WorldWideScience
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Patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani em morangueiro Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani to strawberry  

OpenAIRE

O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhen tem sido isolado com maior freqüência de mudas e plantas adultas de morangueiro com sintomas de subdesenvolvimento, declínio progressivo, avermelhamento ou arroxeamento dos folíolos, pecíolos e estolhos, além do apodrecimento do ápice da coroa, estipulas e base dos pecíolos. As plantas doentes apresentavam, com freqüência, raízes escuras ou com áreas necrosadas. Fusarium spp. e Pythium spp. também estavam, reiteradamente, associados às plantas do...

Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka; Margarida Fumiko Ito; Francisco Antonio Passos

1995-01-01

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Patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani em morangueiro / Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani to strawberry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhen tem sido isolado com maior freqüência de mudas e plantas adultas de morangueiro com sintomas de subdesenvolvimento, declínio progressivo, avermelhamento ou arroxeamento dos folíolos, pecíolos e estolhos, além do apodrecimento do ápice da coroa, estipulas e base dos p [...] ecíolos. As plantas doentes apresentavam, com freqüência, raízes escuras ou com áreas necrosadas. Fusarium spp. e Pythium spp. também estavam, reiteradamente, associados às plantas doentes. Para determinar a causa dos sintomas descritos e verificar, isoladamente ou em mistura, possível interação entre os patógenos R. solani, Fusarium sp. e Pythium sp., testaram-nos quanto à patogenicidade, em mudas de morangueiro, em casa de vegetação. Observou-se que somente quando R. solani estava presente havia reprodução dos sintomas, de modo semelhante ao observado no campo, comprovando sua patogenicidade. Fusarium e Pythium, no entanto, foram reisolados de lesões radiculares, o que indica seu possível envolvimento no complexo da doença, aumentando os sintomas de declínio em condições de campo. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani was consistently associated with strawberry plants in nurseries or in fruit production fields, with symptoms of progressive decline, stunt, reddening of leaflets, petioles and runners, besides dry rots of the crown apex, estipules and base of the petioles. These plants showed freq [...] uently roots with necrotic lesions. Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. also were isolated from the diseased plants. This study was conducted to determine the role of each referred fungus on the disease and to investigate a possible interaction between them. For this purpose, R. solani, Pythium sp. and Fusarium sp., alone or combined one with other, were inoculated in strawberry plants, in the greenhouse. The results showed that only when R. solani was present, there was an identical reproduction of the symptoms observed in the field. Fusarium and Pythium, nevertheless, were reisolated from root lesions, indicating the possibility of its involvement with the disease, increasing the symptoms of decline under field conditions.

Maria Aparecida de Souza, Tanaka; Margarida Fumiko, Ito; Francisco Antonio, Passos.

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REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM ÀS PODRIDÕES RADICULARES CAUSADAS POR Rhizoctonia solani E Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli  

OpenAIRE

REACTION OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TOROOT ROT CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solaniAND Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoliRhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a necrotrophic fungus andsoil inhabitant that attacks great number of vegetable species. Inbean plants, R. solani can induce different symptoms includingtoppling, root and colon plant rottenness. Fusarium solani (Mart)Sacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burcholder) occurs in practically all beanproducing areas in Brazil and can cause root rots and death tobean plants. This...

Braycia Afonso de Miranda; Murillo Lobo Júnior; Marcos Gomes Cunha

2007-01-01

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Soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani and microbial diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-2IIIB causes damping-off, black root rot and crown rot in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Based on experiences of growers and field experiments, soils can become suppressive to R. solani. The fungus may be present in the soil, but the plant does not show symptoms. Understanding the mechanisms causing soil suppressiveness to R. solani is essential for the development of environmentally friendly control strategies of rhizoctonia root rot in sugar beet. A bioassay that discriminates soils in their level of disease suppressiveness was developed. Results of bioassays were in accordance with field observations. Preliminary results indicate an active role of microbial communities. Our research is focused on the disentanglement of biological mechanisms causing soil suppressiveness to R. solani in sugar beet. Therefore, we are handling a multidisciplinary approach through experimental fields, bioassays, several in vitro techniques and molecular techniques (PCR-DGGE). PMID:16637155

Bakker, Y; Van Loon, F M J; Schneider, J H M

2005-01-01

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Study of the aggressiveness of Rhizoctonia solani isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an in vitro test to screen the pathogenicity of different Rhizoctonia solani isolates on a host range. The level of aggressivity of the different isolates was different for several host plants tested. There were significant differences between the crops and the isolates tested. In general, the disease level was higher on beans, lettuce and cabbage. In carrot and rye grass the level of infection was lower for the isolates of R. solani tested. The potato isolates of R. solani were less aggressive than the isolates coming from maize, fodder beet and sugar beet. The R. solani isolates were also biochemically characterized by pectic zymograms: the isolates Rs0401 (from maize) and Rs0504 (from sugar beet) belong both to the anastomosis group AG2-2. PMID:18396839

Heremans, B; Garrido Sepulveda, A; Haesaert, G

2007-01-01

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Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris, T. praticola) is a basidiomycetous fungus and a major cause of root diseases of economically important plants. Various isolates of this fungus are also beneficially associated with orchids, may serve as biocontrol agents or remain as saprophytes with roles in decaying and recycling of soil organic matter. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) with distinct host and pathogenic specializations. Even though there are reports on the physiological and histological basis of Rhizoctonia-host interactions, very little is known about the molecular biology and control of gene expression early during infection by this pathogen. Proteamic technologies are powerful tools for examining alterations in protein profiles. To aid studies on its biology and host pathogen interactions, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel-based global proteomic study has been initiated. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for R. solani, we compared two previously reported protein extraction protocols for 2-D gel analysis of R. solani (AG-4) isolate Rs23. Both TCA-acetone precipitation and phosphate solubilization before TCA-acetone precipitation worked well for R. solani protein extraction, although selective enrichment of some proteins was noted with either method. About 450 spots could be detected with the densitiometric tracing of Coomassie blue-stained 2-D PAGE gels covering pH 4-7 and 6.5-205 kDa. Selected protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Eleven protein spots were positively identified based on peptide mass fingerprinting match with fungal proteins in public databases with the Mascot search engine. These results testify to the suitability of the two optimized protein extraction protocols for 2-D proteomic studies of R. solani. PMID:19202841

Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M; Dhar, Arun K

2008-01-01

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Mycoparasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by Endophytic Chaetomium spirale ND35 : Ultrastructure and Cytochemistry of the Interaction  

OpenAIRE

The interaction between endophytic biocontrol agent Chaetomium spirale ND35 and the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as further investigated by gold cytochemistry to assess the potential role of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) during the mycoparasitic process. Macroscopic observations of fungal growth in dual cultures revealed that pathogen growth inhibition occurred soon after contact with the...

