheri L; Feighner, Brian H; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard A; Skora, Joseph F; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Blazes, David L

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations. PMID:21572957

  11. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

  12. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva collections. Design: Parotid saliva flow rate, pH and protein concentration, as it exits the Stensen's duct, were determined on seven subjects in response to one and 30 ipsilateral jaw clenches. To achieve...

  13. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  14. Metronidazole as a radiosensitizer: a preliminary report on estimation in serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies indicate the clinical benefit of hypoxic radiosensitizers in patients who are undergoing radiotherapy. Serum level of sensitizers are usualy advised; however they are very demanding on the patient. Saliva level of the sensitizers may be an alternative method. This study correlated serum level of metronidazole to the saliva level in 10 patients who were undergoing radiotherapy with the sensitizer. A change to the saliva level method appears to relieve the patients

  15. Concentrations of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Saliva: Implications for Preexposure Prophylaxis of Oral HIV Acquisition?

    OpenAIRE

    Lastours, Victoire; Fonsart, Julien; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Gourmel, Bernard; Molina, Jean-michel

    2011-01-01

    To prevent acquisition of HIV through oral sex, drugs used for preexposure prophylaxis (Prep) need to diffuse in saliva. We measured tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) concentrations simultaneously in the plasma and saliva of 41 HIV-infected patients under stable antiretroviral treatment. Mean ratios of saliva/plasma concentration were 3% (±4%) and 86.9% (±124%) for TFV and FTC, respectively. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) should be used in combination with FTC to prevent oral acq...

  16. HPV and methylation indicators in paired tumor and saliva in HNSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josena K. Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16 is a causative agent for some head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC  and an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal SCC. The goal of this study was to examine HPV16 associated gene methylation in paired saliva and tumor DNA with assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive value for saliva HPV as a test for HNSCC. HPV16 status was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR in 35 primary HNSCC paired tumor and saliva specimens. Tumor cut points >=0.03 and >=0.1 and saliva cut points >0 and ?0.001 were used to classify results as HPV positive or negative. Aberrant methylation was determined by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA assay. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation in tumor samples was 66% (23/35 versus 17% (6/35 in saliva. Two of 35 paired tumor and saliva samples had commonly methylated genes. HPV and methylation were correlated for IGSF4 (p=0.01 in tumor samples (cut point ?0.03 and for ESR1 in saliva samples (cut point >0. Although the sensitivity of HPV detection in saliva was significantly reduced when saliva cut points were increased from >0 to >=0.001, the specificity and positive predictive values were 100% at saliva cut point of >=0.001, regardless of tumor cut points. Within clearly defined parameters, HPV detection in saliva DNA shows promise as a non invasive approach for tumor HPV status. Methylated genes detected in saliva may be useful in early detection and as potential predictive markers of HNSCC. Further confirmation and validation in larger cohorts is required.

  17. The effect of saliva composition on texture perception of semi-solids

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, L.; Keybus, P. A. M.; Wijk, R. A.; Veerman, E. C. I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. V.; Bosman, F.; Prinz, J. F.; Bilt, A.

    2007-01-01

    Saliva is expected to be of significance for the perception of food stimuli in the mouth. Mixing the food with saliva, including breakdown and dilution, is considered to be of large importance for semi-solids as these products are masticated without chewing. It is known that there are large variations in composition of saliva originating from different glands and different subjects. In this study we investigated how variations in salivary characteristics affect sensory perception. Eighteen tr...

  18. Understanding of xerostomia and strategies for the development of artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Hong-Seop

    2014-12-01

    Xerostomia is becoming a major issue in dental and medical clinics with an increase of aged population. Medication is the most common etiology of xerostomia, while the most severe xerostomia generally occurs in patients with a history of head and neck radiotherapy. Xerostomic patients usually suffer from diminished quality of life due to various symptoms and complications. Decreased salivary output is a definite objective sign, but oral mucosal wetness is a more reliable factor for the evaluation of xerostomia. At present there are no effective therapeutic methods for the treatment of xerostomia. Sialogogues may have problematic side effects and their therapeutic effects last only brief duration. Artificial saliva typically does not produce satisfactory results in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, further research and development of better therapeutic modalities are necessary. The basic concept for the development of ideal and functional artificial saliva is the mimicry of natural human saliva. We need proper candidate molecules and antimicrobial supplements to simulate the rheological and biological properties of human saliva. We also need better understanding of the interactions between the ingredients of artificial saliva themselves and between the ingredients and components of human saliva both in solution and on surface phases. In addition, we need accepted measures to evaluate the efficacy of artificial saliva. In conclusion, for the development of ideal artificial saliva, research based on the understanding of pathophysiology of xerostomia and knowledge about rheological and biological functions of human saliva are necessary. PMID:25531014

  19. Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?

  20. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stragierowicz; Karolina Miko?ajewska; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Kinga Pola?ska; Danuta Ligocka

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

  1. The functions of human saliva : A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body.

  2. Study of parotid and mixed saliva in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrilla, G; Valentini, M; Filippini, M; Bonoldi, M C; Felder, M; Moroder, E; Schnabl, D; Gaspa, U

    1979-01-01

    A study on the diagnostic value of the parotid and mixed saliva assay after stimulation with 1% pilocarpine hydrochloride was carried out in 36 controls and 26 patients affected with chronic pancreatitis. No statistical difference between the two groups was found as far as saliva volume, bicarbonate and amylase (concentration and output) are concerned. No correlation was found between the results of the saliva test and those of the secretin-pancreozymin test or endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. These data excluded any diagnostic role of the saliva test in chronic pancreatitis. PMID:478198

  3. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  4. Paradata for 'Fishing-dependent communities on the Gulf Coast of Florida [electronic resource] : their identification, recent decline and present resilience / by Yu Huang.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Fishing-dependent communities on the Gulf Coast of Florida [electronic resource] : their identification, recent decline and present resilience / by Yu Huang.'

  5. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

  6. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Maria Oliveira de Queiroz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquímica. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF.

  7. Biochemical analysis of saliva of subjects with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Armando BRANCHER

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common diseases of periodontal tissues are inflammatoryprocesses of gum and insertion of teeth normality associated to the local accumulation of teeth biofilm. The objective of this search is evaluating if the periodontal diseases are able to induce qualitative and quantitative alteration in saliva of subjects with periodontal diseases. Forty subjects,divided in 2 groups of 20, being one the control group (CG and the other the test group (TG, based on age and sex were evaluated. There were analyzed the following salivary parameters: capacity of buffer, salivary flow speed, pH, calcium, urea and total proteins concentrations. The medium values and standard directions were: pH: CG 7.43 (± 0.62,TG 8.1 (± 0.49; salivary flow CG 1.21 (± 0.23; TG 1.01 (± 0.75;calcium CG 4.7 (± 1.2, TG 5.4 (± 0.85; urea CG 30.7 (± 9.6, TG 38.6(± 19.9; total proteins CG 355.5 (± 256.7, TG 299.2 (± 132.4.Significant rise in the amount of urea and calcium in the saliva of the periodontal disease individuals was observed whereas the amount of total proteins in the saliva of these individuals diminished, suggesting a change in microbiota. Salivary pH in the individuals of the TG is slightly higher of that of the CG. Salivary flow and capacity of buffer have been considered normal in both groups.

  8. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

  9. Effect of cleansing methods on saliva-contaminated zirconia--an evaluation of resin bond durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, S A; Patel, D; Borges, A L S; Alshehri, E Z; Bottino, M A; Özcan, M; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M C

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the influence of cleansing methods after saliva contamination and 2) aging conditions (thermocycling and water storage) on zirconia shear bond strength (SBS) with a resin cement. One hundred and eighty zirconia specimens were sandblasted with 50 ?m aluminum oxide particles, immersed in saliva for one minute (with the exception of the control group, [C]), and divided into groups according to the cleansing method, as follows: water rinse (W); 37% phosphoric acid gel (PA); cleaning paste (ie, Ivoclean®) containing mainly zirconium oxide (IC); and 70% isopropanol (AL). Scanning electron microscopy was done to qualitatively evaluate the zirconia surface after each cleansing method. For the SBS test, resin cement buttons were bonded to the specimens using a dedicated jig. SBS was evaluated according to standard protocols after 24 hours, 5000 thermal cycles (TC), or 150 days of water storage. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (pData showed a significant effect for the 150 days of water storage, TC, and 24 hours of water storage (150 days < TC < 24 hours). Group comparisons showed that PA < AL and W < IC and C. SBS ranged from 10.4 to 21.9 MPa (24 hours), from 6.4 to 14.8 MPa (TC), and from 2.9 to 7.0 MPa (150 days). Failure analysis revealed a greater percentage of mixed failures for the majority of the specimens and a smaller percentage of adhesive failures at the ceramic-resin cement interface. Our findings suggest that Ivoclean® was able to maintain adequate SBS values after TC and 150 days of storage, comparable to the uncontaminated zirconia. PMID:25136900

  10. Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, M.; Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

    1993-01-01

    A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

  11. Tick saliva-mediated immunomodulation of the vertebrate host.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J. F.; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Woldemeskel, M.), s. 19-36 ISBN 978-1-62081-136-8. - (Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods : Biology, Chemistry and Behavior) R&D Projects: GA ?R GCP302/11/J029; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick infestation * host system modulation * bioactive molecules * tick-borne pathogens * saliva-assisted transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36294

  12. HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Hill James M; Nolan Nicole M; McFerrin Harris E; Clement Christian; Foster Timothy P; Halford William P; Kousoulas Konstantin G; Lukiw Walter J; Thompson Hilary W; Stern Ethan M; Bhattacharjee Partha S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zeal...

  13. Saliva-based biosensors: noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Radha S P; Sadir, Sahba; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  14. Delivering supplemental oxygen during sedation via a saliva ejector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, Alan R

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative oxygen supplementation to sedated children has been shown to prevent hemoglobin desaturations even in the presence of apnea during pediatric conscious sedation. Although many practitioners deliver supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, this method is impractical and often unsuccessful if the child is a mouth breather, has moderate adenotonsillar hypertrophy or occasionally cries during treatment (at which time there will be mouth breathing). This paper describes a method in which the saliva ejector is used to deliver supplemental oxygen to sedated children while they are receiving dental treatment. The advantages of this method and suggestions for its successful application are also included. PMID:12212878

  15. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  16. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  17. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program

  18. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkien, L D; Bordt, J; Möller, P; Hano, R; Nieschlag, E

    1985-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles (r = 0.769; P less than 0.001). The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles (1.7% +/- 0.3%, mean +/- standard deviation [SD]). The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program. PMID:4029421

  19. Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abarghooyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

  20. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  1. A comparison of the effects of added saliva, alpha-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, L.; Van Wijk, R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bilt, A., van der; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip¿tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject received his/her own saliva. Sixteen subjects from a trained panel assessed 17 flavour and texture attributes of soy- and milk-based custard desserts. Immediately prior to administration, two different ...

  2. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Cássio de Barros Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli Polizello; Augusto César Cropanese Spadaro

    2004-01-01

    Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring the time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentrati...

  3. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION / A ontogenia da secreção de saliva em lactentes e a proteção pré-epitelial do esôfago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgard Ferro, COLLARES; Maria Inez Machado, FERNANDES.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto Vários estudos têm indicado que a esofagite de refluxo é rara em lactentes no primeiro ano de vida a despeito da elevada ocorrência de regurgitação nesta fase da vida. Há evidências da importância da saliva para a proteção pré-epitelial da mucosa esofágica. Resultados Um estudo longitudina [...] l conduzido em lactentes saudáveis indicou que a capacidade estimulada da secreção de saliva (volume de saliva/kg de peso) foi significativamente elevada no primeiro ano de vida comparada com crianças com mais idade e adultos jovens. Este padrão também foi observado nas primeiras semanas de vida de recém-nascidos com baixo peso e persistiu em lactentes com desnutrição proteico-calórica grave (marasmo) Conclusão A grande habilidade para secretar saliva é uma importante condição fisiológica que pode proteger o lactente da agressão ácido/péptica do esôfago durante os primeiros estágios do seu desenvolvimento. Abstract in english Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study [...] conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight) was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus). Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  4. Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

  5. LA SALIVA Y SISTEMAS ADHESIVOS ALTERNATIVOS PARA PRÓTESIS TOTAL / SALIVA AND ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS FOR COMPLETE DENTURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier Enrique, Méndez Silva; Cristhian Camilo, Madrid Troconis; Lesbia Rosa, Tirado Amador.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las prótesis totales pueden presentar problemas biomecánicos relacionados con la retención y la estabilidad, que pueden originarse a partir de errores del profesional durante la toma de impresión funcional de los tejidos, diseño y confección de las prótesis; además de errores durante la fase de labo [...] ratorio a cargo de los técnicos o simplemente a cambios biológicos que experimentan los tejidos subyacentes como la reabsorción ósea, atrofia de los maxilares y disminución del flujo salival. Esta última circunstancia es de principal preocupación, ya que la saliva tiene un papel importante en la retención de las prótesis como "adhesivo natural", por lo que durante años se han propuesto diversos métodos alternativos de retención, especialmente sistemas adhesivos complementarios cuyas propiedades se han perfeccionado con la inclusión de otros compuestos como algunos polímeros sintéticos, agentes antimicrobianos, colorantes, aditivitos y preservativos; además se encuentran disponibles en diferentes presentaciones comerciales. El objetivo de esta revisión es exaltar las propiedades de la saliva como adhesivo natural y la posibilidad de mejorar la retención de las prótesis, cuando estas no poseen la capacidad de asegurar resultados deseados mediante sistemas adhesivos complementarios, que son una alternativa segura y efectiva, siempre que el odontólogo asuma la responsabilidad y la competencia de prescribir el tipo de adhesivo en relación con condiciones específicas del paciente para evitar situaciones indeseables como efectos sistémicos por la ingesta excesiva y prolongada de sales de zinc incluidas en algunas presentaciones comerciales de adhesivos para prótesis. Abstract in english Complete dentures may present biomechanical problems related to retention and stability, which can arise from professional errors during functional tissue impression, as well as during prostheses design and manufacturing, in addition to errors during the laboratory phase by technicians or simply by [...] biological changes of adjacent tissues, such as bone resorption, maxillaries atrophy, and decreased salivary flow. The latter is a circumstance of major concern because saliva plays an important role in prosthesis retention as a "natural adhesive"; therefore, various alternative retention methods have been suggested over time, especially in terms of complementary adhesive systems whose properties have been improved by including other compounds such as synthetic polymers, antimicrobial agents, colorants, additives, and preservatives, which are available in different commercial presentations. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties of saliva as a natural adhesive and the possibility of improving denture retention when it lacks the ability to guarantee the desired results by additional adhesive systems, which are a safe and effective alternative, provided that the dentist is responsible and competent enough to prescribe the right adhesive in relation to specific patient conditions to avoid undesirable situations such as systemic effects due to prolonged excessive intake of zinc salts included in some commercial presentations of denture adhesives.

  6. A direct radioimmunoassay for free progesterone in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienravi, V; Amatayakul, K; Kanluan, T; Uttavichai, C; Andres, R

    1994-03-01

    The direct radioimmunoassay using iodinated tracer (125I-HIS-3CMO) has been developed for the determination of salivary progesterone of healthy volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. Lack of significant diurnal variation either in the follicular or luteal phase indicated that collections of saliva could be tailored to the need of individuals making the study somewhat easier. Salivary progesterone has shown to correlate significantly with free serum progesterone reflecting the unbound biologically active progesterone fraction in blood. Moreover, salivary progesterone concentration ranges are similar to those found in other studies. Our findings indicated that determination of progesterone in saliva could be used in place of serum or plasma. Since firstly, it is non-invasive, easy for sample collection and a stress-free technique. Secondly, it is much more accurate in prediction of corpus luteum function and ovulation than the basal-body temperature or endometrial biopsy or other clinical predictors currently in use. Finally, determination of daily salivary progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle may be advantageously employed as a non-invasive serial sampling technique for the assessment of corpus luteum and ovarian functions. PMID:7798848

  7. Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in artificial saliva solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.A., Mariano; R.G., Oliveira; M.A., Fernandes; E.C.S., Rigo.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of commercially pure (cp) titanium stems from its chemical stability within an organism, due to a fine film of impermeable titanium oxide covering the metal surface, which guarantees its resistance to corrosion. Despite its biocompatible characteristic, this material does not pr [...] omote the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, therefore, many research groups have sought to alter the material's surface, introducing modifications that might influence corrosion resistance. The electrochemical behavior of cp Ti, with hydroxyapatite coating and without hydroxyapatite coating, commonly used in implant materials, was investigated using an artificial saliva solution at 25ºC and pH=7.4. In the conditions of the study it was observed that the hydroxyapatite layer influences the properties of corrosion resistance. This study of the behavior of cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating, in naturally aerated artificial saliva solution at 25ºC, was based on open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization curves. At approximately 1x10-6 A/cm² the potential for cp Ti with and without hydroxyapatite coating begins to increase at a faster rate, but at -74mV (SCE) for coated cp Ti and at 180mV (SCE) for uncoated cp Ti the increase in potential begins to slow. This behavior, characterized by a partial stabilization of current density, indicates that in those potential ranges a protective passive film is formed.

  8. Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Takahashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2, a sports drink (pH 3.5, and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8. Distilled water adjusted to the pH of each saliva sample was used as a control. In the second experiment, the suppressive ability of saliva against enamel demineralization was quantitatively analyzed using quantitative light- induced fluorescence (QLF. Aliquots of stimulated saliva obtained from a subject were mixed with 15 ml of 100% orange juice in saliva:orange juice ratios of 1/30, 1/15, 1/10 and 1/5, and bovine teeth were soaked for 24 hours in the solutions. The ?Q of the QLF analyses of the enamel was then measured. The lowest titrant volume which reduced the pH of the initial saliva (7.7 on average to pH 5.4 was that of the orange juice. No relationship was found between the buffer capacity and the pH of the acid beverages. From the QLF measurement, the saliva-orange juice group showed a significantly decreased amount of enamel demineralization (p < 0.01 at 20% level compared with the distilled water-orange juice group. In conclusion, saliva acts as a buffer to suppress enamel demineralization caused by low-pH beverages.

