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1

Human resources handbook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

2

Agripedia glossary [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A glossary of terms used in the classes contained within Agripedia, an Internet accessible interactive multimedia instructional resource developed by the University of Kentucky's College of Agriculture.

3

Using Electronic Resources for Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in education. Whatever your feelings about what some have called the digital revolution, you must accept that many, perhaps most, of your students are fully immersed in it. At the very simplest level, you will rarely receive a paper or other assignment from a student that has not been written with the help of a computer. Most of your students will have considerable experience with the Internet and will, whether you like it or not, make use of it for much of their academic work. Many of them will be accustomed to using e-mail as a normal form of communication. But it is not just students who find electronic resources valuable. Teachers can benefit from these resources as well, by employing a series of useful tools. We stress the word "useful" because electronic resources complement, but seldom replace, more conventional teaching techniques. Electronic tools can make classes more efficient; lectures more compelling, informative, and varied; reading assignments more extensive, interesting, and accessible; discussions more free ranging and challenging; and students' papers more original and well researched. Only you, however, can judge if these techniques advance your own teaching goals.

2010-06-09

4

Metode Pengukuran Saliva Dan Pemeriksaan Kelenjar Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva merupakan cairan utama di rongga mulut yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar saliva mayor dan minor. Saliva memiliki fungsi dan peranan penting dalam menjaga dan memelihara kesehatan secara umum. Kebiasaan bemafas melalui mulut, akibat terapi radiasi pada kepala dan leher, kemsakan saraf, obat-obatan, dan penyakit-penyakit tertentu dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi saliva yang disebut dengan xerostomia atau mulut kering. Xerostomia dapat menyebabkan karies gigi, mukositis dan kandidiasi...

Simatupang, Deddy A.

2008-01-01

5

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

6

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

7

Saliva Sebagai Media Diagnosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva memainkan peran yang penting dalam berbagai proses biologis yang terjadi di dalam rongga mulut, diantaranya sebagai pelumas, pengunyahan dan penelanan makanan, aksi pembersihan dan pelindung dari karies gigi. Selain itu, fungsi saliva juga menjadi sangat penting sejak akhir-akhir ini karena saliva juga dapat digunakan untuk mendiagnosa penyakit oral dan sistemik. Penggunaan saliva mempunyai banyak kelebihan dibandingkan pemeriksaan menggunakan darah dan urin, diantaranya pengambila...

Azmi Bin Hashim

2010-01-01

8

Science behind human saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side ef...

Tiwari, Manjul

2011-01-01

9

Saliva Pada Manula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva mempunyai berbagai fungsi penting di dalam rongga mulut yang dapat membantu proses pencernaan, penelanan, pelarut, pelumas, pelindung, self-cleansing, integritas gigi dengan anti bakteri dan sebagai buffer. Komposisi dan imunoglobulin saliva yang normal akan mempengaruhi keefektifan masing-masing fungsi saliva. Peningkatan usia manusia, menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan-perubahan yang bersifat degeneratif pada jaringan tubuh. Biasanya disertai pula dengan menjadi tuanya alat-alat t...

Erniwaty

2008-01-01

10

No Saliva, No Taste?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (4th activity on the page), learners test to see if saliva is necessary for food to have taste. Learners dry their tongues with clean paper towels and then taste samples of salt, sugar, crackers, or other dry foods. Use this activity for any lesson on the senses, particularly taste, as well how saliva breaks down chemicals in food.

2014-02-03

11

Principles of Selection for Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability in electronic format of scholarly and scientific literatures and other forms of information has altered challenges faced by library collection managers. Drawing on ideas of the multi-library consortia, which have grown up partly in response to the advent of electronic resources, librarians have devised new criteria and means of…

Metz, Paul

2000-01-01

12

Saliva and dental erosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review di [...] scusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis, Hannas; Melissa Thiemi, Kato.

2012-10-01

13

Saliva and dental erosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-10-01

14

Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and informative…

Tijerina, Bonnie

2008-01-01

15

Oestrogens in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matched plasma and saliva samples were obtained from a non-pregnant and pregnant group (last trimester) of female caucasians. Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay, 17?-oestradiol was measured, and the gingival index system of Loe (1967) was used to assess the gingival condition of each patient. The results showed that 17?-oestradiol could be measured in saliva but that the levels were extremely low and a very sensitive immunoassay was necessary. In the pregnant group, saliva represented 3 per cent of the plasma level. This was not the case in the non-pregnant group, probably because of the constantly changing free: bound plasma ratio. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that oestrogens are known to bind to the oral epithelium

16

Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach  

CERN Document Server

To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

Anderson, Elsa K

2014-01-01

17

Peranan Saliva Sebagai Media Diagnosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tujuan penulisan ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat pemeriksaan saliva dalam bidang kedokteran gigi seperti untuk mendiagnosa kelenjar saliva, karies, penyakit periodontal dan tes kepekaan, memeriksa adanya kandida, tes untuk HIV dan hepatitis, pemeriksaan antigen dan antibodi serta pengaruh obat-obatan dan hormon. Adapun fungsi saliva yang paling penting adalah mempertahankan integritas gigi, lidah dan membrari mukosa. Disamping itu fungsi saliva lainnya membantu proses pencernaan, penel...

Prihartati, Vera

2008-01-01

18

Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on “Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake info...

Ghosh, T. B.

2003-01-01

19

Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva...

Smith Barry; David Wong T; Ai Jiye

2010-01-01

20

Saliva and dental erosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the re...

Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Angélicas Reis Hannas; Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

2012-01-01

22

Electronic Resource Management: Functional Integration in Technical Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Declining usage of print materials along with increasing usage of electronic resources makes it necessary for libraries to reallocate personnel from print management to electronic resources management. Electronic resources management should be the primary focus of technical services units in the early twenty-first century. Print should no longer be treated as the default format, and the work of library staff must be reorganized and reintegrated with librarians and other professionals to refle...

Stachokas, George

2014-01-01

23

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2010-04-01

24

Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thyroxine (T4) in saliva has been described. Fifty euthyroid control subjects, 14 euthyroid pregnant women, 23 thyreotoxic and 10 hypothyroid patients were examined. Serum T3, T4, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and TSH were measured simultaneously. The mean level of T4 in saliva in controls was 1.10 +- 0.07 nmol/l. There was a good correlation between the saliva and serum T4 concentrations (r = 0.74) and between saliva T4 values and the T4/TBG ratio (r = 0.83). The saliva T4 levels, like serum free T4, were not dependent on fluctuations of serum TBG concentrations. In euthyroid pregnant women, saliva T4 levels were within the normal range while the serum T4 and TBG were increased. There was a good agreement of saliva T4 values with the functional state of the thyroid. Thus, the RIA of saliva T4 could replace the laborious determination of serum free T4. It can especially be useful in instances with abnormal values of TBG, as it is in pregnancy, in congenital deficiency of serum TBG or in subjects with hereditary elevated TBG levels. (author)

25

Protein Electrophoresis in Saliva Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following sections will give an overview about the use of electrophoresis in saliva studies. Methodological issues and the major advantages and limitations for the use of this technique in human and animal saliva studies will be presented. We will finish the chapter by presenting alternatives to electrophoresis for the study of salivary proteome.

Lamy, Elsa; Costa, Ana R.; Antunes, Celia M.; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco

2012-01-01

26

Antimicrobial peptides of human saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many functions of human saliva, its digestive and protective properties have attracted the most interest. Human saliva contains a number of physical, physicochemical and chemical agents that protect oral tissues against by various microorganisms and their metabolic products. Among such protective factors, the flushing effect of saliva flow is the most important one, not only because it so effectively removes exogenous and endogenous microorganisms and their products into the gut but also because a steady supply of saliva guarantees continuous presence of both non-immune and immune factors in the mouth. The most important antimicrobial peptides in saliva are: histatins, defensins, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, mucins, calprotectin, lysozyme, oral peroxidase. Antimicrobial peptides are components of complex host secretions, acting synergisticaly with other innate defence molecules to combat infection and control resident microbial populations throughout the oral cavity.

Doži? Ivan

2005-01-01

27

Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

2012-01-01

28

Human saliva proteome: an overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2014-06-01

29

Peranan Saliva Pengganti Pada Penderita Xerostomia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva suatu cairan oral kompleks, terdiri dari campuran kelenjar saliva mayor dan minor yang terdapal pada mukosa. Saliva mempunyai beberapa fungsi penting. dengan fungsi utama untuk membantu proses pencernaan, penelanan, pelarut, pelumas, pemisah makanan, aksi pembersihan, proses bicara dan sistim buffer. Produksi sekresi volume iudah yang menurun seperti pada kalkulus kelenjar saliva, penyempitan papila atau salurannya, sindroma sjorgen, serta manifestasi penyakit sistemik...

Ika Andryas

2008-01-01

30

[The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease. PMID:25069217

Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V

2014-01-01

31

Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

32

Peranan Saliva Dalam Melindungi Gigi Terhadap Karies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi pada gigi dan hampir seluruh individu pernah mengalami penyakit ini. Bakteri yang terdapat dalam plak seperti Streptokokus mutans akan memfermentasi karbohidrat dan menghasilkan asam susu sehingga pH mulut turun dan terjadi proses demineralisasi yang mengakibatkan munculnya kavitas pada gigi. Saliva adalah cairan oral yang kompleks yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar-kelenjar saliva yaitu kelenjar saliva mayor dan kelenjar saliva minor. Saliva dialirkan ke dala...

Pardede, Ratna D.

2008-01-01

33

BBC news style guide [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representing some of BBC's accumulated wisdom surrounding the use of English in written and spoken communications, this guide was written for BBC journalists but is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to write well.

34

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

35

Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

36

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

37

Saliva tannin interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plant foods contain tannins, compounds that bind proteins, such as mammalian enzymes. Although described as tasteless, tannins can be detected orally by their astringency. However, the actual mechanism of oral detection and the effect of tannins on mastication and swallowing have been little investigated. Here, we show from in vitro tests that tannic acid, a common standard in tests used to detect tannins, significantly reduces the lubricating qualities of human saliva both by decreasing its viscosity and increasing friction, both factors lending support to the notion that astringency is a tactile phenomenon. From the literature, it is clear that this effect depends on the presence of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP). In a mammalian context, ingestion of tannin-rich foods in a species with salivary PRP will be signalled by interference with bolus formation during mastication while the increase in friction may also be detectable and lead to increased tooth wear if the signal is ignored. In a human context, cross-cultural preferences for tannin-rich beverages such as tea, coffee and red wine at the end of meals may be explained by reduction in adhesion of food particles to the oral mucosa allowing their rapid oral clearance. PMID:11106991

Prinz, J F; Lucas, P W

2000-11-01

38

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

39

Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO2 and Cr2O3 forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restofor crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

40

D-Lib magazine [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents "D-Lib Magazine," a monthly electronic publication related to digital libraries. Includes commentaries and news articles. Offers an archive of back issues and a site search engine. Provides access to working groups, digital library research

 
 
 
 
41

Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

2014-11-01

42

IBEX Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This material is a comprehensive educational resource for informal educators highlighting the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. New for 2012, this material also includes a comprehensive overview of all of the science results released through mid-2011 and information about the IBEX satellite's orbital change in June 2011. All of this material can be modified to use with informal education audiences, including museum and planetarium visitors, afterâschool clubs, and others. It is available as PDF .zip file and as a PowerPoint .zip file. The PowerPoint .zip file contains the newlyârevised PowerPoint resource and its associated movie clips. The PDF .zip file contains a PDF version of the newly-revised PowerPoint resource, a PDF version of the Notes section for each of the slides, and the movie clips. Because movie clips cannot be embedded into the PDF slides, each movie clip file name contains its associated slide number so users can play the movie clip alongside the slide.

43

[The acoustic indicator of saliva under stress].  

Science.gov (United States)

The situation of stress affects various organs and systems that results in development of functional disorders and/or somatic diseases. As a result, different noninvasive, including salivary, techniques of diagnostic of stress conditions are in the process of development. The dynamics of acoustic indicator of saliva is studied during the period of passing the exams. The relationship of indicator with levels of potassium, sodium, glucose and protein of saliva was analyzed. The sampling consisted of 102 students of 5 and 6 academic years of medical university. To detect the acoustic indicator of saliva acoustic analyzer AKBa-01- "BIOM" was applied. The level of potassium and sodium in saliva was detected using method of flame photometry. The level of glucose in saliva was detected by glucose oxydase technique using analyzer "EXAN-G". The protein in saliva was detected by biuretic technique. The correlation between acoustic indicator of saliva and analyzed indicators of saliva was established. PMID:25080785

Shalenkova, M A; Mikha?lova, Z D; Klemin, V A; Korkotashvili, L V; Abanin, A M; Klemina, A V; Dolgov, V V

2014-03-01

44

IBEX: An Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This PowerPoint is a resource for museum educators that highlights the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. This PowerPoint supports a full-length planetarium show about the IBEX mission and the boundary of the Solar System. Each short activity/product helps to build awareness and engagement in the science and engineering aspects of the mission that is reinforced as visitors choose to participate in more activities, including viewing the Show and mission Web site.

Nichols, Michelle

2008-01-01

45

Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Document Server

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

46

MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

47

ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

48

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

49

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

50

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

51

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

52

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

53

E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

2009-01-01

54

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

55

Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

Lakatos-Varsányi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I

1997-01-01

56

Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of de...

Marti?-a?lamo, Silvia; Manchen?o-franch, Aisha; Marzal-gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-fabuel, Laura

2012-01-01

57

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

58

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic...

P?nar Al; Umut Al

2003-01-01

59

Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.

Naumova Ella A

2012-01-01

60

Immunomodulatory effects of tick saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ticks are bloodsucking ectoparasites that cause great damage to host organisms, so these ectoparasites are of great importance in medicine and veterinary medicine. All the biological success achieved by ticks is due to the action of bioactive components present in their saliva, which are synthesized by the salivary glands. These components have great diversity of functions such as enabling feeding and the permanence of ectoparasites on hosts, since they modulate immune system acting as complement inhibitors, immunosuppressors, cytokine expression modulator and chemokine binders of hosts. In addition, these components are an important source of protective antigens. In this sense, salivary glands/saliva are considered a potential source of multifunctional molecules. In this context, many studies have been conducted aiming at searching to establish a better understanding on the biology and morphophysiology of some organs such as salivary glands, as well as elucidate the complex relationship of these ectoparasites with their hosts. Such studies are conducted with the main objective of developing new immunobiological products aimed at the alternative control of ticks, as well as for the identification and isolation of bioactive molecules with pharmacological properties and with great therapeutic potential in the search for treatments for some diseases.

MI Camargo Mathias

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

?.?. ????????

2011-02-01

62

Corrosion Behavior of Titanium in Artificial Saliva by Lactic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.

Qing Qu

2014-07-01

63

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-?l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

64

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

65

Detection of Hepatitis A Virus RNA in Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is shed in feces but also in saliva. HAV RNA was detected in saliva in five out of six acutely infected patients with HAV viremia. Serum and saliva sequences were identical. The simplicity of obtaining material allows the recommendation of the use of saliva for investigation of outbreaks.

Mackiewicz, Vincent; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Le Petitcorps, Marie-france; Roque-afonso, Anne Marie

2004-01-01

66

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-11-01

67

Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in saliva has increased in the last few years for its potential to diagnose viral, bacterial and systemic diseases. The use of saliva as research material may pose particular problems due to its inherent ...

Schipper, R. G.; Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M. H.

2007-01-01

68

Proteomics and its applications for biomarker discovery in human saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human saliva is a biological fluid with enormous diagnostic potential. Because saliva can be non-invasively collected, it provides an attractive alternative for blood, serum or plasma. It has been postulated that the blood concentrations of many components are reflected in saliva. Saliva harbors a wide array of proteins, which can be informative for the detection of diseases. Profiling the proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers ...

Xiao, Hua; Wong, David T.

2011-01-01

69

Rheological properties of saliva substitutes containing mucin, carboxymethylcellulose or polyethylenoxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apparent viscosities at different shear rates were measured for 3 types of saliva substitutes: (a) mucin-containing saliva; (b) substitutes based upon carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and (c) solution of polyethylenoxide (PEO). The apparent viscosities were compared with those of human whole saliva. Human whole saliva and mucin-containing saliva substitutes appeared to be similar in their rheological properties. Both types of solution are viscoelastic solutions and adjust their apparent viscosit...

Vissink, A.; Waterman, H. A.; S-gravenmade, E. J.; Panders, A. K.; Vermey, A.

1984-01-01

70

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

71

MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Solution at York University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, d...

Aaron August Lupton; Marcia Kay Salmon

2012-01-01

72

Histamine - Binding proteins in tick saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ticks, like other haematophagous ectoparasites, secrete in their saliva bioactive substances that counter the host animal's defence reactions at the feeding site and thus facilitate the acquisition of the bloodmeal. We discovered a family of histamine-binding proteins (HBPs) in the saliva of the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. HBPs most probably act by mopping up free histamine at the wound site, making it unavailable to the host's H1- and H2-histamine receptors, thus suppressin...

Paesen, Gc; Adams, P.; Harlos, K.; Stuart, Di; Nuttall, Pa

1998-01-01

73

Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The ...

Naumova Ella A; Kuehnl Phillip; Hertenstein Philipp; Markovic Ljubisa; Jordan Rainer A; Gaengler Peter; Arnold Wolfgang H

2012-01-01

74

Radioimmunoassay of oestrone in male saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new radioimmunoassay for oestrone in male saliva is briefly described. The assay has a sensitivity of 3 pg/tube and intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 5.1% and 8.3% respectively. A statistically significant correlation between salivary and plasma levels of oestrone was shown in 14 healthy men. This indicates the possibility of assaying saliva rather than plasma in endocrinological investigations. (U.K.)

75

Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) report summarizes and analyzes more than 200 recent research publications that focus on the use of electronic library resources (digital libraries and digital resources) and were published between 1995 and 2003. Eight major ongoing studies (each with multiple publications) are identified as…

Tenopir, Carol

2003-01-01

76

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

77

Hubungan Keadaan Saliva dengan Risiko Karies pada Siswa Kelas X SMK Negeri 9 Medan.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva mempengaruhi proses terjadinya karies karena saliva selalu membasahi gigi geligi sehingga mempengaruhi lingkungan dalam rongga mulut. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada siswa kelas X SMK Negeri 9 Medan untuk menganalisis rata-rata laju aliran saliva, volume dan pH saliva sebelum dan sesudah distimulasi dengan lilin parafin dan menganalisis kategori risiko karies berdasarkan laju aliran saliva, pH saliva dan kapasitas bufer saliva sesudah disitmulasi dan jumlah S.mutans pada saliva. Penel...

Simanjuntak, Carolin M. K.

2011-01-01

78

Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... m. EDT Contact: Jennifer Wenger 301-496-7243 Saliva is effective in screening for CMV infection in ... NIH-funded research Swabbing a newborn’s mouth for saliva can be used to quickly and effectively screen ...

79

Glucan-binding factor in saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-molecular-weight polymers of alpha-1,6-linked D-glucans are insoluble in alcohol solutions. Whole, but not parotid, saliva prevented the precipitation of D-glucans by 80% (vol/vol) ethanol, showing that the whole saliva contained a factor which complexed with the glucan to render it alcohol soluble. The glucan-binding factor was retained on a column of Sephacryl S-200 which had been preequilibrated with 80% ethanol. The factor was then eluted with water. Passive hemagglutination assays r...

Cowan, M. M.; Parrish, K.; Kessler, R. E.; Pyle, C.; Taylor, K. G.; Ciardi, J. E.; Doyle, R. J.

1988-01-01

80

Effects of radiotherapy on human parotid saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in parotide salivary function, as determined by flow rate and protein secretion, were measured in 31 cancer patients given radiotherapy to the head and neck. After the first week of treatment, a 50% decrease in salivary flow rate and a 60% decrease in protein secretion rate were observed. Salivary function remained at or below these levels during the next 3 week of treatment. Proteins in saliva were affected unequally, with the family of glycoproteins exhibiting greater sensitivity than amylase. Chromatography or irradiated (60 Gy) and unirradiated whole parotid saliva suggests that the observed alterations in salivary protein may be due to radiation effects on protein synthesis rather than on the proteins themselves

 
 
 
 
81

Towards saliva-based screening for sleeping sickness?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pilot study was carried out on the detection of trypanosome-specific antibodies in saliva for diagnosis of sleeping sickness. All twenty-three saliva samples of parasitologically confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients tested positive in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas all 14 saliva samples of a negative control group remained negative. Trypanosome-specific antibody levels in patient saliva correlated with antibody levels in serum, but were about 250-fold lowe...

Lejon, V.; Kwete, J.; Bu?scher, P.

2003-01-01

82

Manifestasi Klinis Infeksi Virus Pada Kelenjar Saliva Dan Perawatannya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kelenjar saliva adalah kelenjar eksokrin yang mensekresikan Cairan ludah ke dalam rongga mulut, sifat sekresi kelenjar saliva menyebabkan kelenjar ini rentan terhadap beberapa gangguan. Salah satu gangguan yang sering mengenai kelenjar saliva adalah yang diakibatkan oleh infeksi virus. Infeksi virus pada kelenjar saliva memiliki beberapa manifestasi klinis yang umumnya hampir sama dengan gejala infeksi lainnya yaitu kemerahan pada daerah infeksi, panas atau demam lokal, pembengkakan yang ...

Archi Medes Doni Rahmat Sihombing

2008-01-01

83

Re-evaluation of saliva for monitoring theophylline concentrations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variability of the mixed saliva/plasma theophylline relation was examined in seven children aged 2 to 13 years. Good correlation between plasma and saliva concentrations was found, but on the three occasions there was considerable inter- and intrapatient variability. There was no significant or consistent relation between unstimulated and stimulated saliva concentrations or between saliva concentrations and sample volumes. Plasma theophylline concentrations cannot be predicted accurately from...

Rylance, G. W.; Beswick, D. T.; Cullen, R. E.; Roberts, D. G.

1985-01-01

84

The study of the method for determining PRL in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The values of PRL in saliva and serum were determined by RIA in 70 cases. At the sametime, the total protein content was determined, the volume and value of salivary PRL were estimated for linear test. It is found that the salivary total protein is correlated with the saliva PRL (P0.05). The authors recognize that PRL presents in the saliva. Determining PRL in saliva may have some significance for tracing the personal PRL level

85

Detection of feline leukemia virus infection in saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question was investigated whether feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection may be diagnosed by testing saliva in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva was collected with commercially available swabs, eluted from the swabs, and tested in the ELISA. A comparison of results with saliva and serum samples from 60 specific-pathogen-free cats, 9 experimentally infected cats, and 1,117 field cats led to the following conclusions. False-positive saliva results, if any occurred, were r...

Lutz, H.; Jarrett, O.