Gao, Kexiang; Liu, X.; Kang, Zhensheng; Mendgen, Kurt

2005-01-01

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Incompatibilidade somática em Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja / Somatic incompatibility in Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA of soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes que afeta a cultura da soja no Brasil, causando a mela ou queima foliar. A doença está associada com a fase teleomórfica de R. solani, o basidiomiceto Thanatephorus cucumeris. Neste estudo, baseando em conhecimento prévio sobre a [...] biologia de R. solani AG-1 IA, duas hipóteses foram testadas. Na primeira hipótese postulou-se a ocorrência de incompatibilidade somática em populações de R. solani AG-1 IA. A segunda hipótese testada foi de que esta população de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja apresenta indicações de estrutura sexual clonal. Duas amostras de isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja obtidas no Maranhão e no Mato Grosso foram utilizadas. Na primeira amostra, foram selecionados isolados apresentando diferentes perfis de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), procurando maximizar a diversidade dos isolados, e evitando a introdução de possíveis clones no teste. Os isolados foram pareados em todas as combinações possíveis em meio de BDA mais carvão ativado e examinados quanto às interações somáticas resultantes. Seis grupos de incompatibilidade somática (GCS) foram detectados entre 24 isolados do AG-1 IA. Entretanto, análises microscópicas dos pareamentos entre isolados indicaram maior freqüência de incompatibilidade somática, impossibilitando o grupamento em GCS. No geral, a metodologia de avaliação das interações somáticas macroscópicas em meio BDA + carvão ativado, não se mostrou totalmente apropriada para discriminação das categorias de reações de compatibilidade entre isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA. Com a segunda amostra procurou-se determinar a ocorrência de clones na população do patógeno, ou seja, isolados que compartilham o mesmo padrão fenotípico de RAPD e somaticamente compatíveis. No caso de R. solani AG 1 IA da soja, a gama de interações somáticas entre pareamentos de isolados e, principalmente, os desvios na associação estrita entre os GCS detectados neste trabalho, conjuntamente com os perfis de RAPD observados anteriormente por Fenille (11) e Meyer (20), são consistentes com recombinação. Entretanto, o patógeno ainda apresenta um componente clonal expressivo na população. De um total de 43 isolados, os exemplos de prováveis clones na população do patógeno totalizaram 16 isolados. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA (AG-1 IA) is considered one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil, causing the aerial or foliar blight. This disease is associated with the teleomorphase of R. solani AG-1 IA, the basidiomycete fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris. In this st [...] udy, based on previous knowledge of the biology of R. solani AG-1 IA, two hypotheses were tested. In the first we postulated the occurrence of somatic incompatibility in populations of R. solani AG-1 IA. The second was that the population of R. solani AG1 IA from soybean has a clonal structure. Two population samples of R. solani AG-1 IA from soybean, obtained in Maranhão and Mato Grosso were analyzed. In the first sample, isolates with distinct RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) profile were selected to maximize the genetic diversity of isolates and to avoid the introduction of clones in the assay. The isolates were paired in all possible combinations in PDA plus charcoal medium and examined according to the resulting somatic interactions. Six somatic compatibility groups (SCG) were detected among 24 isolates of AG-1 IA. However, microscopic analyzes of the pairings indicated higher frequency of somatic incompatibility, resulting in the impossibility of grouping any two isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA into SCG. In general, the methodology for evaluating the macroscopic somatic interactions in PDA plus charcoal medium seemed not totally appropriate for discriminating between categories of somatic compatibility amongst isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA. With the second sample of isolates we a

Ana Paula da Silva de, Campos; Paulo Cezar, Ceresini.

2006-09-01

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Some Properties of Inulinase from Rhizoctonia solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation and some biochemical properties of inulinase from R. solani which isolated from soil in Tekirdag - Turkey, was carried out by dialysis and concentrated with silica gel-60 then, further proceeded with Sephadex G-150 and DEAE-Cellulose chromatographies. The specific activity of the enzyme was enhanced from 0.256-5.43 U mg -1. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 35?C and pH 5.0, it was stable in the pH range of 5.0-6.5 and up to 40?C. The activity of enzyme was inhibited strongly by Hg2+ and Ag2+ and KCN and DTNB. The action mode of enzyme for inulin was determined as endohydrolitic-action by TLC.

Figen Ertan

2005-01-01

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Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n) of sugar beet in province Vojvodina  

OpenAIRE

Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopa...

Stojšin Vera B.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Jasni? Stevan M.; Balaž Ferenc F.; Budakov Dragana B.

2006-01-01

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REACTION OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO ROOT ROT CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani AND Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM ÀS PODRIDÕES RADICULARES CAUSADAS POR Rhizoctonia solani E Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a necrotrophic fungus and soil inhabitant that attacks great number of vegetable species. In bean plants, R. solani can induce different symptoms including toppling, root and colon plant rottenness. Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burcholder) occurs in practically all bea...

Braycia Afonso de Miranda; Murillo Lobo Júnior; Marcos Gomes Cunha

2007-01-01

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REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM ÀS PODRIDÕES RADICULARES CAUSADAS POR Rhizoctonia solani E Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli REACTION OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO ROOT ROT CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani AND Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn é um fungo necrotrófico, habitante do solo, que ataca grande número de espécies vegetais. Em feijoeiro, R. solani pode induzir sintomas como tombamento, podridões de raízes e de colo da planta. Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burcholder) ocorre em praticamente todas as ...

Murillo Lobo Júnior; Braycia Afonso de Miranda; Marcos Gomes Cunha

2007-01-01

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Quantification of rice sheath blight progression caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani has a wide host range, including almost all cultivated crops and its subgroup anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes sheath blight in rice. An accurate measurement of pathogen's biomass is a convincing tool for enumeration of this disease. Mycological characteristics and molecular diagnosis simultaneously supported that all six strains in this study were R. solani AG-1 IA. Heterokaryons between strains Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were stable and viable, whereas Rs40103 and Rs40106 did not form viable fused cells, except for the combination of Rs40106 and Rs40104. A primer pair was highly specific to RsAROM gene of R. solani strains and the amplified fragment exists as double copies within fungal genome. The relationship between crossing point (CP) values and the amount of fungal DNA was reliable (R (2) >0.99). Based on these results, we determined R. solani's proliferation within infected stems through real time PCR using a primer pair and a Taqman probe specific to the RsAROM gene. The amount of fungal DNA within the 250 ng of tissue DNA from rice cv. Dongjin infected with Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were 7.436, 5.830, and 5.085 ng, respectively. In contrast, the fungal DNAs within the stems inoculated with Rs40103 and Rs40106 were 0.091 and 0.842 ng. The sheath blight symptom progression approximately coincided with the amount of fungal DNA within the symptoms. In summary, our quantitative evaluation method provided reliable and objective results reflecting the amount of fungal biomass within the infected tissues and would be useful for evaluation of resistance germplasm or fungicides and estimation of inoculum potential. PMID:23812819

Su'udi, Mukhamad; Park, Jong-Mi; Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-06-01

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Transgenic expression of Lactoferrin imparts resistance to a soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) plants expressing an antimicrobial bovine lactoferrin (BLF) gene were developed and evaluated for resistance against an economically important fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping off diseases....

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Metodologias de inoculação de Rhizoctonia solani na cultura da cenoura / Inoculation methodology of Rhizoctonia solani in carrot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Rhizoctonia solani pode causar diferentes tipos de doenças em cenoura (Daucus carota L.). Para a avaliação de métodos de controle geralmente se utiliza inoculação artificial. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, ajustar uma concentração de inóculo de R. solani (AG-4) no cultivo de cenoura. Utilizou-se delin [...] eamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições sendo a unidade experimental um vaso de 3L com 40 sementes. Como substrato, utilizou-se solo/areia (3:1). Os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 sendo, 4 densidades de inóculo (9; 18; 36; 72; mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo) e 3 métodos de infestação artificial (incorporados a todo o solo; incorporados na superfície; contato direto com as sementes) e uma testemunha adicional. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de crescimento a 20(0)C, com fotoperíodo de 12 h. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente do 8º ao 30º dia após a semeadura, registrando-se o estande e o número de plântulas com tombamento. Analisou-se o índice de velocidade de emergência, porcentagem média de tombamento pré e pós emergência. A densidade de 72 mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo incorporado na superfície foi o método mais eficiente. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani may cause different diseases in carrot (Daucus carota L.). To test control methods, artificial inoculation is generally employed. This work aimed to adjust a methodology to inoculate R. solani (AG-4) in carrot. A randomized block outline with five replicates was used, with an expe [...] rimental unit of a 3L-pot with 40 seeds and a substact composed by a mixture of soil/sand (3:1 v/v). Treatments were those in a factorial experiment 4 x 3, with 4 inoculum densities (9; 18; 36; 72 mg of inoculum.kg-1 of soil) and three forms of artificial infestation (incorporated to the substract as a whole; incorporated on the surface; with direct contact with seeds) and an additional control. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber at 20(0)C and a 12h photoperiod. The evaluations were daily performed from the 8th to the 30th day after sowing, recording plant stand and number of seedlings with damping-off. The emergence index, averge percentage of pre and post emergence. Were analyzed the density of 72 mg of inoculum·kg-1 of soil, incorporated on the surface of the susbtract was the most efficient inoculation method.

Amanda Cabral Corrêa de, Oliveira; Paulo Estevão de, Souza; Edson Ampélio, Pozza; Felipe de Carvalho, Manerba; Maurício Ferreira, Lopes.