  9. Quantitative detection of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria patients in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Andrew O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a global health priority with a heavy burden of fatality and morbidity. Improvements in field diagnostics are needed to support the agenda for malaria elimination. Saliva has shown significant potential for use in non-invasive diagnostics, but the development of off-the-shelf saliva diagnostic kits requires best practices for sample preparation and quantitative insight on the availability of biomarkers and the dynamics of immunoassay in saliva. This pilot study measured the levels of the PfHRP2 in patient saliva to inform the development of salivary diagnostic tests for malaria. Methods Matched samples of blood and saliva were collected between January and May, 2011 from eight patients at Palawan Baptist Hospital in Roxas, Palawan, Philippines. Parasite density was determined from thick-film blood smears. Concentrations of PfHRP2 in saliva of malaria-positive patients were measured using a custom chemiluminescent ELISA in microtitre plates. Sixteen negative-control patients were enrolled at UCLA. A substantive difference between this protocol and previous related studies was that saliva samples were stabilized with protease inhibitors. Results Of the eight patients with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria, seven tested positive for PfHRP2 in the blood using rapid diagnostic test kits, and all tested positive for PfHRP2 in saliva. All negative-control samples tested negative for salivary PfHRP2. On a binary-decision basis, the ELISA agreed with microscopy with 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. Salivary levels of PfHRP2 ranged from 17 to 1,167 pg/mL in the malaria-positive group. Conclusion Saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid for malaria when protein degradation and matrix effects are mitigated. Systematic quantitation of other malaria biomarkers in saliva would identify those with the best clinical relevance and suitability for off-the-shelf diagnostic kits.

  10. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

  11. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Denaxas, S. C.; George, J.; Herrett, E.; Shah, A. D.; Kalra, D.; Hingorani, A. D.; Kivimaki, M.; Timmis, A. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hemingway, H.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

  12. Intention to Use and Actual Use of Electronic Information Resources: Further Exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-01-01

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structu...

  13. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective descript...

  14. Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and librari...

  15. ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

  16. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

  17. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, D. A.; Krupke, D. M.; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J. T.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tu...

  18. Student Effort, Media Preference, and Writing Quality when Using Print and Electronic Resources in Expository Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Farrell, Courtney A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the Internet as a research tool on elementary students' quality of writing, their perceptions of effort expended, and their resource media preference in writing an expository paper. We gathered data from 56 upper-elementary students as they wrote expository papers using print resources

  19. Relationship between Human Resources Management Practices, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Sharing on Innovation in Iranian Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Manafi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic industry needs innovation to survive, and also to compete internationally. This study examines factors that can enhance technical innovation of companies in the electronic industry of Iran. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between human resource management practices, transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation of the large and major electronic companies.More specifically, the research attempts to examine whether knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between human resource management practices and transformational leadership with innovation. A quantitative research approach was used in this study. A cross-sectional correlational research design was used.The sample for this study was drawn from a population of 23,704 employees (managers, engineers, and expert technicians of eight largest electronic companies in Iran using stratified sampling method. The sample size was 376.After exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, structural equation modeling (SEM technique was used to test the hypothetical model. The Findings asserts that only two HRM practices (training and participation and three transformational leadership components (vision, intellectual stimulation and personal recognition have significant impacts on innovation. Besides, knowledge sharing has significant and positive impact on innovation. Out of five HRM practices, training, staffing, participation have significant and positive impacts on knowledge sharing while intellectual stimulation, and personal recognition(as transformational leadership components have significant and positive impacts.Finally, knowledge sharing merely mediated the relationships of training, participation, vision and personal recognition with innovation.

  20. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

  1. Sampling Small Volumes of Saliva for Determination of the Stress Hormone ?-Amylase: A Comparative Methodological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis Arhakis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two sampling devices that allow saliva collection through absorption to a cotton roll (Salivette®-method or to small cotton pellets (VectaSpinTM Micro [VSM]-method were studied. Any loss of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA activity in relation to the saliva volume absorbed and harvested by centrifugation was examined. A pooled saliva sample prepared from stimulated whole saliva (collected by drooling of 30 subjects was used. Three different saliva volumes (2.9 ml, 1.5 ml, and 0.8 ml were tested on cotton rolls and two (0.03 ml, and 0.015 ml on cotton pellets. The sample sAA activity was determined from the hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside. In comparison with the original drooling sample, no sAA loss was observed in 1.5 ml samples tested with Salivette, while a significant decrease of activity was recorded with smaller volumes. VSM collected samples showed a non-volume dependent decrease of sAA activity of about 25%. Salivette requires large saliva volumes to allow an accurate sAA estimation. With cases of limited saliva access, VSM may be a suitable sampling device.

  2. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the mostpredominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  3. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  4. Saliva and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with colorectal cancer : a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims. A prospective cross-sectional study was designed to test if total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva and plasma correlated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population with symptoms consistent with this disease. Materials and methods. Stimulated whole saliva and blood samples were collected from 161 individuals referred to colonoscopy with symptoms associated with CRC. The results of the examination, as well as previous and/or current other diseases were recorded. In a blinded study, the authors used an in-house TIMP-1 ELISA previously validated for use in saliva and plasma to determine total levels of TIMP-1. Results. Fifty-six of the patients (35%) were diagnosed with CRC. Plasma TIMP-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with patients with other, non-malignant diseases and individuals without disease. Significant differences in saliva TIMP-1 levels between CRC patients and individuals without CRC could not be demonstrated. In addition, no correlation was found between levels of TIMP-1 in plasma and saliva. Conclusion. Total levels of TIMP-1 in saliva do not reflect the presence of CRC, and TIMP-1 saliva measurements thus cannot substitute plasma TIMP-1 measurements in detection of CRC.

  5. Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

  6. Proposal of Noninvasive Liver Function Measurement Method via Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Hatakeyama, Toyomasa; Kashii, Yoshiro

    The authors studied the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and salivary ALT activity using ten healthy young adults and ten liver disease patients. Firstly, in order to establish the experimental conditions, we investigated the influence of occult blood and salivary secretion rate on the salivary ALT activity using healthy subjects. Then, simultaneous analysis of the serum and salivary ALT activities were conducted to investigate the correlation using the twenty subjects. As the results, although salivary ALT activity was as low as one third of serum ALT activity, the presence of salivary ALT activity was confirmed in healthy young adults whose saliva was not contaminated with serum. The salivary ALT activity of liver disease patients showed higher values than that of healthy young adults. In other word, if a threshold of salivary ALT activity was established, healthy young adults could be distinguished from liver disease patients.

  7. The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Top Adler, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be used for non-invasive disease monitoring in horses as in humans, pigs and dogs

  8. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  9. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  10. ??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????????

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

    ???89-102

  11. AUF1 and HuR Proteins Stabilize Interleukin-8 mRNA in Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    V. PALANISAMY; Park, N J; Wang, J; Wong, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Human saliva contains thousands of mRNAs, some of which have translational value as diagnostic markers for human diseases. We have found that more than 30% of the mRNAs detected in human saliva contain AU-rich elements (ARE) in their 3? untranslated regions (3?UTR). Since AREs are known to contribute to RNA turnover by forming complexes with ARE-binding proteins, we hypothesized that salivary mRNA stability is mediated by ARE-binding proteins in human saliva. To test this hypothesis, we monit...

  12. Lack of correlation between methotrexate concentrations in serum, saliva and sweat after 24 h methotrexate infusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøder, H; Jensen, K. B.; Brandsborg, M

    1987-01-01

    1 Methotrexate (MTX) concentrations were studied in serum, mixed saliva and sweat during and after 24 h continuous MTX infusions (0.5-6 g m-2) in 14 patients with various malignant diseases. 2 The serum-MTX concentrations declined in a biphasic manner, but the MTX elimination in saliva and sweat varied to a much greater extent. 3 Saliva/serum and sweat/serum ratios during the MTX infusion were 2.3% and 0.55% respectively. The ratios had increased significantly 20 and 44 h postinfusion. 4 No c...

  13. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  14. Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Hadi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Juillard, Franceline; Keser, Mert; Sadasivam, Magesh; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Hanhauser, Emily; Henrich, Timothy J.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Kaye, Kenneth M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50?µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 102?copies/mL and 107?copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis. PMID:26046668

  15. Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Hadi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Juillard, Franceline; Keser, Mert; Sadasivam, Magesh; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Hanhauser, Emily; Henrich, Timothy J; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Kaye, Kenneth M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50?µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 10(2)?copies/mL and 10(7)?copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis. PMID:26046668

  16. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  17. Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-12-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

  18. [Saliva pH and galvanic current ways in mouth tissues and liquids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poniakina, I D; Lebedev, K A; Maksimovski?, Iu M; Mitronin, A V; Sagan, L G; Sagan, N N

    2009-01-01

    In the group of 290 human having metal artificial limbs in an oral cavity, decrease in average value pH the mixed saliva in comparison with the persons who are not having metal inclusions was due to increase of percent of persons with sour reaction of saliva. Thus the degree of decrease the mixed saliva pH did not depend up on size of galvanic currents and presence of galvanic symptoms. The hypothesis was put forward, that decrease of saliva pH and development of galvanism was connected with local changes in a biofilm contacting to metal artificial prosthetic devices. Galvanic currents extended both on a surface of oral mucous membrane and in tissue. Clinical symptoms of galvanism we more expressed when galvanic currents flow manly in oral tissue. PMID:19365345

  19. Determination of the progestagen dienogest in plasma and saliva by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following oral administration of 2 mg of dienogest (17?-cyanomethyl-17?-hydroxy-4,9-estradien-3-one) to female volunteers, the dienogest concentration courses in plasma and saliva were determined by means of a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Three different procedures of the plasma sample preparation prior to the RIA were compared. The dienogest RIA was directly applied to saliva. There is a high correlation between the dienogest concentrations in plasma and saliva. The dienogest plasma elimination half life of about 9 hrs is not significantly different from that derived from saliva. The salivary dienogest concentrations indicate a relatively high non-protein bound portion of this steroid drug in plasma. Following repeated oral administration of dienogest, there is no significant cumulation of plasma dienogest. (author)

  20. KADAR C-ERBB2 DALAM SERUM DAN SALIVA PASIEN KANKER PAYUDARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sulistiowati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractC-erbB2 used as a marker for determining treatment and prognosis of breast cancer. The most often method used to evaluate c-erbB2 in tissue samples is by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Another method to evaluate c-erbB2 is measure the level of ECD (extra cellular domain c-erbB2 were detached from the cell surface in serum and saliva. Saliva is used as a diagnostic tool because it can be collected noninvasive, easy. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of c-erbB2 in serum and saliva breast cancer patients compared to controls and to assess the possibility of the use of saliva as an alternative sample examination biomarker. The study using cross sectional design, implemented at Dharmais hospital of April-December 2012. The sample consisted of 55 subject of cancer patients and 56 controls. Specimens were taken from both groups, levels of c-erbB2 serum and saliva were measured by ELISA (cut off value ?30 ng/ml and the results compared to c-erbB2 IHC. Serum and salivary level of c-erbB2 increased at 10,9% and 7,3% of breast cancer patients. The levels of c-erbB2 in serum and saliva patients was higher than controls. Salivary levels of c-erbB2 correlated with serum (r=0.31. Sensitivity of serum c-erbB2 38% and 13% for saliva, spesivicity of 91% for both. PPV 50% and NPV 86% at serum, PPV 25% and NPV 82% at saliva. C-erbB2 can be detected in the serum and saliva and its overexpressed in 7-11% of breast cancer patients. Saliva may have potensial use as an alternative sample examination biomarkers in breast cancer.Keywords : C-Erbb2 ; Serum; Saliva; Breast CancerAbstrakPemeriksaan c-erbB2 berguna dalam menentukan terapi dan prognosis pasien kanker payudara. Carapaling sering untuk mengevaluasi ekspresi protein c-erbB2 dalam sampel jaringan adalah imunohistokimia (IHK. Cara lainnya adalah dengan menilai kadar ECD (extra cellular domain c-erbB2 dalam serum dan saliva yang terlepas dari permukaan sel. Saliva digunakan sebagai spesimen diagnosis karena dapat dikumpulkan secara non-invasif, mudah, tanpa peralatan khusus untuk mengumpulkannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kadar c-erbB2 dalam serum dan saliva pada pasien kanker payudara dibandingkan dengan kontrol serta menilai kemungkinan penggunaan saliva sebagai spesimen alternatif pemeriksaan penanda pada kanker payudara. Penelitian menggunakandesain cross sectional analitik, dilaksanakan di RS kanker Dharmais dari April-Desember 2012. Sampel terdiri dari: 55 subjek kelompok pasien kanker dan 56 kelompok kontrol. Spesimen diambil dari serum dan saliva kedua kelompok, kadar c-erbB2 diukur dengan metode ELISA dengan cut off value ?30 ng/ml, kemudian hasil kadar c-erbB2 dibandingkan dengan c-erbB2 jaringan (IHK. Amplifikasi c-erbB2 jaringan terjadi pada 14,5% pasien kanker payudara sedangkan kadar c-erbB2 serum dan saliva meningkat pada 10,9% dan 7,3% pasien. Kadar rata-rata c-erbB2 serum dan saliva pada kelompok pasien kanker payudara lebih tinggi daripada kelompok kontrol. Kadar c-erbB2 dalam saliva berkorelasi dengan kadar c-erbB2 serum (r=0,31. Sensitifitas c-erbB2 pada serum 38%, 13% pada saliva. Spesifisitas serum dan saliva masing-masing 91% dengan PPV 50%, NPV 86% pada serum dan PPV 25%, NPV 82% pada saliva. C-erbB2 dapat terdeteksi di dalam serum dan saliva, mengalami overekspresi pada 7-11% pasien kanker payudara. Saliva merupakan sampel yang potensial digunakan sebagai sampel pemeriksaan biomarker kanker payudara.Kata kunci : C-Erbb2; Saliva; Serum; Kanker Payudara

  1. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

  2. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Anisur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

  3. Detection of Bocavirus in Saliva of Children with and without Respiratory Illness ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily T.; Taylor, James; Kuypers, Jane; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; Zerr, Danielle; Englund, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated saliva samples from 149 children 2 to 11 years old for human bocavirus (hBoV) DNA. hBoV was detected in saliva samples at asymptomatic enrollment in 3% (5/149) and during respiratory illness in 2% (2/106) of the cases. hBoV was detected in only 1/149 asymptomatic and 0/106 illness nasal samples. PMID:19794045

  4. Relations between rheological properties, saliva-induced structure breakdown and sensory texture attributes of custards

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, A.M.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Van Wijk, R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The relevance of initial rheological properties and mechanical and enzymatic structure breakdown in determining selected sensory texture attributes of custards was studied. The so-called structure breakdown cell was used to characterize saliva-induced breakdown, i.e., by monitoring digestion of starch by amylase from saliva. Based on rheological parameters, some attributes could be predicted well, while others more poorly or were not predicted. Predictable attributes were primarily determined...

  5. Relationship between Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate and Saliva Composition of Healthy Children in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Cheng Lee; Ching-Fang Hu; Alice M. K. Wong; Ming-Yen Chou; Tsong-Long Hwang; Chia-Ling Chen; Chia-Ying Chung; Jyh-Yuh Ke; Katie P. Wu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Saliva is one of the most important factors in regulating oral health, withflow rate and composition changing throughout development and during disease.In view of the shortage of data, the present study aimed to shed light onthe relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and saliva compositionof healthy children in Taiwan.Methods: Forty-four normal, healthy children from 3-14 years of age were divided intothree age groups: pre-school, elementary school and junior-high sc...

  6. Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

    2012-01-01

    The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and gl...

  7. Complete Artificial Saliva Alters Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Malpass, Gloria E.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2013-01-01

    Complete artificial saliva (CAS) is a saliva substitute often used as a vehicle for test articles, including smokeless tobacco products. In the course of a study employing normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) as a model in vitro, we discovered that CAS as a vehicle introduced a significant change in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To determine the effects of CAS on gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR gene array analysis was used. Results indi...

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Nonimmunoglobulin Factor in Human Saliva That Inhibits Streptococcus mutans Glucosyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersgaard, Christina; Hajishengallis, George; Russell, Michael W.; Michalek, Suzanne M

    2002-01-01

    Saliva contains an array of nonimmunoglobulin defense factors which are thought to contribute to the protection of the hard and soft tissue surfaces of the oral cavity by modulating microbial colonization and metabolism. Here we report the discovery of a putative innate defense factor in human saliva that inhibits the glucosyltransferase (GTF) of Streptococcus mutans, a virulence enzyme involved in oral colonization by this pathogen. The GTF-inhibiting factor (GIF) was initially identified as...

  9. Integrity of Proteins in Human Saliva after Sterilization by Gamma Irradiation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhl, Stefan; Berlenbach, Pereshia; Langenfelder, Sabine; Hörl, Dagmar; Lehn, Norbert; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Durchschlag, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Microbial contamination of whole human saliva is unwanted for certain in vitro applications, e.g., when utilizing it as a growth substratum for biofilm experiments. The aim of this investigation was to test gamma irradiation for its suitability to sterilize saliva and to investigate the treatment's influence on the composition and integrity of salivary proteins in comparison to filter sterilization. For inhibition of bacterial growth by gamma irradiation, a sterility assurance level of 10?6...