1987-01-01

86

Radioimmunological method for determination of testosterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method proposed is applied for testosterone concentrations determination in plasma and saliva of 64 subjects. The plasma and saliva values showed no statistically significant differeces which is an evidence that testosterone concentrations may as well be measured in saliva whenever clinical indications exist. 2 tabs.; 7 refs

87

[The role of saliva in maintaining oral health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is now established that saliva is important for the health of both soft and hard oral tissues. This article focuses on the role played by saliva in influencing oral structures: the most important factors related to it will be illustrated. The action of saliva and the multifunctional aspects of its components in both detrimental and beneficial effects on oral health are underlined.

Defabianis, Patrizia

2003-01-01

88

PROFIL KANDUNGAN UNSUR ORGANIK SALIVA PADA USIA LANJUT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Usia lanjut sangat rentan terhadap penyakit gigi dan mulut. Penurunan fungsi tubuh pada proses penuaan dapat mempengaruhi kandungan organik, anorganik, volume dan pH saliva pada lansia. Kandungan organik saliva yaitu protein saliva memiliki fungsi protektif terhadap antimikroba, lubrikasi, dan pencernaan yang berperan pada integritas fungsional rongga mulut dan mendukung proteksi melawan penyakit rongga mulut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk me...

Fitriani R D, Nurul

2013-01-01

89

Saliva Sebagai Salah Satu Media Dalam Membantu Diagnosa Penyakit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, saliva berfungsi dalam membantu proses bicara, pencernaan, penelanan, pelarut, pelumas, pemisah makanan, mengatur keseimbangan air, pelindung, pembersih, integritas gigi dengan anti bakteri, dan juga sebagai buffer. Belakangan ini saliva mulai digunakan sebagai media untuk membantu menegakkan diagnosa suatu penyakit. Hal ini dikarenakan proses pemeriksaan saliva lebih mudah dilakukan dan lebih aman bila dibandingkan dengan pemeriksaan lainnya. Beberapa pen...

Sorta Sinaga

2008-01-01

90

Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leishmaniasis, caused by parasitic protozoa Leishmania, is transmitted by bites of female sand flies that, during blood-feeding, inject humans with parasites and saliva. Sand fly saliva has been investigated as a potential vaccine candidate. It was previously shown that immunization with Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary proteins protects against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study, we evaluated if immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or DNA plasmid coding fo...

Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, Jose? C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2011-01-01

91

A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal. PMID:24555893

Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A

2014-02-01

92

The effects of salivas on occlusal forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contacting surfaces of opposing teeth produce friction that, when altered, changes the contact force direction and/or magnitude. As friction can be influenced by several factors, including lubrication and the contacting materials, the aim of this study was to measure the occlusal load alterations experienced by teeth with the introduction of different salivas and dental restorative materials. Pairs of molar teeth were set into occlusion with a weighted maxillary tooth mounted onto a vertical sliding assembly and the mandibular tooth supported by a load cell. The load components on the mandibular tooth were measured with three opposing pairs of dental restorative materials (plastic denture, all-ceramic and stainless steel), four (human and three artificial) salivas and 16 occlusal configurations. All lateral force component measurements were significantly different (P < 0·0001) from the dry (control) surface regardless of the crown material or occlusal configuration, while the effects of the artificial salivas compared to each other and to human saliva depended on the crown material. PMID:25484034

McCrea, E S; Katona, T R; Eckert, G J

2014-12-01

93

Sistema internacional sobre contaminates y residuos en alimentos [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISICRA the Spanish version of INFOCRIS provided an ideal Internet tool to improve awareness of successful case studies. SICRA uses a common set of Divisional resources to address issues from production to consumption.

94

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

95

A comparative analysis of the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students at two Kenyan universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article compares the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures, the levels of access, and the electronic resources usage patterns at two academic libraries in Kenya. The focus is on the use by undergraduate students at the private University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and the public Kenyatta University (KU) of electronic resources to support formal and informal learning. The article also briefly explores the perceptions of library managers with regard to teach...

Ingutia-oyieke, Lilian; Dick, Archie L.

2010-01-01

96

Improving Electronic Resources Management (ERM): Critical Work Flow and Operations Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organization of electronic resources work flow and operations are critical in the increasingly complex world of library management. The way in which this management process is structured differs according to the type of library and organizational structure within. A common goal, though, is strategically sustaining access and availability to electronic resources over time and the effective management of the library staff that maintains them. In this joint session, librarians from George Mason ...

Appleton, Betsy; Regan, Shannon; England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2012-01-01

97

Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

Downey, Kay

2012-01-01

98

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G

2012-10-01

99

Pesticides and electronic resources for health care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural workers are at higher risk of occupational injuries, including pesticide exposures. There is general agreement that the training of health care providers to recognize and manage such exposures is limited and in need of improvement. While the Internet presents opportunities for health care providers to access information and continue their medical education, it can be difficult to identify relevant resources in a timely manner. This case report presents a realistic scenario of a suspected pesticide exposure among symptomatic agricultural workers. The discussion that follows presents Web-based resources that health care providers can rely upon in recognizing, managing, and preventing pesticide-related illness. PMID:15927917

Sudakin, Daniel L

2005-01-01

100

Resource Sharing in the Electronic Era: Potentials and Paradoxes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses library resource sharing. Highlights include access to information, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and the social, economic, and technological complexities of new mechanisms; and traditional roles of libraries that provide both opportunities for cooperation and paradoxes for the continuation of selection, archiving, and…

Dannelly, Gay N.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

102

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

103

The ?-test: rapid cell-free CD4 enumeration using whole saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need for affordable CD4 enumeration to monitor HIV disease. CD4 enumeration is out of reach in resource-limited regions due to the time and temperature restrictions, technical sophistication, and cost of reagents, in particular monoclonal antibodies to measure CD4 on blood cells, the only currently acceptable method. A commonly used cost-saving and time-saving laboratory strategy is to calculate, rather than measure certain blood values. For example, LDL levels are calculated using the measured levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Thus, identification of cell-free correlates that directly regulate the number of CD4(+) T cells could provide an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts due to the physiological relevance of the correlates. The number of stem cells that enter blood and are destined to become circulating CD4(+) T cells is determined by the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 due to their influence on locomotion. The process of stem cell locomotion into blood is additionally regulated by cell surface human leukocyte elastase (HLE(CS)) and the HLE(CS)-reactive active ?(1)proteinase inhibitor (?(1)PI, ?(1)antitrypsin, SerpinA1). In HIV-1 disease, ?(1)PI is inactivated due to disease processes. In the early asymptomatic categories of HIV-1 disease, active ?(1)PI was found to be below normal in 100% of untreated HIV-1 patients (median=12 ?M, and to achieve normal levels during the symptomatic categories. This pattern has been attributed to immune inactivation, not to insufficient synthesis, proteolytic inactivation, or oxygenation. We observed that in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/?l, CD4 counts were correlated with serum levels of active ?(1)PI (r(2)=0.93, pchewing gum or citric acid stimulate the exudation of serum into whole mouth saliva. After stimulating serum exudation, the activity of serum ?(1)PI in saliva is measured by its capacity to inhibit elastase activity. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is a readily available inexpensive source of elastase. PPE binds to ?(1)PI forming a one-to-one complex that prevents PPE from cleaving its specific substrates, one of which is the colorimetric peptide, succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Ala-p-nitroanilide (SA(3)NA). Incubating saliva with a saturating concentration of PPE for 10 min at room temperature allows the binding of PPE to all the active ?(1)PI in saliva. The resulting inhibition of PPE by active ?(1)PI can be measured by adding the PPE substrate SA(3)NA. (Figure 1). Although CD4 counts are measured in terms of blood volume (CD4 cells/?l), the concentration of ?(1)PI in saliva is related to the concentration of serum in saliva, not to volume of saliva since volume can vary considerably during the day and person to person. However, virtually all the protein in saliva is due to serum content, and the protein content of saliva is measurable. Thus, active ?(1)PI in saliva is calculated as a ratio to saliva protein content and is termed the ?(1)PI Index. Results presented herein demonstrate that the ?(1)PI Index provides an accurate and precise physiologic method for calculating CD4 counts. PMID:22644001

Bristow, Cynthia L; Babayeva, Mariya A; Modarresi, Rozbeh; McArthur, Carole P; Kumar, Santosh; Awasom, Charles; Ayuk, Leo; Njinda, Annette; Achu, Paul; Winston, Ronald

2012-01-01

104

Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Perio...

Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

2011-01-01

105

Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

106

Biomarcadores na saliva - presente e futuro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A deteção de biomarcadores na saliva, proteínas que estão associadas a fenótipos de patologias específicas, apresenta-se como uma área de intervenção diagnóstica pouco estudada na atualidade. Foi objetivo deste estudo de acordo com os dados de proteómica/ estudos dirigidos depositados no OralCard referentes a patologias orais e sistémicas: - Realizar uma análise crítica dos biomarcadores até agora propostos; - Identificar que proteínas podem vir a constitu...

Fonseca, Jorge Filipe Raposo

2014-01-01

107

Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

108

Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva. [Tritium tracer techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-..mu..l volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone.

Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

1978-09-01

109

Using the Internet Gopher Protocol to link a computerized patient record and distributed electronic resources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At Duke University Medical Center, we are developing a prototype clinical application for automated patient care plans with integrated links to electronic documents and other electronic resources. These links are implemented using the Internet Gopher Protocol, an emerging standard for distributed document search and retrieval. Use of this protocol permits storage of electronic documents in an open, nonproprietary manner. This paper discusses the architecture of the link mechanism and presents...

Hales, J. W.; Low, R. C.; Fitzpatrick, K. T.

1993-01-01

110

Exosome-like vesicles with dipeptidyl peptidase IV in human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva contains a large number of proteins that participate in the protection of oral tissue. We found, for the first time, small vesicles (30-130 nm in diameter) in human whole saliva. Vesicles from saliva were identified by electron microscopy after isolation by gel-filtration on Sepharose CL-4B. They resemble exosomes, which are vesicles with an endosome-derived limiting membrane that are secreted by a diverse range of cell types. We performed a biochemical characterization of these vesicles by amino acid sequence analysis and Western blot analysis. We found that they contain dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), galectin-3 and immunoglobulin A, which have potential to influence immune response. The DPP IV in the vesicles was metabolically active in cleaving substance P and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide to release N-terminal dipeptides. Our results demonstrate that human whole saliva contains exosome-like vesicles; they might participate in the catabolism of bioactive peptides and play a regulatory role in local immune defense in the oral cavity. PMID:18520029

Ogawa, Yuko; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato; Yanoshita, Ryohei

2008-06-01

111

Comparison of Biomarkers in Blood and Saliva in Healthy Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines) in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter pap...

Elswick, R. K.; Mary Jo Grap; Rita Pickler; Cindy Munro; Sarah Williamson

2012-01-01

112

Use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is a secretion of the salivary and mucous glands and is of major importance in the maintainance of oral health. Over the last few decades, saliva has been evaluated as a diagnostic fluid in medicine for determining systemic disease markers as well as for monitoring numerous drugs, narcotics, and hormones. The biochemical analysis of saliva is particularly important in dentistry. The estimation of the risk of appearance and diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progression, evalua...

Todorovi? Tatjana; Doži? Ivan; Pavlica Dušan; Markovi? Dejan; Ivanovi? Mirjana; Brajovi? Gavrilo; Stefanovi? Gordana; Mirkovi? Silvija; An?elski Biljana

2005-01-01

113

Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for...

Kinney, J. S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C. A.; Herr, A. E.; Sugai, J. V.; Shelburne, C. E.; Rayburn, L. A.; Singh, A. K.; Giannobile, W. V.

2011-01-01

114

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva / Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería ú [...] til para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio. Abstract in english Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with [...] oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I., Gutiérrez De Ferro; R.E., Ruiz De Valladares; I.L., Benito De Cárdenas.

2005-03-01

115

Recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva Recovery of Veillonella from saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las veillonellas son cocos gram-negativos anaerobios asociados con salud oral. Para su aislamiento, se han reportado diferentes medios de cultivo. Las colonias de Veillonella spp. producen fluorescencia roja visible con luz ultravioleta, que desaparece en contacto con oxígeno. Esta propiedad sería útil para su identificación presuntiva rápida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1- comparar el medio selectivo para Veillonella de Rogosa con los medios de cultivo recomendados por diferentes autores para determinar en cual de ellos se obtiene una mejor recuperación de veillonellas a partir de saliva, ya que esta muestra es generalmente utilizada para determinar la presencia y predominio de esta bacteria; 2- detectar la producción de fluorescencia en estos medios de cultivo como método rápido de identificación. Los medios de cultivo estudiados fueron: medio selectivo para Veillonella, agar Schaedler para anaerobios con vitamina K, agar tioglicolato, agar infusión cerebro corazón, agar Brucella, agar tripteína soja y agar Columbia con y sin el agregado de vancomicina y sangre lacada. La muestra ensayada fue un pool de saliva. Se hicieron recuentos de colonias de veillonellas y de microorganismos totales expresados en UFC/ml de saliva. La mayor recuperación de veillonellas en saliva se obtuvo en el medio selectivo para Veillonella con vancomicina y sangre lacada. Sólo se observó producción de fluorescencia en este medio.Veillonella spp. are anaerobic gram-negative cocci associated to oral health. Different types of cultures have been reported for the isolation of these microorganisms. Veillonella spp. colonies produce a red fluorescence, which is made visible through ultraviolet light and disappears in contact with oxygen. This feature would be very useful for rapid presumptive identification. The aims of this study were: 1. to compare the Rogosa selective medium for Veillonella with the cultures recommended by different authors in order to determine best saliva recovery, since this sample is generally used to determine the presence and predominance of this bacteria; 2. to detect red fluorescence production on these different culture media as a rapid method for identification. Selective medium for Veillonella, Schaedler agar for anaerobic bacteria with vitamin K, thioglycollate agar, brain heart infusion agar, Brucella agar, trypticase soy agar, and Columbia agar, all of them with and without the addition of vancomycin, and laked blood were used for this study. The tested sample was a saliva pool. Both, Veillonella colonies, and the total number of microorganisms were counted, and expressed as CFU/ml of saliva. The greatest Veillonella recovery in saliva was obtained with the selective medium for Veillonella with vancomycin and laked blood. The production of fluorescence was only observed in this medium.

M.I. Gutiérrez De Ferro

2005-03-01

116

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

117

Saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva can reach mineralized surfaces in the oral cavity; however, the relationship between saliva and bone resorption is unclear. Herein, we examined whether saliva affects the process of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We used murine bone marrow cultures to study osteoclast formation. The addition of fresh sterile saliva eliminated the formation of multinucleated cells that stained positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). In line with the histochemical staining, saliva substantially reduced gene expression of cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and TRAP. Addition of saliva led to considerably decreased gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and, to a lesser extent, that of c-fms. The respective master regulators of osteoclastogenesis (c-fos and NFATc1) and the downstream cell fusion genes (DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2) showed decreased expression after the addition of saliva. Among the costimulatory molecules for osteoclastogenesis, only OSCAR showed decreased expression. In contrast, CD40, CD80, and CD86-all costimulatory molecules of phagocytic cells-were increasingly expressed with saliva. The phagocytic capacity of the cells was confirmed by latex bead ingestion. Based on these in vitro results, it can be concluded that saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis and leads to the development of a phagocytic cell phenotype. PMID:25297116

Caballé-Serrano, J; Cvikl, B; Bosshardt, D D; Buser, D; Lussi, A; Gruber, R

2015-01-01

118

Comparison of biomarkers in blood and saliva in healthy adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines) in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter paper saliva samples in 50 healthy adults. Demographic data and three samples were obtained from each subject: saliva collected on filter paper over 1 minute, saliva collected by passive drool over 30 seconds, and venous blood (3?mL) collected by venipuncture. Cytokines were assayed using Bio-Rad multiplex suspension array technology. Descriptive statistics and pairwise correlations were used for data analysis. The sample was 52% male and 74% white. Mean age was 26 (range = 19-63 years, sd = 9.7). The most consistent and highest correlations were between the passive drool and filter paper saliva samples, although relationships were dependent on the specific biomarker. Correlations were not robust enough to support substitution of one collection method for another. There was little correlation between the plasma and passive drool saliva samples. Caution should be used in substituting saliva for blood, and relationships differ by biomarker. PMID:22619709

Williamson, Sarah; Munro, Cindy; Pickler, Rita; Grap, Mary Jo; Elswick, R K

2012-01-01

119

Immunoreactive thyroglobulin-like material derived from saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of an immunoreactive thyroglobulin-like material in saliva from normal subjects and from 35 patients with thyroid carcinoma was detected by radioimmunoassay. The levels of this material in saliva were markedly elevated in patients with extensive metastases. Concentrated saliva samples from normal subjects and from patients with thyroid carcinoma were fractioned on Sepharose-6B and each fraction was assayed from thyroglobulin content by RIA. Several protein peaks of varying molecular size with thyroglublin-like immunoreactivity were observed. The physiological significance of these molecules in saliva remains to be established. PMID:6637333

Shah, D H; Dandekar, S R; Jeevanram, R K; Thakare, U R; Ajaykumar, B S; Ganatra, R D

1983-11-01

120

Towards saliva-based screening for sleeping sickness?  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot study was carried out on the detection of trypanosome-specific antibodies in saliva for diagnosis of sleeping sickness. All twenty-three saliva samples of parasitologically confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients tested positive in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas all 14 saliva samples of a negative control group remained negative. Trypanosome-specific antibody levels in patient saliva correlated with antibody levels in serum, but were about 250-fold lower. Eight of 23 undiluted saliva samples of sleeping sickness patients tested positive in CATT/T. b. gambiense and two of 23 in LATEX/T. b. gambiense. All fourteen saliva samples of the negative control group were also positive in CATT/T. b. gambiense, as were four of 14 in LATEX/T. b. gambiense. CATT and LATEX were thus inappropriate for antibody detection in saliva. These results indicate that trypanosome-specific antibody detection in saliva is possible. This could lead to the development of a simple, non-invasive, reliable saliva field test for diagnosis of sleeping sickness. PMID:12828539

Lejon, V; Kwete, J; Büscher, P

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saliva is a secretion of the salivary and mucous glands and is of major importance in the maintainance of oral health. Over the last few decades, saliva has been evaluated as a diagnostic fluid in medicine for determining systemic disease markers as well as for monitoring numerous drugs, narcotics, and hormones. The biochemical analysis of saliva is particularly important in dentistry. The estimation of the risk of appearance and diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progression, evaluation of therapy efficacy for caries, periodontitis, premalignant and malignant oral lesions, as well as infectious diseases of the oral cavity, can be assessed by analyzing different constituent: of saliva, individuals at risk of caries can be identified using test: that determine saliva flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, and colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic bacteria. Today, these rapid and simple diagnostic tests are used routinely in caries risk determination. The study and use of saliva-based diagnostics have increased over the last few decades. Clinical testing of saliva shows much promise. However, there is a need for much additional research in this area, before the true clinical value of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in dentistry can be determined.

Todorovi? Tatjana

2005-01-01

122

Salivating for Knowledge: Potential Pharmacological Agents in Tick Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Joppe Hovius and colleagues review anticoagulant and immunosuppressive proteins present in tick saliva, and discuss how immunologically targeting such molecules could prevent transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Levi, Marcel; Fikrig, Erol

2008-01-01

123

Electronic information resource use: implications for teaching and library staff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within institutions of higher education, teaching staff and library-based information specialists have tended to occupy separate worlds. Although there has been some contact, in the main this has been partial and intermittent. For first-year students, one consequence of this state of affairs has been the absence of a systematic and co-ordinated strategy for enabling them to acquire, practise and develop information-gathering skills. Teaching staff have seen their role in this respect mainly in terms of issuing students with reading lists containing a mix of books and journal articles, and underlying this approach is the expectation that information specialists will be on hand to provide whatever additional help is needed to access these resources, for example through the provision of introductory talks and one-to-one support sessions. Relatively few teaching staff have incorporated library exercises into their teaching and assessment, or adopted a more creative approach to information gathering by students, such as helping them use bibliographic and other aids to prepare personalized reading lists. Consequently, when students have been required to do this at later stages of their studies, especially in the context of preparing a dissertation, they have not been adequately prepared, and often find it extremely difficult to access and evaluate information resources effectively.

Roger Ottewill

1997-12-01

124

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

Nerisa Kamar

2008-01-01

125

Growth of oral Streptococcus species and Actinomyces viscosus in human saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microorganisms in dental plaque live in constant association with saliva. The role of saliva in the adherence of bacteria to the teeth and the antibacterial properties of saliva have been well investigated; less interest has been shown in the possible role of saliva as a substrate for oral microorganisms. In this study it was shown that saliva can serve as a growth medium for oral Streptococcus spp. and Actinomyces viscosus. The cell production of these organisms on saliva was carbohydrate li...

Jong, M. H.; Hoeven, J. S.; Os, J. H.; Olijve, J. H.

1984-01-01

126

Aphid gel saliva : Sheath structure, protein composition and secretory dependence on stylet-tip milieu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliv...

Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; Bel, Aart J. E.

2012-01-01

127

Aphid Gel Saliva: Sheath Structure, Protein Composition and Secretory Dependence on Stylet-Tip Milieu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliv...

Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; Bel, Aart J. E.

2012-01-01

128

Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates ? 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p <0.001). However, significantly lower unstimulated (p <0.05)and stimulated (p <0.01) saliva flow rates were obtained after radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p <0.01) and in a period after sucking the candies (p <0.01). HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p <0.001 and p <0.05). Conclusions. Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian

2013-01-01

129

Detección Molecular de Estreptococos Cariogénicos en Saliva Molecular Detection of Cariogenic Streptococci in Saliva  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus han sido indicados como los principales agentes etiológicos de la caries dental. Sin embargo, los métodos microbiológicos y bioquímicos, disponibles actualmente en Chile, no permiten la rápida detección e identificación de estas bacterias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar la metodología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para detectar la presencia de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva. Participaron de este estudio 51 escolares (5 a 17 años, provenientes de cinco diferentes colegios de la ciudad de Temuco; a los cuales se les realizó recuento de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva por método microbiológico y la diferenciación de especies por la técnica de PCR. Los resultados mostraron que la sensibilidad para la técnica de PCR fue 1000 UFC/mL de saliva, diez veces superior a la sensibilidad del método microbiológico utilizado (10.000 UFC/mL. Además, el análisis de la especificidad de la amplificación, evaluada por restricción enzimática, confirmó la presencia de las bacterias investigadas. La prevalencia de S. mutans fue de 88.2% y para S. sobrinus de 11.8%. La presencia conjunta de ambas bacterias fue observada en 7.8% de los individuos. En conclusión, podemos señalar que la metodología implementada es útil para la detección rápida de S. mutans y S. sobrinus en saliva.Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main causative organisms of dental caries. Nevertheless, the microbiological and biochemical methods, available at the moment in Chile, do not allow to the fast detection and identification of these bacteria. The aim of this investigation is implement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva. A total of 51 schoolchildren (5 to 17 years oíd from five different schools from Temuco city (Chile participated in this study. The presence of salivary mutans streptococci was determined by microbiological method, and the species differentiation was assessed using PCR technique. The sensitivity for the PCR technique was 1000 cfu/mL of saliva, ten times superior to the sensitivity of the microbiological method used (10,000 cfu/mL. In addition, the analysis of the specificity of the amplification, evaluated by enzymatic restriction, confirmed the presence of the investigated bacteria. The prevalence of S. mutans was of 88.2% and for 5. sobrinus was 11.8%. The combined presence of both bacteria was observedin 7.8% of the individuáis. In conclusión, theobtained results indícate that the implemented methodology is useful for the rapid detection of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva.