2008-06-01

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Timing and Methodology of Application of Azoxystrobin to Control Rhizoctonia Solani in Sugarbeet  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in North Dakota and Minnesota. This disease is a major limiting factor to sugar beet production. Management strategies currently include using partially resistant cultivars and fungicides. ...

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Reaction of faba bean genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani and resistance stability Reação de genótipos de fava a Rhizoctonia solani e estabilidade da resistência  

OpenAIRE

The production of faba bean (Phaseolus lunatus) is limited due to the occurrence of Rhizoctonia canker, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In order to select materials with potential for use in faba beans breeding programs and/or disease integrated management, 72 genotypes were evaluated and also stability of the disease resistance in relation to different pathogen isolates, inoculum densities and soil type. The seeds were sown in soil infested with the pathogen by the addition of colon...

Assunc?a?o, Iraildes P.; Nascimento, Liliane D.; Ferreira, Me?rcia F.; Oliveira, Francisco J.; Michereff, Sami J.; Sa, Gaus Lima

2011-01-01

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Relação entre coberturas vegetais e supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani / Relationship between vegetation and soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Áreas de uma microbacia sem a incidência de doenças causadas por Rhizoctonia solani GA 4 foram agrupadas estatisticamente, pelo método de Ward, com relação à supressividade dos solos ao patógeno, avaliada pela taxa de crescimento micelial. Entre os grupos formados, foi definido um gradiente de supre [...] ssividade. A relação entre gradientes de supressividade e tipos de cobertura vegetal foi descrita com auxílio da análise de correspondências múltiplas, sendo que, de modo geral, o pasto e o pousio, seguidos da mata, tornaram os solos mais supressivos, ao passo que a cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum), o milho (Zea mays ), o café (Coffea arabica) e o solo arado tornaram os solos mais conducentes. Porém, os resultados mostraram que outros fatores, além da cobertura vegetal, podem estar afetando a supressividade. Um tratamento biocida (fumigação) dos solos mais supressivos promoveu um maior incremento da taxa de crescimento do patógeno do que o observado com solos mais conducentes. Abstract in english Areas from a microbasin without the incidence of plant diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani GA 4 were statistically grouped by Ward's method, in relation to soil suppressiveness, described by the mycelial growth rate. A gradient of suppressiveness was defined between the groups. The relationship be [...] tween suppressiveness and types of vegetation was described by a multiple correspondence analysis. In general, soils from pasture, fallow ground and forest were classified as suppressive soils, while sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), maize (Zea mays ), coffee (Coffea arabica) and ploughed soils, as conducive soils. However, results showed that other factors affect suppressiveness besides vegetation. A biocide treatment (fumigation) promoted a greater increase in the growth rate of the pathogen on suppressive soils than on conducive ones

RAQUEL, GHINI; MARGARIDA M. H., ZARONI.

2001-03-01

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Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato  

OpenAIRE

A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alone and in combination with V. biguttatum was tested in in vitro assays on nutrient agar plates, in bio-assays with minitubers and in the field. Generally, there were both antagonistic, neutral and ...

Boogert, P. H. J. F.; Luttikholt, A. J. G.

2004-01-01

20

Susceptibility of leguminous green manure species to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii / Suscetibilidade de espécies de leguminosas usadas como adubo verde a Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a suscetibilidade de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em campos cultivados com feijão à podridão-radicular (Rhizoctonia solani) e à podridão-do-colo (Sclerotium rolfsii). Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrim [...] um, e as cultivares de feijão Pérola, Valente e Carnaval foram semeadas em solo infestado por R. solani AG-4 ou S. rolfsii em casa de vegetação. A emergência de D. lablab em solo infestado por R. solani foi reduzida a 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis e Valente apresentaram a menor severidade de podridão-radicular. O fungo S. rolfsii reduziu drasticamente a emergência de todas as espécies; nenhuma plântula de C. cajan e S. cinereum emergiu. Todas as espécies apresentaram alta severidade de podridão-do-colo. As espécies de leguminosas testadas não são apropriadas para serem utilizadas como adubo verde em áreas de cultivo de feijão com alta população de R. solani e S. rolfsii. Abstract in english We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii). Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. " [...] Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.

Trazilbo José de, Paula Júnior; Hudson, Teixeira; Rogério Faria, Vieira; Miller da Silva, Lehner; Renan Cardoso de, Lima; Telma Fallieri Nascimento, Queiroz.

2011-12-01

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Susceptibility of leguminous green manure species to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii Suscetibilidade de espécies de leguminosas usadas como adubo verde a Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii. Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. "Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.Estudou-se a suscetibilidade de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em campos cultivados com feijão à podridão-radicular (Rhizoctonia solani e à podridão-do-colo (Sclerotium rolfsii. Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, e as cultivares de feijão Pérola, Valente e Carnaval foram semeadas em solo infestado por R. solani AG-4 ou S. rolfsii em casa de vegetação. A emergência de D. lablab em solo infestado por R. solani foi reduzida a 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis e Valente apresentaram a menor severidade de podridão-radicular. O fungo S. rolfsii reduziu drasticamente a emergência de todas as espécies; nenhuma plântula de C. cajan e S. cinereum emergiu. Todas as espécies apresentaram alta severidade de podridão-do-colo. As espécies de leguminosas testadas não são apropriadas para serem utilizadas como adubo verde em áreas de cultivo de feijão com alta população de R. solani e S. rolfsii.

Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

2011-12-01

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Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani  

OpenAIRE

En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran i...

Elias Ricardo; Arcos Omar; Arbelaez Germán

1989-01-01

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Identification and quantification of Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae using real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae are the principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot in dryland cereal production systems of the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate the identification and quantification of these pathogens in agricultural samples, we developed SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assays specific to internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of R. solani and R. oryzae. The assays were diagnostic for R. solani AG-2-1, AG-8, and AG-10, three genotypes of R. oryzae, and an AG-I-like binucleate Rhizoctonia species. Quantification was reproducible at or below a cycle threshold (Ct) of 33, or 2 to 10 fg of mycelial DNA from cultured fungi, 200 to 500 fg of pathogen DNA from root extracts, and 20 to 50 fg of pathogen DNA from soil extracts. However, pathogen DNA could be specifically detected in all types of extracts at about 100-fold below the quantification levels. Soils from Ritzville, WA, showing acute Rhizoctonia bare patch harbored 9.4 to 780 pg of R. solani AG-8 DNA per gram of soil.. Blastn, primer-template duplex stability, and phylogenetic analyses predicted that the Q-PCR assays will be diagnostic for isolates from Australia, Israel, Japan, and other countries. PMID:18943261

Okubara, P A; Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

2008-07-01

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Long Term Preservation of a Collection of Rhizoctonia Solani, using Cryogenic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is an important plant pathogen on a number of crops and maintaining an extensive collection of reference isolates is important in understanding relationships of this pathogen with multiple hosts. While a number of long-term storage methods have been developed, mos...

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Long-term Preservation of a Collection of Rhizoctonia solani, using Cryogenic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important plant pathogen on a number of crops and maintaining an extensive collection of reference isolates is important in understanding relationships of this pathogen with multiple hosts. Current long-term storage methods typically call for frequent transfer increasing the...

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Bioactive saponin from tea seed pomace with inhibitory effects against Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed to characterize the antifungal principles in methanol extract of tea ( Camellia oleifera ) seed pomace. Totally, two flavonoids, camelliasides A (1) and B (2), and one saponin mixture composed of camelliasaponin B(1) (3) were identified from the methanol extract. These constituents were tested for their ability to reduce the infection of cabbage seedlings by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-4 and to inhibit growth of the pathogen on potato dextrose agar plates. The saponin mixture is a potential candidate as a new plant-derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off of vegetable seedlings. PMID:20681650

Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Guo-Feng; Huang, Jenn-Wen

2010-08-11

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Screening of bioantagonistic bacteria for biocontrol agent of Rhizoctonia solani and surfactin producer  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this research was to screen 31 of bacteria isolates that have potency to control Rhizoctonia solani growth and isolates capability to produce surfactin. R. solani growth inhibition was performed uses paper discs containing a 5 days cultivation of isolates culture. Surfactin activity assay was performed on LB agar medium. Results of the screening showed that the highest growth inhibition was obtained for isolates code 54 (96.43%), KC4 (93.45%), and 163 (93.19%). All of the iso...