  10. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

  11. Welfare assessment in the Indian rhino and Asian elephant through cortisol measurement in saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Menargues Marcilla, Mari?a Asuncio?n; Urios Moliner, Vicente; Navarrete, Jose? Mari?a; Lo?pez Gonza?lez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    At Estación Biológica Terra Natura (University of Alicante, Spain), we are developing a stress assessment program in the Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) at Terra Natura’s Theme Park. We are attempting to test the effect of environmental enrichment techniques applied in their enclosures, through cortisol measurement in saliva. We obtain the saliva daily and the cortisol level is analysed using RIA (Radio Immuno Assay techniques), at the endocrino...

  12. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peneluppi Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05.

  13. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelle Peneluppi, Silva; José, Chibebe Junior; Adeline Lacerda, Jorjão; Ana Karina da Silva, Machado; Luciane Dias de, Oliveira; Juliana Campos, Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and c [...] ontrolling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05).

  14. Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Dervisevic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28 in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19, moderate disease activity (n=19 and high disease activity (n=25. NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3 to nitrite (NO-2 was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3 was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05. We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05. Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL O-GLYCANS ISOLATED FROM TEAR AND SALIVA of OCULAR ROSACEA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, Sureyya; An, Hyun Joo; Vieira, Ana C.; Park, Gunwook; Kim, Jae Han; Mannis, Mark J.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2013-01-01

    O-glycans in saliva and tear isolated from patients suffering from ocular rosacea, a form of inflammatory ocular surface disease, were profiled and their structures were elucidated using high resolution mass spectrometry. We have previously shown that certain structures, particularly sulfated oligosaccharides, increased in the tear and saliva of rosacea patients. In this study, the structures of these glycans were elucidated using primarily tandem mass spectrometry. There were important simil...

  16. Beta 2 microglobulin measurements in saliva of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: influence of flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, S. A.; Markusse, H. M.; Swaak, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the diagnostic value of beta 2 microglobulin in parotid saliva, its concentration in relation to salivary flow was determined in 29 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 30 normal controls. The specific secretion rate of beta 2 microglobulin was calculated. METHODS--Parotid saliva samples were collected within a 20 minute period directly from Stensen's duct with Lashley cups: sample 1 without gustatory stimulation during the first 10 minutes and samples 2 a...

  17. Investigation of Zinc Concentrations in Saliva of Patients with Thyroid Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Kurban; ?dris Mehmeto?lu; Fatma Hümeyra Yerlikaya; Sait Gönen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that thyroid hormone disorders can influence homeostasis of trace elements in the body, such as zinc (Zn). The aim of this study was to evaluate saliva Zn levels in patients with thyroid diseases. Material and Method: The study was performed on 126 patients (21 male, 105 female) with thyroid diseases (31 hyperthyroid, 30 hypothyroid, 31 subclinical hyperthyroid and 34 subclinical hypothyroid) and 38 healthy control subjects (7 male, 31female). Saliva was collected fr...

  18. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most allection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  19. SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Canatan; Sevgi Kosaci Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose,...

  20. Enhanced Leishmania braziliensis Infection Following Pre-Exposure to Sandfly Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    de Moura, Tatiana R.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Novais, Fernanda O.; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Follador, Ivonise; de Carvalho, Edgar M.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Brodskyn, Cláudia; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2007-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of diseases known as leishmaniasis, that are transmitted by bites of female sand flies that, during blood-feeding, inject humans with parasites and saliva. It was shown that, in mice, immunity to sand-fly saliva is able to protect against the development of leishmaniasis. We have investigated, in the present study, whether this finding extends the sand fly species Lutzomyia intermedia, which is responsible for transmission of Leishmania brazil...

  1. Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Gustafsson; Vjosa Ajeti; Lennart Ljunggren

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to ...

  2. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva, dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples

    OpenAIRE

    Meysam Sarshar; Hossein Dabiri; Hassan Momtaz; Negar Souod

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare genotype of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolated from saliva, dental plaques, gastric biopsy, and stool of each patient in order to evaluate the mode of transmission of H. pylori infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 300 antral gastric biopsy, saliva, dental plaque and stool samples which were obtained from patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy referred to endoscopy centre of Hajar hospital of Shahrekord, Iran from...

  3. Antialarmin Effect of Tick Saliva during the Transmission of Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Claire; Schramm, Frederic; Kern, Aurélie; Luft, Benjamin J; Yang, XiaoHua; Schuijt, Tim J; Hovius, Joppe W; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Tick saliva has potent immunomodulatory properties. In arthropod-borne diseases, this effect is largely used by microorganisms to increase their pathogenicity and to evade host immune responses. We show that in Lyme borreliosis, tick salivary gland extract and a tick saliva protein, Salp15, inhibit in vitro keratinocyte inflammation induced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto or by the major outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia, OspC. Chemokines (interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemoattr...

  4. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    OpenAIRE

    JoaoPedra; MaiaraSevero; MichailKotsyfakis

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR) sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules invol...

  5. A comparison of the generation of free radicals in saliva of active and passive smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Demi?rtas?, Murat; S?enel, U?nal; Yu?ksel, Sevda; Yu?ksel, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    To reveal any correlation between cigarette smoke and malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the saliva fluid of subjects who are active smokers or nonsmoking subjects who are exposed to cigarette smoke in their environments. Materials and methods: Saliva samples were taken from 3 groups: a control group (group 1), a group inhaling smoke passively (group 2), and a test group (group 3) smoking 20 cigarettes per day; each group consisted of 20 members, giving a total sample of 60 people, aged 20 to ...

  6. A comparative study of saliva and serum paracetamol levels using a simple spectrophotometric method.

    OpenAIRE

    Adithan, C.; Thangam, J

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between saliva and serum paracetamol levels was investigated in ten healthy male volunteers. The salivary and serum paracetamol levels showed significant correlation with each other. The salivary and serum paracetamol concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary and serum paracetamol half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of paracetamol concentration in saliva and serum failed to show significant correla...

  7. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most ollection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  8. Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X. Chris

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

  9. The effect of two artificial salivas on the adhesion of Candida albicans to heat-polymerized acrylic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Xerostomia can diminish the quality of life, leads to changes in normal chemical composition of saliva and oral microbiata, and increases the risk for opportunistic infections, such as Candida albicans. Various artificial salivas have been considered for patients with xerostomia. However, the knowledge on the antifungal and antiadhesive activity of artificial saliva substitutes is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate influence of two artificial salivas on the adhesion of Candida albicans to the polymethylmethacrylate disc specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two commercial artificial salivas (Saliva Orthana and Biotene Oral Balance Gel) were selected. 45 polymethylmethacrylate disc specimens were prepared and randomly allocated into 3 groups; Saliva Orthana, Biotene-Oral Balance gel and distilled water. Specimens were stored in the artificial saliva or in the sterile distilled water for 60 minutes at 37?. Then they were exposed to yeast suspensions including Candida albicans. Yeast cells were counted using ×40 magnification under a light microscope and data were analysed. RESULTS Analysis of data indicated statistically significant difference in adhesion of Candida albicans among all experimental groups (P=.000). Findings indicated that Saliva Orthana had higher adhesion scores than the Biotene Oral Balance gel and distilled water (P<.05). CONCLUSION In comparison of Saliva Orthana, the use of Biotene Oral Balance Gel including lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase may be an appropriate treatment method to prevent of adhesion of Candida albicans and related infections in patients with xerostomia. PMID:25932306

  10. Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation. PMID:25616553

  11. Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry / Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Papile Maciel, Carvalho; Arsenio, Sales-Peres; Lucilene Arilho, Ribeiro-Bicudo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. METODOLOGIA: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a [...] 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%). Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This study evaluated the quality of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to human identification. METHODS: The saliva samples of 20 subjects, collected in the form of saliva in natura and from mouth swabs and stored at -20ºC, were analyzed. After 7 days, the DNA was e [...] xtracted from the 40 saliva samples and subjected to PCR and electrophoresis. After 180 days, the technique was repeated with the 20 swab samples. RESULTS: The first-stage results indicated that DNA was successfully extracted in 97.5% of reactions, 95% of saliva in natura and 100% of swab saliva samples, with no statistically significant difference between the forms of saliva. In the second phase, the result was positive for all 20 analyzed samples (100%). Subsequently, in order to analyze the quality of the DNA obtained from human saliva, the SIX3-2 gene was tested on the 20 mouth swab samples, and the PCR products were digested using the MbO1 restriction enzyme to evaluate polymorphisms in the ADRA-2 gene, with positive results for most samples. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the quantity and quality of DNA from saliva and the techniques employed are adequate for forensic analysis of DNA.

  12. National Information Infrastructure of a Science, Culture and Education: Representation of Resources of Electronic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinov, E.; Boychenko, A.

    In the report are given questions concerned the choice of international standards for electronic libraries construction: - The alternative variants of choice standards on electronic catalogs and metacatalogs formats; - The alternative variants of choice standards for interlibrary loan; - The variants of choice standards for information search in online public catalogs (OPAC) and bibliographic databases; - The variants of choice standards for file representation of full text documents, vector and raster images, audio- and video-materials, text of public distributed programs. The questions for public discussion by interested organizations are intended to represent on special web site. The profile of electronic library as a total combination of standards on program interfaces and protocols may be constructed with the conceptual model of EL. This model is offered as a expansion of basic open systems environment / reference model (OSE/RM) for the area of applications to describe the Application Program Interface (APIs). Opinions of the interested organizations, which will be collected on a site by way of discussion of the questions put above, it is supposed to base on formation of a national information infrastructure of Russia for science, culture and education.

  13. Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia Cadaxo, Rochael; Luize Goncalves, Lima; Sandra Maria Pereira de, Oliveira; Marcello Andre, Barcinski; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Robson Queiroz, Monteiro; Lucia Helena, Pinto-da-Silva.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelera [...] tes in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

  14. Stimulating whole saliva affects the response of antimicrobial proteins to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgrove, J E; Oliveira, M; Gleeson, M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the salivary secretion rates of antimicrobial proteins in response to prolonged, exhaustive exercise in both stimulated (STIM) and unstimulated (UNSTIM) saliva flow sample methods. Twenty-four trained men cycled for 2.5?h at 60% V ? O 2 m ? a x and then to exhaustion at 75% V ? O 2 m ? a x . Timed collections of whole saliva were made before exercise, mid-exercise, at the end of the moderate exercise bout and post-exhaustive exercise. After each UNSTIM collection, a STIM sample was collected following chewing flavored gum for 1?min. Saliva was analysed for lysozyme, ?-amylase and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and secretion rates were calculated. Saliva flow was 156% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?amylase levels and secretion rates were 144% higher and 152% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM for lysozyme and ?-amylase, respectively (all P?saliva flow collection during exercise by chewing flavored gum increased the quantity of saliva and the secretion of lysozyme and ?-amylase, but had a limited impact on the secretion of s-IgA. PMID:23506418

  15. In situ assessment of the saliva effect on enamel morphology after microabrasion technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Núbia Inocencya Pavesi, Pini; Débora Alves Nunes Leite, Lima; Renato Herman, Sundfeld; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Flávio Henrique Baggio, Aguiar; José Roberto, Lovadino.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated saliva effects on enamel morphology surface after microabrasion technique. METHODS: Enamel blocks (16 mm2) obtained from bovine incisors were divided into 9 groups as follows: one control group (no treatment), four groups with microabrasion treatment using 35% phospho [...] ric acid and pumice (H3PO4+Pum) and other four groups treated with 6.6% hydrochloric acid and silica (HCl+Sil). One group of each treatment was submitted to 4 frames of saliva exposure: without exposure, 1-h exposure, 24-h exposure, and 7-days exposure on in situ regimen. Nineteen volunteers (n=19), considered as statistical blocks, used an intraoral appliance containing the specimens, for 7 days. Enamel roughness (Ra) was tested before and after treatment, and after saliva exposure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to evaluate qualitatively the enamel morphology. RESULTS: All groups exhibited increased Ra after microabrasion. With regards to saliva exposure, the treatment with HCl+Sil presented more susceptibility to the saliva action, but no period of time was efficient in re-establishing this characteristic compared with the control group. CLSM analysis showed reduction of the micro-abrasive damages during the experimental times. CONCLUSIONS: Seven days of saliva exposure were not sufficient for the treated enamel to reach its normal characteristics compared with the control group.

  16. Cross-species comparison of mammalian saliva using an LC-MALDI based proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Cova, Marta; Abrantes, Joana; Ferreira, Rita; Trindade, Fábio; Barros, António; Gomes, Pedro; Colaço, Bruno; Amado, Francisco; Esteves, Pedro J; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Despite the importance of saliva in the regulation of oral cavity homeostasis, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively compare the saliva of different mammal species. Aiming to define a proteome signature of mammals' saliva, an in-depth SDS-PAGE-LC coupled to MS/MS (GeLC-MS/MS) approach was used to characterize the saliva from primates (human), carnivores (dog), glires (rat and rabbit), and ungulates (sheep, cattle, horse). Despite the high variability in the number of distinct proteins identified per species, most protein families were shared by the mammals studied with the exception of cattle and horse. Alpha-amylase is an example that seems to reflect the natural selection related to digestion efficacy and food recognition. Casein protein family was identified in all species but human, suggesting an alternative to statherin in the protection of hard tissues. Overall, data suggest that different proteins might assure a similar role in the regulation of oral cavity homeostasis, potentially explaining the specific mammals' salivary proteome signature. Moreover, some protein families were identified for the first time in the saliva of some species, the presence of proline-rich proteins in rabbit's saliva being a good example. PMID:25641928

  17. Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

  18. Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

    2013-09-01

    Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

  19. Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antequera Desiree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of ? amyloid (A? using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva A?42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of A?42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva A?40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva A?42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva A?42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

  20. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation achieved using 1.5 mg/kg.

  1. Determination of saliva trough levels for monitoring voriconazole therapy in immunocompromised children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Claudia; Bierbach, Uta; Frenzel, Katrin; Lange, Thoralf; Basara, Nadezda; Niederwieser, Dietger; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Preiss, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the reliability and practical use of saliva for therapeutic drug monitoring of the antifungal agent voriconazole in immunocompromised patients, a paired-sample study was conducted. Plasma and saliva trough levels were measured in seven children and nine adults who required treatment for the prevention or therapy of systemic fungal infections. The pediatric patients received a voriconazole dosage of 7 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Adults were treated with two loading doses of 6 mg/kg intravenously followed by a maintenance dose of 4 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Based on 104 paired plasma/saliva specimens, we found a significant correlation between the voriconazole concentrations in blood and saliva (r > 0.95). The median saliva/plasma voriconazole concentration ratio was 0.34 in children and 0.40 in adults. Intra- and interpatient variability in the saliva/plasma ratios were 22% and 23% in children and 16% and 24% in adults, respectively. Thirty-three percent of plasma trough levels were below 1.0 microg/mL or above 6.0 microg/mL and occurred in six pediatric and four adult patients. Monitoring of salivary concentrations proved to be a realistic alternative in patients when blood drawing is difficult. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, an easier sample collection being noninvasive and painless is more acceptable to patients, particularly children. PMID:20216120

  2. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W Hampton; Miller, Scott E; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M; Dennis, Patty J; Oblath, Emily A; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G; Little, Frédéric F; Uluer, Ahmet Z; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J Michael; Walt, David R

    2014-03-21

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 ?L of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5 h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device's potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines noninvasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

  3. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national pro...

  4. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Anzai-Kanto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório.

  5. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures / Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki, Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo, Hirata; Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff, Melani; Rogério Nogueira, Oliveira.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A saliva é usualmente depositada em marcas de mordida encontradas em homicídios, agressões e outros crimes. Neste estudo, a saliva obtida de voluntários foi depositada na pele, recuperada para extração e tipagem do DNA, para avaliação de sua utilização e sua contribuição na odontologia legal. Vinte [...] amostras de saliva foram coletadas de diferentes doadores e utilizadas como amostras de suspeitos. Cinco dessas amostras foram sorteadas e depositadas (250 µl) na pele. A saliva foi coletada da pele usando-se a técnica do duplo esfregaço. O DNA da saliva e das amostras de saliva depositadas sobre a pele foi extraído pelo método fenol-clorofórmio. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas por PCR para a tipagem do DNA usando-se um grupo de 15 STRs. O DNA recuperado da saliva depositada na pele foi de 14 a 10 vezes menor que o DNA das 20 amostras de saliva. O perfil do DNA foi demonstrado em 4 de 5 amostras de saliva depositadas, e a razão de verossimilhança das amostras baseada em dados da população brasileira foi 1:11, 1:500, 1:159,140 e 1:153,700,123. Nossos resultados indicam que procedimentos padronizados utilizados para coleta e extração de DNA de saliva depositada podem ser utilizados como um método para recuperar DNA de saliva em casos forenses; entretanto, é importante observar que amostras forenses podem apresentar problemas na recuperação do DNA em quantidades adequadas. Este estudo sugere que a análise de saliva depositada sobre a pele pode ser incorporada ao conjunto de provas de um inquérito criminal já que possui um grande poder discriminatório. Abstract in english Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discus [...] s the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 µl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

  8. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using 3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

  9. Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

  10. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

  11. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Peacocke Julia; Lotz Zoe; de Beer Corena; Roux Paul; Mall Anwar S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in v...

  12. Effects of radiation and ?-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chitra S.; Shyamala Devi C

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC) were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT) and simultaneous supplementation with ? - toc...

  13. The scientific exploration of saliva in the post-proteomic era: from database back to basic function

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The proteome of human saliva can be considered as being essentially completed. Diagnostic markers for a number of diseases have been identified among salivary proteins and peptides, taking advantage of saliva as an easy-to-obtain biological fluid. Yet, the majority of disease markers identified so far are serum components and not intrinsic proteins produced by the salivary glands. Furthermore, despite the fact that saliva is essential for protecting the oral integuments and dentition, little ...