Luis A Salazar

2008-12-01

130

Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles. PMID:22550109

Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

2012-05-01

131

Detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in serum and saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we report the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in paired serum and saliva collected from 118 HIV-1 infected patients and 80 normal controls in Madras, South India. Saliva was collected using Omnisal (R) collection device. All the reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot test (WB), while all the control serum and saliva were negative for HIV-1 antibodies. 107 (90.6%) HIV individual's serum and saliva contained antibodies to HIV-1. When these reactive samples were tested by WB test for confirmation the following results were obtained; 68% HIV individuals' paired serum and saliva were positive; while 9% of serum samples were positive and the saliva specimens were negative on WB. 3% of paired samples showed indeterminate Western blot pattern in contrast to 10% of serum showed full WB pattern while the saliva result was indeterminate. It is suggested that saliva testing may be appropriate for surveillance and epidemiological studies. However, if used for individual HIV diagnosis it is imperative to use a confirmatory test. PMID:12521084

Samuel, N M; Chandrasekaran, A; Paul, S A

1997-04-01

132

Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

Maharaj, Payal D; Widen, Steven G; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G; Thangamani, Saravanan

2015-01-01

133

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected t...

Richards Julie; McClure Jennifer B; McElroy Mary; Jack Lisa M; Nishita Denise M; Swan Gary E; Bergen Andrew W

2009-01-01

134

Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18–24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan

2015-01-01

135

The effects of postexercise feeding on saliva antimicrobial proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, ?-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (prefeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva ?-amylase and SIgA responses. PMID:22693239

Costa, Ricardo J S; Fortes, Matthew B; Richardson, Katharine; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P

2012-06-01

136

Saliva and serum lithium monitoring in hospitalized children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and saliva lithium levels are presented for 30 inpatients, ages 5.12 to 11.95 years, diagnosed as having conduct disorder of the undersocialized aggressive type. Maintenance doses of lithium carbonate ranged from 600 mg to 1,500 mg/day. Serum and saliva lithium levels were significantly correlated at optimal dose (r = .78, p less than .001) and overall (r = .83, p less than .001), lending support to the use of saliva lithium levels as an adjunct to serum lithium determinations. However, because saliva/serum lithium ratios reveal wide ranges between subjects, the use of saliva levels is limited, and laboratory assessments should be combined with careful clinical monitoring. PMID:2236463

Spencer, E K; Campbell, M; Adams, P; Perry, R; Choroco, M C; Padron-Gayol, M; Small, A M

1990-01-01

137

Simple direct assays for measuring oestradiol and progesterone in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and rapid assays for measuring progesterone and oestradiol in saliva are reported. These assays utilize 125I-labelled hormones and appear to be of adequate specificity and reproducibility for use in clinical practice. Assays may be performed directly on samples of saliva. Oestradiol levels were around 3, 13 and 7 pmol/L in the follicular phase, periovulatory period and mid-luteal phase, respectively. Progesterone concentrations were around 110 pmol/L in the periovulatory period and 440 pmol/L in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent numerical correlation between concentrations of steroid in serum and saliva but changes in saliva concentration reflected those seen in plasma or serum. Oestradiol levels in saliva appeared to be related to the dialysable ('free') levels in serum. (author)

138

Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

2014-09-01

139

Accommodating Consortia within Electronic Resource Management Systems: Extending the ERMI Specifications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses the needs of library consortia with respect to electronic resource management systems. The paper notes areas where the ERMI data dictionary fails to accommodate groups of libraries that by choice or necessity share an ERMS. The article documents areas where extension of the ERMI specifications is warranted in order to support library consortia.

Medeiros, Norm

2006-01-01

140

The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

Xiaohua Zhu

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

142

Bit by Bit: A Series of Trends, Tools, and Initiatives Are Aimed at Improving Electronic Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources are more prominent than ever in library collections, yet they resist easy management. A range of tools and cooperative efforts are emerging to improve the management and evaluation of electronic resources. Initiatives are underway to standardize and automate the harvesting of usage statistics and e-journal title and holdings…

Webster, Peter

2006-01-01

143

Transmisión del hiv por la saliva: ¿mito o realidad? / Hiv transmission through saliva: myth or reality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El impacto causado por el SIDA en los profesionales de salud y la presencia del HIV en diversos fluidos corporales ha estado generando una discusión sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus a través de la saliva. El manejo frecuente del cirujano dentista frente a la secreción salivar exige de e [...] ste profesional el conocimiento necesario respecto a esta posible vía de transmisión. Al revisar la literatura, describiendo los puntos clave en lo tocante al asunto, se concluye que, probablemente, la baja concentración del virus en la saliva y la presencia de componentes salivares anti-HIV serían factores responsables por un reducido riesgo de transmisión oral del HIV. Pero, la existencia de soluciones de continuidad en la mucosa oral crea una vía de contaminación no debiendo, por lo tanto, esta posibilidad ser descuidada. Abstract in english The AIDS impact over healthcare professionals and the presence of HIV in body fluids has generated a concern about the possibility of transmission of the virus through the saliva. Frequent handling of the dental surgeon on salivary secretion demands from this professional the necessary knowledge in [...] relation to this possible way of transmission. This review of the literature describes key points regarding this subject, and some conclusions could be drawn: probably, the low concentration of HIV in saliva and the presence of anti-HIV salivary components would be responsible factors for a reduced risk of oral HIV transmission. However, the existence of a portal of entry on oral mucosa creates a possibility of contamination, which should not be neglected.

Fábio, Barbosa de Souza; Candice, Ramos Marques; Jair, Carneiro Leão.

2006-08-01

144

Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

1993-01-01

145

Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

2014-01-01

146

Biochemical markers in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome characterized by disorder in metabolism of carbon hydrates, lipids and proteins. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by measuring the blood glucose level using standardized methods. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose level could be inconvenient for patients because of possible pain during blood sample taking. In the last few years biological materials with non invasive sampling, like saliva, have been analyzed. Research has confirmed that some organic and inorganic components of saliva are modified in diabetic patients (glucose, lipid and protein components, oxidative stress markers, electrolytes. Beside other markers, the analysis of glucose in saliva is an attempt to find a non-invasive and painless way for frequent monitoring of glucose concentration in diabetic patients. Collecting saliva is simple and economical, it neither requires expensive equipment nor specially trained staff. Saliva can be taken many times and in unlimited quantity. In regards to the data about the possibilities for using saliva as biological sample in monitoring diabetes mellitus, which could be alternative to blood serum or plasma, the conclusion is that saliva becomes more important in this context.

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana

2012-01-01

147

Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. Method Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. Conclusions Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells.

Gabrielsson Susanne

2011-01-01

148

HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

2014-05-01

149

The effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro  

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OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro. METHODS A total of 204 bovine enamel samples were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated to 17 groups (n=12). The specimens were eroded in an artificial mouth (3 days; 6??30 s/days, flow rate: 2 ml/min) using citric acid (pH: 2.5). Immediately after the erosive attacks, saliva substitutes (12 sprays, 3 gels) were applied. Between the erosive cycles the specimens were rinsed with artificial saliva (f...

Aykut-yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

2014-01-01

150

Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

151

La saliva como medio de diagnóstico de VIH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La saliva como medio diagnóstico permite reconocer las concentraciones de una serie de componentes tanto endógenos como exógenos presentes en el organismo. Gracias a los anticuerpos presentes en la saliva se pueden aplicar las nuevas tecnologías biomédicas en el diagnóstico del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana causado por el VIH. Este novedoso método posee numerosas ventajas con respecto a las pruebas en sangre. Se plantea información sobre los fluidos bucales, los diversos componentes con posibilidad de diagnóstico presentes en la saliva y se establecen las características de un método diagnóstico (Omni-Sal® aplicado a personas que padecen de alguna enfermedad del complejo bucal. Descriptores

Ricardo Medina Madrid

2000-12-01

152

Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

153

Tritium in saliva measurements used for monitoring of exposed workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous measurement of tritium in urine and saliva in exposed workers reveals differences in the kinetic fate of this radioelement in these two bodily fluids. During two years, four cases of accidental exposure, affecting seven workers, were used for these bioassays. Since the concentration of tritium increases much faster in saliva than in urine, a ratio estimated at 1 to 30 at about 30 minutes after contamination occurs, it is possible to consider saliva assay as an alternative to urine assay, which is more common practice today. (authors)

154

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar.

Claudio Maranhão Pereira

2004-12-01

155

Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients / Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos [...] que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das espécies identificadas, nos hemofílicos e grupo controle respectivamente, e C. tropicalis foi a segunda espécie mais comum. Estes resultados sugerem que pacientes hemofílicos albergam mais freqüentemente Candida na cavidade bucal e em maiores quantidades que os indivíduos do grupo controle, independentemente dos parâmetros clínicos analisados, como infecção viral, próteses dentárias, transfusões de hemoderivados e fluxo salivar. Abstract in english Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical fa [...] ctors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

Claudio Maranhão, Pereira; Fábio Ramôa, Pires; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti, Corrêa; Osvaldo, di Hipólito Júnior; Oslei Paes de, Almeida.

2004-12-01

156

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provid...

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah; Nayereh Dadkhah

2012-01-01

157

Rheological Behavior of Food Emulsions Mixed with Saliva: Effect of Oil Content, Salivary Protein Content, and Saliva Type  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we studied the effect of saliva on the rheological properties of ß-lactoglobulin- and lysozyme-stabilized emulsions, prepared at pH¿=¿6.7 in relation to variation of emulsions- and saliva-related parameters. The effect of oil¿volume fraction (2.5% w/w to 10% w/w), salivary protein concentration (0.1 to 0.8 mg ml¿1), and the use of both stimulated and unstimulated saliva was investigated. Viscosity and storage modulus were measured before (¿ emul and G¿emul, respectively)...

Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M. H.; Aken, G. A.; Norde, W.

2008-01-01

158

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for dat...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

2003-01-01

159

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

160

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Kinani, Latifa; Chtaini, Abdelilah

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Kinani, Latifa; Najih, Rachida; Chtaini, Abdelilah

2008-01-01

162

Does maternal saliva contain fetal DNA usable for prenatal diagnostics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive molecular analysis of fetal DNA is the diagnostic goal of prenatal medicine. Circulating fetal DNA can be detected in maternal plasma. Recently, it has been detected in the urine of pregnant women. We hypothesize that fetal DNA is present also in maternal saliva and that advances in stabilization and isolation of nucleic acids from saliva enable non-invasive and repeated sampling for prenatal diagnostics. The hypothesis is testable using saliva samples of pregnant women with confirmed male fetuses. Y-specific sequences should be detectable in salivary DNA. Caution must be given to the prevention of contamination. If proved in large studies, the presence of fetal DNA fragments in maternal saliva would enable a wide range of applications in prenatal medicine. PMID:19815350

Vlková, Barbora; Szemes, Tomás; Minárik, Gabriel; Turna, Ján; Celec, Peter

2010-02-01

163

Lipid patterns in the saliva of smoking young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary lipids are important for the maintenance of oral cavity health. Elevated salivary lipid levels are associated with an increase of caries incidence, plaque development, calculus formation and periodontal disease. However, the regulation of lipid salivary levels is scarcely known. Cigarette smoke is considered a risk factor for oral cavity diseases. We study how cigarette smoke may affect the secretion of salivary lipids. To this purpose, we determine the salivary levels of cholesterol and of glycerolipids in saliva sampled from smokers and non-smokers at various times of day. We observe an increase of glycerophospholipid and a decrease of cholesterol levels in the smokers' saliva collected at 10 p.m. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids in chief phospholipids of saliva are lower in smokers at 7 a.m. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrate that cigarette smoke induces variations of saliva lipid pattern in young people even moderately smoking. PMID:21300688

Palmerini, C A; Saccardi, C; Ferracci, F; Arienti, S

2011-10-01

164

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva  

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Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were...

Sj, Aledavood; Zahraei-salehi, T.; Oskouizadeh, K.

2010-01-01

165

Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

Richards Julie

2009-10-01

166

The role of electrostatistics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson (Eds.), Food colloids 2004: Interactions, microstructure and processing (pp. 356¿366). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry; Vingerhoeds, M. H., Blijdenstein, T. B. J., Zoet, F. D., & van Ake...

Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M. H.; Norde, W.; Aken, G. A.

2007-01-01

167

Evidence for thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase activity in human saliva.  

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A procedure was developed for determining the relative levels of lactoperoxidase, leukocyte myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase in human saliva. With this procedure, most of the peroxidase activity in whole saliva from normal (those without cancer) subjects was found to be associated with lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase, with only a minor contribution from leukocyte myeloperoxidase. In contrast, thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase and leukocyte myeloperoxid...

Cowman, R. A.; Baron, S. S.; Obenauf, S. D.; Byrnes, J. J.

1983-01-01

168

Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics  

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Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

Yeh, Chih-ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; Mcdevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

2010-01-01

169

Magnesium concentration in saliva -- an indicator of digitalis toxicity. ?  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prospective study salivary magnesium was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 168 patients on chronic digoxin therapy. Magnesium concentration in saliva was correlated with clinical data and plasma digoxin levels. A significant elevation in salivary magnesium concentration was caused by digoxin therapy (0.58 +/- 0.39 mmol/l, n = 93) in comparison to patients with no digitalis treatment (0.17 +/- 0.07 mmol/l, n = 35). Magnesium concentrations in saliva were significantly higher in toxic patients (1.1 +/- 0.68 mmol/l, n = 32) than in nontoxic patients. Possibly toxic patients showed a magnesium level of saliva of 0.63 +/- 0.39 mmol/l (n = 40). In 89% of the intoxicated patients salivary magnesium concentrations were higher than 1.0 mmol/l. The overlap of magnesium between toxic and nontoxic patients was less as compared to calcium and potassium concentrations in saliva. No changes were noted in serum magnesium levels. Magnesium concentration in saliva was influenced by chronic digoxin therapy only. No significant increase of magnesium in saliva was observed within 24 h after i.v. injection of 1.0 mg digoxin in four healthy volunteers. It is concluded that salivary magnesium concentration is a valid method for monitoring digoxin therapy in addition to plasma digoxin levels. PMID:7253536

Gilfrich, H J; Engel, H J; Prellwitz, W

1981-06-15

170

Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

171

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

172

Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:23524431

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2013-01-01

173

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

2012-12-01

174

Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva from children with chronic hepatitis B infection: implications for saliva as a potential mode of horizontal transmission  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To explore the mechanism of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children, we investigated the quantitative relationship between HBV in saliva and blood from 46 children with chronic hepatitis B. We found high levels of HBV DNA in saliva of HBeAg (+) children, suggesting saliva as a vehicle for horizontal transmission of HBV among children.

Heiberg, Ida Louise; Hoegh, Mette

2010-01-01

175

Aggregation of group A streptococci by human saliva and effect of saliva on streptococcal adherence to host cells.  

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The aggregation of group A streptococci by whole, stimulated human saliva (WHS) and the effect of saliva on streptococcal adherence to host cells was investigated. WHS samples from 11 individuals were found to aggregate both M+ and M- group A streptococci to various degrees. The aggregating activity was sensitive to heat, EDTA, EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and lipoteichoic acid. None of the simple sugars tested, mercapto...

Courtney, H. S.; Hasty, D. L.

1991-01-01

176

Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

2012-01-01

177

Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence  

Science.gov (United States)

High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

2004-01-01

178

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

Science.gov (United States)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

2014-01-01

179

Comparative evaluation of qigong on various parameters of saliva  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Qigong is a type of Chinese psychosomatic exercise that integrates meditation, slow physical movements, and breathing. Numerous physical and mental benefits have been classically ascribed to qigong. On the other hand, unstimulated saliva is thought to play an important role in oral immunity, enamel stability and moisturizing the oral mucous membrane. Impaired salivary secretion leads to dental caries, mucosal deterioration and mouth dryness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a qigong program on various parameters of saliva such as quantity of unstimulated saliva, pH and SIgA. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects participated in this clinical trial study. The experimental subjects underwent a qigong training program, conducted by a qualified instructor. The program consisted of half an hour daily practice for 6 months (spring and winter. Saliva was collected in two periods: once during the spring before the experiment commencement and the second, in the following spring. During each period saliva collection was done on tuesday of each week. pH and quantity of salvia measurements were taken simultaneously. SIgA measurements were also taken based on the values obtained in the last phase of the experiment at the end of each spring. The results were analyzed using paired sample T test, one way repeated measure and Bon Ferroni multiple comparison. P<0.05 was the level of significance. Results: Based on our findings, the change in the amount of unstimulated salvia as well as SIgA was statistically significant (P<0.001; however, there was no significant difference in pH values before and after experiment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that after 6 months of practicing qigong, significant changes in amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA occurred in participants. The authors suggest that qigong may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances amount of unstimulated saliva and SIgA.

Bayat Movahed S.

2007-05-01

180

Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes.  

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The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L; Cargile, Benjamin J; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Lee, Cheng S; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L; Sevinsky, Joel R; States, David; Stephenson, James L; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Saliva transit in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is an important factor in the neutralization of the acidity of the refluxed material that comes from the stomach to the esophagus. The impairment of saliva transit from oral cavity to distal esophagus may be one of the causes of esophagitis and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the scintigraphic method, the transit of 2?mL of artificial saliva was measured in 30 patients with GERD and 26 controls. The patients with GERD had symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation, a 24-hour pH monitoring with more than 4.2% of the time with pH below four, 26 with erosive esophagitis, and four with non-erosive reflux disease. Fourteen had mild dysphagia for solid foods. Twenty-one patients had normal esophageal manometry, and nine had ineffective esophageal motility. They were 15 men and 15 women, aged 21-61 years, mean 39 years. The control group had 14 men and 12 women, aged 19-61 years, mean 35 years. The subjects swallowed in the sitting and supine position 2?mL of artificial saliva labeled with 18?MBq of (99m) Technetium phytate. The time of saliva transit was measured from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, and the transit through proximal, middle, and distal esophageal body. There was no difference between patients and controls in the time for saliva to go from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, and from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, in the sitting and supine positions. In distal esophagus in the sitting position, the saliva transit duration was shorter in patients with GERD (3.0 ± 0.8 seconds) than in controls (7.6 ± 1.7 seconds, P = 0.03). In conclusion, the saliva transit from oral cavity to the esophageal-gastric transition in patients with GERD has the same duration than in controls. Saliva transit through the distal esophageal body is faster in patients with GERD than controls. PMID:25082357

Cassiani, R A; Mota, G A; Aprile, L R O; Dantas, R O

2014-08-01

182

Semanti?ki veb i elektronski izvori informacija-SEMANTIC WEB AND ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES  

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The usage of electronic resources depends on good possibilities of searching and concept of the Semantic Web can be convenient solution for information retrieval (IR). WWW (World Wide Web) enables, with help of the search engines and huge number of available (meta)information, data that can satisfy user information need, but only at some extent. At the same time, there are more and more research efforts to increase the efficiency for IR until one gets as much as relevant information on the We...

Radovanovic, Danica

2003-01-01

183

CHROMOGRANIN A DETECTION IN SALIVA OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS  

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Full Text Available Chromogranin A is present in secretion granules of nerve, endocrine and immune cells and is a precursor of several peptides with antibacterial and antifungal properties at micromolar concentrations.Our aim in this prospective, double blind study, was to determine the expression of chromogranin A and its peptides at protein level in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients and thereby to obtain a new non-invasive diagnostic means for the future.Saliva was taken from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals at the same time interval in the morning without any oral stimuli. Circadianic periodics in protein productions have been avoided. The presence of chromogranin A and its derived peptides was determined in whole saliva, after centrifugation at 40C for 12 min at 14 000 rpm, by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Immunoblotting (Western Blot. To ensure same protein concentrations Bradford protein quantification assay has been performed before.For the first time, we have determined an overexpression of chromogranin A in saliva of diabetic patients in 100% of the individuals.Chromogranin A, a circulating biomarker for epithelial tumours, is also overexpressed in saliva of type 2 diabetic patients. To confirm our results, more studies with a large amount of patients is necessary.

Martine Soell

2010-02-01

184

Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

2014-06-11

185

Elemental ion release from fixed restorative materials into patient saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the elemental ion release from the fixed gold alloy and ceramic crowns into patient saliva. Twenty patients who participated in the study were divided into two equal groups; 1) full coverage type IV gold crowns and 2) full coverage CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns. Saliva collection and clinical evaluation of marginal integrity and gingival health were performed before crowns preparation, 3 months and 6 months after crowns placement. Clinical evaluations were conducted using California Dental Association criteria. Collected saliva samples were analysed for element release using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The zinc, copper, palladium, gold and silver were released from type IV gold crowns into saliva, while the silicon and aluminium were released from ceramic crowns. A clinically significant number of subjects had increased release of zinc from baseline to three-month recall and increased silicon release from baseline to both three-month and six-month recalls. For all elements, the subjects' counts for the case of three-month recall to six-month recall were never higher than that of the case of baseline to three-month recall except for palladium. No obvious adverse effects on marginal integrity or gingival health were noticed. Significant increased releases of zinc from cast gold crowns and silicon from CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns into the saliva were evident after 3 months of clinical service. PMID:23438065

Elshahawy, W; Ajlouni, R; James, W; Abdellatif, H; Watanabe, I

2013-05-01

186

Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

2014-07-01

187

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (PSaliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

188

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

189

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

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Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

Wajeeh M. Daher

2010-12-01

190

Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by ?-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year-1. (author)

191

Detection of human papillomavirus in the saliva of women with concurrent human papillomavirus related genital lesions.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The high risk HPV 16 is the most common simultaneous HPV subtype in the saliva and cervix of the cases. Identifying the HPV subtypes in saliva may facilitate recognizing persistent genital infections.

Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

2011-02-01

192

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Itunu Bamidele

2012-06-01

193

Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Henderson, Davin M; Manca, Matteo; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A

2013-01-01

194

Effects of irradiation on saliva in cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whole unstimulated saliva was analyzed in 15 healthy individuals and 15 patients with malignant tumors in the head and neck region before and during irradiation therapy. Flow rate, pH, electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg), protein and phosphate were measured. There was a decrease in rate of flow, and pH changed towards acidity. The most significant finding was the increased sodium content. We believe that irradiation reduces the reabsorption ability of the tubuli, causing the sodium content of the saliva to increase. (author)

195

MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2007-01-01

196

Virus excretion and neutralizing antibody response in saliva in human cytomegalovirus infection.  