YULIAR

2008-01-01

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NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS TO Rhizoctonia solani OF DIFFERENT SOILS ON CERRADOS FROM THE STATE OF GOIÁS SUPRESSIVIDADE DE DIFERENTES SOLOS A Rhizoctonia solani, NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS  

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Full Text Available

This study was carried out at greenhouse in order to evaluate the occurrence of natural suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani of soils on cerrados. A complete randomized experimental design was used with ten soils and three replications for treatment, evaluating final stand, sick plantets percentage and disease severity in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results indicated suppressiveness to R. solani in soils from Goianésia growed with sugar cane and two soils from Orizona with natural vegetation and pasture respectively.

KEY-WORDS: Supressive soils; Phaseolus vulgaris.

O presente trabalho foi conduzido nas instalações da Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO, com o objetivo de se comparar solos provenientes de diferentes localidades quanto à supressividade a um isolado de Rhizoctonia solani. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos (solos de diferentes origens e três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e foram avaliados stand final, porcentagem de plântulas doentes e severidade da doença. Os resultados indicam que os solos provenientes de Goianésia (GO, cultivados com cana-de-açúcar, e dois dos solos provenientes de Orizona (GO, sendo um de cerrado natural e outro cultivado com pastagem, apresentaram características de supressividade à R. solani, agente causal da podridão radicular do feijoeiro.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrados; solos supressivos; feijoeiro.

Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

2007-09-01

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Over-expression of a protein kinase gene enhances the defense of tobacco against Rhizoctonia solani  

OpenAIRE

To identify Nicotiana tabacum genes involved in resistance and susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to generate a cDNA library from transcripts that are differentially expressed during a compatible and incompatible interaction. This allowed the isolation of a protein kinase cDNA that was down-regulated during a compatible and up-regulated during an incompatible interaction. Quantitative RT–PCR analysis of this gene confirmed the differential e...

Chaco?n, Osmany; Gonza?lez, Marleny; Lo?pez, Yunior; Portieles, Roxana; Pujol, Merardo; Gonza?lez, Ernesto; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Borra?s-hidalgo, Orlando

2010-01-01

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A simple and rapid nuclear staining method for Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a modified staining technique using acridine orange to stain the nuclei of Rhizoctonia solani. Acridine orange solution was prepared in acetic acid buffer, pH 7.2. Staining for 15 min was critical for observing the nuclei. All of the isolates were found to be multinucleated. The nuclei appeared bright green with light orange background. This method is simple, rapid and reproducible. PMID:21745160

Seema, M; Punith, B D; Devaki, N S

2012-04-01

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Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani Damping-Off of Tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB14  

OpenAIRE

Bacillus subtilis RB14, which showed antibiotic activities against several phytopathogens in vitro by producing the antibiotics iturin A and surfactin, was subjected to a pot test to investigate its ability to suppress damping-off of tomato seedlings caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To facilitate recovery from soil, B. subtilis RB14-C, a spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutant of RB14, was used. Damping-off was suppressed when the culture broth, cell suspension, or cell-free culture broth of R...

Asaka, O.; Shoda, M.

1996-01-01

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Identification of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from sugar beet roots by analyzing the ITS region of ribosomal DNA  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 are proven to be the most common pathogenic strains on sugar beet. AG 2-2 (intraspecific groups IIIB and IV) can cause root and crown rot while damping-off of seedlings is most frequently attributed to AG 4. Four isolates of R. solani from sugar beet roots showing characteristic crown and root rot symptoms, collected from different localities in Vojvodina Province...

Stojšin Vera B.; Budakov Dragana; Jacobsen Barry; Grimme Eva; Bagi Ferenc F.; Jasni? Stevan

2007-01-01

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Comparative analysis of putative pathogenesis-related gene expression in two Rhizoctonia solani pathosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani, teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris, is a polyphagous necrotrophic plant pathogen of the Basidiomycete order that is split into 14 different anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal interactions and host range. In this investigation, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques were used to determine potential pathogenicity factors of R. solani in the AG1-IA/rice and AG3/potato pathosystems. These factors were identified by mining for sequences of pathogen origin in a library of rice tissue infected with R. solani AG1-IA and comparing these sequences against the recently released R. solani AG3 genome. Ten genes common to both AGs and two specific to AG1-IA were selected for expression analysis by qRT-PCR. Results indicate that a number of genes are similarly expressed by AG1 and AG3 during the early stages of pathogenesis. Grouping of these pathogenicity factors based on relatedness of expression profiles suggests three key events are involved in R. solani pathogenesis: early host contact and infiltration, adjustment to the host environment, and pathogen proliferation through necrotic tissue. Further studies of the pathogenesis-associated genes identified in this project will enable more precise elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that allow for the widespread success of R. solani as a phytopathogen and allow for more targeted, effective methods of management. PMID:21909999

Rioux, Renee; Manmathan, Harish; Singh, Pratibha; de los Reyes, Benildo; Jia, Yulin; Tavantzis, Stellos

2011-12-01

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A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

Gilmar P. Henz

2007-06-01

35

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

2007-06-01

36

The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

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Typing of anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani by restriction analysis of ribosomal DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on restriction analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified ribosomal DNA was developed for the rapid characterization of large populations of Rhizoctonia solani at the anastomosis group (AG) level. The restriction maps of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences were compared for 219 isolates of R. solani belonging to AG-1 to AG-12 and AG-BI, representing diverse geographic and host range origins. Four discriminant restriction enzymes (MseI, AvaII, HincII, and MunI) resolved 40 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types among the 219 ITS sequences of R. solani. Each RFLP type could be assigned to a single AG except for two RFLP types, which were common to two AG. A fifth enzyme allowed the discrimination of AG-6 and AG-12. In addition, the combination of four enzymes allowed the discrimination of subsets within AG-1, AG-2, AG-3, and AG-4. The efficiency of the typing method was confirmed by analyzing PCR-amplified ITS sequences of 30 reference strains. Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP method was used to characterize at the AG level 307 isolates of R. solani originating from ten sugar beet fields exhibiting patches of diseased plants in France. The PCR-based procedure described in this paper provides a rapid method for AG typing in R. solani. PMID:14608422

Guillemaut, Cécile; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Camporota, Pierre; Alabouvette, Claude; Richard-Molard, Marc; Steinberg, Christian

2003-09-01

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Proteomic study of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 in response to Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the entire range of proteins that are secreted by Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 in its antagonism with Rhizoctonia solani, an in vivo interaction between them was mimicked and not only the secreted cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) but also all of the proteome were investigated. Seven CWDEs, chitinase, cellulase, xylanase, beta-1,3-glucanase, beta-1,6-glucanase, mannanase, and protease,were revealed by activity assay, in-gel activity stain, 2-DE, and LC-MS/MS analysis. Extracellular protein extracts from media that contained R. solani exhibited much higher CWDE activities than media that did not contain R. solani. Cellulase and mannanase activity, however, were insignificant. Activity stain also revealed that beta-1,3-glucanase, beta-1,6-glucanase, and xylanase activity occurred exclusively in media that contained R. solani. Furthermore, 35 of the 43 excised spots on the 2-DE gel were successfully analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and eight proteins were identified. They were two glycoside hydrolases, two proteases, two beta-glucosidases, one endochitinase and, interestingly, one amino acid oxidase. Additionally, a possible mechanism was proposed to elucidate how the cell walls of R. solani are systematically enveloped and disintegrated. PMID:18642836

Tseng, Shih-Chi; Liu, Shu-Ying; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Peng, Kou-Cheng

2008-08-27

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Endophytic Bacillus Species Confer Increased Resistance in Cotton Against Damping off Disease Caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Endophytic bacterial strains were evaluated for their efficacy against the damping off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton. Among hundred and three endophytic bacterial strains isolated, two strains (Bacillus sp. strains EPCO102 and EPCO16 significantly increased plant growth and inhibited the mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani in vitro conditions. The efficacy of talc-based bioformulation of endophytic bacterial strains, EPCO102, EPCO16 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf1 amended with and without chitin in inducing systemic resistance was tested against damping off disease under greenhouse conditions. The application of the bioformulation through seed, soil and foliar spray significantly reduced disease incidence under greenhouse conditions. The amendment of chitin in the formulation further reduced the disease incidence. EPCO102, EPCO16 and Pf1 strain along with chitin treatment was recorded 46.7, 53.3 and 40.0% damping-off incidence compared to control 83.3%. Treatment with the endophytic bacterial bioformulation increased the levels of the defence-related enzymes chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phenol in cotton plants which had been challenged with R. solani. In addition to plant growth and antibiosis, endophytic bacterial strains enhanced the resistance in plants through the induction of defense enzymes in cotton plants.