  14. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, R M; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S.L.; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, ...

  15. Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Mélika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

    2011-01-01

    Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors ...

  16. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Laura C; Whetzel Courtney A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Typical saliva coll...

  17. Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additiouated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

  18. Developing an outcome measure for excessive saliva management in MND and an evaluation of saliva burden in Sheffield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachan, Alexander J; Hobson, Esther V; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies providing evidence to guide the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems in motor neuron disease (MND). There is a lack of a suitable outcome measure for evaluating management strategies. We applied several potential outcome measures for assessing excessive secretions to patients with MND who attended the Sheffield Care and Research Centre for Motor Neurone Disease between 21 November 2012 and 15 May 2013. These measures were the CSS-MND, a symptom rating scale, and the Drool and Wipe quotient, which were designed to semi-objectively measure patients' drooling. Of the 143 patients seen in clinic during the study period, 58 had symptoms of excessive secretions, and of whom 50 agreed to participate in the study. Semi-objective measures failed to effectively identify patients complaining of secretion problems. The CSS-MND had a relatively low internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.539; n = 50); however, analysis of the inter-item correlations suggested the appearance of low internal consistency was because the scale was measuring a variety of saliva related symptoms that did not necessarily influence each other. The scale correlated well with patient reported symptom impact (r = 0.673, n = 50). In conclusion, the CSS-MND would be a useful outcome measure in studies assessing the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems. PMID:25225845

  19. Diagnosis of rubella infection by detecting specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in saliva samples: a clinic-based study in Niterói, RJ, Brazil / Diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola através da detecção de imunoglobulina M específica em amostras de saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange Artimos de, Oliveira; Marilda Mendonça, Siqueira; David W.G., Brown; Pamella, Litton; Luís Antonio B., Camacho; Sílvia Thees, Castro; Bernard J., Cohen.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a validade da utilização da saliva no diagnóstico laboratorial da rubéola. Quarenta e cinco amostras pareadas de sangue e de saliva, coletadas de 1 a 29 dias após o início da doença, foram testadas para detecção de imunoglobulina (Ig) M específica por radioimun [...] oensaio com captura (MACRIA). Anticorpos IgM específicos contra rubéola foram detectados em todas as amostras sangüíneas e em 38 (84,4%) das amostras de saliva. A especificidade do teste na saliva foi de 96%. Estes resultados indicam que a utilização da saliva pode ser uma alternativa válida para obtenção de espécimens clínicos na investigação de casos recentes de rubéola, especialmente nas atividades de vigilância epidemiológica e controle da virose. Abstract in english This study was designed to investigate whether saliva could be a feasible alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent rubella infection in a clinic setting. Forty-five paired blood and saliva samples collected 1 to 29 days after onset of illness were tested for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M by [...] antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Rubella IgM was detected in all serum samples and in 38 (84.4%) saliva specimens. Forty-six serum and saliva samples from other patients with rash diseases were tested by MACRIA for control purposes and two saliva specimens were reactive. The saliva test had specificity of 96%. These results indicate that salivary IgM detection may be a convenient non-invasive alternative to serum for investigation of recent rubella cases, especially for disease surveillance and control programmes.

  20. Saliva Characteristics, Diet and Carioreceptivity in Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chifor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The use of sugar by dental plaque microorganisms leads to acid formation from the bacteria metabolism, which determines a decrease of pH onto teeth surfaces. The value of the critical pH is 5.2-5.5. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of patients to change their diet towards caries prevention after acknowledging the values of saliva parameters (pH, buffer capacity.Material and methods. A group of 52 subjects were clinically examined according to the International Caries Assessment and Detection System protocol. They were required to complete a diet questionnaire and salivary tests were made for the oral mucosa hydration level, pH, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate at rest and upon stimulation. 4 pre-calibrated 6th year students and 2 dentists performed the tests and the ICDAS examination. One week after the tests, the subjects were asked to complete the diet questionnaire again. The studied group consisted of students aged between 23-26 th years, randomly selected among 6 year students of the Faculty of Dentistry from Cluj- Napoca.Results and Discussion. The mean DMF-S index was 18.39. Most of the patients (65% had a DMF-S index between 9 and 21. Just 2.5% had an index of 3, which was the lowest value recorded. 5% of the patients had a DMFS of 35, which was the maximal value recorded. The distribution of DMF-S was normal. 50% of the patients had no active caries. Even though most subjects (19.23% had a pH within the normal interval, most of them were at the bottom value of the interval (6.8. Most subjects had a pH of 6.4, which is moderately acid. The mean pH was 6.7, therefore, a moderately acid one. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DMFS and pH was 0.255.A mild negative correlation (-0.275 was found between the cariogenic food and buffer capacity. A week later we noticed a statistically significant decrease of cariogenic foods and drinks in students with acid pH and with low buffer capacity.Conclusions. A regular intake of cakes, bonbons and chocolate was reported by subjects who had a high DMF-S value and a low saliva buffer capacity. Only after the patients were aware of their caries risk, did they change their diet towards a non- cariogenic one, even though they had had the theoretical knowledge regarding caries prevention for at least 3 years. We conclude that the use of the chair-side salivary test should be highly recommended for cario-receptive patients.

  1. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

  2. XTT assay of ex vivo saliva biofilms to test antimicrobial influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Koban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many dental diseases are attributable to biofilms. The screening of antimicrobial substances, in particular, requires a high sample throughput and a realistic model, the evaluation must be as quick and as simple as possible. For this purpose, a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-[(phenylamino-carbony]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene-sulfonic acid hydrate converted by saliva biofilms is recommended. Cleavage of XTT by dehydrogenase enzymes of metabolically active cells in biofilms yields a highly colored formazan product which is measured photometrically. Materials and method: The suitability of the XTT assay for detecting the vitality of ex vivo saliva biofilms was tested to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine and ozone versus saliva biofilms grown on titanium discs. Results: The XTT method lends itself to testing the vitality of microorganisms in saliva biofilms. The sensitivity of the arrays requires a specific minimum number of pathogens, this number being different for planktonic bacteria and those occurring in biofilms. The antibacterial effect after treatment with chlorhexidine or ozone was measured by XTT conversion that was significantly reduced. The antimicrobial efficacy of 60 s 0.5% and 0.1% chlorhexidine treatment was equal and comparable with 60 s ozone treatment. Conclusion: The XTT assay is a suitable method to determine the vitality in saliva biofilms, permitting assessment of the efficacy of antimicrobial substances. Its quick and easy applicability renders it especially suitable for screening.

  3. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante, SOUZA; Marisa, MALTZ; Lina Naomi, HASHIZUME.

    2014-08-26

    Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four t [...] reatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  4. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

  5. Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja WeirsØe; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    Background: Binge eating episodes in persons with bulimia nervosa may to some extent be a result of disturbed sensations of hunger and satiety. It has been hypothesized that abnormal appetite sensations may be due to bulimia nervosa-related alterations in the release of hormones that are known to be involved in the physiologic regulation of appetite and metabolism. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether circulating concentrations of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin and markers of metabolism (glucose and insulin) are different in persons with bulimia nervosa than in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake of potentially xerogenic medication. Subjects with bulimia nervosa experienced reduced hunger, which could not be explained by pre- or postprandial alterations in circulating ghrelin, leptin, insulin, or glucose concentrations. Conclusions: There were no apparent differences in the composition of blood and saliva between bulimia nervosa and control subjects, and meal-induced compositional changes in blood were not directly mirrored in saliva composition.

  6. Proteome Analysis of Watery Saliva Secreted by Green Rice Leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Makoto; Komatsu, Setsuko; Noda, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    The green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps, is a vascular bundle feeder that discharges watery and gelling saliva during the feeding process. To understand the potential functions of saliva for successful and safe feeding on host plants, we analyzed the complexity of proteinaceous components in the watery saliva of N. cincticeps. Salivary proteins were collected from a sucrose diet that adult leafhoppers had fed on through a membrane of stretched parafilm. Protein concentrates were separated using SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Six proteins were identified by a gas-phase protein sequencer and two proteins were identified using LC-MS/MS analysis with reference to expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of this species. Full -length cDNAs encoding these major proteins were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR) and degenerate PCR. Furthermore, gel-free proteome analysis that was performed to cover the broad range of salivary proteins with reference to the latest RNA-sequencing data from the salivary gland of N. cincticeps, yielded 63 additional protein species. Out of 71 novel proteins identified from the watery saliva, about 60 % of those were enzymes or other functional proteins, including GH5 cellulase, transferrin, carbonic anhydrases, aminopeptidase, regucalcin, and apolipoprotein. The remaining proteins appeared to be unique and species- specific. This is the first study to identify and characterize the proteins in watery saliva of Auchenorrhyncha species, especially sheath-producing, vascular bundle-feeders. PMID:25909947

  7. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of E. faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure in the same patient. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry Department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-37 degree C for 48 hrs. E. faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, gramstain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E. faecalis in saliva was 34% and in root canal it was 58%. Frequency between the presence of E. faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of E. faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  8. Identification of Saliva Using MicroRNA Biomarkers for Forensic Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ji; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Di; Luo, Haibo; Chen, Xiaogang; Hou, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    In the forensic science community, microRNA (miRNA) profiling has started to be explored as an alternative tool for body fluid identification. Several origins of body fluid can be distinguished by measuring differential expression patterns of particular miRNAs. However, most of reported saliva miRNAs are nonoverlapping and debatable. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy of identifying saliva using miRNA biomarkers for forensic purpose. Eight miRNA candidates were selected to examine expression abundance in forensically relevant body fluids using hydrolysis probes quantitative real-time PCR (TaqMan qPCR). Results revealed that none of them was truly saliva specific, and only miR-200c-3p, miR-203a, and miR-205-5p were higher or more moderate expression in saliva. A stepwise strategy that combines each of three miRNAs with different body fluid-specific miRNAs was developed, and three miRNA combinations could effectively differentiate saliva from other body fluids. PMID:25690121

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

  10. Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršljak Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

  11. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of E.faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure Study. Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Duration of this study was one year. Patients and Method: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-370 C for 48 hours. E.faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E.faecalis in saliva was 34% and 58% in root canal samples. Frequency of the presence of E.faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p=0.000). Conclusion: The presence of E.faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  12. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in saliva and gingival tissues, respectively. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Reduced salivary TFF1 and TFF3 concentrations were observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Decreased TFF3 expression in gingival tissues of patients with CP was demonstrated (P = 0.041). Levels of salivary TFF3 concentrations were negatively correlated with periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (formerly known as Bacteroides forsythus). CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of TFFs in saliva and gingival tissues was detected in patients with CP. The results suggest that TFF3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  13. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  15. Avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade na identificação em Odontologia Legal =: Quality evaluation of DNA obtained from stored human saliva and its applicability to identification in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel et al.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade do DNA obtido de saliva humana armazenada e sua aplicabilidade da identificação de pessoas. Metodologia: Analisaram-se amostras salivares de n=20 sujeitos da pesquisa, coletadas nas formas de saliva in natura e de swab bucal, sendo armazenadas a 20ºC. Após 7 dias, o DNA foi extraído das 40 amostras de saliva e submetido à PCR e à eletroforese. Após 180 dias repetiu-se a técnica nas 20 amostras de swab. Resultados: Os resultados da primeira etapa indicaram que o DNA foi extraído com sucesso em 97,5% das reações, e, analisando-se separadamente, em 95% de saliva in natura e em 100% da saliva do swab, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas formas de saliva. Na segunda fase, o resultado foi positivo para as 20 amostras analisadas (100%. Posteriormente, para analisar a qualidade do DNA obtido da saliva humana, o gene SIX3-2 foi testado nas 20 amostras de swab bucal e foi feita a digestão do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição MbO1 para avaliar polimorfismo do gene ADRA-2 obtendo-se resultados positivos para a maioria das amostras. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a quantidade e a qualidade do DNA advindo de saliva e as técnicas empregadas estão adequadas à análise forense do DNA.

  16. Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

  17. Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

  18. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p

  19. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  20. Characterisation of advanced glycation endproducts in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop increased advanced glycation endproducts causing local complications and increased overall morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were determined in saliva of 52 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 age-matched healthy control subjects. Resonance spectra showed specific peaks at 2.3, 7.3, and 8.4 ppm in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus. These peaks could be generated by incubation of saliva from healthy control subjects with hypochloric acid in vitro, indicating the presence of advanced glycation endproducts. The presence of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with approximal plaque index, indicating increased periodontal damage. The study indicates that increased advanced glycation endproducts are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

  1. Characterisation of human saliva as a platform for oral dissolution medium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Henry, Brian; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Human saliva is a biological fluid of great importance in the field of dissolution testing. However, until now, no consensus has been reached on its key characteristics relevant to dissolution testing. As a result, it is difficult to select or develop an in vitro dissolution medium to best represent human saliva. In this study, the pH, buffer capacity, surface tension, viscosity and flow rate of both unstimulated (US) and stimulated (SS) human saliva were investigated in order to provide a platform of reference for future dissolution studies using simulated salivary fluids. Age and gender related differences in a sample size of 30 participants for each parameter were investigated. Significant differences were established between US and SS for all characteristics except surface tension. Therefore, the requirement for using two simulated salivary fluids should be considered when developing an oral dissolution model. PMID:25603197

  2. Possibility of saliva use in detecting anti herpes simplex virus IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Dušan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of saliva use instead of sera for detecting anti HSV IgM antibodies. Three groups of patients were included in this study. The first two consisted of immunocompetent persons with clinically and virologicaly approved primary and reccurent herpetic infection. The third group was comprised of AIDS patients with recurrent infection. Anti HSV-1 IgM antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence assay. In saliva and sera samples obtained from persons with primary and recurrent HSV infection, findings of specific IgM antibodies correlated with the dynamic of their synthesis in infection generally. But in the third group, which consisted of AIDS patients, in a few cases there were positive anti HSV IgM concentration, both in sera and saliva samples.

  3. Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

  4. A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode for probing glucose in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Daixin; Liang, Guohai; Li, Huixiang; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2013-11-15

    Here, we report on a novel nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode. The results of the scanning electron microscopy indicate that electronic network was formed through their direct binding with the graphene/carbon nanofiber, which leads to larger active surface areas and faster electron transfer for the glucose sensor. High electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose was observed with a rapid response (dopamine and so forth did not cause obvious interference. The sensor can also be used for quantification of glucose concentration in real saliva samples. Therefore, this work has demonstrated a simple and effective sensing platform for nonenzymatic detection of glucose. PMID:24148397

  5. [Antioxidant and peroxidase activity of saliva in patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases and ability of their correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, I V; Kolobkova, L N; Landesman, E O; Stepanov, E V; Koroleva, O V

    2008-01-01

    Comparative investigation of antioxidant and peroxidase activities of mixtured saliva during testing loads in control group, as well as in patients with caries and combination of caries with inflammatory periodontal diseases was carried out. Antioxidant activity of saliva in the last two groups was significantly lower, so their correction with xidiphone was made. PMID:18988461

  6. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Mardekian, Jack; Emir, Birol; Clair, Andrew; Kuhn, Max; Silverman, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Methods This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR) database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296) were subjects ?18 years old with ?2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for FM (729.1) ?30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ?1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665) did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs). Results Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001) and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318). Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001), especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition). Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0.0001), confirming resource utilization as an important variable associated with an FM diagnosis. Conclusion Significant differences between the FM and no-FM cohorts were observed for nearly all the demographic, clinical, and health care resource variables, suggesting an association with FM diagnosis. These results also support use of EMR data for identifying variables associated with FM, which may help in the diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:25784819

  7. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  8. A potentiometric disposable sensor strip for measuring pH in saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliani, Claudio; Matzeu, Giusy; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of a potentiometric strip for pH monitoring in saliva samples is reported. The potentiometric strip consists of a solid contact pH-selective and of a solidcontact ionogel reference electrode prepared on a dual screen printed substrate. The screen printing protocols, i.e., type of inks and number of deposits, were adjusted to relatively improve the batch reproducibility and the stability of the pH sensor. The pH of real saliva samples was monitored using the o...

  9. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  10. The Majority of MicroRNAs Detectable in Serum and Saliva Is Concentrated in Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Alessia; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. They are easily accessible in many body fluids but it is controversial if they are circulating freely or are encapsulated in microvesicles, particularly exosomes. We investigated if the majority of miRNas in serum and saliva are free-circulating or concentrated in exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fresh and frozen human serum and saliva. The amount of selected miRNAs ext...

  11. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  12. Cell-to-cell interaction of Streptococcus sanguis and Propionibacterium acnes on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciardi, J. E.; Mccray, G. F.; Kolenbrander, P. E.; Lau, A.

    1987-01-01

    Cell-to-cell interaction (coaggregation) between Propionibacterium acnes PK93 and Streptococcus sanguis DL1 was measured on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (SHA) at bacterial concentrations between 1.3 X 10(6) and 6.7 X 10(8) cells per ml. Four hundredfold more DL1 than PK93 cells adhered to the saliva-coated beads, and the adherence of S. sanguis was proportional to cell input. SHA precoated with 3 X 10(8) DL1 cells bound 75 to 80% of available PK93 cells at all input amounts tested, up t...