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The local secretory immune mechanism in infants with cytomegalovirus infection was studied by a measurement of neutralizing antibody in saliva. Neutralizing antibodies were determined by the microculture plaque assay in 65 saliva specimens including 54 samples from cytomegalovirus-infected subjects and 11 from seronegative controls. In addition, cytomegalovirus isolation from saliva or urine or both and antibody determination in serum and saliva were simultaneously performed on seven infants ...

Tamura, T.; Chiba, S.; Chiba, Y.; Nakao, T.

1980-01-01

197

Individually Modified Saliva Delivery Changes the Perceived Intensity of Saltiness and Sourness  

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Individuals vary largely in their salivary flow and composition, and given the importance of saliva on perception of taste, this might influence how the tastant stimuli are perceived. We therefore hypothesise that altering the individual salivary flow rates has an impact on the perceived taste intensity. In this study, we investigated the role of saliva amount on the perceived taste intensity by excluding parotid saliva and adding artificial saliva close to the parotid duct at preset flow rat...

Heinzerling, C. I.; Stieger, M. A.; Bult, J. H. F.; Smit, B.

2011-01-01

198

INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.  

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During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1) Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2) Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17) selected by their general diseases and con...

Maya Rashkova

2012-01-01

199

Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid  

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Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodiu...

Han Roelofsen; Vonk, Roel J.; Desiree Weening; Gloria Alvarez-Llamas; Vries, Marcel P.; Diederik Esser

2008-01-01

200

Derajat Keasaman (pH) Saliva Pada Rongga Mulut Berkaries Dan Tidak Berkaries  

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Karies gigi merupakan suatu proses kerusakan yang regresif pada jaringan keras gigi, akibat terganggunya keseimbangan antara email dan lingkungannya. Stabilitas email sebagian besar ditentukan oleh derajat keasaman (pH) dan susunan saliva. Saliva adalah suatu cairan oral kompleks yang terdiri dari campuran dari ekskresi kelenjar mayor dan minor. Volume saliva yang diekskresikan selama 24 jam diperkirakan 500-600 ml. Derajat keasaman (pH) saliva berkisar antara 6,2-7,6 dengan rata-rata 6,7....

Maryati,

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Reproducibility of saliva and plasma theophylline levels following single dose administration of two sustained release preparations.  

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1 Concomitant saliva and plasma theophylline concentrations were measured in six healthy male volunteers following single dose administration of two sustained release preparations (Nuelin SA and Phyllocontin Continus). 2 Using mean values, a good correlation was obtained between saliva and plasma drug concentrations. Prediction of plasma values using individual saliva was poor and varied widely. The ratio of saliva to plasma concentrations in the same individual, assessed under standardised c...

Jackson, A. H.; Edwards, C.; Cope, A. S.; Stockley, R. A.; Purkiss, R.

1983-01-01

202

Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

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We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our re...

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

2014-01-01

203

Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level  

Science.gov (United States)

The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

2014-08-01

204

Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

1980-01-01

205

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

206

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats’ saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing."nResults: In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110 from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110, and in any feral cats' saliva and nail samples (n=30."nConclusion: Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

SJ Aledavood

2010-09-01

207

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

208

Shear bond strengths of saliva contaminated 'one-bottle' adhesives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva contamination on the bond strengths of three one-bottle bonding systems. The dentin of 90 recently extracted, non-carious human molar teeth was exposed and ground wet on 500 grit silicon carbide (SIC) paper to establish a bonding surface in superficial dentin. Specimens were randomly assigned to nine groups of 10 teeth each. Three testing conditions are: (i) contamination with fresh saliva (pH 5.5) after acid etching, (ii) contamination with fresh saliva after bonding application, and (iii) no contamination. Three adhesive systems are: syntac single component, prime & bond NT, and gluma one bond. Cylinders of composite were applied via PTFE (polytetrafluroethylene) split mould and light cured to the dentin surfaces. All specimens were thermocycled (5000 cycles) between baths of 5 and 55 degrees C. Shear bond strengths were measured using an Instron Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min-1. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data. The results of this study indicated that the saliva contamination of dentin has no adverse effect on the bonding efficiency of one-bottle adhesive systems (P > 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of tested adhesives. PMID:12071925

Taskonak, B; Sertgöz, A

2002-06-01

209

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Latifa KINANI

2007-08-01

210

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Latifa KINANI

2008-06-01

211

Determination of trace elements in human saliva by PIXE technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mineral trace element concentration of human saliva from healthy volunteers, were investigated by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis. The specimens were bombarded with Proton beams of 2 MeV from a Van de Graaff accelerator at NRC. The object of this measurement was to find a normal range of trace element concentration for Iranian people. (author)

Hatami, P.; Peyrovan, H.; Afarideh, H. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaei, S.

1996-12-31

212

EXCRETION OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN RAT SALIVA  

Science.gov (United States)

The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...

213

Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine  

Science.gov (United States)

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...

214

The unique correlation between anti-mutagenicity of human saliva and change in body weight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction on the anti-mutagenicity of human saliva. Subjects were 16 male college judo players. The anti-mutagenicity of the saliva was measured using the umu test. There was an inhibiting effect of the saliva on the mutagenicity of AF-2. However, a modifying effect of the saliva on Trp-P-1 was not observed. On the day before a competition and 7 days after the competition, the inhibiting capacity of the saliva for the mutagenic...

Toda, Masahario; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kazuo

2001-01-01

215

Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

2000-04-01

216

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

217

Condiciones optimas de manipulación para la cuantificación de fibronectina en saliva / Optimal assay conditions for quantifying fibronectin in saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La fibronectina (Fn) es una glucoproteína presente en múltiples fluidos y tejidos orgánicos, tanto en condiciones fisiológicas como patológicas. También en la saliva puede detectarse aunque en muy pequeñas cantidades y frecuentemente en cadenas fragmentadas, induce agregación bacterian [...] a y sus niveles se reducen cuando aumentan los niveles de bacterias cariogénicas o periodontopatógenas. La capacidad infectiva de la saliva de los pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodificiencia humana (VIH) se ha relacionado con los niveles de esta proteína. En algunas enfermedades crónicas de la mucosa oral como es el liquen plano, la concentración de Fn salivar se encuentra reducida. También su cuantificación varía en presencia de algunos tumores como el carcinoma oral de células escamosas, aunque no puede considerarse un factor específico. Objetivo: Debido a la baja concentración de Fn en la saliva y a su labilidad en la forma soluble, las condiciones de recogida y conservación de las muestras son extremadamente importantes, por ello nos proponemos en el presente trabajo estandarizar dichas condiciones con el fin de poder cuantificarla de manera óptima. Material y método: Se determinó la concentración de Fn en saliva humana de 20 personas sanas de edades comprendidas entre 28 y 54 años mediante técnica de ELISA, comparando la concentración de la proteína en muestras frescas, conservadas 24 h a 4ºC, o congeladas a - 40ºC durante diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados y conclusiones: Tras comparar diferentes formas de conservación de las muestras de saliva, observamos que las condiciones óptimas son: recoger las muestras en tubos de vidrio, cuantificarlas inmediatamente tras su recogida o como máximo 24 horas después, conservándolas a 4ºC. La congelación y posterior descongelación para su cuantificación induce pérdidas de hasta el 60 % de la proteína. Abstract in english Introduction: Fibronectin (Fn) is a glycoprotein that is present in many body fluids and tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. It can also be detected in the saliva, although only in very small quantities and frequently in broken chains. It induces bacterial aggregation and its [...] levels fall when those of cariogenic or periodontal pathogenic bacteria rise. The infective capacity of the saliva of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been linked to the levels of this protein. In some chronic conditions of the oral mucosa, such as oral lichen planus, the concentration of salivary fibro-nectin is lower than usual. Fibronectin quantity also varies in the presence of some tumours, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, although it cannot be considered a specific factor. Aims: Due to the low Fn concentration in saliva and its lability in the soluble form, sample collection and conservation conditions are extremely important. The aim of this study is therefore to standardise these conditions so that the Fn can be quantified in an optimum manner. Materials and methods: The Fn concentration in human saliva was determined in 20 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 54 by means of the ELISA technique and the concentration of the protein in fresh samples kept at 4ºC for 24 hours was compared with that of frozen samples kept at -40ºC for different periods of time. Results and Conclusions: After comparing different ways of conserving the saliva samples, we found that the optimum conditions were to collect the samples in glass tubes and to quantify them immediately after collection or conserve them at 4ºC and quantify them within a maximum of 24 hours. Freezing and later thawing for quantification induced losses of up to 60% of the protein.

Mª Carmen, Llena Puy; Consuelo, Montañana Llorens; Leopoldo, Forner Navarro.

2004-07-01

218

Viskositas Saliva Sebelum Dan Setelah Mengunyah Buah Apel Dan Minum Jus Apel Pada Mahasiswa FKG USU Angkatan 2006-2007  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Buah apel merupakan buah yang asam dengan kisaran pH 2,9-3,5. Rasa asam dapat merangsang sekresi saliva dalam jumlah yang tinggi menyebabkan viskositas saliva lebih rendah. Nilai normal Viskositas saliva manusia adalah 2,75-15,51 centipoise. Penurunan viskositas saliva dihubungkan dengan penurunan karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya perbedaan viskositas saliva setelah mengunyah buah apel dan minum jus apel. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Eksperimental Laboratorium de...

Affianti, Hilda Sari

2010-01-01

219

Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource

Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

220

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

[Concentration of calcium ions in the saliva and the value of the pH of the saliva in female and male smokers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental decay is a pathological process of extrasomatic origin which leads to demineralization and proteolytic degradation of hard surfaces of a tooth susceptible to this disease. Saliva composition, including calcium ion concentration and its pH value, is of importance in the development of the carious process. Tobacco smoke contains toxic compounds which negatively influence oral health. The aim of the study was evaluation of the selected saliva components: protein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, pH value both in male and female smokers. The investigated group included 65 patients reporting for the treatment to the Department of Conservative Dentistry of Medical University in Lublin. In the investigated group male smokers constituted 15.38%, female smokers--20.00%, male nicotine abstinents 21.54% and female nicotine abstinent 43.08%. The study included both survey examinations of patients and biochemical examinations of the saliva. Mixed, non-stimulated saliva was used as a material for biochemical examinations. Ca2+ concentration and pH of the saliva were assayed with the use of Rapidlab 348 analyzer. Protein in the saliva was assayed with calorimetric method according to Lowry. Saliva was collected from smokers 10-120 minutes after smoking of several cigarettes. It was stated that Ca2+ and protein concentration as well as pH of the saliva were not correlated with sex and cigarette smoking or non-smoking. PMID:20301903

Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Rogowska, Wanda

2009-01-01

222

Pharmacokinetics of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in rat saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological monitoring (biomonitoring) to quantify systemic exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has historically focused on the quantitation of major CPF metabolites in urine. Noninvasive techniques are being advocated as novel means of biomonitoring for a variety of potential toxicants, including pesticides (like CPF), and saliva has been suggested as an ideal body fluid. However, in order to be acceptable, there is a need to understand salivary pharmacokinetics of CPF metabolites in order to extrapolate saliva measurements to whole-body exposures. In this context, in vivo pharmacokinetics of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), the major chemical-specific metabolite of CPF, was quantitatively evaluated in rat saliva. Experimental results suggest that TCPy partitioning from plasma to saliva in rats is relatively constant over a range of varying physiological conditions. TCPy pharmacokinetics was very similar in blood and saliva (area under the curve values were proportional and elimination rates ranged from 0.007 to 0.019 per hour), and saliva/blood TCPy concentration ratios were not affected by TCPy concentration in blood (p = 0.35) or saliva flow rate (p = 0.26). The TCPy concentration in saliva was highly correlated to the amount of unbound TCPy in plasma (r = 0.96), and the amount of TCPy protein binding in plasma was substantial (98.5%). The median saliva/blood concentration ratio (0.049) was integrated as a saliva/blood TCPy partitioning coefficient within an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF. The model was capable of accurately predicting TCPy concentrations in saliva over a range of blood concentrations. These studies suggest that saliva TCPy concentration can be utilized to ascertain CPF exposure. It is envisioned that the PBPK/PD can likewise be used to estimate CPF dosimetry based on the quantitation of TCPy in spot saliva samples obtained from biomonitoring studies. PMID:19920072

Smith, Jordan N; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Timchalk, Charles

2010-02-01

223

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

224

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was investigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in the formation of a protective layer, the resistance of which is high and could be comparedwith that of a passive layer resulting from electrochemical treatment. The replacement of vanadium with niobium or iron favours the passivation, thus increasing the corrosion resistance.

DANIEL MARECI

2005-06-01

225

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

226

When saliva meets acid: chemical warfare at the oesophagogastric junction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Western world at least, most upper gastrointestinal cancers now arise from the mucosa near to the oesophagogastric junction. Research into the mechanism of the development of adenocarcinoma at the oesophagogastric junction has mainly focused on the noxious effects of acid and bile. There is however an alternative concept for explaining the location of adenocarcinomas: the cancers are occurring at the anatomical site where saliva encounters acidic gastric juice and their interaction gen...

Mccoll, K. E. L.

2005-01-01

227

Biochemical markers in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome characterized by disorder in metabolism of carbon hydrates, lipids and proteins. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by measuring the blood glucose level using standardized methods. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose level could be inconvenient for patients because of possible pain during blood sample taking. In the last few years biological materials with non invasive sampling, like saliva, have been analyzed. Research has confirmed that s...

An?elski-Radi?evi? Biljana; Doži? Radica; Todorovi? Tatjana; Doži? Ivan

2012-01-01

228

HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae....

Hill James M; Nolan Nicole M; McFerrin Harris E; Clement Christian; Foster Timothy P; Halford William P; Kousoulas Konstantin G; Lukiw Walter J; Thompson Hilary W; Stern Ethan M; Bhattacharjee Partha S

2012-01-01

229

Microplate reader analysis of triatomine saliva effect on erythrocyte aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our hypothesis is that the action of aggregating and disaggregating substances in the blood can be detected and quantified by the Microplate Reader. To ascertain the validity of this hypothesis, we selected two types of blood: one that naturally presents erythrocyte aggregation (pig blood) and the o [...] ther that does not present aggregation (bovine blood). One important reason for the choice of pig blood is that its erythrocyte aggregation resembles that of human blood. T. infestans saliva was added to the pig blood as a disaggregating substance, while bovine fibrinogen was added to the bovine blood as a substance that promotes erythrocyte aggregation. We investigated the dynamic viscosity (h) of these mammals' blood, of T. infestans saliva and of the absorption (A) by Microplate Reader, carrying out UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays of pig plasma with different concentrations of triatominae saliva and of bovine blood with different concentrations of fibrinogen. Our findings indicate that spectroscopic techniques such as the Microplate Reader complement and expand the study of blood rheology, erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation.

Antonio Valadão, Cardoso; Marcos Horácio, Pereira; Guilherme de Araújo, Marcondes; Adriana Rosa, Ferreira; Patrícia Rosa de, Araújo.

2007-03-01

230

Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de saúde / Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of healthcare workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O estado de portador de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é apontado como preditor de infecção e fator para a disseminação ambiental e de pessoa a pessoa, incluindo trabalhadores de serviço de saúde. Estes quando colonizados são freqüentemente associados a surtos. Objetivo: A [...] nalisar a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva de trabalhadores de hospital universitário. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico longitudinal realizado em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, com 486 trabalhadores no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2008 compreendeu a coleta de três amostras de saliva e aplicação de instrumento de coleta de dados. Staphylococcus aureus foram isolados dos espécimes clínicos e caracterizados fenotipicamente. Os dados foram organizados e processados no Programa EPI-Info e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados:Entre os trabalhadores investigados, 60,9% estavam colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, sendo 67.9% carreadores transitórios e 32.1% carreadores persistentes; a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) entre os isolados foi de 15.7%. A prevalência média de MRSA foi de 12.7% sendo maior entre técnicos em enfermagem (21.4%) e auxiliares de limpeza (20.6%) e menor entre enfermeiros (4.5%) e médicos (5.9%). Conclusões: Os trabalhadores apresentaram alta prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus na saliva, indicando a boca como importante sítio corporal para a investigação da colonização por MRSA e potencial fonte para sua disseminação. Abstract in english Background: The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as an infection predictor and a factor for environmental and person-to-person dissemination, including health service workers. These, when colonized are commonly associated to outbreaks. Objective: Analyze the pr [...] evalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers at a university hospital. Methodology: Epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008. Three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes. The data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed via descriptive statistics. Results: Among the healthcare workers studied, 60.9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva; of those, 67.9% were transitory carriers and 32.1% were persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the isolated cases was 15.7%. The average prevalence of MRSA was 12.7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21.4%) and cleaning aides (20.6%) and lower among nurses (4.5%) and doctors (5.9%). Conclusions: Healthcare workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating the mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by MRSA and a potential source to its dissemination.

Elaine Drehmer, De Almeida Cruz; Fabiana Cristina, Pimenta; Izabel Cristina, Vanzato Palazzo; Ana Lúcia, da Costa Darini; Elucir, Gir.

2011-06-01

231

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

2012-07-01

232

Corrosion behaviour of FePt-based bulk magnets in artificial saliva solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bulk hard magnetic FePt-based alloys are proposed as new materials for dental applications. In this study the corrosion behaviour of bulk Fe50Pt50, Fe35Pt35P30 and Fe53Pt44C3 magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering of mechanically milled powders is evaluated in artificial saliva solution at 37 oC in dependence on their exposure time and in comparison to that of other relevant dental alloys by means of electrochemical polarisation measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The alloys exhibit in this environment a platinum-like behaviour and thus, they are highly stable also during long-term exposure. Enhanced corrosion activity does not occur when coupling these alloys with commercial dental alloys of Fe- and CoCr-based. A particular low-corroding state is attained in combination with the dental spring steel Fe-18Cr-18Mn-2Mo-1N

233

Concentrations of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Saliva: Implications for Preexposure Prophylaxis of Oral HIV Acquisition?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To prevent acquisition of HIV through oral sex, drugs used for preexposure prophylaxis (Prep) need to diffuse in saliva. We measured tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) concentrations simultaneously in the plasma and saliva of 41 HIV-infected patients under stable antiretroviral treatment. Mean ratios of saliva/plasma concentration were 3% (±4%) and 86.9% (±124%) for TFV and FTC, respectively. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) should be used in combination with FTC to prevent oral acq...

Lastours, Victoire; Fonsart, Julien; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Gourmel, Bernard; Molina, Jean-michel

2011-01-01

234

Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxyapatite coated with lysozyme and lysozyme-supplemented saliva.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled Streptococcus sanguis strains to bare hydroxyapatite and to hydroxyapatite coated with a range of concentrations of lysozyme, poly-L-lysine, poly-L-glutamic acid, whole saliva supernatant, and combinations of some of the above was studied. Adherence of several strains of S. sanguis to bare hydroxyapatite and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite was compared. Saliva present as a pellicle on the hydroxyapatite inhibited adherence of some strains (903, M-5, 73X11) ...

Tellefson, L. M.; Germaine, G. R.

1986-01-01

235

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in...

Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da Silva; Thelma Lopes da Silva; Magali Lourdes Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-01-01

236

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

Germaine, Greg; Tellefson, Lois M.

1982-01-01

237

A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author)

238

Characteristic differences between saliva-dependent aggregation and adhesion of streptococci.  

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Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Altho...

Rosan, B.; Malamud, D.; Appelbaum, B.; Golub, E.

1982-01-01

239

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Daher, Wajeeh M.; Ali Shaqour

2010-01-01

240

Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

Joanna Stragierowicz; Ajewska, Karolina Miko Amp X.; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Ska, Kinga Pola Amp X.; Danuta Ligocka

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

2010-02-24

242

Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. RESULTS: Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p?

Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V

2013-01-01

243

Short Communication: HIV Type 1 Escapes Inactivation by Saliva via Rapid Escape into Oral Epithelial Cells  

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Saliva contains anti-HIV-1 factors, which show unclear efficacy in thwarting mucosal infection. When incubated in fresh, unfractionated whole saliva, infectious HIV-1 IIIb and BaL (X4- and R5-tropic, respectively) persisted from 4 to at least 30?min in a saliva concentration-dependent manner. In salivary supernatant for up to 6?h, both infectious HIV-1 strains “escaped” into immortalized oral epithelial cells; infectious BaL showed selectively enhanced escape in the presence of saliva...

Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Gebhard, Kristin H.; Fasching, Claudine E.; Giacaman, Rodrigo A.; Kappes, John C.; Ross, Karen F.; Herzberg, Mark C.

2012-01-01

244

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

???89-102

???????????

2007-04-01

245

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

246

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

247

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle

2008-11-01

248

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests / Comportamento eletroquímico e estabilidade de pH de salivas artificiais para testes de corrosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Admite-se que as composições das salivas artificiais são semelhantes àquela da saliva humana. A utilização de soluções de composições distintas em estudos de corrosão in vitro, entretanto, pode fazer com que eletrólitos diferentes exibam diferenças no processo corrosivo e na estabilidade eletroquími [...] ca. Este estudo avaliou quatro salivas artificiais em relação a estabilidade do pH em função do tempo, potencial redox e resposta à polarização de um eletrodo de platina inerte. As soluções testadas foram: meio SAGF, saliva artificial Mondelli, saliva artificial UFRJ (preparada pela Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil) e saliva artificial USP-RP (preparada pela Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil). Foi observado que as variações de pH foram menores que 1 unidade durante as 50 horas de ensaio. O meio SAGF e as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP exibiram características mais oxidantes, enquanto a solução Mondelli apresentou propriedades redutoras. A polarização anódica mostrou oxidação dos eletrólitos avaliados a potenciais inferiores a +600 mV ECS. Foi observado que as soluções UFRJ e USP-RP são mais facilmente oxidadas e reduzidas se comparadas com as soluções Mondelli e SAGF. Abstract in english It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluate [...] d four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

Gláucia Maria Oliveira de, Queiroz; Leandro Freitas, Silva; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; José Antônio da Cunha P., Gomes; Lúcio, Sathler.

2007-09-01

249

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

Science.gov (United States)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

2011-01-01

250

Delivering supplemental oxygen during sedation via a saliva ejector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraoperative oxygen supplementation to sedated children has been shown to prevent hemoglobin desaturations even in the presence of apnea during pediatric conscious sedation. Although many practitioners deliver supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, this method is impractical and often unsuccessful if the child is a mouth breather, has moderate adenotonsillar hypertrophy or occasionally cries during treatment (at which time there will be mouth breathing). This paper describes a method in which the saliva ejector is used to deliver supplemental oxygen to sedated children while they are receiving dental treatment. The advantages of this method and suggestions for its successful application are also included. PMID:12212878

Milnes, Alan R

2002-01-01

251

Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpa...