L. Rajendran

2008-01-01

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SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available

Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógeno e a sua suscetibilidade é inversamente proporcional ao desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade microbiana de alguns solos pode prevenir o estabelecimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Solos com esta propriedade são denominados antagônicos, de longa vida, resistentes ou supressivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de supressividade natural a R. solani de alguns solos classificados como latossolo roxo, latossolo vermelho-escuro, areia quartzoza e latossolo roxo, respectivamente, coletados nos municípios de Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara e Santa Helena de Goiás, no Estado de Goiás, em três áreas contíguas com os seguintes históricos de uso: a solo cultivado com feijão irrigado via pivô central por mais de quatro anos consecutivos; b solo sob vegetação nativa; e c solo sob pastagem de Brachiaria decubens. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0-20 cm e armazenados em casa de vegetação. Para a inoculação dos solos foram utilizados grãos de sorgo, inoculados com Rhizoctonia solani, em seis densidades – 0, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 e 10.000 propágulos/g de solo – e triturados. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, em um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados e esquema fatorial 6 x 4 x 3. A unidade experimental foi constituída de bandejas plásticas com 4 kg de solo e 40 plantas. Quinze dias após a emergência, as plantas foram arrancadas e avaliadas. Posteriormente, foi calculado o índice de McKinney. A análise de variância apresentou interação tripla significativa, e os graus de liberdade foram desdobrados em análises de regressão entre as doses de inóculo e o índice de doença em porcentagem, numa equação exponencial do tipo: ID = A x e (-B/dose do inóculo + 1. Nas regiões de Itumbiara e Silvânia, o índice de doença progrediu como aumento do número de propágulos por grama de solo, atingindo valores superiores a 70%. Porém, para ambas as regiões, não houve diferenças significativas entre os solos de mata, pastagem e feijão com relação ao índice de doença. Por outro lado, nos solos de Jussara e Santa Helena, foi observado um incremento do índice da doença com o aumento da dose de inóculo para todos os históricos, e os solos de mata e de pastagem apresentaram índice de doença semelhante em todas as doses de inóculo utilizadas. Em solos provenientes de área de feijão irrigado, da região de Santa Helena, os incrementos no índice de doença foram menores, não ultrapassando a 60%.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Podridão radicular de Rhizoctonia; controle biológico; população microbiana do solo.

Rhizoctonia solani is a highly destructive world wide soil fungus, with a large host-range, that causes important diseases in a great number of the crops. It is a complex specie whichpossesses many biotypes, differing in their pathogenicity, hosts,distribution in the nature and cultural appearance in solid media.Dry beans are susceptible to this pathogen and the susceptibility is inversely proportional to the host development. The microbial activity of some soils can prevent the establishment of phytopathogenic fungi. Soils with this property are named antagonistic, long life, resistant or supressive. The objective of this work was to evalu

Sheila Andrade Botelho

2007-09-01

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Dried powders of velvetbean and pine bark added to soil reduce Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease on soybean Pós secos de mucuna e casca de pinus adicionados ao solo reduzem a doença causada por Rhizoctonia solani em soja  

OpenAIRE

Diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani, like damping-off and root and stem rot on soybean (Glycine max), are a serious problem around the world. The addition of some organic material to soil is an alternative control for these diseases. In this study, benzaldehyde and dried powders of kudzu (Pueraria lobata), velvetbean or mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), and pine bark (Pinus spp.) were used in an attempt to improve soybean plant growth and to reduce the disease R. solani (AG-4) causes on soybean...

Blum, Luiz E. B.; Rodrígo Rodríguez-Kábana

2006-01-01

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Fatores envolvidos na supressividade a Rhizoctonia solani em alguns solos tropicais brasileiros / Factors involved in the suppressiveness of Rhizoctonia solani in several brazilian tropical soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi realizado em condições de casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de março a agosto de 1995, visando determinar, em sete classes de solo, a supressividade ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani e estudar o possível relacionamento dessa característica com a mineral [...] ogia, propriedades físicas e químicas e populações de fungos do solo. Após proceder à inoculação dos solos com R. solani, multiplicada em grãos de sorgo autoclavados, observou-se que o índice de doença em plântulas de soja aumentou em todos eles. Tal índice foi sempre maior na camada de 0-20 cm, associando-se com o maior teor de matéria orgânica, com exceção do Solo Orgânico eutrófico (SOe), o qual apresentou um índice de doença similar nas duas profundidades (0-20 e 20-40 cm). O efeito supressivo a R. solani, observado no material do Plintossolo distrófico (PTd) e no Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico (LEa), relacionou-se com a textura muito argilosa, com a alta saturação por alumínio e com a vegetação (fase cerrado), mesmo com a ausência de Trichoderma spp. Os materiais do Solo Orgânico eutrófico (SOe), do Latossolo Roxo distrófico (LRd) e da Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (TRe) apresentaram maior conducividade a R. solani , possivelmente relacionada com o caráter eutrófico e com o teor da matéria orgânica, decorrente do tipo de cobertura vegetal (fase vegetação). O material do Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico textura média (LEam) e o do Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico (LVa) mostraram comportamento intermediário. O índice de doença correlacionou-se negativamente com a saturação por alumínio e teor de argila e positivamente com a saturação de bases (V) e com o pH. A mineralogia parece não ter influência direta na supressividade ou conducividade dos solos estudados, provavelmente por variar apenas no que se refere às formas de óxidos de ferro. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Federal University of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from March to August 1995. The purpose of this study was to determine if suppression of seven soil classes could inhibit infection of soybeans by R. solani, and how suppre [...] ssion might relate to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of these soils. After infesting soils with R. solani, grown on autoclaved sorghum grains, disease intensity increased in soybean seedlings grown in all soils infested. This intensity was always greater in the 0-20 cm layer, which was associated with a higher organic matter content. However, one exception was found for the organic soil (SOe), which presented a similar disease intensity of the fungus in two layers from 0-20 and 20-40 cm due to high organic matter content in both layers. The suppressive effect on R. solani was observed with the Typic Plinthaquox (PTd) and Typic Acrustox (Dark-Red Latosol - LEa) soils, probably due to the clay texture, high aluminum saturation and vegetation (cerrado phase), even in the absence of Trichoderma spp. The organic soil, Acric Rhodustox (LRd) and Udic Argiustoll (TRe) was more conducive to soybean infection by R. solani, possibly due to its eutrophic character and the content of its organic matter originating from plant cover type (vegetation phase). The Typic Haplustox soil (LEam) and Typic Acrustox (Red-Yellow Latosol - LVa) materials had an intermediate reaction. The disease intensity was negatively correlated with aluminum saturation level and clay content of the soil and positively correlated with the base saturation and pH. Mineralogical characteristics of the examined soils do not appear to influence the suppressiveness of R. solani or soil conduciveness directly or to any appreciable extent, possibly because soil mineralogy only differs in its iron oxides forms.

F. A., Rodrigues; G. F., Corrêa; M. A. dos, Santos; E. L., Borges Filho.

1998-06-01

43

Real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for Rhizoctonia solani anastomoses group AG2-2IIIb  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group AG2-2 IIIB is a severe sugar beet and maize pathogen. It causes crown and root rot disease which leads to yield losses world-wide. The soil-borne pathogen is difficult to detect and quantify by conventional methods. We developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantification of genomic DNA of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IIIB based on the ITS region of rDNA genes. The limit of quantification of the assay is 1.8 pg genomic DNA. The amplif...

Abbas, S. J.; Ahmad, B.; Karlovsky, P.