  13. Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

  14. Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauren Bitencourt, Deprá; Josiane Xavier de, Almeida; Taís de Morais Alves da, Cunha; Luis Filipe Siu, Lon; Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Orlando Motohiro, Tanaka.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da contaminação por saliva na resistência de união de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte com um compósito resinoso hidrofílico. MÉTODOS: oitenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20), de acordo com o material de colagem e a presença de [...] contaminação - G1) colagem com Transbond XT na ausência de contaminação; G2) colagem com Transbond XT na presença de contaminação; G3) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na ausência de contaminação; G4) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presença de contaminação. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão (MPa) foram G1 = 10,15 ± 3,75; G2 = 6,8 ± 2,54; G3 = 9,3 ± 3,36; G4 = 8,3 ± 2,95. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomínio do escore 0 e distribuição similar no G3. CONCLUSÃO: a contaminação por saliva reduziu a resistência de união no grupo que usou a resina hidrofóbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidrofílica Transbond Plus Color Change não foi influenciada pela contaminação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond [...] XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa) were: G1)10.15 ± 3.75; G2) 6.8 ± 2.54; G3) 9.3 ± 3.36; G4) 8.3 ± 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.

  15. Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ?l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ?g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously. (Auth.)

  16. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mesias, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

  17. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollar, Sherman

    2012-01-01

    Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

  18. Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children / Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana, Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio, Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal de, Souza; Fausto Medeiros, Mendes; José, Nicolau.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se alguns parâmetros da saliva total estimulada são influenciados pelo aumento do Índice de Massa Corporal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado com 90 escolares, de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 10 anos incompletos de Bragança Paulista, SP, formando três grupos: sobrepeso, obeso e co [...] ntrole. Avaliou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (P/E2) e a ingestão dietética pelo registro alimentar. Na saliva foram avaliados o fluxo, pH, capacidade tampão e concentrações de proteína, fósforo, cálcio, flúor, ácido siálico livre e total e atividade da peroxidase. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve maior consumo de energia e lipídios (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight [...] , obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free sialic acid, and peroxidase activity were determined. RESULTS: The overweight and obese groups showed greater energy and lipid intake (P

  19. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  20. TD magazine [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TD magazine covers the art and science of developing people and the systems in which they work to produce results. Its goals are to: provide useful, how-to information on current best practices through case studies, share new technologies and their applications, report emerging trends and address relevant and pivotal issues to the field.

  1. Science advances [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The online-only journal seeks to publish high-quality original research in the physical, life, environmental, mathematical, engineering, computer, and social sciences that has the potential to make significant advances in any relevant field.

  2. Procedia chemistry [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedia Chemistry covers conferences on all topics in Chemistry, such as: analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical biology, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry and physical chemistry.

  3. Schweizer Kernenergie [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home page of the Schweizerische Vereinigung für Atomenergie. Provides information and news from the nuclear power plants Beznau, Mühleberg, Gösgen and Leibstadt, as well as the radioactive waste depository Würenlingen (Zwilag).

  4. RISO [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Forskningscenter Risø, a government research institution under the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The searchable website provides information about the institute, its organization, activities, research projects; also links to its annual reports and other publications, gives contact information.

  5. Plant science [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on plant science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;

  6. Detección de arn de virus hepatitis c en la saliva de un grupo de pacientes con hepatitis c crónica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Luna; , De Guglielmo; M, Garassini; M, Perrone; M, Correnti.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Hepatitis C constituye un problema de salud pública y su transmisión está claramente asociada con la ruta parenteral. Sin embargo su agente causal, Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC), también ha sido aislado de otros fluidos incluyendo la saliva, aunque la relación existente entre VHC y la patología buca [...] l no está completamente dilucidada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con Hepatitis C crónica. En la presente investigación se evaluaron 24 pacientes provenientes del Departamento de Hepatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad Central de Venezuela, con infección por VHC. 5 ml de saliva no estimulada fue tomada de cada paciente. ARN-VHC fue detectada por la técnica de Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en cadena de la Polimerasa (TR-RCP). En 29%, (7/24) pacientes VHC+, se observó la presencia de ARN-VHC en saliva. En este estudio, observamos la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC. Es necesario realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala, para clarificar el significado biológico de la presencia de este agente viral en la saliva, incluyendo la potencial vía de transmisión por la exposición con este fluido. Abstract in english Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmisión is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids, including saliva, although the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. The aim of thi [...] s study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva from patients with chronic C hepatitis. In the present investigation 24 patients, attended at the Hepatology Department, at the the Clinical Hospital University, Central University of Venezuela, with HCV infection were evaluated . 5ml of unstimulated saliva were taken of each patient. Saliva HCV-RNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 29% (7/24) of HCV+ patients showed HCV-RNA in saliva. In this study, we observed the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients infected with HCV. Further large-scale epidemiological studies are required to clarify the clinical significance of HCV in the saliva, including the potencial for viral transmisión through exposure to these fluids.

  7. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

  8. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  9. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurdilovi? Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups. Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001 in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001, as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

  10. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

  11. Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except sodium studied in the diabetic group with periodontal disease in comparison to the non-diabetic groups without periodontal disease. It is concluded in this study these salivary parameters may be considered as a valuable aid in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

  12. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Surface Roughness of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Beresescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The glass ionomer cements are used clinically in different areas of restorative dentistry. The life span of dental restorations depends on the properties of the material such as durability, wear resistance and type of damage to the tooth. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of arficial saliva with different pH on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cements (GIC. The factors under study are three types of glass ionomer cements(one conventional glass ionomer cement, one resin modified glass ionomer and one polyacid-modified composite and artificial saliva at three different pHs (3, 7, 9. The association between GICs and storage media resulted in four groups. The analysis surface roughness was quantitatively carried out by means of a surface roughness measuring instrument (A Perthograph R100. The measurement procedure were repeated for 1, 7, 14, 28 days. No significant difference in surface roughness existed between distilled deionizer water and artificial saliva with pH 5 or 9. At 28 days, Ketac Molar was found to have suffered the greatest increase in surface roughness, after immersion in artificial saliva with pH3. As long as the material is being tolerated and protected by the dental structure, its resistance to abrasion will be satisfactory. All the materials have increasing trends of surface roughness as the immersion time increased.

  13. Saliva and oxidative stress in oral cavity and in some systemic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczko, P; Zalewska, A; Szarmach, I

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is a liquid environment of the oral ecosystem that to some extent reflects the local state of oral cavity or the general state of health of the human body. Since saliva reflects general health status of the human organism and is easy to collect, it can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In the present review the authors discuss and highlight the role of oxidant-antioxidant balance in the blood and saliva in human pathology. Particularly, the evaluation of oxidative stress status was proposed as an important factor in diagnosing the development and progress of such general diseases as periodontal disease, oral cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and HIV. Moreover, the tryptophan metabolites via kynurenine pathway measured in the plasma and saliva are proposed as new and sensitive markers of oxidative stress status. It is concluded that measurement of oxidative stress in salivary fluid may provide a tool for diagnosing, monitoring and treatment of some systemic diseases as well as of local pathologic disturbances (e.g. periodontal disease). PMID:25716960

  14. Monitoring of 125I in saliva of workers internally contaminated with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sum peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of 125I in saliva ranged 4.65 +- 2.1cBq (1.26 +- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +- 1.9cBq (5.62 +- 0.51pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +- 0.64) x 10-9 to (3.6 +- 0.073) x 10-8 and the average was (8.1 +- 1.1) x 10-9. The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 x 10-5 to 5.4 x 10-6. The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 ?Gy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 ?Gy (474mrad). Monitoring of 125I in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination. (author)

  15. Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author)

  16. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BelstrØm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Frequency and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of around 300 bacterial taxa/clusters in samples were used as parameters for investigation. Differences at taxon/cluster values between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort.

  17. Association between obesity, flow rate of whole saliva, and dental caries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modéer, Thomas; Blomberg, Cecilia C; Wondimu, Biniyam; Julihn, Annika; Marcus, Claude

    2010-12-01

    In a cross-sectional study design, we test the hypothesis whether childhood obesity is associated with reduced flow rate of stimulated whole saliva and dental caries. Obese adolescents (n = 65) with a mean age of 14.5 years and normal weight subjects (n = 65) with a mean age of 14.2 years were clinically examined with respect to dental caries, visible plaque accumulation (visible plaque index (VPI%)), gingival inflammation in terms of bleeding on probing (BOP%) as well as answered a questionnaire concerning medical history, medication, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits, and sociodemographic background. The flow rate of stimulated whole saliva (ml/min) was determined. BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and gender (BMI-sds). The obese subjects exhibited higher number of decayed surfaces (DS), 0.7 vs. 0.1 (P = 0.008) and lower flow rate of stimulated whole saliva 1.2 vs. 2.0 ml/min (P 25 and 21 had BOP% >25, both compared to only 5 subjects of the normal weight with P values of 0.005 and 0) (P = 0.002; OR 1.31) and the associations were not found to be confounded by any of the studied variables. The results indicate that childhood obesity is associated with reduced flow rate of stimulated whole saliva and dental caries and further strengthens obesity's negative effect on children's oral health. PMID:20339364

  18. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector - borne pathogens * vector - borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  19. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine. The median output of EGF in gastric juice was reduced from 45.6 pmol/12 h (total range 17.5-65.0) in unoperated controls to less than 0.06 pmol/12 h (total range less than 0.06-1.82) in rats given cysteamine after extirpation of the submandibular glands. The contents of EGF in the submandibular glands was unchanged during cysteamine treatment. Furthermore, the effects of intragastric instillation of exogenous EGF, infusion of saliva without EGF, and infusion of saliva with a high concentration of EGF on the development of cysteamine-induced gastric lesions were investigated in rats without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may be physiological.

  20. Endogenous ?-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in saliva determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Giorgia; Walker, Katrina M; Pounder, Derrick J

    2011-04-01

    Endogenous ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in blood and urine are well documented, but there are very little data on natural levels in saliva, a biological matrix increasingly used for drug testing. We measured endogenous GHB concentrations in 120 unpaid volunteers who also provided anonymous epidemiological data. Samples were analyzed using a rapid and reliable method, utilizing liquid-liquid extraction, silyl-derivatization, and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. One sample, between the lower limit of quantitation (0.2 mg/L) and limit of detection (0.1 mg/L), was split to 0.15 mg/L for statistical purposes. Salivary GHB concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 3.33 mg/L (mean = 1.29; median = 1.13). Statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney test indicated that endogenous GHB concentrations in saliva were not significantly affected by age, gender, medical conditions, use of medications, and recent food/drink consumption. Interpreting GHB concentrations in biological samples poses difficulties because of its endogenous presence and rapid elimination, and this is true for saliva as well as blood and urine. However, saliva has the merit of being easy to collect by law enforcement personnel. PMID:21439150

  1. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings. PMID:25780814

  2. Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children

    OpenAIRE

    Zahir S; Sarkar S

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements in mixed saliva. It was observed that Cu, Pb, Na showed significant variation in case of one surface as compared to caries free group. Between the non-caries and multiple caries group Cu, Pb, K showed no significant variation Zn showed highly significant variation.

  3. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zden?k; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  4. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

  5. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Results. Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons. PMID:23762825

  6. Tick saliva inhibits dendritic cell migration, maturation and function, while promoting development of Th2 responses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skallová, Anna; Iezzi, G.; Ampenberger, F.; Kopf, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 180, ?. 9 (2008), s. 6186-9192. ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : dendritic cell * tick saliva * Th2 * immune responses Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  7. Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha activity in Ixodes ricinus saliva.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koník, Peter; Slavíková, Veronika; Salát, Ji?í; ?ezní?ková, Jana; Dvorož?áková, E.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 28, ?. 12 (2006), s. 649-656. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick saliva * TNF Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2006

  8. Tick saliva suppresses IFN signalling in dendritic cells upon Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 34, ?. 1 (2012), s. 32-39. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cells * interferon signalling * tick saliva Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2012

  9. Studies on the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, D J; Makin, H L

    1983-03-28

    Saliva collected from volunteers of both sexes at various times throughout the day was examined for the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The method used was a specific high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure with a minimum detectable limit for 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 0.05 microgram/1, (130 pmol/1 for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) using 20 ml of saliva. No 25-hydroxyvitamin D could be detected in any of the samples. Examination of larger quantities of saliva (100 ml) by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a peak possibly derived from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, at a concentration not in excess of 65 pmol/l. Using known binding characteristics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and plasma vitamin D binding protein, and comparing them with similar characteristics for cortisol and plasma cortisol binding globulin and the known salivary concentration of cortisol, simple calculations indicated that a likely concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in saliva would be around 8 pmol/l. Previously reported values ranging from 130-4160 pmol/l (50-1600 micrograms/l) using a simple competitive protein binding assay could not be confirmed. PMID:6602013

  10. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 41, ?. 6 (2011), s. 591-594. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  11. Thickened Saliva after Effective Management of Drooling with Botulinum Toxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Corrie E.; van Hulst, Karen; van den Hoogen, Frank J. A.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Roeleveld, Nel; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Jongerius, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of saliva after submandibular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections. Method: We enrolled 15 children (11 males and six females; age range 3-17y, mean age 9y 10mo) diagnosed with spastic (n=9) or dyskinetic (n=6) quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP); Gross Motor Function…

  12. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno B., Andrade; Clarissa R., Teixeira; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A saliva de artrópodes hematófagos é rica em moléculas com funções diversas que mediam uma alimentação sangüínea bem sucedida. Estas moléculas agem não apenas como armas contra a resposta hemostática, inflamatória e imunológica do hospedeiro funcionando também como ferramentas para o estabelecimento [...] de patógenos. Parasitas, vírus e bactérias aproveitando-se deste arsenal dos vetores adaptaram-se facilitando seu estabelecimento no hospedeiro. Hoje, várias moléculas salivares foram identificadas e caracterizadas como novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de vacinas futuras. Neste trabalho, centramos em informação recente sobre a saliva de vetores e as moléculas responsáveis por modificar a resposta hemostática e imunológica assim como seu papel na transmissão de doenças. Abstract in english The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Paras [...] ites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  13. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  14. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Majem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information.

  15. The radionuclide salivagram for detecting the pulmonary aspiration of saliva in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radionuclide study is described utilizing a small volume of technetium 99m sulfur colloid to demonstrate the pulmonary aspiration of saliva. This is a possible cause of recurrent pulmonary infections even in patients off oral feeding. The salivagram is a useful technique to document these cases. (orig.)

  16. Non-coding RNAs in saliva: emerging biomarkers for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Reventós, Jaume; Wong, David T

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  17. Detection of hepatitis G virus (GB virus C) RNA in human saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M.; So?nnerborg, A.; Johansson, B.; Sa?llberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Using PCR and genomic sequencing, we confirmed the presence of and homology between hepatitis G virus (HGV) (also called GB virus C) RNA in six serum samples and that in two saliva samples obtained from 34 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections. Thus, HGV may be found outside the circulatory system.

  18. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 5, ?. 1 (2012), s. 229. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  19. Neutron activation analysis of saliva. Application in clinical chemistry, environmental and occupational toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of 21 chemical elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Zn) in mixed non-stimulated saliva of 52 relatively healthy people were assessed by activation using 14 MeV neutrons and nuclear reactor neutrons. The study included 45 women and 7 men, aged 18 to 35. the dependence of salivary compositions upon sex, age, time-of-day and time-of-year was studied. The saliva of 22 men, involved in the clean-up operation after the Chernobyl accident, was also studied. There existed clear circadian variations in the amount of Na, Sc and Cr contained in the saliva and a tendency to circadian variations for the amount of Cl, Co, Br and Rb. Neither sex, age, nor time-of-year influenced the contents of 21 chemical elements examined. The only exception to this finding was with Hg, whose content increases with age. the analysis of the cleaners' saliva made it possible to find considerable metabolic changes of Ca and some other chemical elements. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) Virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva

  1. Pharmacokinetic study of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Rouini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine following administration of 100 mg single oral dose were investigated in 24 healthy volunteers.Materials and Methods: 12 male and 12 female healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and Plasma, mixed saliva -secreted samples without any stimulation and urine were analyzed for Tramadol and its main metabolites by HPLC method.Results and Disscusion: Almost 16.2% of tramadol and 11.2, 1.1 and 5.0% of O-desmethyltramadol (M1, N-desmethyltramadol (M2 and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5 respectively were recovered in 30 hrs collected urine. Renal clearance of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 114.7 ± 44.5, 193.9 ± 67.6, 116.1 ± 61.8 and 252.0 ± 91.5 (mL/min respectively. The maximum plasma concentration of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 349.3 ± 76.7, 88.7±30.3, 23.1 ± 11.4 and 30.0 ± 11.7 (ng/mL at 1.6 ± 0.4, 2.4 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 1.0 and 2.7 ± 1.4 hrs after drug administration respectively. Tramadol and its metabolites appeared in a significant amount in saliva with the saliva/plasma ratios of 9.0, 1.6, 12.3 and 2.8 for tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 according to AUC(0-24 respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion Strong correlations were found between plasma and saliva concentrations for all studied compounds and a dissection to pre and post absorption components improved these correlations. Results o f this study suggests that saliva is a suitable alternative to plasma for clinical and toxicological studies of tramadol and in addition to passive diffusion, a possible active transport is also suggested to describe the elevated saliva/plasma ratios for these compounds.