Campus, Guglielmo Giuseppe; Lallai, Maria Rosaria; Carboni, Roberto

2003-01-01

252

mediante LC-MS en plasma y saliva.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Fluoxetina es uno de los representantes de los Inhibidores Selectivos de la Recaptación de Serotonina (ISRS, fármacos de primera elección en la terapia antidepresiva moderna. A pesar de la mayor seguridad con respecto a los antidepresivos clásicos, muchos autores defienden la necesidad de monitorizar sus niveles plasmáticos en determinadas circunstancias, dado la gran variabilidad interindividual en la de sus efectos. Se ha desarrollado un método rápido y sensible aplicando la tecnología LCMS que permite la determinación de Fluoxetina y su principal metabolito activo Norfluoxetina, tanto en plasma como en saliva, en 10 minutos, tras llevar a cabo una sencilla extracción líquido-líquido

A. de Castro

2005-01-01

253

Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

Nakai, M.; Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

1993-01-01

254

DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures Extração de DNA de saliva humana depositada sobre a pele e sua aplicabilidade aos processos de identificação forense  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were colleted from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected ...

Evelyn Anzai-Kanto; Mário Hiroyuki Hirata; Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata; Fabio Daumas Nunes; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani; Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira

2005-01-01

255

Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

2012-01-01

256

Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program

257

Effect of Saliva Contamination on Microleakage of a Fissure Selant with or without Bonding Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Contamination of etched enamel to saliva before placement of sealant prevents the appropriate bonding and results in microleakage. Using bondings is effective for decreasing the microleakage. This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of bonding agent on microleakage of a fissure sealant before or after contamination to saliva. Methods: In this experimental study 40 sound premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups. The prophylaxis was done and the teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, then they were washed and dried. In the first group, Seal-Rite fissure sealant and Dentastic (Pulpdent, USA without saliva contamination, and in the second group sealant with bonding agent after saliva contamination for 10s, were applied and cured for 40s. In the third group, fissure sealant without bonding agent or saliva contamination, and in the fourth group fissure sealant without bonding application was applied after contamination with saliva and then was cured. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours. The buccolingual sections were applied and microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 4X magnifications and results were evaluated with mann-whiteny test. Results: The fissure sealant group without bonding agent showed the most microleakage after contamination to saliva and use of sealant with bonding agent significantly showed decrease of microleakage. Conclusion: Use of bonding agent under fissure sealant in saliva-contamination status is beneficial for decreasing microleakage.

A Abarghooyi

2012-10-01

258

Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with candidiasis had greater than 400 colony-forming units per ml of saliva, whereas carriers of Candida albicans had less than 400 colony-forming units per ml. Thus, quantitative cultures of saliva may aid in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

Epstein, J. B.; Pearsall, N. N.; Truelove, E. L.

1980-01-01

259

Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2009-01-01

260

The effects of alcohol and smoking on serum, saliva, and urine sialic acid levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of smoking and alcohol on serum, saliva, and urine total sialic acid (TSA) levels, and on serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities. METHODS Serum, urine and saliva samples obtained from smokers, drinkers, and nonsmokers-nondrinkers (control) subjects. Total sialic acid was measured with the Warren's colorimetric...

Naciye Kurtul; Cil, Mehmet Y.; Ebubekir Bakan

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Efecto de Chicles con Xilitol sobre Placa Bacteriana, Flujo Salival y Capacidad Buffer de la Saliva en Adolescentes Chilenos / Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum on Dental Plaque, Saliva Flow and Saliva Buffer Capacity in Chilean Youngsters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prevención es el área de la odontología a la que se le debe dar más énfasis para disminuir posteriores consecuencias sobre la cavidad oral. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del uso de chicles con xilitol sobre placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva en jóv [...] enes. Participaron 15 alumnos de quinto año, se asignaron al azar en un grupo de estudio y un grupo control, consumiendo chicles con xilitol y un placebo respectivamente, 4 veces al día por 21 días. Se midió placa bacteriana, flujo salival y capacidad buffer de la saliva al día 0, 7, 14 y 21. La placa bacteriana se redujo en ambos grupos tras 21 días de tratamiento sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Asimismo el flujo salival aumentó tanto en el grupo de estudio como en el grupo de control, pero sin encontrar resultados significativos (p>0,05). El pH salival aumentó en ambos grupos, sin obtener valores significativos (p>0,05). Los resultados sugieren quemasticar chicles con xilitol disminuye la placa bacteriana, aumenta el flujo salival y la capacidad buffer de la saliva, pero estudios con un mayor número de pacientes deberían realizarse para obtener valores significativos. Abstract in english Prevention is the area of dentistry that should be given more emphasis to reduce further consequences on the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to assess the use of xylitol chewing gum on dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva buffer capacity in youngster. Fifteen dental students were randomly as [...] signed to a study and control group, the first received a xylitol chewing gum while the second a placebo chewing gum, provided 4 times per day for 21 days. Dental plaque, saliva flow and saliva ph were measures at day 0, 7, 14 and 21st. Dental plaque concentration decreased in both groups (p >0,05), saliva flow increased (p>0,05) and saliva ph was incremented but no significant differences were found among groups (p>0,05). The use of xylitol chewing gum helps to reduce dental plaque, increase saliva flow and ph, like the placebo chewing gum, but a larger study is needed to properly assess if xylitol has an additional benefit on the studied variables.

Manuel Felipe, Velásquez Castilla; Carmen Gloria, Narváez Carrasco.

262

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO) y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX), medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g), SHAM (n=12) y ovariectomizadas (OVX) (n=12). Luego de una semana...

Pellegrini Gretel; Macarena Gonzáles Cháves; Julia Somoza; Silvia Friedman; Zeni, Susana N.

2006-01-01

263

Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.

Timchalk, Charles (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lin, Yuehe (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Weitz, Karl K.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Thrall, Karla D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01

264

Enhanced saliva-mediated bacterial aggregation and decreased bacterial adhesion in caries-resistant versus caries-susceptible individuals.  

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A study of saliva-mediated aggregation and adhesion has been carried out in a group of caries-resistant (CR) and caries-susceptible (CS) individuals. The submandibular saliva of the CS group had a much greater potency, as determined by dilution, in promoting adherence to hydroxyapatite beads than did the saliva of CR group. In contrast, the CR group demonstrated a twofold enhancement of saliva-mediated aggregation compared with the CS group. These observations support the hypothesis that sali...

Rosan, B.; Appelbaum, B.; Golub, E.; Malamud, D.; Mandel, I. D.

1982-01-01

265

Increasing saliva (free) oestriol to progesterone ratio in late pregnancy: a role for oestriol in initiating spontaneous labour in man?  

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Oestriol and progesterone concentrations were measured in samples of saliva obtained daily from six normal women during the final four weeks before the spontaneous onset of labour. Progesterone concentrations were found to plateau whereas oestriol concentrations continued to rise so that the mean ratio of saliva oestriol to progesterone increased from 0.80 to 1.43 between 29 days and one day before labour. Saliva oestriol concentrations were 15 times higher than saliva oestradiol concentratio...

Mcgarrigle, H. H.; Lachelin, G. C.

1984-01-01

266

Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no ‘caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were ‘caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

2012-01-01

267

Saliva of Lygus lineolaris digests double stranded ribonucleic acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospects for development of highly specific pesticides based on double stranded ribonucleic acid have been a recent focus of scientific research. Creative applications have been proposed and demonstrated. However, not all insects are sensitive to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) gene knockdown effects; applications in the order Lepidoptera, for example, have met with varied success. Gene knockdown has been demonstrated in several species in the order Hemiptera. In our laboratory, knockdown experiments relied on microinjection of dsRNA into the hemocoel of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris. Subsequent experiments delivering dsRNA to insects by feeding were repeatedly unsuccessful in demonstrating knockdown, and a hypothesis was formulated that the dsRNA was digested and degraded by the insect prior to contact with the insect cells. Exposure of dsRNA to insect saliva, insect salivary glands, and insect hemolymph was compared with commercial RNAase III. The saliva of L. lineolaris was found to rapidly digest double stranded RNA. RNAase inhibitor did not affect the activity but heat treatment slowed enzymatic activity. PMID:22226823

Allen, Margaret L; Walker, William B

2012-03-01

268

AZITHROMYCIN DECREASE SALIVA CALPROTECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASES.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Calprotectin is a calcium binding heterocomplex protein which appear to have regulatory functions in the inflammatory process. Epithelial cells which expressing calprotectin are more resistant to bacterial invasion . In acute phase inflammatory reactions calprotectin is detectable in elevated levels. The aim of the present study is to detect the calprotectin level in saliva in patients with periodontal disease (chronic and aggressive periodontitis and gingivitis and to follow calprotectin level during azithromycin treatment. Methods and materials: In nine healthy patients without systemic disease and malignancy whole unstimulated saliva was investigated. Salivary calprotectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent using a commercial kit (ELISA Hycult Biotech. Azithromycin treatment was taken as 500 mg (2 x 250 mg tabls. once daily at 10.00 am for 4 consecutive days. Results: At baseline Day levels of calprotectin ranged between 1.45 and 2.97; median 2.19. On Day 5 (first day after azithromycin treatment the salivary calprotectin levels decreased in 6 of the patients. The measured values at Day 10 were more similar to those at Day 5, than those at Day zero. This was confirmed by the values of the average median of calprotectin. Conclusion: We present the first study with the application of antibiotic and measurement the calprotectin levels before, during and after azithromycin intake with no side effects reported. Measuring calprotectin levels could benefit the monitoring of antibiotic treatment efficacy in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis.

Vladimir E. Panov

2014-03-01

269

Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were i [...] ncluded in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.

Gisele Barreto Lopes, Menezes; Fernanda Albuquerque, Pereira; César Augusto Barros, Duarte; Theomira Mauadie Azevedo, Carmo; Hermes Pedreira da, Silva Filho; Maria Alice, Zarife; Marco Aurélio, Krieger; Eliana Almeida Gomes, Reis; Mitermayer G, Reis.

2012-08-01

270

Stimulating whole saliva affects the response of antimicrobial proteins to exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the salivary secretion rates of antimicrobial proteins in response to prolonged, exhaustive exercise in both stimulated (STIM) and unstimulated (UNSTIM) saliva flow sample methods. Twenty-four trained men cycled for 2.5?h at 60% V ? O 2 m ? a x and then to exhaustion at 75% V ? O 2 m ? a x . Timed collections of whole saliva were made before exercise, mid-exercise, at the end of the moderate exercise bout and post-exhaustive exercise. After each UNSTIM collection, a STIM sample was collected following chewing flavored gum for 1?min. Saliva was analysed for lysozyme, ?-amylase and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and secretion rates were calculated. Saliva flow was 156% higher in STIM compared with UNSTIM (P?concentration (P?chewing flavored gum increased the quantity of saliva and the secretion of lysozyme and ?-amylase, but had a limited impact on the secretion of s-IgA. PMID:23506418

Allgrove, J E; Oliveira, M; Gleeson, M

2013-03-19

271

Saliva of laboratory-reared Lutzomyia longipalpis exacerbates Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection more potently than saliva of wild-caught Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to compare the saliva effect from wild-caught and lab-reared L. longipalpis on the development of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously into the hind footpads with promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis plus salivary gland lysate from wild-caught (SGL-W) and lab-colonized (SGL-C) vectors. Lesion sizes were significantly larger in the mice infected with both saliva compared to mice infected with parasites alone; moreover, the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-C were significantly larger than the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-W. Histopathological morphometric studies regarding the acute phase of infections showed lower numbers of polymorphonuclear cells, greater numbers of mononuclear cells and parasites in SGL-C infected mice compared to SGL-W infected mice. In the chronic phase of infection, the number of mononuclear cells was lower and the number of parasites was greater in SGL-C infected mice than SGL-W infected mice. In vitro studies showed increased infection index of macrophages infected with parasites plus saliva compared to infection with parasites alone, with no difference between the saliva infection indices. SDS-PAGE gel for SGL-C and SGL-W showed differences in the composition and quantity of protein bands, determined by densitometry. These results call attention to the experimental saliva model, which shows exacerbation of infection caused by sandfly saliva. PMID:19454323

Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Silveira, Veruska Marques dos Santos; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Pimenta, Paulo Paulocci Filemon

2009-09-01

272

Building and Managing of Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two library of Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) and Information Centre and Library (ICL) of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research) (NIV-ICMR). It covers the processes for acquiring/subscribing various e-resources, get access under UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium/Electronic Resources in Medicine (ERMED), including free databases available and developing e-resources...

Sahu, Hemant Kumar; Singh, Surya Nath

2014-01-01

273

49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations...40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations...for testing done under this part. Only saliva or breath for screening tests and...

2010-10-01

274

Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2, a sports drink (pH 3.5, and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8. Distilled water adjusted to the pH of each saliva sample was used as a control. In the second experiment, the suppressive ability of saliva against enamel demineralization was quantitatively analyzed using quantitative light- induced fluorescence (QLF. Aliquots of stimulated saliva obtained from a subject were mixed with 15 ml of 100% orange juice in saliva:orange juice ratios of 1/30, 1/15, 1/10 and 1/5, and bovine teeth were soaked for 24 hours in the solutions. The ?Q of the QLF analyses of the enamel was then measured. The lowest titrant volume which reduced the pH of the initial saliva (7.7 on average to pH 5.4 was that of the orange juice. No relationship was found between the buffer capacity and the pH of the acid beverages. From the QLF measurement, the saliva-orange juice group showed a significantly decreased amount of enamel demineralization (p < 0.01 at 20% level compared with the distilled water-orange juice group. In conclusion, saliva acts as a buffer to suppress enamel demineralization caused by low-pH beverages.

Shoji Takahashi

2011-12-01

275

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

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Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

276

Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College  

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The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

Rahman, Md Anisur

2011-01-01

277

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

278

Development of an integrated microanalytical system for analysis of lead in saliva and linkage to a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing lead saliva secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in noninvasively collected saliva samples. In addition, appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses are used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on the saliva Pb concentrations. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, in which a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced and accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. The system demonstrates a good linear response over a broad Pb concentration range (1-2000 ppb). To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later were administered pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist to induce salivation. To correlate saliva levels with internal dose, blood and saliva were collected and quantitated for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the microanalytical system. The quantitation with the microanalytical system was slightly less (approximately 75-85%) than with ICP-MS; however, the response was linear, with concentration suggesting that it can be used for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To facilitate modeling, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These results are encouraging, suggesting that once fully developed the microanalytical system coupled with PBPK modeling can be used as important tools for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:11434435

Timchalk, C; Poet, T S; Lin, Y; Weitz, K K; Zhao, R; Thrall, K D

2001-01-01

279

MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

Blumberg, Roger B.

280

Impact of Electronic Resources on Collection Development, the Roles of Librarians, and Library Consortia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the purchase of virtual resources accelerates, particularly through consortial agreements, the autonomy of the local library will fade and the roles of librarians will change drastically. This rapid transformation is illustrated by a discussion of OhioLINK and its positive and negative effects on one member library. (Contains 21 references.)…

Thornton, Glenda A.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Sealant Microleakage After Using Nano-Filled Bonding Agents on Saliva-Contaminated Enamel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of correctly applied fissure sealants has been revealed in the prevention of caries. Saliva and moisture contamination of the etched enamel surface before sealant placement can decrease the bonding strength of the sealant to the enamel. The aim of this study was to test the new bonding agents containing nano-fillers in order to reduce the negative effect of saliva contamination on the sealant micro leakage.Materials and Methods: Seventy five sound human premolars were randomly assigned to five equal groups as follows: Group A: etching, sealant; Group B: etching, saliva contamination, sealant; Group C: etching, saliva contamination, Single bond, sealant; Group D: etching, saliva contamination, Adper Single bond 2, sealant; Group E: etching, saliva contamination, N Bond, sealant. The samples were thermo-cycled and immersed in basic fuchsine 0.5% by weight. Then, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and parallel to the long axis into two segments. Finally, the length of dye penetration at the sealant-tooth interface was scored according to a four-point scale.Results: Micro-leakage was higher in group B compared to the other groups, while there were no differences among the evaluated dentin adhesives.Conclusion: The use of nano-filled bonding agents as an intermediate layer between the etched enamel and the sealant can reduce sealant micro-leakage after saliva contamination at the level of the uncontaminated enamel.

Mehrsa Paryab

2013-01-01

282

Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

2014-12-15

283

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the mostpredominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle

2014-01-01

284

Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

Chen Gang

2012-10-01

285

When saliva meets acid: chemical warfare at the oesophagogastric junction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Western world at least, most upper gastrointestinal cancers now arise from the mucosa near to the oesophagogastric junction. Research into the mechanism of the development of adenocarcinoma at the oesophagogastric junction has mainly focused on the noxious effects of acid and bile. There is however an alternative concept for explaining the location of adenocarcinomas: the cancers are occurring at the anatomical site where saliva encounters acidic gastric juice and their interaction generates reactive nitrogen species which are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic. At present, it is unclear whether the active nitrite chemistry is exerting detrimental effects on the surrounding tissue but it is important to investigate this possibility as it could reveal new ways of preventing and treating the high prevalence of disease occurring at this anatomical site. PMID:15591495

McColl, K E L

2005-01-01

286

Oral fluid based biomarkers in periodontal disease: part 1. Saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional clinical measurements such as probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss; plaque index and radiographs used for periodontal diagnosis are often of limited usefulness as they are indicators of previous periodontal disease rather than present disease activity. A literature search was carried out to find out all the available tests that indicate periodontal disease markers in saliva. All major databases were searched to compile the information on published reports between 1999 and 2014. The list of biomarkers available to date is compiled and presented in a table format. Each biomarker is discussed separately based on the available evidence. Based on the evidence, it can be concluded that several sensitive salivary indicators of periodontitis are available to detect the presence, severity and response to treatment. Further studies are warranted to analyze the sensitivity and reliability of these indicators that might help in developing non-invasive tests that could help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. PMID:25214743

AlMoharib, Hani S; AlMubarak, Abdulrahman; AlRowis, Raed; Geevarghese, Amrita; Preethanath, R S; Anil, Sukumaran

2014-07-01

287

Corrosion of gold alloys and titanium in artificial saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of gold alloys and one type of pure titanium have been submitted to corrosion in artificial saliva for periods of up to about 2 months. The release of copper, gold and silver from the gold alloys as well as titanium from the titanium matrix was measured with nuclear tracer technique. The physical/chemical state of the corrosion products of gold alloys referring to the ionic state or presence in particulate form has been examined retaining the particulate matter on a glass filter. Copper was observed to be mainly present in the ionic state. Considerable amounts of gold were observed to be retained on the glass filter explained by the presence of gold in particulate form or as a compentent of a dispersed collloidal phase. The estimation of the release of titanium was registered by the tracer nuclide 46Sc assuming particulate matter to be deteriorated from the titanium surface. (author)

288

Alterations in whole saliva flow rate induced by fractionated radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequential changes in flow rate of whole saliva are detailed in 13 patients. Samples were collected without exogenous stimulation during a course of fractionated radiotherapy involving major portions of the salivary glands. Flow rate decreased markedly during the initial 3 treatment days and gradually thereafter until a minimal flow rate was reached. Early in the treatment, variable degrees of recovery were seen on Mondays following a weekend (Friday-Sunday) without treatment. After a minimal flow rate was reached, no such recovery was observed. Radiation needed to produce minimal flow varied from 450 to 4,050 rad. Patients with higher initial flow rates required higher dosages to reach the minimum. No return of secretory function was noted after extended periods of time

289

Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5?m) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50?l sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-?, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated. PMID:25444541

Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

2014-12-01

290

Tear and saliva ferning tests in Sjögren's syndrome (SS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tear ferning test (TFT) and the saliva ferning test (SFT) as diagnostic tests for xerophthalmia and xerostomia respectively in patients with SS. Dried samples of freshly produced tears and saliva from: (A) 36 healthy controls without sicca symptoms, (B) 61 patients with primary SS, (C) 53 patients with secondary SS and (D) 22 patients with psychiatric disorders receiving antidepressants, were examined by polarizing light microscopy. All individuals included in the study were postmenopausal women. The crystallization was classified into 4 types according to the ferning phenomenon: uniformity, branching, spreading and integrity (type I normal and II, III, IV abnormal). Abnormal TFT was found in tear samples of: (A) 8/72 normal control eyes, (B) 110/122 prim SS eyes, (C) 86/106 sec SS eyes and (D) 30/44 psychiatric patients' eyes. Abnormal SFT was found in: (A) 6/36 of normal controls, (B) 59/61 of prim SS, (C) 51/53 of sec SS patients and (D) 16/22 of psychiatric patients. The differences of both TFT and SFT of patients with prim SS and sec SS versus controls were significant (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TFT was found to be high both in prim SS (90%) and in sec SS (81%). In addition the specificities of TFT and SFT were high 89% and 83% respectively. On the other hand the differences of TFT and SFT in psychiatric patients receiving antidepressants versus normal controls were also significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.025 respectively). According to our data TFT and SFT are simple, sensitive and specific tests to evaluate xerophthalmia and xerostomia in SS and probably in other conditions characterized by mucous membrane dryness. PMID:8777844

Maragou, M; Vaikousis, E; Ntre, A; Koronis, N; Georgiou, P; Hatzidimitriou, E; Sotsiou, F; Dantis, P

1996-03-01

291

49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...  

Science.gov (United States)

...unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40...unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? ...employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva...

2010-10-01

292

The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be used for non-invasive disease monitoring in horses as in humans, pigs and dogs. PMID:25296850

Jacobsen, Stine; Top Adler, Ditte Marie; Bundgaard, Louise; Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke

2014-12-01

293

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

1997-09-01

294

Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained. PMID:10219138

Meiana, S; Takahashi, H

1998-12-01

295

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

296

Relación entre niveles de carbamazepina en saliva y plasma: Estudio piloto Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine have a poor correlation: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Carbamazepine is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy and its plasma concentrations must be monitored periodically to obtain a useful and safe clinical effect. There is not a good relationship between the dose of the carbamazepine and their effects in humans, but the effects of this drug have been well correlated with its plasma levels. Aim: To measure the correlation between plasma and saliva levels of carbamazepine in children with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine were measured by using instrumental planar chromatography in 11 epileptic children aged 8 to 15 years treated with the drug for at least six months. Results: The mean saliva/plasma ratio was 0.18±0.05 and the mean of carbamazepine concentration in saliva, expressed as a percentage of concentrations in plasma, was 17.97±5.40. There was a poor linear correlation (r =0.37 between the concentrations of carbamazepine in both fluids. Conclusions: In this group of epileptic children the correlation between saliva and plasma carbamazepine levels was weak

Sigrid Mennickent C

2007-03-01

297

Relación entre niveles de carbamazepina en saliva y plasma: Estudio piloto / Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine have a poor correlation: a pilot study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Abstract: Carbamazepine is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy and its plasma concentrations must be monitored periodically to obtain a useful and safe clinical effect. There is not a good relationship between the dose of the carbamazepine and their effects in [...] humans, but the effects of this drug have been well correlated with its plasma levels. Aim: To measure the correlation between plasma and saliva levels of carbamazepine in children with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Saliva and plasma levels of carbamazepine were measured by using instrumental planar chromatography in 11 epileptic children aged 8 to 15 years treated with the drug for at least six months. Results: The mean saliva/plasma ratio was 0.18±0.05 and the mean of carbamazepine concentration in saliva, expressed as a percentage of concentrations in plasma, was 17.97±5.40. There was a poor linear correlation (r =0.37) between the concentrations of carbamazepine in both fluids. Conclusions: In this group of epileptic children the correlation between saliva and plasma carbamazepine levels was weak

Sigrid, Mennickent C; Mario, Vega H; Carmen Gloria, Godoy M; M. Doris, León H.