2014-01-01

44

Postharvest dark skin spots in potato tubers are an oversuberization response to Rhizoctonia solani infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Israeli farmers export 250,000 tons of potato tubers annually, ?40,000 tons of which are harvested early, before skin set. In recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of dark skin spots on early-harvested potato tubers ('Nicola') packed in large bags containing peat to retain moisture. The irregular necrotic spots form during storage and overseas transport. Characterization of the conditions required for symptom development indicated that bag temperature after packing is 11 to 13°C and it reaches the target temperature (8°C) only 25 days postharvest. This slow decrease in temperature may promote the establishment of pathogen infection. Isolates from typical lesions were identified as Rhizoctonia spp., and Koch's postulates were completed with 25 isolates by artificial inoculation performed at 13 to 14°C. Phylogenetic analysis, using the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA genes, assigned three isolates to anastomosis group 3 of Rhizoctonia solani. Inoculation of wounded tubers with mycelium of these R. solani isolates resulted in an oversuberization response in the infected area. With isolate Rh17 of R. solani, expression of the suberin biosynthesis-related genes StKCS6 and CYP86A33 increased 6.8- and 3.4-fold, respectively, 24 h postinoculation, followed by a 2.9-fold increase in POP_A, a gene associated with wound-induced suberization, expression 48 h postinoculation, compared with the noninoculated tubers. We suggest that postharvest dark spot disease is an oversuberization response to R. solani of AG-3 infection that occurs prior to tuber skin set. PMID:21391824

Buskila, Yossi; Tsror Lahkim, Leah; Sharon, Michal; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Holczer-Erlich, Orly; Warshavsky, Shimon; Ginzberg, Idit; Burdman, Saul; Eshel, Dani

2011-04-01

45

RL-SAGE and microarray analysis of the rice transcriptome after Rhizoctonia solani infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, RNA isolated from R. solani-infected leaves of Jasmine 85 was used for both RL-SAGE library construction and microarray hybridization. RL-SAGE sequence analysis identified 20,233 and 24,049 distinct tags from the control and inoculated libraries, respectively. Nearly half of the significant tags (> or =2 copies) from both libraries matched TIGR annotated genes and KOME full-length cDNAs. Among them, 42% represented sense and 7% antisense transcripts, respectively. Interestingly, 60% of the library-specific (> or =10 copies) and differentially expressed (>4.0-fold change) tags were novel transcripts matching genomic sequence but not annotated genes. About 70% of the genes identified in the SAGE libraries showed similar expression patterns (up or down-regulated) in the microarray data obtained from three biological replications. Some candidate RL-SAGE tags and microarray genes were located in known sheath blight QTL regions. The expression of ten differentially expressed RL-SAGE tags was confirmed with RT-PCR. The defense genes associated with resistance to R. solani identified in this study are useful genomic materials for further elucidation of the molecular basis of the defense response to R. solani and fine mapping of target sheath blight QTLs. PMID:17579886

Venu, R C; Jia, Yulin; Gowda, Malali; Jia, Melissa H; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Stahlberg, Eric; Li, Huameng; Rhineheart, Andrew; Boddhireddy, Prashanth; Singh, Pratibha; Rutger, Neil; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod; Nelson, James C; Wang, Guo-Liang

2007-10-01

46

Over-expression of a protein kinase gene enhances the defense of tobacco against Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify Nicotiana tabacum genes involved in resistance and susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to generate a cDNA library from transcripts that are differentially expressed during a compatible and incompatible interaction. This allowed the isolation of a protein kinase cDNA that was down-regulated during a compatible and up-regulated during an incompatible interaction. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of this gene confirmed the differential expression patterns between the compatible and incompatible interactions. Over-expression of this gene in tobacco enhanced the resistance to damping-off produced by an aggressive R. solani strain. Furthermore, silencing of this protein kinase gene reduced the resistance to a non-aggressive R. solani strain. A set of reported tobacco-resistant genes were also evaluated in tobacco plants over-expressing and silencing the protein kinase cDNA. Several genes previously associated with resistance in tobacco, like manganese superoxide dismutase, Hsr203J, chitinases and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, were up-regulated in tobacco plants over-expressing the protein kinase cDNA. Potentially, the protein kinase gene could be used to engineer resistance to R. solani in tobacco cultivars susceptible to this important pathogen. PMID:20004236

Chacón, Osmany; González, Marleny; López, Yunior; Portieles, Roxana; Pujol, Merardo; González, Ernesto; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Borrás-Hidalgo, Orlando

2010-03-01

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Differential expression of Phaseolus vulgaris genes induced during the interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption; however, bean production is affected by several diseases such as Rhizoctonia root rot. Few bean cultivars have been identified that effectively resist the attack of this fungus. Herein, we used the P. vulgaris Pv-2094 landrace, which is less susceptible to Rhizoctonia root rot, for the construction of a suppressive subtractive hybridization cDNA library in order to isolate plant defense-related genes. Total RNAs obtained after 8 and 16 h from inoculated and non-inoculated roots with R. solani Kühn, were used as the source of the "tester" and the "driver" samples, respectively. A total of 136 unigenes were obtained and classified into 12 functional categories. Six unigenes were selected to analyze for differential expression by qRT-PCR, including a receptor-like kinase (PvRK20-1), an acid phosphatase associated to defense (PA), a pathogenesis related protein (PR1), an ethylene responsive factor (ERF), a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), and an alpha-dioxygenase (?-DOX). These genes were found to be differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner in bean roots during the interaction with R. solani. Data generated from this study will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with plant defense against root rot in common bean. PMID:21416283

Guerrero-González, M L; Rodríguez-Kessler, M; Rodríguez-Guerra, R; González-Chavira, M; Simpson, J; Sanchez, F; Jiménez-Bremont, J F

2011-08-01

48

Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The result of the current study suggests the superiority of our integrated approach to control the sclerotia forming pathogen R. solani compared to the individual treatment either by an antagonist or by a fungicide or by mustard oil cake. PMID:25595298

Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

2015-02-01

49

Diversidad genética de aislados de Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) de chile en México / Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates (Kuhn) from pepper in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las principales limitantes para la producción de chile son los hongos patógenos causantes de la enfermedad conocida como "marchitez del chile" o "secadera". Esta enfermedad puede ser devastadora cuando las condiciones climáticas son favorables para el patógeno. A pesar de que se han intentado [...] diferentes medios de control (químicos y culturales) ninguno ha tenido éxito. Una alternativa para su control es producir germoplasma resistente, sin embargo para poder establecer un programa de mejoramiento efectivo es necesario conocer la distribución y diversidad genética de los patógenos involucrados, particularmente de Rhizoctonia solani, que por su ubicuidad representa un peligro potencial en todas las zonas productoras. Por ello el objetivo fue caracterizar a R. solani en las zona Centro Norte de México y determinar su diversidad genética. Para cumplir con este objetivo se consideraron los estados de Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Colima, Querétaro y Guanajuato donde en 2009 se colectaron plantas adultas de Chile con síntomas de marchitez, se aisló al hongo y se encontró una incidencia del 33%, encontrándose tanto en tallo como en raíz. Las células miceliales fueron multinucleadas, características de las cepas patogénicas. Las pruebas de anastomosis demostaron la presencia en México de los grupos GA4, GA-2.1, GA-IIB, GA-2IV, GA7, GA11, GA12 y GA13. La diversidad genética de este hongo fue muy alta, de tal manera que las relaciones demostradas por la construcción de dendrogramas no muestran tendencias homogéneas pues los principales grupos formados contienen elementos de todos los estados. Abstract in english One of the major constraints for the production of pepper are pathogenic fungi causing diseases known as "pepper blight" or "damping off". This disease can be devastating when weather conditions are favorable for the pathogen. Although different means of control (chemical and cultural) have benn use [...] d but none has been successful. An alternative to control is to produce resistant germplasm, however in order to establish an effective breeding program is necessary to know the distribution and genetic diversity of the pathogens involved, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, which by its ubiquity represents a potential danger in all producing areas. Thus, the objective was to characterize R. solani in North Central area from Mexico and determine its genetic diversity. To achieve with this goal are considered the states of Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Colima, Queretaro and Guanajuato where in 2009 were collected adult plants of pepper with pepper blight symptoms, the fungus was isolated and found an incidence of 33%, finding it in both stem and root. Mycelial cells were multinucleated, a characteristic from pathogenic strains. The anastomosis testing showed that in Mexico are present the groups GA4, GA-2. 1, GA-IIB, GA-2IV, GA7, GA11, GA12 and GA13. The genetic diversity of this fungus was very high, so that the relationships demonstrated by the construction of dendrogram show no homogeneous trends so as the main groups formed contain elements of all states.