  2. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

  3. Sandfly saliva of Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae as a possible marker for the transmission of Leishmania in Venezuela Andes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nieves , Y. Sánchez , H. Sánchez , M. Rondón, N. González & J. Carrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The saliva of the Phlebotominae is highly immunogenic to the vertebrate host and isa determining factor in the Leishmania infection. The aim of this work was to study the saliva of Lutzomyiaovallesi as a possible risk marker for the transmission of Leishmania.Methods: Two populations of L. ovallesi from different geographical areas and subjected to different environmentalconditions were compared by geometric morphometry of the wings, by protein profile analysis of salivary glandsand by assessing the presence of anti-saliva protein in human sera confronted with laboratory L. ovallesi saliva.Results: The results showed differences in the isometric size and structure of the wings but no allometric effects.Protein profiles of salivary glands of both the L. ovallesi populations studied were found to be similar, based on11 protein bands with molecular weights ranging from 16 to 99 kDa. Anti-saliva antibodies were present inhuman sera, but human sera infected and uninfected with leishmaniasis could not be differentiated.Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that the saliva of laboratory-reared L. ovallesi is representative ofthat of the wild population. It is suggested to study the presence of anti-saliva antibodies in other species ofsandflies and mosquitoes

  4. Detection of Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in the Saliva of Healthy Adults: Comparison with Blood Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Dillon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and cardiovascular disease are associated with elevated serum levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP and homocysteine. The presence of both molecules in saliva provides an opportunity for development of non-invasive assessments of disease risk. However, salivary CRP and homocysteine reference ranges and their correlation with serum levels are unknown. This study investigated if CRP and homocysteine could be routinely detected in the saliva of healthy adults and the relationship between salivary and blood levels. CRP and homocysteine concentrations were determined using ELISA and enzymatic assays respectively. Homocysteine was detected in only two saliva samples (n = 55. CRP was measurable in all saliva samples (range: 0.05 to 64.3 µg/L; median = 1.2 µg/L and plasma samples (range: 0.14 to 31.1 mg/L; median = 2.0 mg/L. Regression analysis demonstrated no relation- ship between CRP concentration in saliva and plasma (R2 = 0.001. Generalized linear models including variables such as saliva flow rate and time since eating or drinking also did not pass lack of fit testing. Therefore, a relationship between CRP concentration in saliva and blood could not be established in this group of subjects. More sensitive detection methods are needed to determine if a correlation between salivary and serum homocysteine levels exists.

  5. Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Aç?kgöz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100% of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; P<.001. This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

  6. Soluble HLA measurement in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid in Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Featherston Liubov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of soluble HLA in body fluids has a potential role in assessing disease activity in autoimmune disorders. Methods We applied a solid phase, enzyme-linked immunoassay to measure soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I and class II (sHLA-II molecules in the saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in 13 untreated patients with relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS. For comparison purposes, we also studied saliva from 53 healthy subjects. Results Saliva from normal controls had detectable sHLA-I levels in 41 of 53 individuals studied, with values ranging from 9–100 ng/ml (mean = 41 ± 2.8 ng/ml. sHLA-I was undetectable in the saliva in 11 of 13 MS patients, and in none of the CSF specimens. In contrast, mean sHLA-II concentration in the saliva of MS patients was significantly increased compared to controls (386 ± 52 unit/ml vs. 222 ± 18.4 unit/ml, t = 8.68, P Conclusion Our data suggest that the measurement of soluble HLA in saliva, specifically sHLA-II, correlates with the level found in the CSF. Therefore, if sHLA correlates with disease activity in MS, as has been proposed, saliva measurements provide a noninvasive correlate of CSF measurement.

  7. Effects of saliva or serum coating on adherence of Streptococcus oralis strains to titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkhan, Marjan; Chávez de Paz, Luis E; Skepö, Marie; Svensäter, Gunnel; Davies, Julia R

    2012-02-01

    The use of dental implants to treat tooth loss has increased rapidly over recent years. 'Smooth' implants showing high long-term success rates have successively been replaced by implants with rougher surfaces, designed to stimulate rapid osseointegration and promote tissue healing. If exposed in the oral cavity, rougher surfaces may promote bacterial adhesion leading to formation of microbial biofilms which can induce peri-implant inflammation. Streptococcus oralis is an early colonizer of oral surfaces and has been recovered from titanium surfaces in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence of clinical strains of S. oralis to titanium with smooth or moderately rough surface topography and to determine the effect of a saliva- or serum-derived coating on this process. Adherence was studied using a flow-cell system with confocal laser scanning microscopy, while putative adhesins were analysed using proteomics of bacterial cell wall proteins. This showed that adherence to moderately rough surfaces was greater than to smooth surfaces. Serum did not promote binding of any of the studied S. oralis strains to titanium, whereas a saliva coating increased adherence in two of three strains tested. The higher level of adherence to the moderately rough surfaces was maintained even in the presence of a saliva coating. The S. oralis strains that bound to saliva expressed an LPXTG-linked protein which was not present in the non-adherent strain. Thus strains of S. oralis differ in their capacity to bind to saliva-coated titanium and we propose that this is due to differential expression of a novel adhesin. PMID:22075030

  8. Influence of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of adhesives on enamel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Feres, Assad-Loss; Mônica, Tostes; José Nelson, Mucha.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength of 3 adhesive systems (Single Bond, TransbondTM MIP and TransbondTM XT) applied on bovine enamel under saliva contamination condition. METHOD: One hundred and twenty enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 20) according to the adh [...] esive system used (TransbondTM XT, TransbondTM MIP and Single Bond) with or without saliva contamination. For each adhesive system, there were two groups defined as no contamination group (NC): 37% H3PO4 conditioning for 30 seconds and two layers of adhesive systems; saliva contamination group (SC): After the first adhesive layer application, the examined areas were contaminated with saliva. Samples were mounted appropriately for testing and stored in deionized water at 37 ºC for 7 days. Samples were then submitted to shear bond strength trials at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated under stereomicroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to compare mean values (? = 0.05). RESULTS: Groups XT (NC) = 26.29 ± 7.23; MIP (NC) = 24.47 ± 7.52 and SB (NC) = 32.36 ± 4.14 XT (SC) = 19.59 ± 6.76; MIP (SC) = 18.08 ± 6.39 and SB (SC) = 18.18 ± 7.03 MPa. ARI 0 and 1 were the most prevalent scores in all study groups examined. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination significantly decreased bond strength of the three adhesive systems examined (p

  9. Effect of radiation therapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of blood and saliva in oral cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is reported to induce oxidative stress in oral cancer patients. Saliva as a diagnostic tool has received increasing attention in recent years. Saliva analysis is proposed to be a noninvasive, sensitive tool for the evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy in oral cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of radiation therapy on malondialdehyde, the marker of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity in blood and saliva of oral cancer patients. We also aimed to assess the correlation between blood and saliva with respect to malonaldehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Thirty, clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients visiting the Oncology Department were the subjects. Thirty age- and sex-matched normal, healthy controls were included. Blood and saliva samples were collected from controls, and from oral cancer patients before and after radiation therapy. The samples were analyzed for MDA and TAC by standard spectrophotometric methods. Oral cancer patients showed significantly higher MDA level and lower TAC in blood and saliva when compared to controls. One week after radiation therapy, there was significant increase in MDA and decrease in TAC in oral cancer patients. After the completion of radiation therapy of six weeks, MDA level decreased and TAC increased, restoring the values near-to-controls. The pattern of change in MDA and TAC was similar between blood and saliva. There was significant correlation between blere was significant correlation between blood and saliva with respect to MDA and TAC in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients showed increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capacity. After radiation therapy of one week, oxidative stress increased further, and after six weeks of radiation therapy there was amelioration of antioxidant status. Saliva could be a sensitive and convenient laboratory tool for diagnosis of oral cancer and evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion iharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF

  11. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211. HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes. Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94% anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4% had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

  12. Low hepatitis B prevalence among pre-school children in Denmark : saliva anti-HBc screening in day care centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Georgsen, JØrgen

    2002-01-01

    Although Denmark has a low hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, HBV transmission has been reported in Danish day-care centres. The aim of this study was to validate saliva anti-HBc testing as a method for HBV screening, the applicability of saliva sampling to pre-school children, and to determine the HBV prevalence in Danish day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrants. For validation, paired saliva and plasma samples were obtained from blood donors and injecting drug users. Employees and children in day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrant children were offered saliva screening followed by blood test if positive. The specificity and sensitivity of anti-HBc tests on saliva was 100% (102 blood donors and four injecting drug users) and 85.9% (61 of 71 anti-HBc-positive injecting drug users), respectively. In all samples from HBsAg (n = 7) or anti-HBc IgM-positives (n = 9), anti-HBc was detected in saliva. Adequate saliva samples were obtained from 93% (588/634) of children and 100% (166/166)of employees participating in the day-care centre survey. Among children 55% were of non-Scandinavian origin and only one (0.2%, 95% CI [0.0; 1.0]) was HBV positive. Among employees the corresponding values were 22% and 7 (4.2%). The positive predictive value of the saliva test was 25% (1/4) among children and 88% (7/8) among adults. In conclusion, saliva testing is feasible for HBV screening among children in low prevalence populations, but any anti-HBc reactivity should be confirmed by plasma analysis. The HBV prevalence in pre-school children in Denmark is low even among immigrants from endemic areas.

  13. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia L., Gonçalves; Carla B., Cunha; Solange C. U., Busek; Guilherme C., Oliveira; Rodrigo, Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL, Pereira.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 [...] x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211). HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes). Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94%) anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4%) had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma) was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

  14. Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell / Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell’s palsy patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto, Lazarini; Melissa Ferreira, Vianna; Mônica Porto Alves, Alcantara; Rodolfo Alexander, Scalia; Hélio Hehl, Caiaffa Filho.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persiste [...] ntes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR), diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante se comparado ao grupo controle, no qual não foi obtido nenhum caso de positividade. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a presença do HSV-1 na saliva de pacientes portadores de PFP de Bell indica que a reativação viral pode ser a etiologia desta doença. A detecção do vírus na saliva destes pacientes não influencia o prognóstico da doença. Abstract in english The first herpes virus to be described was types 1 and 2, whose denomination is herpes simplex 1 and 2 or HSV -1 and HSV -2. These viruses have specific biological characteristics, such as the ability to cause different kinds of diseases, as well as to establish host’s latent or persistent lifetime [...] infections and also of being reactivated, causing lesions that can be located at the same site of the initial primary infection or close to it. It is suggested that this virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be related to Bell’s palsy. In this situation, the viruses that would be latent in this ganglion, would suffer reactivation and replication, then be diffused through the facial nerve and its branches, among them the chorda tympani nerve, which by stimulating salivary secretion would enable the identification of the viral DNA in the patients’ saliva. Until recently, a great number of patients was diagnosed as holders of this kind of paralysis, named idiopathic or Bell’s palsy. With the introduction of the technique studying the viral DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), several authors have found herpes simplex virus type I DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in the lachrymal secretion, in the saliva and in the geniculate ganglia of patients with Bell’s palsy. AIM: observe the occurrence of herpes simplex type I virus using PCR technique in the saliva of patients with Bell’s palsy and relating it to the clinical evolution of these cases. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated 38 patients with Bell’s palsy submitted to anamnesis, clinical and ENT examination and saliva sampling for viral DNA detection by PCR technique. The control group was ten normal adults. RESULTS: We found posit

  15. Multimolecular Salivary Mucin Complex Is Altered in Saliva of Cigarette Smokers: Detection of Disulfide Bridges by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Motoe Taniguchi; Junko Iizuka; Yukari Murata; Yumi Ito; Mariko Iwamiya; Hiroshi Mori; Yukio Hirata; Yoshiharu Mukai; Yuko Mikuni-Takagaki

    2012-01-01

    Saliva contains mucins, which protect epithelial cells. We showed a smaller amount of salivary mucin, both MG1 and MG2, in the premenopausal female smokers than in their nonsmoking counterparts. Smokers' MG1, which contains almost 2% cysteine/half cystine in its amino acid residues, turned out to be chemically altered in the nonsmoker's saliva. The smaller acidic glycoprotein bands were detectable only in smoker's saliva in the range of 20–25?kDa and at 45?kDa, suggesting that degradati...

  16. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves; Carla B Cunha; Solange C. U. Busek; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV p...

  17. Fate of Free DNA and Transformation of the Oral Bacterium Streptococcus gordonii DL1 by Plasmid DNA in Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Derry K.; Scott, Karen P.; Bruce-johnson, Wendy A.; Glover, L. Anne; Flint, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Competitive PCR was used to monitor the survival of a 520-bp DNA target sequence from a recombinant plasmid, pVACMC1, after admixture of the plasmid with freshly sampled human saliva. The fraction of the target remaining amplifiable ranged from 40 to 65% after 10 min of exposure to saliva samples from five subjects and from 6 to 25% after 60 min of exposure. pVACMC1 plasmid DNA that had been exposed to degradation by fresh saliva was capable of transforming naturally competent Streptococcus g...

  18. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the saliva of patients with xerostomia induced by radiotherapy / Avaliação clínica e bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com xerostomia induzida por radioterapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássio de Barros, Pontes; Ana Cristina Morseli, Polizello; Augusto César Cropanese, Spadaro.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clínicos e algumas propriedades bioquímicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e após o tratamento radioterápico para câncer de cabeça e pescoço (grupo experimental) e de 21 pacientes sem câncer (grupo controle). O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessário (segun [...] dos) para produção estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente à utilização de um método colorimétrico simples. A concentração de proteína total salivar foi determinada pelo método de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada através dos açúcares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo método do ácido dinitrossalicílico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletroforético foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12%) para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de proteína. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, redução estatisticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Clinical aspects and biochemical properties in the saliva of 21 patients prior to and following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were evaluated (experimental group) and compared with the same properties in a control group of 21 subjects free of cancer. Salivary flow was evaluated by measuring t [...] he time necessary, in seconds, for the output of 2 ml of stimulated saliva; and the buffering capacity changes were determined using a simple colorimetric method. Total salivary protein concentration was determined by the Bradford4 method. Amylase activity was measured by reducing sugars released from a soluble starch substrate, quantified by the dinitrosalicylic method. The electrophoretic profile was evaluated in polyacrylamid gel (12% SDS-PAGE) using samples of 5 mg of salivary protein. A statistically significant reduction (p

  19. Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Yoshimura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos parâmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG, com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas.The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG parameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

  20. Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida / Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H. N., Yoshimura; M. M., Pinto; C. C., Gonzaga; P. F., Cesar.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos par [...] âmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG), com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas. Abstract in english The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) par [...] ameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility coefficient; a 50% increase in the predicted flexural strength for a lifetime of 1 year, a 5% decrease in superficial hardness. Similar fracture toughness values were determined for groups stored in air and in artificial saliva. The results indicated that, at least in the present study, storage of a dental porcelain in artificial saliva did not decrease the mechanical properties investigated and can even increase the flexural strength value and the resistance to slow crack growth phenomenon.

  1. Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva / Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.V., Madera Anaya.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión muestra los principales biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. El aspecto clínico y el grado de displasia de las lesiones precancerosas de la cavidad bucal sugieren su capacidad de malignidad; sin embargo, éstas generalmente son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados, disminuyendo la pr [...] obabilidad de supervivencia, lo que justifica el diseño de nuevas pruebas diagnósticas que determinen el grado de alteración celular, permitan comprender el proceso degenerativo en el cáncer y establezcan diagnósticos precoz. Esta búsqueda para mejorar los métodos diagnósticos, apunta a que sean sensibles, específicos y menos invasivos, por lo cual el estudio de diferentes biomarcadores en saliva que desde una perspectiva molecular proporcionan información adicional al examen clínico e histopatológico, es considerada como una alternativa eficaz y más cómoda con respecto a los ensayos en sangre. Los biomarcadores que se han descrito en saliva algunos mostrando mayor relación con la carcinogénesis oral son: Ciclina D1, cyfra 21-1, endotelina-1, galectinas 1, 3 y 7, Ki67, lactato deshidrogenasa, metaloproteinasas 2 y 9, proteína p53, proteína de unión a calcio (S100P) y telomerasa. Abstract in english This review shows the main oral cancer biomarkers in saliva. The clinical appearance and the degree of dysplasia, precancerous lesions of the oral cavity suggests its ability to malignancy, but these are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, decreasing the likelihood of survival, justifying the desi [...] gn of new diagnostic tests to determine the degree of cell alteration as to understand the degenerative process in cancer diagnosis and establish early. This search for improved diagnostic methods, aims to be sensitive, specific and less invasive, so the study of biomarkers in saliva from a molecular perspective provide additional information to clinical and histopathological examination is considered as a more comfortable and effective to establish a diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been described in saliva some showing more related to oral carcinogenesis are cyclin D1, Cyfra 21-1, Endothelin-1, Galectins 1, 3 and 7, Ki67, Lactate dehydrogenase, Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, p53 protein, protein calcium-binding (S100P) and Telomerase.

  2. Use of Saliva for assessment of Stress and Its Effect On the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Reid Lester (University of Mississippi Medical Center Periodontics and Preventive Sciences)

    2010-07-06

    This article describes a study investigating the effects of sequential tests on the immune system. The study was conducting on occupational therapy students via saliva. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

  3. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  4. XPS study of Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo dental alloys treated in artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Importance of the usage of non-allergic alloys Co-Cr-Mo relative to the more allergic Ni- Cr-Mo alloys well known in the field of biomedical science. The aim of the present study was to compare the surface layers by XPS (Al K? X-ray excited Photoelectron Spectroscopy) method from the point of view of corrosion and passivation of the mentioned alloys. Sample preparation were made in Bucharest in a NIPNE cooperation: Co-Cr- Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo discs of diameter of 8 mm with a thickness of about 1.3 mm were treated in artificial saliva solutions. XPS measurements were made in Debrecen in ATOMKI by a home made electron spectrometer based on a hemispherical analyzer in fixed retardation ratio mode using the retardation ratios of k=4 for survey scan and k=8 (k=Ekinetic/Epass) for more detailed narrow scan spectra. In this way the relative energy resolution was 0.125 % at k=4 and 0.0625 % at k=8, respectively. Survey and detailed XPS spectra were taken as a function of depth of a few times 10 nm measured from the top surface by the help of Ar+ ion etching (AG21 ion source, VG Microtech). Elemental composition and chemical states were studied. The angle of incidence of the ions were 40 degrees relative to the surface normal of the specimen to increase the ion sputtering yield and the same time to decrease the matrix effects caused by the ion beam, that is as much as possible to decrease the prefere much as possible to decrease the preferential sputtering. The data evaluation was made by a home-made computer software of EWA. The XPS peak components of different chemical states of Cr and the relative atomic concentrations of the different components (oxide and metal) were determined from the peak area of XPS using the Voight peak shape. The survey scan spectra showed not only the main components of the alloys, but the chemical components characteristic for the chemical treatment of the alloys, like Na, Cl, etc. The main conclusions are: the Cr was in the form of Cr3+ in the top surface. The metal to oxide ratios from Cr 2p XPS spectra vs. Ar+ etching for all the samples changed very much. The other two main components of the alloys, Co and Ni were in metallic form except in the as received spectra. As a function of the alloy composition and the saliva solution treatment (time, temperature, concentration of NaCl, etc.) the Cr-oxide layer thickness changed dramatically

  5. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Wong, David T; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a readily accessible and informative biofluid, making it ideal for the early detection of a wide range of diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases, viral and bacterial infections and, importantly, cancers. Saliva-based diagnostics, particularly those based on metabolomics technology, are emerging and offer a promising clinical strategy, characterizing the association between salivary analytes and a particular disease. Here, we conducted a comprehensive metab...