2007-03-01

298

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

299

Searching Electronic Resources on Internet : Tools for Researchers And Library Professional  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this Internet Era Libraries & Information Centers increasingly being called upon to provide more relevant, up-to-date and timely information to a wide range of users. To satisfy the varied needs, they require availability and accessibility to a variety of information resources and formats ( such as digital, full text, sound, graphics, images, multimedia & hypertext as well as printed documents). To cope with the new technology library professionals and the researchers should developed hims...

Lokhande, Rahul

2010-01-01

300

Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos / Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las con [...] centraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales. Abstract in english At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA) and O2- in the saliva and [...] blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL), RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL). There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

Ninoska Tahis, Viera Sirit; Thais Teresita, Morales Rojas; Alejandra Isabel, Morón Medina; Rita Mireya, Navas Perozo; Adriana Beatriz, Pedreañez Santana.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Parámetros inflamatorios en saliva y sangre en niños y adolescentes sanos Inflammatory parameters in saliva and blood from healthy children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha mostrado interés en el empleo de la saliva para ser utilizada como una alternativa de diagnóstico, predicción y progresión de diversas enfermedades con relación a otros fluidos corporales. Los objetivos trazados para la realización de este trabajo fueron: correlacionar las concentraciones en saliva y sangre de IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y O2- de niños y adolescentes sistémicamente sanos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 23 niños y adolescentes sanos, entre 4 y 17 años de edad. Se les realizaron evaluaciones clínicas para determinar las condiciones bucales y estudios inmunológicos con el propósito de identificar los niveles de citosinas, a través del ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto, el O2- por método citoquímico y las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, a través del ensayo colorimétrico. Hubo diferencia significativa entre las muestras de saliva y las de sangre periférica respecto a las citosinas y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico estudiadas. Los resultados fueron: IL-1 en sangre= 1,646 ± 0,13 pg/mL y de IL-1 en saliva= 552,36 ± 75,7 pg/mL; IL-6 en sangre= 3,506 ± 1,85 pg/mL, e IL-6 en saliva= 26,89 ± 9,97 pg/mL. Al analizar el TNF-a en sangre fue de 12,91 ± 3,05 pg/mL y en saliva= 43,56 ± 6,44 pg/mL, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico en sangre= 9,46 ± 3,26 nmol/mL y en saliva= 1,26 ± 0,03 nmol/mL. No se observó correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las muestras de sangre y saliva para los valores de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, r s= 0,78. No se evidenciaron células positivas para el O2- en las muestras estudiadas. Los resultados del análisis de correlación obtenido entre las muestras salivales y séricas, no aportaron evidencias suficientes para sugerir que la saliva pueda ser utilizada como fluido corporal que permita sustituir la determinación sérica de IL-1, IL-6 y sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. En cuanto al TNF-a se evidenció una correlación significativa, lo cual podría plantear la posible sustitución de muestras séricas por salivales.At present times, there is interest in the use of saliva as a diagnosis, prediction and progression alternative of different pathologies in relation to the body fluids. To correlate the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (RSTBA and O2- in the saliva and blood of systematically healthy children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 healthy children and adolescents aged from 4 to 17 underwent to clinical tests to demonstrate the oral conditions and immunological to identify the cytokine levels and the RSTBAs by colorimetry trial. There was a significant difference in saliva samples compared to that of peripheral blood in study cytokines and RSTBAs: IL-1 (blood: 1.646 ± 0.13 pg/mL, saliva: 552.36 ± 75.7 pg/mL; IL-6 (blood: 3.506 ± 1.85 pg/mL, saliva: 26.89 ± 9.97 pg/mL: TNF-a (blood: 12.91 ± 3.05 pg/mL, saliva: 43.56 ± 6.44 pg/mL, RSTBA (blood: 9.46 ± 3.26 nmol/mL, saliva: 1.26 ± 0.03 nmol/mL. There was not a statistically significant difference among blood and saliva samples for IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA values. As regards TNF-a it was demonstrated a significant correlation, r s= 0.78. There was not evidence of cells positive to O2 in study samples. Results of correlation analysis obtained among the saliva and serum samples not offer evidences that saliva may be used as body fluid allows substituting the serum determination of IL-1, IL-6 and RSTBA. In the case of the TNF-a, there was a significant correlation, which could to propose the possible substitution of serum samples for the salivary ones.

Ninoska Tahis Viera Sirit

2011-09-01

302

Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations / Saliva como fluido diagnóstico para utilização na medicina esportiva: potencialidades e limitações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A utilização de saliva como alternativa para o diagnóstico de patologias e/ou monitoramento de atletas em competições ou treinos é muito atrativa devido à facilidade de obtenção da amostra e, principalmente, pela natureza menos invasiva que a coleta de sangue venoso. A saliva é um fluído hipotônico [...] em relação ao plasma; contém compostos produzidos localmente nas glândulas salivares (imunoglobulina A [IgA] e ?-amilase), além de compostos difundidos do plasma (água, eletrólitos, proteínas, metabólitos e hormônios). A saliva desempenha funções importantes na proteção da mucosa oral contra microrganismos e na digestão dos alimentos. Sua produção e sua composição são dependentes da atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo simpático e parassimpático, cuja ação antagônica pode resultar em diferentes volumes de saliva com perfis proteico e iônico distintos. O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar uma análise crítica das potencialidades e limitações da utilização da saliva como ferramenta diagnóstica para a medicina esportiva. Embora existam estudos que a utilizam para o monitoramento de atletas em situações de exercício e doping, ainda é necessário padronizar algumas variáveis pré-analíticas, como a escolha correta do melhor sistema de coleta, que permite quantificar facilmente o volume, com boa recuperação de amostra; os horários de coleta bem definidos, de acordo com as possíveis variações circadianas do analito; e a contaminação da saliva com sangue proveniente de lesões da mucosa oral, que tem de ser evitada. Outro ponto fundamental para aplicação no esporte é o estabelecimento de valores de referência para analitos quantificados na saliva, obtidos de uma população composta de sujeitos saudáveis e exercitados de forma constante e sistematizada, com progressão de cargas de esforço. Abstract in english The use of saliva in the diagnosis of pathologies and/or monitoring of athletes in competitions or trainings is an attractive alternative due to the fact that samples are easily obtained and it is mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic flu [...] id in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and ?-amylase) as well as compounds diffused in the plasma (water, electrolytes, proteins, metabolites and hormones). It plays a pivotal role in the protection of oral mucosa against microbes and in food digestion. Its production and composition depend on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, whose antagonistic action may result in different saliva volumes with distinct ionic and protein profiles. The aim of this review was to present a critical analysis of the potential and limitations of saliva as a diagnostic tool in sports medicine. Although there are studies that have deployed it to monitor athletes in training and doping, the standardization of some preanalytical variables are still required, among which the following ones are worth mentioning: the accurate choice of collection system, which allows the easy quantification of volume with adequate sample recovery; well-defined collection schedules in accordance with the circadian variations of the analyte; prevention of sample contamination with blood from oral mucosa lesions. Another key point for its application in sports is the establishment of reference intervals for analytes quantified in the saliva, collected from a population that comprises healthy individual that exercise regularly and systematically, with physical activity progression.

Lázaro Alessandro Soares, Nunes; Denise Vaz de, Macedo.

2013-08-01

303

Determination of the progestagen dienogest in plasma and saliva by radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following oral administration of 2 mg of dienogest (17?-cyanomethyl-17?-hydroxy-4,9-estradien-3-one) to female volunteers, the dienogest concentration courses in plasma and saliva were determined by means of a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Three different procedures of the plasma sample preparation prior to the RIA were compared. The dienogest RIA was directly applied to saliva. There is a high correlation between the dienogest concentrations in plasma and saliva. The dienogest plasma elimination half life of about 9 hrs is not significantly different from that derived from saliva. The salivary dienogest concentrations indicate a relatively high non-protein bound portion of this steroid drug in plasma. Following repeated oral administration of dienogest, there is no significant cumulation of plasma dienogest. (author)

304

UCLA study finds primary component of turmeric kicks off cancer-killing mechanisms in human saliva:  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin, the main component in the spice turmeric, suppresses a cell signaling pathway that drives the growth of head and neck cancer, according to a pilot study using human saliva by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

305

Whole, submandibular, and parotid saliva-mediated aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by submandibular, parotid, and whole saliva from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF subjects was investigated. There were significant differences (P less than 0.01) in aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid variants of P. aeruginosa by submandibular and whole saliva from CF patients and non-CF subjects. However, the differences in the parotid secretion were not as pronounced. Patients with CF who were colonized with P. aer...

Komiyama, K.; Habbick, B. F.; Tumber, S. K.

1989-01-01

306

Whole Saliva has a Dual Role on the Adherence of Candida albicans to Polymethylmetacrylate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adhesion of Candida albicans to acrylic of dental prostheses or to salivary macromolecules adsorbed on their surface is believed to be a critical event in the development of denture stomatitis. In previous studies our group has shown that adhesion of C. albicans germ tubes to polystyrene is decreased by saliva whereas C. albicans yeast cells adhesion to the same material is enhanced. The results presented in this study confirm this dual role played by whole saliva, since it decreased the adhe...

Elguezabal, N.; Maza, J. L.; Dorronsoro, S.; Ponto?n, J.

2008-01-01

307

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

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Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method...

Cvetkovi? Andrijana; Vulovi? Marko; Ivanovi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

308

Concentration of Nitric Oxide in Saliva of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nitric Oxide (NO participation is recognized in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints and other systems including salivary glands. The role of NO in pathogenesis of development of RA is still unknown. Aim & Objectives: We investigated NO concentration in saliva of 63 patients with RA and in 31 healthy control individuals. The aim of the study was also to investigate the correlation between saliva NO concentration and disease activity score (DAS28 in RA patients and to determine whether the statistically significant difference in saliva NO concentrations exists between RA patients with different stages of disease activity.Methods: Patients with RA in this cross-sectional study have been divided, based on the stage of disease activity evaluated by DAS28score, into three subgroups: low disease activity (n=19, moderate disease activity (n=19 and high disease activity (n=25. NO concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration by Griess reaction. Conversion of nitrate (NO-3 to nitrite (NO-2 was done with elementary zinc. Absorbance was measured at 546 nm with the use of spectrophotometer. Results: Results have shown that saliva NO concentration in patients with RA (33,2 ± 4,8 µmol/dm3 was statistically significant higher compared to saliva NO concentration in healthy controls (22,6 ± 2,3 µmol/dm3; p<0,05. We found statistically significant negative linear correlation between saliva NO concentration and DAS28 score in RA patients (r= -0,256; p<0,05. Statistically significant difference between saliva NO concentration in RA patients with different stages of disease activity was not found. Conclusion: This study indicates that NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and saliva NO concentration probably can be used as useful biochemical marker for evaluation the disease activity of patients with RA.

Amela Dervisevic

2012-07-01

309

Characteristics of Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in the Presence of Saliva?  

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Interactions between salivary agglutinin and the adhesin P1 of Streptococcus mutans contribute to bacterial aggregation and mediate sucrose-independent adherence to tooth surfaces. We have examined biofilm formation by S. mutans UA159, and derivative strains carrying mutations affecting the localization or expression of P1, in the presence of fluid-phase or adsorbed saliva or salivary agglutinin preparations. Whole saliva- and salivary agglutinin-induced aggregation of S. mutans was adversely...

Ahn, Sug-joon; Ahn, Sang-joon; Wen, Zezhang T.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Burne, Robert A.

2008-01-01

310

Correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: Nutrition, oral hygiene and saliva in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caries is a disease of multi-causal etiology, where environmental factors such as oral hygiene, nutrition and saliva have great importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between dental health status and environmental factors: oral hygiene, nutrition, salivary pH and the flow rate of stimulated saliva in children. Materials and methods: Research was done in children with caries and in children with healthy teeth of both gender and the age of 12. Questionnaire method was used to obtain data about the time of consuming refined carbohydrates and oral hygiene. Oral hygiene level was determined using the Silness-loe plaque index and saliva was analyzed by measuring the flow rate of stimulated saliva, as well as measuring pH of non-stimulated and stimulated saliva. Results: Examining the correlation of seven analyzed characteristics it was possible to determine the presence of 14 (66,7% correlations out of 21 possible, with statistical significance and various p-values starting from p=0.038 (tau-b=0.229 up to p<0.001 (r=0.667. Out of seven analyzed characteristics, the time of carbohydrate consumption, the presence of caries (group and pH of non-stimulated saliva are predominantly correlated with other characteristics. Conclusion: The results of this examination show caries appearance in children to be in highly significant correlation with frequency of carbohydrate consumption, plaque index and pH values of non-stimulated saliva. In other words, children with caries consume carbohydrates often between meals, have high plaque index and lower pH values of non-stimulated saliva.

Cvetkovi? Andrijana

2006-01-01

311

Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings  

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Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and ...

Agha Hosseini, F.; Begianian Vaziri, P.

2004-01-01

312

Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment  

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Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X. Chris

2013-01-01

313

Rapid determination of natural steroidal hormones in saliva for the clinical diagnoses  

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Abstract Background Saliva samples are easily collectable and non-invasive, and the monitoring of natural steroidal hormones, such as estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T), in saliva has attracted much attention due to its numerous potential clinical and health-related applications. Because E1, E2, E3, P and T are useful indicators in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses, there is a need for simultaneous determinatio...

Oh Jin-Aa; Shin Ho-Sang

2012-01-01

314

Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels  

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The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to ...

Anna Gustafsson; Vjosa Ajeti; Lennart Ljunggren

2011-01-01

315

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most ollection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

316

Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system  

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The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J. P.

2000-01-01

317

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-(125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most allection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

318

Detection of dengue virus in saliva and urine by real time RT-PCR  

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Abstract Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection is important for patient management and control of dengue outbreaks. The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of urine and saliva samples for early diagnosis of DENV infection by real time RT-PCR. Two febrile patients, who have been attended at the General Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University were included in the study. Serum, urine and saliva samples collected from both ...

Aquino Victor H; Figueiredo Luiz T; Poloni Dimair F; Amarilla Alberto A; Galvão Larissa R; Alfonso Helda L; Oliveira Anibal S; Poloni Telma R

2010-01-01

319

A comparative study of saliva and serum paracetamol levels using a simple spectrophotometric method.  

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The relationship between saliva and serum paracetamol levels was investigated in ten healthy male volunteers. The salivary and serum paracetamol levels showed significant correlation with each other. The salivary and serum paracetamol concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary and serum paracetamol half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of paracetamol concentration in saliva and serum failed to show significant correla...

Adithan, C.; Thangam, J.

1982-01-01

320

Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro  

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Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p?0.05.

Michelle Peneluppi Silva

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Saliva vs. plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans: validation of class II drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12?h after 500?mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III. PMID:24452520

Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T

2014-11-01

322

Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

2012-06-01

323

Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats  

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Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX, medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g, SHAM (n=12 y ovariectomizadas (OVX (n=12. Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría. En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml como FAO (UI/l en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, pBone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopeptide (CTX and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark and b-AP (IU/L (Wiener, colorimetrically. Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p<0.05 y 71±29 vs. 104±23; p<0.01, respectively. Saliva presented the same behaviour (3.6±0.5 vs. 6.4±2.9; p<0.02 y 73±29 vs. 90±8; p<0.003, respectively. When saliva CTX and b-AP were plotted against serum concentration significant positive correlations were obtained: r=0.58, p<0.05 and r=0.59; p<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the present results are promisory in the sense of the potential use of a salivary-based test for evaluating bone remodeling. However, the use of this methodology for clinical practice needs extensive additional investigations.

Pellegrini Gretel

2006-06-01

324

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

325

Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo / The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar las variaciones producidas en algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de la saliva en un grupo de mujeres durante y después de la gestación. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada en una cohorte de 35 mujeres embarazadas y después del parto. A cada [...] muestra le fueron determinadas características fisicoquímicas (tasa de secreción, pH y capacidad amortiguadora) y microbiológicas (recuentos de bacterias acidogénicas). Resultados El pH y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva durante el embarazo fueron más bajos que en el posparto, mientras que la tasa de secreción salival fue más alta en el embarazo. Los recuentos de S. mutans y Lactobacillus spp. no presentaron cambios significativos estadísticamente, pero se observa una tendencia al aumento en los recuentos durante la gestación. Conclusión Los cambios ocurridos en la saliva de las gestantes pueden llevar a un aumento del riesgo de aparición de enfermedades bucales como caries, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, los cuales podrían disminuirse, mediante un adecuado diagnóstico y seguimiento odontológico, que incluya educación en salud oral a la gestante. Abstract in english Objectives Identify the changes in some physiological and microbiological parameters in the saliva from a group of women during and after their pregnancies. Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from a cohort of 35 women during their pregnancy and afterwards to determine each sample's physic [...] ochemical (secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity) and microbiological characteristics (acidogenic bacteria count). Results The pH and buffer capacity of saliva during pregnancy were lower than after pregnancy. There were no statistically significant changes regarding S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. count, but a tendency towards increased values during pregnancy was noted. Conclusions Changes occurring in the saliva of pregnant women can lead to an increase of risk of suffering disease affecting one's oral health, such as caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease; this could be prevented by appropriate diagnosis and dental follow-up, including education regarding pregnant women's oral health.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Cecilia M., Martínez Delgado; Ana M., López-Palacio; Lina M., Patiño-Gómez; Eduin A., Arango-Pérez.

2014-02-01

326

Thermal influence of saliva secretion ex vivo in the mouse submandibular gland  

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Full Text Available The physiological and pharmacological responses of an ex vivo mouse submandibular gland were used to study fluid secretion and cell signaling in response to muscarinic stimulation at increasing temperatures. Saliva production at 37°C was 5.5-fold that at 25°C with pilocarpine stimulation and 9.8-fold that at 25°C with cevimeline stimulation. Both of these muscarinic agonists are used clinically. With the experimental agonist carbachol (CCh, saliva secretion was increased with an increase in temperature, but the CCh concentration producing the peak flow was the same in both dose-response curves, suggesting that the muscarinic receptor itself is not responsible for the temperature dependence. Purinergic agonists also induced temperature-dependent saliva production ex vivo. The calcium ionophore A23187 failed to have a significant effect on saliva production. The CCh-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ also upregulated the initial increase and sustained the plateau phase of saliva flow. Thus, muscarinic receptor stimulation of saliva production is temperature sensitive due to an increase in intracellular Ca2+.

Taro Mukaibo

2013-03-01

327

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-09-01

328

Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both plasma and saliva cotinine levels have been reported in surveys of smoking behavior, and it is of interest to know how closely these two measures correspond. Plasma and saliva specimens were gathered from a sample of 605 respondents in the 1998 Health Survey for England and assayed for cotinine by a well-proven gas chromatographic method. Plasma and saliva cotinine concentrations were highly correlated (r=.99). On average, concentrations in saliva were 25% higher than in plasma, and this ratio applied both at the low levels attributable to passive smoking and across the range of active smoking values. The ratio was somewhat lower in younger people than in older people and also varied significantly by body mass index but did not differ by gender. Calculation of the limits of agreement revealed substantial uncertainty in the predicted plasma value corresponding to a given saliva cotinine, and vice versa. For comparisons across subjects, the mean plasma cotinine level corresponding to a mean saliva cotinine level can be estimated with confidence, but at the level of the individual, considerable predictive uncertainty remains. PMID:12791530

Jarvis, Martin J; Primatesta, Paola; Erens, Bob; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew

2003-06-01

329

In situ assessment of the saliva effect on enamel morphology after microabrasion technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: This study evaluated saliva effects on enamel morphology surface after microabrasion technique. METHODS: Enamel blocks (16 mm2) obtained from bovine incisors were divided into 9 groups as follows: one control group (no treatment), four groups with microabrasion treatment using 35% phospho [...] ric acid and pumice (H3PO4+Pum) and other four groups treated with 6.6% hydrochloric acid and silica (HCl+Sil). One group of each treatment was submitted to 4 frames of saliva exposure: without exposure, 1-h exposure, 24-h exposure, and 7-days exposure on in situ regimen. Nineteen volunteers (n=19), considered as statistical blocks, used an intraoral appliance containing the specimens, for 7 days. Enamel roughness (Ra) was tested before and after treatment, and after saliva exposure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to evaluate qualitatively the enamel morphology. RESULTS: All groups exhibited increased Ra after microabrasion. With regards to saliva exposure, the treatment with HCl+Sil presented more susceptibility to the saliva action, but no period of time was efficient in re-establishing this characteristic compared with the control group. CLSM analysis showed reduction of the micro-abrasive damages during the experimental times. CONCLUSIONS: Seven days of saliva exposure were not sufficient for the treated enamel to reach its normal characteristics compared with the control group.

Núbia Inocencya Pavesi, Pini; Débora Alves Nunes Leite, Lima; Renato Herman, Sundfeld; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Flávio Henrique Baggio, Aguiar; José Roberto, Lovadino.

2014-09-01

330

Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation achieved using 1.5 mg/kg.

Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte

2011-01-01

331

Effects of Iron on the Pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol in Saliva  

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Full Text Available Paracetamol has been reported to chelate with iron. It was found that no in vitro reaction between ferrous ion and paracetamol. Other studies found that there is an aerobic (in the gastrointestinal tract oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion caused in iron-paracetamol in vivo reactions. The objective of this study was to determine if iron interacts with paracetamol and reduces paracetamol absorption. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction of paracetamol and ferrous ion. Paracetamol (1.0 g was co-ignested alone or with (300 mg ferrous sulphate by ten healthy male volunteers, using saliva drug levels as a parameter. Concomitant administration of ferrous sulphate and paracetamol, decreased AUC8 from 42.88±3.8-34.25±2.8 ?g h mL-1 (p = 0.04 and Cmax from 18.75±1.9 to 15.9±1.7 ?g mL-1 (p = 0.11, while no change in tmax (p = 0.5 was originated. A significant difference was found in the paracetamol pharmacokinetic parameter oral clearance (Cl/F (p = 0.02 and slightly increased in volume of distribution (Vd/F (p = 0.10. Co-administration of iron and paracetamol results in decreased paracetamol absorption due to an interaction between iron and paracetamol.