Víctor, Montero-Tavera; Brenda Zulema, Guerrero-Aguilar; José Luis, Anaya-López; Talina Olivia, Martínez-Martínez; Lorenzo, Guevara-Olvera; Mario Martín, González-Chavira.

1043-10-01

50

Promotion of growth and control of damping-off (Rhizoctonia solani) of greenhouse tomatoes amended with vermicompost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The pathogen Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Tanatephorus cucumeris) can affect tomatoes germination and emergence and cause basal rot of seedlings. It is generally accepted that composts suppress plant diseases, improve soil nutrient availability and stimulate plant growth. However, no reports have [...] been found on the simultaneous evaluation of vermicompost as plant growth promoter and suppressive to damping-off caused by R. solani on tomatoes. This research evaluated the suppressive effects of different concentrations of vermicompost against R. solani and the ability of vermicompost to promote tomato seedlings growth. The microbial composition of the substratum was explored. Thirty six microorganisms were isolated, 13 of which were antagonic to R.solani in vitro. The addition of 25 to 100% of vermicompost promoted seedlings growth and prevented damping-off caused by R. solani.

MC, Rivera; ER, Wright; MV, López; D, Garda; MY, Barragué.

2004-12-01

51

Triallelic SNP-mediated genotyping of regenerated protoplasts of the heterokaryotic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aneuploid and heterokaryotic nuclear condition of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani have provided challenges in obtaining a complete genome sequence. To better aid in the assembly and annotation process, a protoplast and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method was developed to identify regenerated protoplasts with a reduced nuclear genome. Protocol optimization experiments showed that enzymatic digestion of mycelium from a 24 h culture of R. solani increased the proportion of protoplasts with a diameter of ?7.5 ?m and 1-4 nuclei. To determine whether strains regenerated from protoplasts with a reduced number of nuclei were genetically different from the parental strain, triallelic SNPs identified from variance records of the genomic DNA sequence reads of R. solani were used in PCR-based genotyping assays. Results from 16 of the 24 SNP-based PCR assays provided evidence that one of the three alleles was missing in the 11 regenerated protoplast strains, suggesting that these strains represent a reduced genomic complement of the parental strain. The protoplast and triallelic SNP-based method used in this study may be useful in strain development and analysis of other basidiomycete fungi with complex nuclear genomes. PMID:22321572

Thomas, Elizabeth; Pakala, Suman; Fedorova, Natalie D; Nierman, William C; Cubeta, Marc A

2012-04-15

52

Allelopathic Effect of Some Cruciferous Seeds on Rhizoctonia solani kuhn and Gossypium barbadense L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phenolic substances, lipoidal matters and fatty acid contents of some cruciferous powdered seeds, Raphanus sativus L., Brassica oleracea L. var capitata, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra Koch, Eruca sativa Mill, Brassica napus L. and Lipidium sativum L., were determined. The results indicated that R. sativus L., B. napus L. and B. oleracea L. var capitata contained higher percentage of phenolic compounds, lipoidal matters and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively, compared to other tested plants. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the above seeds were prepared. The alcoholic extract was fractionated with petroleum ether 60-80oC, chloroform and ethyl acetate, respectively. The prepared extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and the results indicated the presence of various active constituents. Their allelopathic effect on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn was tested in vitro. The tested extracts have variable inhibitory effect on R. solani Kuhn. The effect depends on the concentration of the extracts, plant species and the active constituents. Rhizoctania solani infested and non-infested soil sowed with cotton (Gossypium barbadense L seeds were treated with the above powdered seeds. All treatments reduced cotton seed germination, decreased significantly root length but increased seedling shoot height. The results indicated that application of powdered seeds of R. sativus L., E. sativa MILL and S. alba L., to the soil infested with R. solani Kuhn, enhanced the germination percentage of cotton, reduced damping off precentage and improved the growth criteria of the cotton seedlings. Fatty acids composition and mineral contents of the untreated cotton and infested cotton seedlings treated with seed powders were also investigated

I.M.El-Refai

2004-01-01

53

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Trichoderma isolates and antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) foi utilizada para examinar a variabilidade genética em quatorze isolados de Trichoderma além de sua capacidade de antagonizar o fungo fitopatogênico Rhizoctonia solani usando pareamento in vitro, e a possível relação entre perfís de RAPD e agress [...] ividade dos isolados de Trichoderma a R. solani. Foram selecionados sete primers para os ensaios de RAPD, os quais produziram 197 bandas. Os dados foram introduzidos no programa de computador NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy System, Applied Biostatistics)na forma de uma matrix binária, sendo construída uma matriz de similaridade utilizando-se o coeficiente de similaridade de DICE (SD) e baseado nos valores SD, pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA um dendrograma. Observou-se que o grau de similaridade das amostras que apresentaram melhor desempenho antagônico foi bastante baixo, em torno de 40%. Os resultados demonstraram que a variabilidade entre os isolados de Trichoderma é muito alta. Aparentemente não foi demonstrada nenhuma relação entre o perfil de RAPD obtido e o nível de antagonismo dos isolados de Trichoderma nem agrupamento em função da origem dos isolados ou substrato. Abstract in english Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) procedure was used to examine the genetic variability among fourteen isolates of Trichoderma and their ability to antagonize Rhizoctonia solani using a dual-culture assay for correlation among RAPD products and their hardness to R. solani. Seven oligodeoxynucl [...] eotide primers were selected for the RAPD assays which resulted in 197 bands for 14 isolates of Trichoderma. The data were entered into a binary matrix and a similarity matrix was constructed using DICE similarity (SD) index. A UPGMA cluster based on SD values was generated using NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy System, Applied Biostatistics) computer program. A mean coefficient of similarity obtained for pairwise comparisons among the most antagonics isolates was around 40%. The results presented here showed that the variability among the isolates of Trichoderma was very high. No relationship was found between the polymorphism showed by the isolates and their hardness, origin and substrata.

Larissa Brandão, Góes; Ana Bolena Lima da, Costa; Laurineide Lopes de Carvalho, Freire; Neiva Tinti de, Oliveira.

2002-06-01

54

Strategy to select and assess antagonistic bacteria for biological control of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn.  

Science.gov (United States)

A screening strategy was developed to assess the potential of plant-associated bacteria to control diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. About 434 already characterized antagonistic bacterial strains isolated from diverse plant species and microenvironments were evaluated for biocontrol and plant growth promotion by a hierarchical combination of assays. Analyzing in vitro antagonism towards different Rhizoctonia isolates resulted in a selection of 20 potential biocontrol agents. The strains were characterized by their antagonistic mechanisms in vitro as well as their production of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid. The plant growth promoting effect by antagonistic bacteria was determined using a microtiter plate assay on the basis of lettuce seedlings. Lettuce and sugar beet as host plant were included in the biocontrol experiments in which the antagonistic effect of 17 bacterial isolates could be confirmed in vivo. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and (or) fatty acid methyl ester gas chromatography was used to identify the antagonistic isolates. Molecular fingerprints of isolates obtained by BOX-polymerase chain reaction were compared to avoid further investigation with genetically very similar strains and to obtain unique molecular fingerprints for quality control and patent licensing. According to our strategy, an assessment scheme was developed and four interesting biological control agents, Pseudomonas reactans B3, Pseudomonas fluorescens B1, Serratia plymuthica B4, and Serratia odorifera B6, were found. While S. plymuthica B4 was the best candidate to biologically control Rhizoctonia in lettuce, P. reactans B3 was the best candidate to suppress the pathogen in sugar beet. PMID:15644895

Faltin, Franziska; Lottmann, Jana; Grosch, Rita; Berg, Gabriele

2004-10-01

55

Virulence and molecular characterization of Costa Rican isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from common bean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Web blight is one of the main diseases that affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivation. It infects diverse organs at any growth stage of the plant and can be present at different altitudes in a humid tropical climate. The causal agent of this disease is Thanatephorus cucumeris in its sexual stage [...] and Rhizoctonia solani in the anamorph. The objective of this investigation was to characterize molecular isolates of R. solani obtained from bean plants from diverse production regions in Costa Rica and determine their virulence. Fifty-one samples of symptomatic bean plants were collected using a global positioning system. Virulence was evaluated using the detached leaf technique. Isolates were identified using AG 1-IA, AG 1-IB, AG 1-IC, AG 1-ID, AG 2-2, AG 2-2IIIB, AG 2-2IV and AG 4 molecular markers. ITS sequences were obtained and analyzed with BLAST, aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. A high degree of virulence and genetic variability between isolates was identified and the anastomosis subgroups of isolates were independent of their geographical origin.