  6. DNA extracted from saliva for methylation studies of psychiatric traits: evidence tissue specificity and relatedness to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia K; Kilaru, Varun; Klengel, Torsten; Mercer, Kristina B; Bradley, Bekh; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has become increasingly recognized in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Because brain tissue is not accessible in living humans, epigenetic studies are most often conducted in blood. Saliva is often collected for genotyping studies but is rarely used to examine DNA methylation because the proportion of epithelial cells and leukocytes varies extensively between individuals. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether saliva DNA is informative for studies of psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) was assessed in saliva and blood samples from 64 adult African Americans. Analyses were conducted using linear regression adjusted for appropriate covariates, including estimated cellular proportions. DNA methylation from brain tissues (cerebellum, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus) was obtained from a publically available dataset. Saliva and blood methylation was clearly distinguishable though there was positive correlation overall. There was little correlation in CpG sites within relevant candidate genes. Correlated CpG sites were more likely to occur in areas of low CpG density (i.e., CpG shores and open seas). There was more variability in CpG sites from saliva than blood, which may reflect its heterogeneity. Finally, DNA methylation in saliva appeared more similar to patterns from each of the brain regions examined overall than methylation in blood. Thus, this study provides a framework for using DNA methylation from saliva and suggests that DNA methylation of saliva may offer distinct opportunities for epidemiological and longitudinal studies of psychiatric traits. PMID:25355443

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Saliva From Lung Cancer Patients Using Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry*

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Hui; Lee, Jay M; Garon, Edward B; Wong, David T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is often asymptomatic or causes only nonspecific symptoms in its early stages. Early detection represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing lung cancer burden. Human saliva is an attractive diagnostic fluid because its collection is less invasive than that of tissue or blood. Profiling of proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers indicative of oral or systematic diseases, which may be used extensively in fu...

  8. The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre Bartolomé; Theorell Töres; Alderling Magnus; Lundberg Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were ...

  9. Hypogalactosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of gingival fluid and saliva at the patient with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovi? Gordana; ?iri? Dragana; Ili? Vesna; Brajovi? Gavrilo; Petrovi? Sonja; Miloševi? Dragan; Miloševi?-Jov?i? Nadežda

    2006-01-01

    Changed glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), above all, the expression of thermal galactose, influence to numerous functions of those immunoglobulin and correlate with the inflammatory level in a number of diseases. Aim: This work analyses the distribution of IgG subclasses and the content of thermal galactose in them, in saliva and gingival fluid of the patients with periodontal disease and different gum inflammatory level. Materials and methods: It was used saliva and gingival fluid of ...

  10. Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spec...

  11. The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito saliva is associated with modulation of the host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Bradley S.; Higgs, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses have emerged as a major human health concern. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are the cause of the most serious and widespread arbovirus diseases worldwide and are ubiquitous in both feral and urban settings. Arboviruses, including dengue and West Nile virus are injected into vertebrates within mosquito saliva during mosquito feeding. Mosquito saliva contains anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that facilitate the acquisition of a blood...

  12. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  13. Detection of tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein in exosome-like microvesicles from blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

  14. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peacocke Julia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4?M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20 and HIV positive (n=20 donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay.

  15. Oxidative stress assessed in saliva from patients whit acute myocardial infarction: A preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María C, Rubio; Paula M, González; Cecilia, Ramos; Pablo G, Lewin; Silvia M, Friedman; Susana, Puntarulo; Liliana N, Nicolosi.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia que permite establecer una asociacion entre la generacion de especies reactivas del oxigeno y el dano tisular en el sindrome coronario agudo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar en saliva de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), la presencia de reactantes de estres ox [...] idativo a las 24 y 48 horas. Materiales y metodos: se efectuo un estudio prospectivo de comparacion entre pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma y sujetos sin patologia clinica evidente. La produccion de especies reactivas de oxigeno fue evaluada mediante la tasa de oxidacion de la 2'7' diacetato de diclorohidrofluoreceina (DCFH-DA) y la actividad antioxidante de la enzima catalasa (CAT) en saliva de pacientes con IAM a las 24 y 48 h de producido el sindrome coronario agudo. Simultaneamente, se determinaron en suero los biomarcadores diagnosticos de IAM. Resultados: se incorporaron 10 pacientes con IAM con supradesnivel del ST que fueron comparados con 10 sujetos del grupo control. La edad promedio fue 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs 48.7 ?} 4.1 anos, respectivamente (p0.05). La media de la velocidad de oxidacion de la DCFH-DA fue mayor a las 24 h en los pacientes con IAM (p=0.004). Estas diferencias se mantuvieron a las 48 h del infarto sin cambios significativos. No se encontraron diferencias en las medias de actividad de la enzima catalasa entre IAM y control (p>0.05). Se encontro una relacion entre CAT48 y DCFH-DA48 (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusiones: En esta poblacion se han detectado reactantes de estres oxidativo en saliva de pacientes con IAM. Relevancia clinica: nuevos estudios con mayor numero de casos seran necesarios para confirmar estas observaciones y evaluar la utilidad de la saliva en el diagnostico, evolucion y pronostico del sindrome coronario agudo. Abstract in english There is evidence that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increasing production of reactive oxygen species and tissue injury. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oxidative stress indices in saliva 24 and 48h after AMI. Materials and methods: We designed a prospectiv [...] e study comparing salivary levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with AMI with elevation of the ST segment in electrocardiogram versus clinically healthy subjects. Oxidative stress indices including the rate of oxidation of 2'7' dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were evaluated in saliva from patients with AMI at 24 and 48 hours. At each sampling time, blood was drawn for serum markers of myocardial infarction. Results: This study included ten patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and ten clinically healthy controls. Mean age was 67.8 ?} 11.1 vs. 48.7 ?} 4.1 years (p0.05) for AMI vs. controls, respectively. Our results demonstrated an increase in the rate of oxidation of DCFH-DA in the myocardial infarction group as compared with controls (p=0.004), which remained unchanged at 48h. There was no difference in salivary catalase activity between controls and AMI subjects at 24h or at 48h post-diagnosis (p=0.157). The relationship between CAT48 and DCFH-DA48 was fairly significant (r=0.39; p=0.053). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that biomarkers of oxidative stress are detectable in saliva of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clinical Relevance: Future studies using a larger population are needed to confirm these observations and to explore the possibility of using the saliva to monitor evolving diagnosis and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome.

  16. DNA identification of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in human saliva from a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Corvalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report the amplification of the DNA of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, using polymerase chain reaction, obtained from the saliva of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis who did not present any lesion in the oral mucosa. Amplification produced fragments of 103 bp, an estimated size employing Leishmania (V. braziliensis primers (b1 e b2. The present results revealed, for the first time, that the in vitro amplification of Leishmania DNA using samples from the salivary fluid of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis is possible. However, more studies are required with a larger number of participants to evaluate the usefulness of saliva as a non-invasive sample for PCR. The development of such non-invasive technique is necessary for the diagnosis of many diseases in the future, especially infectious and parasitic ones.

  17. DNA identification of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in human saliva from a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FH, Corvalan; RNR, Sampaio; YM, Brustoloni; R, Andreotti; MSC, Lima Júnior.

    Full Text Available This study aims to report the amplification of the DNA of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, using polymerase chain reaction, obtained from the saliva of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis who did not present any lesion in the oral mucosa. Amplification produced fragments of 103 bp, an estim [...] ated size employing Leishmania (V.) braziliensis primers (b1 e b2). The present results revealed, for the first time, that the in vitro amplification of Leishmania DNA using samples from the salivary fluid of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis is possible. However, more studies are required with a larger number of participants to evaluate the usefulness of saliva as a non-invasive sample for PCR. The development of such non-invasive technique is necessary for the diagnosis of many diseases in the future, especially infectious and parasitic ones.

  18. Bubaline Progesterone Concentrations in Serum, Fore-milk and Saliva During Different Phases of Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Qureshi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay technique was used to determine the concentrations of progesterone in serum, fore-milk and saliva of 40 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during pro-oestrus, oestrus, met-oestrus and di-oestrus. Progesterone concentrations during oestrus were uniformly lower in all experimental body fluids; the highest concentrations were found during the mid luteal phase. Although the hormonal trend was similar but salivary progesterone concentrations in general were lower during all phases of oestrus cycle. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of progesterone in serum with those of fore-milk (r= 0.82 (P< 0.01 and saliva (r= 0.75 (P< 0.01.

  19. Evaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males using mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Samak, Mahmoud; Aljaberi, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The biochemical status in the saliva of 12 males before/after using mobile phone has been evaluated. Radio frequency signals of 1800 MHz (continuous wave transmission, 217?Hz modulate and Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM - non-DTX]) with 1.09 w/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) value were used for 15 and 30?min. Cell phone radiation induced a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD); there was a statistically significant effect of talking time on the levels of SOD, F(2, 33)?=?8.084, p?cells as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva of cell phone users. PMID:24499288

  20. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakour, H., E-mail: fakour.h@gmail.com [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili-Sari, A. [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zayeri, F. [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences and Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean {+-} SD age of these women was 29.37 {+-} 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean {+-} SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 {+-} 1.38 {mu}g/g in hair and 4.14 {+-} 4.08 {mu}g/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's {rho} = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's {rho} = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  1. Detection of somatic mutations and HPV in the saliva and plasma of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Springer, Simeon; Mulvey, Carolyn L; Silliman, Natalie; Schaefer, Joy; Sausen, Mark; James, Nathan; Rettig, Eleni M; Guo, Theresa; Pickering, Curtis R; Bishop, Justin A; Chung, Christine H; Califano, Joseph A; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole; Gourin, Christine G; Ha, Patrick K; Kang, Hyunseok; Kiess, Ana; Koch, Wayne M; Myers, Jeffrey N; Quon, Harry; Richmon, Jeremy D; Sidransky, David; Tufano, Ralph P; Westra, William H; Bettegowda, Chetan; Diaz, Luis A; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Agrawal, Nishant

    2015-06-24

    To explore the potential of tumor-specific DNA as a biomarker for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we queried DNA from saliva or plasma of 93 HNSCC patients. We searched for somatic mutations or human papillomavirus genes, collectively referred to as tumor DNA. When both plasma and saliva were tested, tumor DNA was detected in 96% of 47 patients. The fractions of patients with detectable tumor DNA in early- and late-stage disease were 100% (n = 10) and 95% (n = 37), respectively. When segregated by site, tumor DNA was detected in 100% (n = 15), 91% (n = 22), 100% (n = 7), and 100% (n = 3) of patients with tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx, respectively. In saliva, tumor DNA was found in 100% of patients with oral cavity cancers and in 47 to 70% of patients with cancers of the other sites. In plasma, tumor DNA was found in 80% of patients with oral cavity cancers, and in 86 to 100% of patients with cancers of the other sites. Thus, saliva is preferentially enriched for tumor DNA from the oral cavity, whereas plasma is preferentially enriched for tumor DNA from the other sites. Tumor DNA in saliva was found postsurgically in three patients before clinical diagnosis of recurrence, but in none of the five patients without recurrence. Tumor DNA in the saliva and plasma appears to be a potentially valuable biomarker for detection of HNSCC. PMID:26109104

  2. Is saliva a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure? A case-control study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Saha, Debasree; Iglesias, Mònica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2013-04-01

    Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (?g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure. PMID:23461267

  3. Nucleosides Present on Phlebotomine Saliva Induce Immunossuppression and Promote the Infection Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Vanessa; Ribeiro, José M.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Souza-Júnior, Djalma L.; Costa, Diego L.; Oliveira, Carlo J. F.; Sacramento, Laís A.; Nascimento, Manuela S. L.; Milanezi, Cristiane M.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Silva, João S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva plays a crucial role in establishing Leishmania infection. We identified adenosine (ADO) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as active pharmacologic compounds present in Phlebotomus papatasi saliva that inhibit dendritic cell (DC) functions through a PGE2/IL 10-dependent mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we prepared a mixture of ADO and AMP in equimolar amounts similar to those present in the salivary-gland extract (SGE) form one pair of salivary glands of P. papatasi and co-injected it with Leishmania amazonensis or L. major into mouse ears. ADO+AMP mimicked exacerbative effects of P. papatasi saliva in leishmaniasis, increasing parasite burden and cutaneous lesions. Enzymatic catabolism of salivary nucleosides reversed the SGE-induced immunosuppressive effect associated with IL-10 enhancement. Immunosuppressive factors COX2 and IL-10 were upregulated and failed to enhance ear lesion and parasite burden in IL 10-/- infected mice. Furthermore, nucleosides increased regulatory T cell (Treg) marker expression on CD4+CD25- cells, suggesting induction of Tregs on effector T cells (T eff). Treg induction (iTreg) was associated with nucleoside-induced tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) expressing higher levels of COX2 and IL-10. In vitro generation of Tregs was more efficient in DCs treated with nucleosides. Suppressive effects of nucleosides during cutaneous leishmaniasis were mediated through an A2AR-dependent mechanism. Using BALB/c mice deficient in A2A ADO receptor (A2AR–/–), we showed that co-inoculated mice controlled infection, displaying lower parasite numbers at infection sites and reduced iTreg generation. Conclusion/Significance We have demonstrated that ADO and AMP in P. papatasi saliva mediate exacerbative effects of Leishmania infection by acting preferentially on DCs promoting a tolerogenic profile in DCs and by generating iTregs in inflammatory foci through an A2AR mechanism. PMID:25849562

  4. [Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of immunosuppressed patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, A; Fauconnier, B

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to isolate Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) from the saliva of patients submitted to immunosuppressive drugs after renal transplantation were undertaken in the early part of the week following the graft. Results showed that the virus constantly appeared in the salvia of patients with serological positive tests to HSV. The presence of HSV was generally detected a few days before the appearance of the clinical disease. PMID:177930

  5. Radioimmunoassay for the determination of alosetron in human urine and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the sub-ng ml-1 determination of alosetron, a potent and selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in human urine and saliva is described. The antiserum was raised in Soay sheep following primary and booster immunizations with an immunogen prepared by conjugating alosetron-p-azobenzoic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The radioligand consisted of alosetron specifically 125-iodinated on the 2-position of the imidazole group. (Author)

  6. Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, J.; Lipoldová, Marie; Volf, P.; Rohoušová, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2009), s. 766-770. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021620828; GA ?R(CZ) GP206/06/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti-saliva IgG * cellular response * Phlebotomus sergenti Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2009

  7. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  8. Relationship between Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate and Saliva Composition of Healthy Children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva is one of the most important factors in regulating oral health, withflow rate and composition changing throughout development and during disease.In view of the shortage of data, the present study aimed to shed light onthe relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and saliva compositionof healthy children in Taiwan.Methods: Forty-four normal, healthy children from 3-14 years of age were divided intothree age groups: pre-school, elementary school and junior-high school. Allparticipants received salivary flow rate, pH and saliva composition analysisunder unstimulated conditions. One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlationwere used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.Results: Our results suggest that, under unstimulated conditions, the salivary flow rateof the elementary school group was greater than that of the pre-school group(p < 0.05. No difference in pH was found among the three groups. Intergroupsalivary calcium, phosphorus and amylase did not reach statistical difference.As the flow rate increased, the pH increased (r = 0.364, p < 0.05but the protein level decreased (r = –0.473, p < 0.05. In addition, salivaryprotein was positively correlated to age (r = 0.479, p < 0.05 and negativelycorrelated to pH (r = –0.361, p < 0.01.Conclusion: Age-related increase in the unstimulated salivary flow rate of pre-school andelementary school groups was noted. As the flow rate increased, the pHincreased but the protein level decreased. The information obtained mayserve as reference values for the growing interest in saliva as a diagnostictool, especially monitoring those with neurological or oral motor dysfunction.

  9. Differential saliva-induced breakdown of starch filled protein gels in relation to sensory perception

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, A.M.; Pijpekamp, A.M., van de; Labiausse, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the differential breakdown of protein gels containing four types of high and low cross-linked starch granules were studied. Susceptibility to saliva-induced breakdown of starch granules and the consequences of these for overall breakdown of the gel matrix were captured using a multiple extrusion cell (MEC). Gels filled with two types of starch were used for sensorial evaluation by a QDA panel and the mechanical impact of the starch granules on these latter gels was characterize...

  10. Action of mouthwashes on Staphylococcus spp: isolated in the saliva of community and hospitalized individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Andrade; Paula Regina de Souza; Carolina Contador Beraldo; Evandro Watanabe; Mery Elen Lima; Vanderlei José Haas

    2009-01-01

    The use of mouthwashes in critical patients has been a source of concern for health professionals due to the diverse range of products, causing uncertainty about which is the most indicated. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolated in the saliva of individuals from the community and patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) as to antiseptic mouthwashes. The following oral antiseptics were assessed: cetylpyridinium chloride solution, Listerine® and Neen®. Ca...