R`afat Mahmoud Nejem

2013-01-01

332

Determination of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortisol is quantitatively the major glucocorticoid product of the adrenal cortex. The main reason to measure cortisol is to diagnose human diseases characterised by deficiency of adrenal steroid excretion in Addison's disease or overproduction in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In both cases a sensitive, accurate and reproducible assay of cortisol is required. Several methods have been described for the quantitative measurement of cortisol in both serum and urine. The most widely used methods in routine clinical laboratories are immunoassays (IA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), luminescence and fluorescence assays, which are available in numerous commercial kits and on automated platforms. However, there remains a number of problems in the so-called direct immunoassays if extraction and prepurification are not carried out before the assay. Recently, more specific chromatographic methods have been introduced, such as high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays (LC-MS/MS). The high specificity especially of LC-MS/MS facilitates reliable measurement of cortisol both in plasma, urine and saliva samples. PMID:24275191

Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa

2013-12-01

333

Effects of iron on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracetamol has been reported to chelate with iron. It was found that no in vitro reaction between ferrous ion and paracetamol. Other studies found that there is an aerobic (in the gastrointestinal tract) oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion caused in iron-paracetamol in vivo reactions. The objective of this study was to determine if iron interacts with paracetamol and reduces paracetamol absorption. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction of paracetamol and ferrous ion. Paracetamol (1.0 g) was co-ignested alone or with (300 mg) ferrous sulphate by ten healthy male volunteers, using saliva drug levels as a parameter. Concomitant administration of ferrous sulphate and paracetamol, decreased AUC8 from 42.88 +/- 3.8-34.25 +/- 2.8 microg h mL(-1) (p = 0.04) and Cmax from 18.75 +/- 1.9 to 15.9 +/- 1.7 microg mL(-1) (p = 0.11), while no change in tmax (p = 0.5) was originated. A significant difference was found in the paracetamol pharmacokinetic parameter oral clearance (C1/F) (p = 0.02) and slightly increased in volume of distribution (V(d)/F) (p = 0.10). Co-administration of iron and paracetamol results in decreased paracetamol absorption due to an interaction between iron and paracetamol. PMID:24517028

Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Abu

2013-12-15

334

Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

335

Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using 3H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required. (author)

336

Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 ?g/ml before and 0.16404 ?g/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677, sex, number of fillings (P=0.055, number of surface of filling (P=0.059 and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072, with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036.Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

F. Agha Hosseini

2004-09-01

337

Activity of ?-amylase and its isoenzymes in the blood and the saliva in the radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of ?-amylase in the saliva is significantly higher in patients with head and neck tumours than in the saliva of healthy persons. Initial radiation doses lead to hyperamylasemia and, at the same time, to a statistically significant increase in the ?-amylase activity in the saliva. After the end of radiotherapy, or rather radiochemotherapy, there was a statistically significant decrease of the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva. Application of monochemotherapy did not bring about any significant changes in the activity of ?-amylase in the serum and saliva. A good correlation was observed between the decrease in the ?-amylase activity in the serum and saliva and postactinic hyposialosis and mucositis. After a temporary escalation radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are followed by a significant decrease in the percentual representation of a sialoisoenzyme of ?-amylase in the serum. (author)

338

Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, ...

Grant, R. M.; Piwowar, E. M.; Katongole-mbidde, E.; Muzawalu, W.; Rugera, S.; Abima, J.; Stramer, S. L.; Kataaha, P.; Jackson, B.

1996-01-01

339

Presence of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B in saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adults.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 44 healthy young adults were tested for human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B (HHV-6A and -6B) DNA by a sensitive nested PCR. HHV-6B infection was ascertained in 98% of the subjects, and 95% were found to excrete variant B in their saliva. HHV-6A was found in the PBMCs of 16%, but was not detected in saliva samples.

Aberle, S. W.; Mandl, C. W.; Kunz, C.; Popow-kraupp, T.

1996-01-01

340

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada  

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Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09 after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09 após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. A quantidade média ± dp (mg de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado clinicamente. Por outro lado, essa goma de mascar deveria ser evitada por crianças na idade de risco para a fluorose dentária.

Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella

2005-12-01

342

Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Patients irradiated in the head and neck region often suffer from severe dry mouth and use acidic saliva stimulating products, which may cause erosion of teeth. Purpose: To determine saliva stimulating effects and erosive potential (EP) of acidic saliva stimulating tablets (XerodentTM) with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and method: Nineteen irradiated patients (median age 57 years) sucked XerodentTM tablets with and without fluoride. Saliva collections were divided into three 10-min sessions in the sequence: unstimulated whole saliva, XerodentTM stimulated saliva without fluoride, and with fluoride. Saliva pH was determined without loss of CO2 and in combination with inorganic measures used to calculate the degree of saturation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). EP was determined directly in all saliva samples by monitored dissolution of HAp crystals. Results: Saliva flow rates increased significantly (15-fold) when sucking both tablets (p TM with and without fluoride were evaluated as non-erosive, however, for additiouated as non-erosive, however, for additional caries protection the fluoride variant is preferable.

343

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

344

The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

2012-01-01

345

Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

346

Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis. PMID:25025096

Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi

2014-06-01

347

Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The sub [...] jects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients.

Fernanda Borowsky da, Rosa; Victor Costa de, Souza; Tatiana Amaral Pires de, Almeida; Valdinete Alves do, Nascimento; Felicien Gonçalves, Vásquez; Maria da Graça Souza, Cunha; Felipe Gomes, Naveca.

2013-08-01

348

Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four t [...] reatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

Daniela Correia Cavalcante, SOUZA; Marisa, MALTZ; Lina Naomi, HASHIZUME.

2014-08-26

349

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group, according to the type of varnish used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control. After varnish application (4 mg, specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: Colorimetric analysis was not able to detect xylitol in saliva samples of the control group. Salivary xylitol concentrations were significantly higher up to 8 h after application of the 20% xylitol varnish. Thereafter, the 10% xylitol varnish released larger amounts of that polyol in artificial saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the results in short-term, sustained xylitol releases could be obtained when the 10% xylitol varnish was used. These varnishes seem to be viable alternatives to increase salivary xylitol levels, and therefore, should be clinically tested to confirm their effectiveness.

Agnes de Fátima Faustino Pereira

2012-04-01

350

Turku sugar studies. VII. Principal biochemical findings on whole saliva and plaque.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plaque and whole saliva samples of the subjects of the Turku sugar studies were analyzed for several enzymes and biochemical compounds. Strict xylitol diet maintained throughout the study a 50% lower quantity of plaque than the sucrose of fructose diets. Decreased plaque and whole saliva lactate concentration, diminished activity of salivary amylase, and reduced hydrolysis rate of sucrose in plaque and whole saliva were observed in relation to xylitol consumption. The xylitol diet also reduced the ratio of glucose to proteins in plaque. On the other hand, increased activity in plaque of alpha- and beta-glycosidases (against p- and o-nitrophenyl derivatives), fucosidase and aspartate transaminase, as well as increased activity of proteinases and lactoperoxidase in saliva were found in connection with xylitol consumption. The fructose diet caused less clear differences when compared to sucrose, but the experiments indicated a selectivity of the effects of dietary carbohydrates on the biochemistry of whole saliva, plaque and salivary glands. The results contribute in explaining the cariostatic effects of xylitol and the lower coriogenicity of fructose when compared to sucrose. PMID:1070215

Mäkinen, K K; Scheinin, A

1976-01-01

351

Determination of cortisol levels in plasma and saliva in women exposed to chronic stress  

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Full Text Available Introduction: It is known fact from the literature data that acute and chronic stress influence serum cortisol level. As with serum cortisol, the level of cortisol in saliva is also a reliable marker of stress. Material and method: this study was performed on 25 individuals, females, age 40-50 years. The participants were exposed to long term stress, held two jobs of 8 working hours, six days a weak, domestic work was not included. All of them were high educated, and none of them were on other medication therapy Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol levels in stimulated and non stimulated saliva and serum and determine their association with long term stress. Results: Obtained results showed that cortisol level in saliva do not depend on saliva flow rate and increases in the afternoon period in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Correlation (r between salivary cortisol and plasma cortisol is r= 0.91. Non-invasive sampling procedure suggests that saliva may be used for cortisol measurements in situations where blood sampling is difficult to perform.

Kršljak Elena

2008-01-01

352

[Alpha-amylase isoenzymes in serum and saliva of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the serum and saliva of 45 patients with eating disorders and in 30 normal controls, alpha-amylase activity and isoamylase levels were measured. Of the 45 patients evaluated, 12 had restrictive anorexia nervosa, 13 were bulimic anorectics and 20 had bulimia nervosa. In all these groups, the mean alpha-amylase values in serum and saliva were higher than that of the control group. The proportion of pancreatic (P)- and salivary (S)-alpha-amylase isoenzymes in serum were within the normal range for the patient group with restrictive anorexia nervosa, whereas the bulimic anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed significantly greater increases in S- than P-isoamylase activity. The correlation of the salivary alpha-Amylase isoenzym pattern in serum and saliva pointed to the salivary glands as origin of the elevated salivary isoamylase levels in serum. Hyperamylasemia was found in 10 (25%) of the 45 patients with eating disorders. Three of these patients showed besides an increased S-alpha-amylase activity also pathologically elevated P-alpha-amylase and lipase activity in serum; however there were no abdominal symptoms, laboratory data or ultrasonic signs of pancreatitis. In all patients with eating disorders, the mean concentration and secretion of alpha-amylase in saliva were increased. Swelling of the salivary glands was present in 14 patients. In these cases the percentage of salivary-isoamylase activity in total serum alpha-amylase activity was increased significantly, whereas the alpha-amylase secretion in the resting saliva was decreased. PMID:1950041

Scheutzel, P; Gerlach, U

1991-07-01

353

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva  

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Full Text Available The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given.

John Murren

2008-10-01

354

Analysis of intracellular enzymes in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal tissue. It is more commonly found in young adults. Analysis of biochemical markers in saliva is very important to monitor the level of periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the intracellular enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Material and Methods. The study included 22 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 28 healthy subjects (control group. Enzyme activity was measured in mixed non-stimulated saliva using kinetic methods in a spectrophotometer and expressed in international units per litre (U/L. Results. The activity of enzymes ALT and ALP was significantly higher in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis compared to healthy subjects, while AST activity was not significantly different. Also, there was no correlation between the activity of intracellular enzymes in saliva and clinical parameters such as gingival index, bleeding index, probing depth in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion. Obtained results indicate that salivary enzymes AST, ALT and ALP can be used as biochemical markers to aid in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

Popovi? Žana

2013-01-01

355

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

356

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

357

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-11-01

358

Caries dental en adultos jóvenes en relación con características microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la saliva / Dental caries in young adults regarding saliva's microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la relación entre características fisicoquímicas de la saliva, el recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas, con la experiencia de caries en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó saliva total estimulada de 120 estudi [...] antes de odontología entre 17 y 34 años de edad, para el análisis de tasa de flujo salivar, pH, concentraciones de iones de calcio y fosfato, ácido láctico, recuento de microorganismos cariogénicos, bacterias facultativas y gram negativas. Resultados La tasa de flujo salivar se incluyó en el intervalo biológico de referencia y no se asoció con la presencia de caries dental, lo mismo sucedió con los niveles de ácido láctico. Se encontró relación directamente proporcional entre las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato y la presencia de caries. Los recuentos de Estreptococos del grupo Mutans se relacionaron con la presencia de lesiones de mancha blanca; Lactobacillusspp, bacterias anaerobias facultativas y gram negativas se asociaron a presencia de lesiones cavitacionales de caries. Conclusiones En el grupo de adultos jóvenes evaluado, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de las saliva se relacionan de manera diferencial con la presencia de caries dental en diferentes grados de avance. Abstract in english Objective Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults. Materials and Methods Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 120 students aged 17 to 3 [...] 4 years old for analysing salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and phosphate ion concentration, lactic acid, cariogenic microorganism count and facultative and gram-negative bacteria. Results Salivary flow rate was included in the biological reference interval but was not found to be associated with caries; the same thing happened regarding lactic acid. A direct relationship was found between calcium and phosphate concentration and dental cavities. Streptococcus mutans was associated with white spot lesion whereas Lactobacillus spp., facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria were associated with advanced cavities. Conclusions Saliva's physicochemical and microbiological characteristics in the young adult group evaluated here were differentially related to caries in different degrees of progress.

María C., Martínez-Pabón; Sandra M., Morales-Uchima; Cecilia M., Martínez-Delgado.

2013-12-01

359

Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in [...] sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apyrase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors.

Reginaldo R, Cavalcante; Marcos H, Pereira; Jorge M, Freitas; Nelder de F, Gontijo.

2006-02-01

360

Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion. The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apyrase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors.

Reginaldo R Cavalcante

2006-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

1982-01-01

362

Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p

Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes

2007-01-01

363

Characterisation of advanced glycation endproducts in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop increased advanced glycation endproducts causing local complications and increased overall morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were determined in saliva of 52 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 age-matched healthy control subjects. Resonance spectra showed specific peaks at 2.3, 7.3, and 8.4 ppm in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus. These peaks could be generated by incubation of saliva from healthy control subjects with hypochloric acid in vitro, indicating the presence of advanced glycation endproducts. The presence of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with approximal plaque index, indicating increased periodontal damage. The study indicates that increased advanced glycation endproducts are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

364

Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

365

Xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva after application of different xylitol dental varnishes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed xylitol concentrations in artificial saliva over time after application of varnishes containing 10% and 20% xylitol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen bovine enamel specimens (8x4 mm) were randomly allocated to 3 groups (n=5/group), according to the type of varnish [...] used: 10% xylitol, 20% xylitol and no xylitol (control). After varnish application (4 mg), specimens were immersed in vials containing 500 µL of artificial saliva. Saliva samples were collected in different times (1, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h) and xylitol concentrations were analyzed. Data were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (p

Agnes de Fátima Faustino, Pereira; Thiago Cruvinel da, Silva; Thelma Lopes da, Silva; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto Magalhães, Bastos; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

2012-04-01

366

ANALYSIS OF FLUORIDE RELEASED FROM GIC AND RMGIC IN SALIVA AND DENTINO-ENAMEL SUBSTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC are two restorative materials in dentistry that have the capacity of releasing fluoride to saliva, dentino-enamel substance, and the ability to form fluoroapatite crystal. The aim of this study is to compare the amount of fluoride release in saliva and dentino-enamel substance. A total of 48 caries free premolar teeth were prepared to form a cavity with the dimension of 4 X 4 X 2 mm on the buccal surfaces. These teeth were then divided into 3 groups, each containing 16 samples. The first group was determined as the control group, and therefore no restorative material was applied to the teeth in this group; the teeth in the second group were filled with GIC, the third group was filled with RMGIC. These teeth were then soaked in artificial saliva without fluoride content and were incubated at room temperature (37 0Celcius. Each group was divided again into 4 sub groups, each consisting of 4 samples. Each of 4 subgroups received different periods of soaking, namely 1 day, 3 days, 10 days, and 20 days. The fluoride content of saliva was analyzed using ion chromatography, and fluoroapatite on dentino-enamel substance was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction or XRD. Data obtained from the experiments were analyzed using ANOVA, and the level of significance was set at p ? 0,05. There was a significantdifference in the analysis of fluoride release in saliva within the 3 groups: GIC, RMGIC, and the control group, and there was no significant difference in the analysis of fluoroapatite formation on dentino-enamel substance within 3 groups. The fluoride content in saliva showed a significant difference within the 3 groups of GIC, RMGIC, and control. No significant difference was found in the fluoroapatite content on dentino-enamel substance.

Endang Suprastiwi

2009-12-01

367

Analysis of the shedding of three ?-herpesviruses in urine and saliva of children with renal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. To elucidate the kinetics of the three ?-herpesviruses in saliva and urine samples were collected serially from children with renal diseases. Twenty children with renal diseases were enrolled in this study. A total of 240 saliva and urine samples were collected monthly from the patients over a 1-year period. Viral DNAs loads were measured by real-time PCR. In 10 CMV seropositive patients CMV DNA was detected rarely in saliva and CMV DNA load was lower than the other two ?-herpesviruses DNA loads. All patients were seropositive for HHV-6B and the virus was detected frequently in saliva. Two of 20 patients were HHV-7 seronegative. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P = 0.039). HHV-6B DNA loads were significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatment compared to those without treatment (P = 0.013). Although CMV DNA was detected in urine samples collected from 5 of 10 CMV seropositive patients, HHV-6B and HHV-7 DNA were detected at relatively low frequencies in urine. No remarkable temporal associations between viral DNA excretion and proteinuria or immunosuppressive treatment were demonstrated. The pattern of viral DNA excretion in saliva and urine were different among the three viruses. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases. PMID:24132949

Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ihra, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

2014-03-01

368

[Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:23421043

Kulza, Maksymilian; Wo?niak, Anna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

2012-01-01

369

COMPARATIVE DETECTION OF MEASLES SPECIFIC IGM ANTIBODY IN SERUM AND SALIVA BY AN ANTIBODY-CAPTURE IGM ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (EIA  

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Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of acute measles is usually achieved by serology assays for measle-specific IgM antibody. For comparison of measle-specific IgM antibody in saliva and serum, 95 paired blood and saliva samples were collected 1-14 days after the onset of rash. The specimens were tested for specific IgM antibody by an IgM antibody-capture Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA. Measles IgM antibody was detected in 89 (93.7% of serum samples and in 85(89.5% of saliva specimens. Of the 6(6.3% serum samples that were IgM antibody-negative, 2 (2.1 % of the paired saliva samples were IgM antibody-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of saliva testing compared with serum was 95.5% and 66.7% respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of saliva testing were 97.7% and 50.0% respectively and the accuracy of saliva testing was 93.7%. Our results indicate that saliva samples provided Enzyme Immunoassay results that were in good agreement with results from serum samples. Salivary IgM antibody detection is a suitable non-invasive method for diagnosing recent measles infections and epidemiological studies, especially in children.

Zahra Safar Pour

2003-07-01

370

The indices of mineral exchange in saliva and blood of participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been established that in the liquidators, the amount of calcium in the saliva and blood is increased while the concentration of inorganic phosphate in the both media in decreased. Saliva pH is shifted to acid which can suggest the shift in the processes in the mineralized body tissues to active demineralization (including tooth tissue)

371

Effect of saliva contamination on bond strength witha hydrophilic composite resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da contaminação por saliva na resistência de união de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte com um compósito resinoso hidrofílico. MÉTODOS: oitenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=20), de acordo com o material de colagem e a presença de [...] contaminação - G1) colagem com Transbond XT na ausência de contaminação; G2) colagem com Transbond XT na presença de contaminação; G3) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na ausência de contaminação; G4) colagem com Transbond Plus Color Change na presença de contaminação. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão (MPa) foram G1 = 10,15 ± 3,75; G2 = 6,8 ± 2,54; G3 = 9,3 ± 3,36; G4 = 8,3 ± 2,95. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) variou entre 0 e 1 no G1 e no G4; no G2, houve predomínio do escore 0 e distribuição similar no G3. CONCLUSÃO: a contaminação por saliva reduziu a resistência de união no grupo que usou a resina hidrofóbica Transbond XT. Por outro lado, a resina hidrofílica Transbond Plus Color Change não foi influenciada pela contaminação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel with hydrophilic resin composite. METHODS: Eighty premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to bonding material and contamination: G1) bonded with Transbond [...] XT with no saliva contamination, G2) bonded with Transbond XT with saliva contamination, G3) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with no saliva contamination and G4) bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change with saliva contamination. The results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA/Tukey). RESULTS: The means and standard deviations (MPa) were: G1)10.15 ± 3.75; G2) 6.8 ± 2.54; G3) 9.3 ± 3.36; G4) 8.3 ± 2.95. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) ranged between 0 and 1 in G1 and G4. In G2 there was a prevalence of score 0 and similar ARI distribution in G3. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination reduced bond strength when Transbond XT hydrophobic resin composite was used. However, the hydrophilic resin Transbond Plus Color Change was not affected by the contamination.

Mauren Bitencourt, Deprá; Josiane Xavier de, Almeida; Taís de Morais Alves da, Cunha; Luis Filipe Siu, Lon; Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Orlando Motohiro, Tanaka.

2013-02-01

372

Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ..mu..l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ..mu..g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously.

Hiramatsu, R. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-12-09

373

Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

374

Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

375

Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct determination of cortisol (F) in human saliva and its clinical applications were investigated. For this purpose, a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out. The detection limits for F in 50 and 400 ?l of saliva were 0.125 and 0.0156 ?g/100 ml, respectively, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.9-12.2%. Salivary F levels measured by this method were in good agreement with those by the RIA after extraction with dichlormethane reported previously. (Auth.)

376

Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

Andrade Bruno B.

2005-01-01

377

Use of lectin-probes for correlative histochemical and biochemical assessments of the glycosylation patterns of secretory proteins, including kallikreins, in salivary glands and saliva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Labelled lectins were used as probes to study the glycosylation and secretion of submandibular glycoproteins not only in sections of fixed glands but also in glandular extracts and in nerve-induced saliva, after electrophoretic separations and immobilization in nitrocellulose membranes. In cats the glycoproteins in sympathetic saliva differed considerably from those in parasympathetic saliva. In sympathetic saliva they were found to originate mainly from st...

Garrett, J. R.; Proctor, G. B.; Zhang, X. S.; Shori, D. K.; Schulte, B. A.

1996-01-01

378

Sampling Human Indigenous Saliva Peptidome Using a Lollipop-Like Ultrafiltration Probe: Simplify and Enhance Peptide Detection for Clinical Mass Spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although human saliva proteome and peptidome have been revealed 1-2 they were majorly identified from tryptic digests of saliva proteins. Identification of indigenous peptidome of human saliva without prior digestion with exogenous enzymes becomes imperative, since native peptides in human saliva provide potential values for diagnosing disease, predicting disease progression, and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. Appropriate sampling is a critical step for enhancement of identification of huma...

Zhu, Wenhong; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-ming

2012-01-01

379

Augmentation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Invasion of Human Oral Epithelial Cells and Up-Regulation of Interleukin-8 Production by Saliva CD14  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has recently been shown that human salivary glands constitutively express CD14, an important molecule in innate immunity, and that a soluble form of CD14 is secreted in saliva. The concentration of CD14 in parotid (a serous gland) saliva was comparable to that in normal serum and 10-fold the amount in whole saliva, although the physiological function of saliva CD14 remained unclear. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontopathic bacterium and is able to invade oral epithelial c...