  11. Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos; Antônio Eduardo Sparça, Salles; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Cláudia Helena da, Silva-Lovato; Valéria Oliveira, Pagnano; Evandro, Watanabe.

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou os níveis de biofilme em próteses totais maxilares e mandibulares, e analisou o número de unidades formadoras de colônias de leveduras, após o uso de agentes auxiliares da escovação e saliva artificial. Vinte e três usuários de próteses totais com hipossalivação e xerostomia for [...] am orientados a escovar as dentaduras 3 vezes ao dia durante 3 semanas com os seguintes produtos: Corega Brite (dentifrício para prótese), sabonete líquido neutro, Corega Brite associado com o uso do Oral Balance (saliva artificial) ou água de torneira. Para a quantificação do biofilme, as superfícies internas das próteses totais foram evidenciadas, fotografadas e o biofilme quantificado com o auxílio de um software. Para a análise microbiológica, o biofilme foi removido por escovação, coletado, diluído, semeado em meio seletivo CHROMagar™ Candida e incubado a 37°C por 48?h. A análise de variância para dois fatores (p Abstract in english This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to br [...] ush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48?h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p

  12. Blood group lewis phenotype on erythrocytes and in saliva in alcoholic pancreatitis and chronic liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Stigendal, L.; Olsson, R.; Rydberg, L.; Samuelsson, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The distributions of ABO, rhesus, and Lewis blood group antigens were studied in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic pancreatitis, chronic active hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. There were no differences in frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood group antigens between the groups or in comparison with a control group of blood donors. Lewis phenotype Le (a- b-), however, was more common on erythrocytes than in saliva in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic pancreatitis, ...

  13. The Glossina morsitans tsetse fly saliva: general characteristics and identification of novel salivary proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Den Abbeele, J.; Caljon, G.; Dierick, J. F.; Moens, L.; Ridder, K.; Coosemans, M.

    2007-01-01

    The tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that transmits different human-pathogenic and livestock threatening trypanosome species in Africa. To obtain more insight in the tsetse salivary function, some general aspects of the tsetse fly saliva and its composition were studied. Direct pH and protein content measurements revealed a moderately alkaline (pH approximately 8.0) salivary environment with approximately 4.3 microg soluble proteins per gland and a constant repre...

  14. Comparison of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles from Sheep and Goat Parotid Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Lamy, E.; Da Costa, G.; Capela E Silva, Fernando; Potes, J. C.; Coelho, A. V.; Sales Baptista, E.

    2008-01-01

    Saliva provides a medium for short-term adaptation to changes in diet composition, namely, the presence of plant secondary metabolites. Salivary proteins have biological functions that have particular influence on oral homeostasis, taste, and digestive function. Some salivary proteins, such as proline-rich proteins, are present in browsers but absent in grazers. Despite the significance of salivary proteins, their expression patterns in many herbivores are unknown. We investigated the sodium ...

  15. Saliva cortisol and exposure to aircraft noise in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    VIGNA TAGLIANTI, Federica

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. METHOD: A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgr...

  16. Cortisol en saliva, orina y heces: evaluación no invasiva en mamíferos silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce Ma. Brousset Hern\\u00E1ndez-J\\u00E1uregui; Francisco Galindo Maldonado; Ricardo A. Valdez P\\u00E9rez; Marta Romano Pardo; Aline Schuneman de Aluja

    2005-01-01

    La evaluación de glucocorticoides a partir de muestras obtenidas en forma no invasiva ha abierto la posibilidad de llevar a cabo estas determinaciones en las especies de mamíferos silvestres, lo cual ha facilitado los estudios sobre estrés y el impacto de diferentes estímulos. Una proporción de las hormonas esteroides puede aparecer en la saliva y todas se metabolizan para ser eliminadas a través de la orina y las heces. Los metabolitos que aparecen en la orina son generalmente...

  17. Biochemical evaluation in human saliva with special reference to ovulation detection

    OpenAIRE

    Alagendran S; Archunan G; Prabhu S; Orozco B; Guzman Rosalinda

    2010-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of salivary sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans with reference to salivary hormones during the normal menstrual cycle. Settings and Design: Fifty women volunteers were selected for the present study. Materials and Methods : Saliva was collected from 50 women and ovulation was detected in women with normal menstrual cycles through basal body temperature (BBT), ultrasound and salivary ferning. Samples were divided into five cate...

  18. Detection of Fatty Acids Profile in Human Saliva with Special Reference to Ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    SUBBARAYALU ALAGENDRAN; Archunan, G.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Rengarajan, R. L.; Fernandez, G.; Guzman, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    Human saliva was analyzed by Gas-Chromatography (GC) for fatty acids study throughout menstrual cycle. Thefatty acid profiles from preovulatory, ovulatory and postovulatory phase’s sample were compared to establishany qualitative and quantitative differences that might have potential value in detection of ovulation in women.In the present study, 17 different types of fatty acids were identified. The fatty acids resembling as Oleic acid,Palmitic acid and acetic acid were comparatively higher...

  19. Tumor-suppressor Gene Promoter Hypermethylation in Saliva of Head and Neck Cancer Patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry A Ovchinnikov; Matthew A. Cooper; Pandit, Pratibala; Coman, William B.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Keith, Patricia; Wolvetang, Ernst J.; Slowey, Paul D; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for a bulk of the oral and laryngeal cancers, the majority (70%) of which are associated with smoking and excessive drinking, major known risk factors for the development of HNSCC. In contrast to reports that suggest an inverse relationship between smoking and global DNA CpG methylation, hypermethylation of promoters of a number of genes was detected in saliva collected from patients with HNSCC. Using a sensitive methylation-specific poly...

  20. rK39 Antigen for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Using Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Vaish, Manisha; Singh, Om Prakash; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    The rK39 rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) is now being widely used in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using serum. We evaluated the presence of anti-rK-39 antibody in human saliva being noninvasive to replace the invasive procedures of diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ICT assays were performed in 300 subjects: 114-confirmed VL patients, 95 and 47 healthy controls from endemic and nonendemic regions, respectively, and 44 subjects with different diseas...

  1. Saliva as a medium for aldosterone measurement in repeated sampling studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mulatero, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saliva is a readily available biological fluid, making it convenient in diagnosis of diseases and in multi-sampling protocols. Several salivary steroids give a useful index of free plasma levels. Increased incidence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in approximately 10% of the hypertensive population has increased interest in the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. METHODS: A biotinylated-aldosterone tracer and a commercially available antibody are used in a time-resolved fluorescence ...

  2. Analysis of protein compounds in old persons whole saliva with parodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mukovi? Silvija; Zeli? Obrad; An?elski Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the protein composition of whole saliva in 50 year-old patients an d older with manifested and terminal stages of periodontal disease, in correlation with control group of young healthy persons. Experimental and control group consisted of 30 patients. The periodontal status was determinate by using appropriate periodontal index (Sillness-Loe). Investigations were led by electrophoretic method on aragose gel which was used as a routine method for inves...

  3. Diabetes-related molecular signatures in infrared spectra of human saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Scott David A; Renaud Diane E; Krishnasamy Sathya; Meriç Pinar; Buduneli Nurcan; Çetinkalp ?vetki; Liu Kan-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an ongoing need for improvements in non-invasive, point-of-care tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes mellitus. Ideally, such technologies would allow for community screening. Methods In this study, we employed infrared spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool in the prediction of diabetic status by analyzing the molecular and sub-molecular spectral signatures of saliva collected from subjects with diabetes (n = 39) and healthy controls (n = 22). Result...

  4. Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci

    2012-01-01

    Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron defici...

  5. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor gene associated with resistance to lactamic agents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ludmila Coutinho, MORAES; Clarissa Cavalcanti, FATTURI-PAROLO; Maria Beatriz Cardoso, FERREIRA; Marcus Vinicius Reis, SÓ; Francisco, MONTAGNER.

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the presence of Prevotella strains and genes associated with resistance to lactamics in different oral niches from patients with/without primary endodontic infections. Saliva (S) and supragingival biofilm (SB) were collected from three patient groups: Group I – no endod [...] ontic infection (n = 15); Group II – acute endodontic infection (n = 12); and Group III – chronic endodontic infection (n = 15). Root canal (RC) samples were collected from Groups II and III. The presence of P. intermedia, P nigrescens, P. tannerae and cfxA/cfxA2 gene was assessed by PCR. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected in all environments within the same patient. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was present in 23.81% of S samples, 28.57% of SB samples, and 7.41% of RC samples. Prevotella species were detected in 53.97%, 47.62% and 34.56% of the S, SB, and RC samples, respectively. P. intermedia had a high frequency in saliva samples from Group 3. Saliva samples from Group 1 had higher detection rates of P. nigrescens than did Groups 2 and 3. Patients without endodontic disease had high frequencies of P. nigrescens in the SB samples. The presence or absence of spontaneous symptoms was not related to the detection rates for resistance genes in the RC samples. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor resistant bacteria. The presence of symptomatology did not increase the presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in the supragingival biofilm and inside root canals.

  6. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, Jenny Ancca; Richards, Jean; Rath, Bruno; Machaca, Victor Quispe; Castro, Yagahira E.; Málaga, Edith S.; Levy, Katelyn; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; VERASTEGUI, MANUELA; Levy, Michael Z

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide-impregnated nets can kill triatomine bugs, but it remains unclear whether they can protect against Chagas disease transmission. In a field trial in Quequeña, Peru, sentinel guinea pigs placed in intervention enclosures covered by deltamethrin-treated nets showed significantly lower antibody responses to saliva of Triatoma infestans compared with animals placed in pre-existing control enclosures. Our results strongly suggest that insecticide-treated nets prevent triatomine bites an...

  7. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Bruno B.; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Aldina Barral; Manoel Barral-Netto

    2005-01-01

    The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targe...

  8. Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mo?nica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

  9. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease

  10. Cotton fabric-based electrochemical device for lactate measurement in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Radha S P; Chua, K Y; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Córcoles, Emma P

    2014-06-21

    Lactate measurement is vital in clinical diagnostics especially among trauma and sepsis patients. In recent years, it has been shown that saliva samples are an excellent applicable alternative for non-invasive measurement of lactate. In this study, we describe a method for the determination of lactate concentration in saliva samples by using a simple and low-cost cotton fabric-based electrochemical device (FED). The device was fabricated using template method for patterning the electrodes and wax-patterning technique for creating the sample placement/reaction zone. Lactate oxidase (LOx) enzyme was immobilised at the reaction zone using a simple entrapment method. The LOx enzymatic reaction product, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured using chronoamperometric measurements at the optimal detection potential (-0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl), in which the device exhibited a linear working range between 0.1 to 5 mM, sensitivity (slope) of 0.3169 ?A mM(-1) and detection limit of 0.3 mM. The low detection limit and wide linear range were suitable to measure salivary lactate (SL) concentration, thus saliva samples obtained under fasting conditions and after meals were evaluated using the FED. The measured SL varied among subjects and increased after meals randomly. The proposed device provides a suitable analytical alternative for rapid and non-invasive determination of lactate in saliva samples. The device can also be adapted to a variety of other assays that requires simplicity, low-cost, portability and flexibility. PMID:24776756

  11. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na131I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 131I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na131I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  12. Alternative recruitment strategies influence saliva sample return rates in community-based genetic association studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutta, Mf; Hobson, L.; Lambie, J.; Scaman, Esh; Burton, Mj; Giele, H.; Jamieson, Se; Furniss, D.

    2013-01-01

    Collection of saliva for DNA extraction has created new opportunities to recruit participants from the community for genetic association studies. However, sample return rates are variable. No prior study has specifically addressed how study design impacts sample return. Using data from three large-scale genetic association studies we compared recruitment strategy and sample return rates. We found highly significant differences in sample return rates between the studies. In studies that recrui...

  13. Influência da mucina no mecanismo de corrosão de uma amálgama dentária em saliva artificial / Influence of mucin on the corrosion mechanism of dental amalgams in artificial saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Carvalho; Christopher M. A., Brett.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a influência da adsorção da proteína mucina nas propriedades de superfície e na corrosão da amálgama dentária rica em cobre Tytin®. Diferentes concentrações da mucina, numa solução de saliva artificial inorgânica, de alta concentração iónica, foram estudadas para tempos de [...] imersão de 4 horas e tempos de imersão mais longos até 96 horas. As técnicas utilizadas foram de potencial em circuito aberto e a sua variação com o tempo, curvas de polarização e espectroscopia de impedância electroquímica. Verificou-se a adsorção da mucina na superfície da amálgama assim como o seu papel na prevenção da formação de uma camada de óxido passivo. Abstract in english In this work the influence of adsorption of mucin protein on the surface properties and on the corrosion behaviour of the high-copper dental amalgam Tytin® has been studied. Different concentrations of mucin, in a solution of an inorganic, artificial saliva of high ionic concentration, were studied [...] for immersion times of 4 hours and for longer immersion times up to 96 hours. Techniques used were open circuit potential and its variation with time, polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidence was found for the adsorption of mucin on the amalgam surface and also for its role in the prevention of the formation of a passive oxide layer.

  14. Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023

  15. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  16. Proteomic identification of host and parasite biomarkers in saliva from patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Honglei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria cases attributed to Plasmodium falciparum account for approximately 600,000 deaths yearly, mainly in African children. The gold standard method to diagnose malaria requires the visualization of the parasite in blood. The role of non-invasive diagnostic methods to diagnose malaria remains unclear. Methods A protocol was optimized to deplete highly abundant proteins from saliva to improve the dynamic range of the proteins identified and assess their suitability as candidate biomarkers of malaria infection. A starch-based amylase depletion strategy was used in combination with four different lectins to deplete glycoproteins (Concanavalin A and Aleuria aurantia for N-linked glycoproteins; jacalin and peanut agglutinin for O-linked glycoproteins. A proteomic analysis of depleted saliva samples was performed in 17 children with fever and a positive–malaria slide and compared with that of 17 malaria-negative children with fever. Results The proteomic signature of malaria-positive patients revealed a strong up-regulation of erythrocyte-derived and inflammatory proteins. Three P. falciparum proteins, PFL0480w, PF08_0054 and PFI0875w, were identified in malaria patients and not in controls. Aleuria aurantia and jacalin showed the best results for parasite protein identification. Conclusions This study shows that saliva is a suitable clinical specimen for biomarker discovery. Parasite proteins and several potential biomarkers were identified in patients with malaria but not in patients with other causes of fever. The diagnostic performance of these markers should be addressed prospectively.

  17. [Dynamics of radon decay product activity in saliva following therapeutic radon exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenbach, A; Just, G; Kleinschmidt, J

    2000-08-01

    Radon decay product activity was measured in saliva of 10 male patients 20-30 min after a 1-hour radon exposure in the gallery of the Gasteiner Heilstollen (radon activity 36.2 kBq/m(3), radon progeny activity 20.3 kBq/m(3)). In 1 patient showing relatively high activity (75th percentile) measurements were continued until 65 min after exposure. Patients were asked to collect about 2 ml of saliva in the mouth and produce it on a filter. After drying the filter at 300 degrees C, radon progeny activity was measured. Activity (median) at 20-30 min after leaving the treatment area was 4.5 Bq (25th percentile 1 Bq; 75th percentile 21 Bq). In the patient who underwent additional measurements the activity showed a further increase up to 29 Bq (35 min after radon exposure) before it continuously decreased to a very low activity (1-3 Bq) at 65 min after exposure. The results show that a significantly increased radon decay product activity is found in saliva after speleotherapeutic radon exposure. Maximum values were observed 35 min after radon exposure. Radon decay product activity almost disappeared after about 1 h. PMID:11025392

  18. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1? and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  19. Analysis of protein compounds in old persons whole saliva with parodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovi? Silvija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the protein composition of whole saliva in 50 year-old patients an d older with manifested and terminal stages of periodontal disease, in correlation with control group of young healthy persons. Experimental and control group consisted of 30 patients. The periodontal status was determinate by using appropriate periodontal index (Sillness-Loe. Investigations were led by electrophoretic method on aragose gel which was used as a routine method for investigation of human serum proteins. Investigating in very alkaline conditions (pH-H as well as acid conditions (pH=5.9 resulted in separating alkaline and acid glycoprotein fractions in whole saliva. Results showed that there were more separated fractions within basic conditions than within acid conditions. The fraction identification was done by using relative molecule mass determination method by Weber and Osborne. Molecule mass fractions at basic conditions in comparison with the healthy sample (Sz indicated the destruction of big molecular weight alkaline proteins as well as a significant presence of acid fractions, of little molecule masses up to 60 000 (St, consequences due to aging processes in human organism. It can be concluded that changes in protein composition of whole saliva could point out to the direction and development of periodontal disease as well as changes concerning aging of human organism.

  20. [Evaluation of six rapid tests for screening of cannabis in sweat, saliva and tears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, P; Kintz, P; Papet, Y; Ruesch, G; Piriou, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to demonstrate an intake of cannabis, there are a number of rapid tests, all of them being focused on urine. In this study, we evaluated the results of six tests when applied to sweat (DrugWipe), saliva and urine (Syva Rapidtest, Biomedix, Frontline, DrugWipe, Cortez Dako). Fifty regular users of cannabis and fifty persons who denied consuming it were studied. The results obtained with DrugWipe in sweat were compared with anamnesis data, whereas results obtained in saliva and urine were compared with those of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The results indicate that DrugWipe may be useful for screening cannabis in sweat when the intake took place less than two hours before. The results obtained in saliva showed that none of the tests studied are reliable to be used with this medium, because of the great number of false positive and false negative results. With urine, four tests (Syva Rapidtest, Biomedix, Cortez, Dako) led to very good results and may be recommended when an immediate presumptive test result is required. PMID:10216980