Takayama, Atsuko; Satoh, Aya; Ngai, Tomoko; Nishimura, Takashi; Ikawa, Keiji; Matsuyama, Takami; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji

2003-01-01

380

Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No significant differences were recorded in the amount of culturable bacteria in all studied conditions; however, from microscopy images, the saliva/HEMA combining effect induced a significant bacterial aggregation and adhesion on HGFs. HEMA treatment decreased viable eukaryotic cell number with a parallel increment of necrotic cells, but when saliva was added to the co-culture, the viable cells percentage increased to a value comparable to the control sample. PMID:23670604

Di Giulio, Mara; di Giacomo, Viviana; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Zara, Susi; Pasquantonio, Guido; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum / Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 [...] e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle) e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09) após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifte [...] en 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control) and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09) after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p

Maria Francisca Thereza Borro, Bijella; Fernanda Lourenção, Brighenti; Maria Fernanda Borro, Bijella; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

2005-12-01

382

Electrochemical behaviour of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum dental alloy in artificial salivas: Influence of phosphate ions and mucin components.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of the Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy immersed in artificial salivas (pH 6.7) was investigated over 24 h. Three artificial salivas have been studied: saline saliva (saliva I); saline saliva buffered with phosphate ions (saliva II) and saliva II plus mucin molecules (saliva III). For all the systems, open circuit potential shift positively over 24 hours of immersion. Data extracted from the steady-state polarization curves demonstrated that the Co-Cr-Mo alloy has higher corrosion potential in saliva III, lower corrosion potential in saliva I and lower initial corrosion resistance in saliva III. After 24 hours of immersion in the artificial salivas, the Co-Cr-Mo alloy presents high corrosion stability, due to the protective action created by the presence of corrosion products. From the analysis of the breakdown potential it was concluded that, the presence of the phosphate ions and mucin promote the oxidation process, inducing the formation of etch pits. Regarding the effect of the mucin concentration in the corrosion behaviour of the Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy, it was observed a negative shift in the corrosion potential, pointing to a cathodic inhibitor role for the mucin molecules. Nevertheless, no correlation between the mucin concentration and corrosion rate was possible to establish. PMID:25585980

de Aguiar, S R M M; Nicolai, M; Almeida, M; Gomes, A

2015-01-01

383

49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?  

Science.gov (United States)

...procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245...procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As...take the following steps when using the saliva ASD: (1) Check the...

2010-10-01

384

Bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana da saliva de pacientes com diferentes índices de higiene bucal através da construção de duas bibliotecas do gene 16S rRNA. Cada biblioteca foi composta por amostras de saliva de pacientes com índice de biofilme dental de Silness-Löe [...] diferenciado, sendo a primeira (A) com índice de 1,0 a 3,0 (denominada de alto índice) e a segunda (B), entre 0 a 0,5 (denominada de baixo índice). O DNA da saliva foi extraído e o gene 16S rRNA foi amplificado, clonado e sequenciado. As sequências obtidas foram comparadas com aquelas armazenadas no GenBank do NCBI e RDP. A saliva de pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental apresentou cinco gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella e Peptostreptococcus e 33,3% de bactérias não-cultivadas, agrupados em 23 unidades taxonômicas operacionais (UTOs). A saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental, foi diferente significativamente da primeira (p=0,000) e foi composta de 42 UTOs, distribuídas em 11 gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces, além de 24,87% de bactérias não-cultivadas. Pode-se concluir que existe maior diversidade bacteriana na saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental em relação a pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes using of two 16S rRNA gene libraries. Each library was composed of samples from patients with different averages of the differentiated Silness-Löe biofilm index: t [...] he first library (A) with an index between 1.0 and 3.0 (considered a high index) and the second library (B) between 0 and 0.5 (considered a low index). Saliva DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and cloned. The obtained sequences were compared with those stored at NCBI and RDP GenBank. The saliva of patients with high index presented five known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella and Peptostreptococcus - and 33.3% of nonculturable bacteria grouped into 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The saliva of patients with low index differed significantly from the first library (p=0.000) and was composed of 42 OTUs distributed into 11 known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces - including 24.87% of nonculturable bacteria. It was possible to conclude that there is greater bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with low dental plaque in relation to patients with high dental plaque.

Juliana Vianna, Pereira; Luciana, Leomil; Fabíola, Rodrigues-Albuquerque; José Odair, Pereira; Spartaco, Astolfi-Filho.

385

Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children / Análise da saliva total estimulada em escolares com sobrepeso e obesos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar se alguns parâmetros da saliva total estimulada são influenciados pelo aumento do Índice de Massa Corporal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado com 90 escolares, de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 10 anos incompletos de Bragança Paulista, SP, formando três grupos: sobrepeso, obeso e co [...] ntrole. Avaliou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (P/E2) e a ingestão dietética pelo registro alimentar. Na saliva foram avaliados o fluxo, pH, capacidade tampão e concentrações de proteína, fósforo, cálcio, flúor, ácido siálico livre e total e atividade da peroxidase. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos sobrepeso e obeso houve maior consumo de energia e lipídios (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine if some stimulated whole saliva parameters are influenced by an increase of Body Mass Index. METHODS: Controlled cross-sectional study involving 90 school children of both genders between 7 and 10 years of age, from Bragança Paulista - SP. Three groups were formed: overweight [...] , obese and control. Body Mass Index and diet intake by the Food Register method were evaluated. The salivary pH, flow rate, buffer capacity, protein, phosphate, calcium, fluoride, total and free sialic acid, and peroxidase activity were determined. RESULTS: The overweight and obese groups showed greater energy and lipid intake (P

Eliana, Pannunzio; Olga Maria Silverio, Amancio; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Douglas Nesadal de, Souza; Fausto Medeiros, Mendes; José, Nicolau.

386

Codex alimentarius [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete list of food standards for all nations developed to protect the health of consumers, ensure fair trade practices in the food trade, and promote coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations. Standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission up to 2001.

387

Science conferences [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OSTI Science Conferences portal provides the capability to search for conference information on multiple web sites and databases with a single query utilizing a combination of surface web and deep web tools that can reach where ordinary search engines cannot. Emphasis is on U.S. conferences hosted and/or published by scientific and professional organizations whose areas of focus relate substantially to the Department of Energy's mission. Also possible to search and access the full-text of a subscribed service, the AIP Conference Proceedings.

388

Carnegie Council [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, the world's premier forum for research and education in ethics and international policy. Explores the ethical dilemmas posed by issues such as deadly conflict, human rights violations, environmental protection, global economic disparities, and the politics of reconciliation. The website provides information about the Council, its mission and programs, and links to its many publications, including Ethics & International Affairs, Human Rights Dialogue, etc.

389

Description des documents électroniques et les besoins des utilisateurs (Bibliographic description of electronic resources and user needs) [French version presented at the International Conference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I'll focus my observations on public libraries and I'll talk about the situation of the access to electronic documents in French libraries. I'll base my speech also upon the remarks about this topic found in professional literature, including that published in France. How can selection, bibliographic description of electronic resources and mediation of librarians reduce users' frustration? It is a fact that the best search engines cover only a third of the Web, the remaining stays invisible a...

Witt, Maria

2001-01-01

390

Detección de arn de virus hepatitis c en la saliva de un grupo de pacientes con hepatitis c crónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Hepatitis C constituye un problema de salud pública y su transmisión está claramente asociada con la ruta parenteral. Sin embargo su agente causal, Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC), también ha sido aislado de otros fluidos incluyendo la saliva, aunque la relación existente entre VHC y la patología buca [...] l no está completamente dilucidada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con Hepatitis C crónica. En la presente investigación se evaluaron 24 pacientes provenientes del Departamento de Hepatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad Central de Venezuela, con infección por VHC. 5 ml de saliva no estimulada fue tomada de cada paciente. ARN-VHC fue detectada por la técnica de Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en cadena de la Polimerasa (TR-RCP). En 29%, (7/24) pacientes VHC+, se observó la presencia de ARN-VHC en saliva. En este estudio, observamos la presencia de ARN-VHC en la saliva de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC. Es necesario realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala, para clarificar el significado biológico de la presencia de este agente viral en la saliva, incluyendo la potencial vía de transmisión por la exposición con este fluido. Abstract in english Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmisión is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids, including saliva, although the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. The aim of thi [...] s study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva from patients with chronic C hepatitis. In the present investigation 24 patients, attended at the Hepatology Department, at the the Clinical Hospital University, Central University of Venezuela, with HCV infection were evaluated . 5ml of unstimulated saliva were taken of each patient. Saliva HCV-RNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 29% (7/24) of HCV+ patients showed HCV-RNA in saliva. In this study, we observed the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients infected with HCV. Further large-scale epidemiological studies are required to clarify the clinical significance of HCV in the saliva, including the potencial for viral transmisión through exposure to these fluids.

M, Luna; , De Guglielmo; M, Garassini; M, Perrone; M, Correnti.

2008-12-01

391

Evaluation of whole saliva constituents in diabetic patients with periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to use saliva to monitor patient's state of health and access the presence of any disease is a highly desirable goal for health care research. The oral cavity is said to be the mirror of systemic diseases and many systemic diseases may be identified on the basis of oral manifestation alone. Periodontitis has been referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate whole saliva constituents (sodium, potassium, amylase, calcium, total proteins and glucose and periodontal status in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to establish an association between the findings of whole saliva constituents in the experimental subjects and control subjects. A Cross- Sectional study was conducted from January 2009-June 2009. Group comprised of 40 subjects between the age group of 40-60 yrs. Experimental group consisted of Diabetic patients with Periodontal disease and control group consisted of systemically and periodontaly healthy patients. Their probing depth, gingival scores, blood samples and whole unstimulated saliva samples were taken and estimated for their diabetic status and levels of salivary constituents. The results obtained from the study showed a marked increase in the concentrations of the whole salivary parameters (except sodium studied in the diabetic group with periodontal disease in comparison to the non-diabetic groups without periodontal disease. It is concluded in this study these salivary parameters may be considered as a valuable aid in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

Sunita Manhas, Suvarna Prasad, Jasbir Singh, Ambika Chadha

2012-07-01

392

Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine. The median output of EGF in gastric juice was reduced from 45.6 pmol/12 h (total range 17.5-65.0) in unoperated controls to less than 0.06 pmol/12 h (total range less than 0.06-1.82) in rats given cysteamine after extirpation of the submandibular glands. The contents of EGF in the submandibular glands was unchanged during cysteamine treatment. Furthermore, the effects of intragastric instillation of exogenous EGF, infusion of saliva without EGF, and infusion of saliva with a high concentration of EGF on the development of cysteamine-induced gastric lesions were investigated in rats without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may be physiological.

Poulsen, Steen Seier

1984-01-01

393

The Use of Forensic Tests to Distinguish Blowfly Artifacts from Human Blood, Semen, and Saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA. PMID:25407611

Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2014-11-18

394

Activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, by measurement of the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase (HEX in their saliva.Material/Methods: The study was performed in 65 children with type 1 diabetes and 39 healthy children. Salivary HEX activity was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Zwierz et al. in the modification of Marciniak et al. Protein was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method (BCATM Assay Protein Kit. Concentration of the HEX activity was expressed in pKat/mL and HEX specific activity in pKat/?g of protein.Results: A significant increase in the concentration and the specific activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, compared to healthy children, was found.Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes increases salivary catabolism of glycoconjugates reflected by the significant increase in the activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy children. The salivary HEX activity may be used in the diagnosis of children with type 1 diabetes after confirmation of our results on a larger cohort of children with type 1 diabetes.

Beata Zalewska-Szajda

2013-09-01

395

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) Virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva

396

Short term fasting and lactovegetarian diet does not affect human saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-two adults, visiting a Swedish health home, participated in the investigation, which included a 6-day period of fasting, followed by a 6-day period with a lactovegetarian diet. The results obtained indicated only a minor and mostly not significant influence on secretion rate, buffer effect, concentration of various electrolytes, and number of lactobacilli and S. mutans of whole saliva. PMID:6593806

Birkhed, D; Heintze, U; Edwardsson, S; Aly, K O

1984-10-01

397

Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

2011-06-01

398

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

399

Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Surface Roughness of Glass-Ionomer Cements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The glass ionomer cements are used clinically in different areas of restorative dentistry. The life span of dental restorations depends on the properties of the material such as durability, wear resistance and type of damage to the tooth. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of arficial saliva with different pH on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cements (GIC. The factors under study are three types of glass ionomer cements(one conventional glass ionomer cement, one resin modified glass ionomer and one polyacid-modified composite and artificial saliva at three different pHs (3, 7, 9. The association between GICs and storage media resulted in four groups. The analysis surface roughness was quantitatively carried out by means of a surface roughness measuring instrument (A Perthograph R100. The measurement procedure were repeated for 1, 7, 14, 28 days. No significant difference in surface roughness existed between distilled deionizer water and artificial saliva with pH 5 or 9. At 28 days, Ketac Molar was found to have suffered the greatest increase in surface roughness, after immersion in artificial saliva with pH3. As long as the material is being tolerated and protected by the dental structure, its resistance to abrasion will be satisfactory. All the materials have increasing trends of surface roughness as the immersion time increased.

Gabriela Beresescu

2011-11-01

400

Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency. PMID:22980834

Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

2012-12-15

 
 
 
 
401

Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Frequency and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of around 300 bacterial taxa/clusters in samples were used as parameters for investigation. Differences at taxon/cluster values between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort.

BelstrØm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

2014-01-01

402

Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements in mixed saliva. It was observed that Cu, Pb, Na showed significant variation in case of one surface as compared to caries free group. Between the non-caries and multiple caries group Cu, Pb, K showed no significant variation Zn showed highly significant variation.

Zahir S; Sarkar S.

2006-01-01

403

Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author)

404

Measurement of steroid hormones in saliva: Effects of sample storage condition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement of steroid hormones in saliva is increasingly common in elite sport settings. However, this environment may enforce handling and storage practices that introduce error in measurement of hormone concentrations. We assessed the influence of storage temperature and duration on reproducibility of salivary steroid levels. Nine healthy adults provided morning and afternoon saliva samples on two separate occasions. Each sample was divided into identical saliva aliquots which were stored long-term (i.e. 28 and 84 days) at - 80°C or - 20°C (testing day 1), and short-term (i.e. 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) at 4°C or 20°C (testing day 2). Samples were analyzed for cortisol, testosterone and estradiol using ELISA. In non-freezer conditions, there was a decrease from baseline to 7 days in testosterone (- 26 ± 15%) and estradiol (- 58 ± 17%) but not cortisol concentrations (p storage in freezer conditions (p ? 0.01), but these were generally within 12% of baseline concentrations, and may be partly explained by inter-assay variability. Whole saliva samples to be analyzed for cortisol, testosterone and estradiol should be frozen at - 20°C or below within 24 h of collection, and analyzed within 28 days. Storage of samples for measurement of testosterone and estradiol at temperatures above - 20°C can introduce large error variance to measured concentrations. PMID:24033227

Toone, Rebecca J; Peacock, Oliver J; Smith, Alan A; Thompson, Dylan; Drawer, Scott; Cook, Christian; Stokes, Keith A

2013-12-01

405

The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, p<0.0001). Blood contamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Fábryová, Helena; Koborová, Ivana; Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter

2013-12-20

406

An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen

2014-01-01

407

Thickened Saliva after Effective Management of Drooling with Botulinum Toxin A  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of saliva after submandibular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections. Method: We enrolled 15 children (11 males and six females; age range 3-17y, mean age 9y 10mo) diagnosed with spastic (n=9) or dyskinetic (n=6) quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP); Gross Motor Function…

Erasmus, Corrie E.; van Hulst, Karen; van den Hoogen, Frank J. A.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Roeleveld, Nel; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Jongerius, Peter H.

2010-01-01

408

Monitoring of 125I in saliva of workers internally contaminated with 125I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sum peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of 125I in saliva ranged 4.65 +- 2.1cBq (1.26 +- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +- 1.9cBq (5.62 +- 0.51pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +- 0.64) x 10-9 to (3.6 +- 0.073) x 10-8 and the average was (8.1 +- 1.1) x 10-9. The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 x 10-5 to 5.4 x 10-6. The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 ?Gy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 ?Gy (474mrad). Monitoring of 125I in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination. (author)

409

Neutron activation analysis of saliva. Application in clinical chemistry, environmental and occupational toxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of 21 chemical elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Zn) in mixed non-stimulated saliva of 52 relatively healthy people were assessed by activation using 14 MeV neutrons and nuclear reactor neutrons. The study included 45 women and 7 men, aged 18 to 35. the dependence of salivary compositions upon sex, age, time-of-day and time-of-year was studied. The saliva of 22 men, involved in the clean-up operation after the Chernobyl accident, was also studied. There existed clear circadian variations in the amount of Na, Sc and Cr contained in the saliva and a tendency to circadian variations for the amount of Cl, Co, Br and Rb. Neither sex, age, nor time-of-year influenced the contents of 21 chemical elements examined. The only exception to this finding was with Hg, whose content increases with age. the analysis of the cleaners' saliva made it possible to find considerable metabolic changes of Ca and some other chemical elements. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

410

The blistering of a viscoelastic filament of a droplet of saliva  

CERN Document Server

A fluid dynamics video of the break up of a droplet of saliva is shown. First a viscoelastic filament is formed and than the blistering of this filament is shown. Finally, a flow induced phase separation takes place nanometer sized solid fiber remains that consist out of the biopolymers.

Wagner, Christian; Eggers, Jens

2009-01-01

411

The radionuclide salivagram for detecting the pulmonary aspiration of saliva in an infant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radionuclide study is described utilizing a small volume of technetium 99m sulfur colloid to demonstrate the pulmonary aspiration of saliva. This is a possible cause of recurrent pulmonary infections even in patients off oral feeding. The salivagram is a useful technique to document these cases. (orig.)

412

THE EXCRETION OF PESTICIDES IN SALIVA AND ITS VALUE IN ASSESSING EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that pesticides are secreted in the saliva and that this secretion can be used to assess exposure to pesticides is discussed. Both Kepone and carbaryl were tested through a series of in vitro studies and in vivo experiments including both acute and subchronic stud...

413

Remineralization of enamel by a saliva substitute designed for use by irradiated patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A saliva substitute, VA-OraLube, was evaluated for ability to reharden dental enamel and to relieve intraoral soft tissue symptoms in patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatments of 15, 30, and 60 minutes rehardened enamel by 3.1%, 4.0%, and 5.5%, respectively. In the second experiment, treatment for 60 minutes with the complete solution rehardened enamel by 5.2%. Omitting calcium, phosphorous and/or fluoride from the formulation greatly decreased this rehardening potential. Treatment of enamel with fresh whole saliva induced rehardening at a 7.3% level in comparison to the 5.5% and 5.2% derived by using the saliva substitute. Since the xerostomic patient usually uses the product very frequently, there is a remineralization potential of significant consequence. A total of 125 xerostomic patients used the saliva substitute on an ad lib basis over a period of 4 months. Patient responses indicated a very high level of acceptance and the virtual elimination of troublesome problems previously associated with the dry mouth state

414

Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A saliva de artrópodes hematófagos é rica em moléculas com funções diversas que mediam uma alimentação sangüínea bem sucedida. Estas moléculas agem não apenas como armas contra a resposta hemostática, inflamatória e imunológica do hospedeiro funcionando também como ferramentas para o estabelecimento [...] de patógenos. Parasitas, vírus e bactérias aproveitando-se deste arsenal dos vetores adaptaram-se facilitando seu estabelecimento no hospedeiro. Hoje, várias moléculas salivares foram identificadas e caracterizadas como novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de vacinas futuras. Neste trabalho, centramos em informação recente sobre a saliva de vetores e as moléculas responsáveis por modificar a resposta hemostática e imunológica assim como seu papel na transmissão de doenças. Abstract in english The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Paras [...] ites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

Bruno B., Andrade; Clarissa R., Teixeira; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto.

2005-12-01

415

Saliva-based immunoassay of waterborne pathogen exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is our most important resource and ensuring its safety, security and sustainability is a global priority. Of almost equal importance is the protection of the global community from microbiological and chemical contaminants in our drinking and recreational water sources. Meth...

416

Pharmacokinetic study of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and its three metabolites in plasma, saliva and urine following administration of 100 mg single oral dose were investigated in 24 healthy volunteers.Materials and Methods: 12 male and 12 female healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and Plasma, mixed saliva -secreted samples without any stimulation and urine were analyzed for Tramadol and its main metabolites by HPLC method.Results and Disscusion: Almost 16.2% of tramadol and 11.2, 1.1 and 5.0% of O-desmethyltramadol (M1, N-desmethyltramadol (M2 and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5 respectively were recovered in 30 hrs collected urine. Renal clearance of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 114.7 ± 44.5, 193.9 ± 67.6, 116.1 ± 61.8 and 252.0 ± 91.5 (mL/min respectively. The maximum plasma concentration of tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 were 349.3 ± 76.7, 88.7±30.3, 23.1 ± 11.4 and 30.0 ± 11.7 (ng/mL at 1.6 ± 0.4, 2.4 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 1.0 and 2.7 ± 1.4 hrs after drug administration respectively. Tramadol and its metabolites appeared in a significant amount in saliva with the saliva/plasma ratios of 9.0, 1.6, 12.3 and 2.8 for tramadol, M1, M2 and M5 according to AUC(0-24 respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion Strong correlations were found between plasma and saliva concentrations for all studied compounds and a dissection to pre and post absorption components improved these correlations. Results o f this study suggests that saliva is a suitable alternative to plasma for clinical and toxicological studies of tramadol and in addition to passive diffusion, a possible active transport is also suggested to describe the elevated saliva/plasma ratios for these compounds.

M.R Rouini

2009-12-01

417

Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MTL) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of these hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In these study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2- (125I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p0.00956x). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophases (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 8:06 h, SD: 93.8 min). The acrophase for MLT was found between 0:00 and 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The 6:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). There was a phase difference between both hormones of 3 to 7 hours (Mean: 292.5 min, SD: 74.7 min). The easy stress-free non-invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (Author)

418

Influence of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of adhesives on enamel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength of 3 adhesive systems (Single Bond, TransbondTM MIP and TransbondTM XT) applied on bovine enamel under saliva contamination condition. METHOD: One hundred and twenty enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 20) according to the adh [...] esive system used (TransbondTM XT, TransbondTM MIP and Single Bond) with or without saliva contamination. For each adhesive system, there were two groups defined as no contamination group (NC): 37% H3PO4 conditioning for 30 seconds and two layers of adhesive systems; saliva contamination group (SC): After the first adhesive layer application, the examined areas were contaminated with saliva. Samples were mounted appropriately for testing and stored in deionized water at 37 ºC for 7 days. Samples were then submitted to shear bond strength trials at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated under stereomicroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to compare mean values (? = 0.05). RESULTS: Groups XT (NC) = 26.29 ± 7.23; MIP (NC) = 24.47 ± 7.52 and SB (NC) = 32.36 ± 4.14 XT (SC) = 19.59 ± 6.76; MIP (SC) = 18.08 ± 6.39 and SB (SC) = 18.18 ± 7.03 MPa. ARI 0 and 1 were the most prevalent scores in all study groups examined. CONCLUSION: Saliva contamination significantly decreased bond strength of the three adhesive systems examined (p

Tatiana Feres, Assad-Loss; Mônica, Tostes; José Nelson, Mucha.

2012-04-01

419

Pharmacokinetics of pradofloxacin and doxycycline in serum, saliva, and tear fluid of cats after oral administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetic properties of pradofloxacin and doxycycline were investigated in serum, saliva, and tear fluid of cats. In a crossover study design, six cats were treated orally with a single dose of pradofloxacin (Veraflox Oral Suspension 2.5%) and doxycycline (Ronaxan 100 mg) at 5 mg/kg body weight. Following administration, samples of serum, saliva, and tear flui