Floribeth, Mora-Umaña; Natalia, Barboza; Ricardo, Alvarado; Marcela, Vásquez; Graciela, Godoy-Lutz; James R., Steadman; Pilar, Ramírez.

2013-12-01

56

Genetic structure of populations of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 on potato in eastern North Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was developed to identify and differentiate genotypes of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 subgroup PT (AG-3 PT), a fungal pathogen of potato. Polymorphic co-dominant single-locus PCR-RFLP markers were identified after sequencing of clones from a genomic library and digestion with restriction enzymes. Multilocus genotypes were determined by a combination of PCR product and digestion with a specific restriction enzyme for each of seven loci. A sample of 104 isolates from one commercial field in each of five counties in eastern North Carolina was analyzed, and evidence for high levels of gene flow between populations was revealed. When data were clone-corrected and samples pooled into one single North Carolina population, random associations of alleles were found for all loci or pairs of loci, indicating random mating. However, when all genotypes were analyzed, the observed genotypic diversity deviated from panmixia and alleles within and between loci were not randomly associated. These findings support a model of population structure for R. solani AG-3 PT on potato that includes both recombination and clonality. PMID:21156516

Ceresini, Paulo C; Shew, H David; Vilgalys, Rytas J; Rosewich, U Liane; Cubeta, Marc A

2002-01-01

57

Comparison of different methods for total RNA extraction from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is one of the most important pathogens of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes severe yield losses in all rice-growing regions. Sclerotia, formed from the aggregation of hyphae, are important structures in the life cycles of R. solani [...] and contain a large quantity of polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and pigments. In order to extract high-quality total RNA from the sclerotia of R. solani, five methods, including E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sodium borate, SDS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) and modified Trizol, were compared in this study. Results The electrophoresis results showed that it failed to extract total RNA from the sclerotia using modified Trizol method, whereas it could extract total RNA from the sclerotia using other four methods. Further experiments confirmed that the total RNA extracted using SDS-sodium borate, SDS-PVP and E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit methods could be used for RT-PCR of the specific amplification of GAPDH gene fragments, and that extracted using GTC method did not fulfill the requirement for above-mentioned RT-PCR experiment. Conclusion It is concluded that SDS-sodium borate and SDS-PVP methods were the better ones for the extraction of high-quality total RNA that could be used for future gene cloning and expression studies, whereas E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit was not taken into consideration when deal with a large quantity of samples because it is expensive and relatively low yield.

Canwei, Shu; Si, Sun; Jieling, Chen; Jianyi, Chen; Erxun, Zhou.

2014-01-15

58

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP), telomere...

Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Wulff, Nelson A.; Bellato, Cla?udia M.; Tsai, Siu M.

2002-01-01

59

Estudio de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn aislado de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo y Lara: II. virulencia y caracterización molecular Rhizoctonia solani Kühn isolated from potato in various Venezuelan states: II. Virulence and molecular characterization  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como rizoctoniosis en el cultivo de la papa y constituye un serio problema en Venezuela. En el país se han identificado los grupos anastomósicos presentes y se ha realizado la caracterización cultural del hongo pero no la molecular ni la de virulencia, por lo que estos objetivos fueron planteados en el presente trabajo. Se utilizaron cuarenta aislamientos obtenidos de los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo y Lara. Se utilizaron las técni...

Yoleidy Escalona; Dorian Rodríguez; Alexander Hernández

2012-01-01

60

UP-PCR cross blot hybridization as a tool for identification of anastomosis groups in the Rhizoctonia solani complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

A universally primed (UP)-PCR cross hybridization assay was developed for rapid identification of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani into the correct anastomosis group (AG). Twenty-one AG tester isolates belonging to 11 AGs of R. solani were amplified with a single UP primer which generated multiple PCR fragments for each isolate. The amplified products were spotted onto a filter, immobilized and used for cross hybridization against amplification products from the different isolates. Isolates within AG subgroups cross hybridize strongly, whereas between different AGs little or no cross hybridization occurs. Sixteen Rhizoctonia isolates from diseased sugar beets and potatoes were identified using the assay. The results were supported by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA. Through standardization and use of quick non-radioactive labeling techniques, the UP-PCR cross hybridization assay has potential for routine use by modern DNA chip technology. PMID:11445172

Lübeck, M; Poulsen, H

2001-07-10

61

Determination of Optimum Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Inulinase from Rhizoctonia solani  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani isolated from Tekirdag-Turkey soil, was found to produce a very active inulinase enzyme. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined. Maximum growth was observed at 45°C while the highest inulinase production was determined at 40°C. The best inulinase production was observed at an initial medium pH 6.0 and on the first day of cultivation time. Inulin and Jerusalem artichoke powder as carbon source were the most effective on production of inulinase fro...

Figen Ertan; Tulin Aktac; Kabogul, Aysegul C.; Filiz Ekinci; Elvan Bakar

2003-01-01

62

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP), telomere...

Meinhardt Lyndel, W.; Wulff Nelson, A.; Bellato Cla?udia, M.; Tsai Siu, M.

2002-01-01

63

FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection  

OpenAIRE

The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The develop...

Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

2012-01-01

64

Dried powders of velvetbean and pine bark added to soil reduce Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease on soybean / Pós secos de mucuna e casca de pinus adicionados ao solo reduzem a doença causada por Rhizoctonia solani em soja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As doenças em soja (Glycine max) causadas por Rhizoctonia solani são um sério problema ao redor do mundo. A incorporação ao solo de resíduos orgânicos é uma alternativa para o controle destas doenças. Neste estudo, benzaldeido e pós-secos de kudzu (Pueraria lobata), mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana) e cas [...] ca de pinus (Pinus spp.) foram usados com o objetivo de melhorar o crescimento de plantas de soja e de diminuir a doença causada por R. solani (AG-4). Benzaldehyde (0,1-0,4 mL/kg de solo) e mucuna (25-100 g/kg) reduziram significativamente (P Abstract in english Diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani, like damping-off and root and stem rot on soybean (Glycine max), are a serious problem around the world. The addition of some organic material to soil is an alternative control for these diseases. In this study, benzaldehyde and dried powders of kudzu (Puerari [...] a lobata), velvetbean or mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), and pine bark (Pinus spp.) were used in an attempt to improve soybean plant growth and to reduce the disease R. solani (AG-4) causes on soybean. Benzaldehyde (0.1-0.4 mL/kg of soil) and velvetbean (25-100 g/kg) significantly (P

Luiz E. B., Blum; Rodrígo, Rodríguez-Kábana.

2006-06-01

65

Fungal antagonists of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani: selection, control efficacy and influence on the indigenous microbial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

A broad spectrum of fungal antagonists was evaluated as potential biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani using a new combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro characterisation of diverse parameters including the ability to parasitise mycelium and to inhibit the germination of Rhizoctonia sclerotia at different temperatures resulted in the selection of six potential fungal antagonists. These were genotypically characterised by their BOX-PCR fingerprints, and identified as Trichoderma reesei and T. viride by partial 18S rDNA sequencing. When potato sprouts were treated with Trichoderma, all isolates significantly reduced the incidence of Rhizoctonia symptoms. Evaluated under growth chamber conditions, the selected Trichoderma isolates either partly or completely controlled the dry mass loss of lettuce caused by R. solani. Furthermore, the antagonistic Trichoderma strains were active under field conditions. To analyse the effect of Trichoderma treatment on indigenous root-associated microbial communities, we performed a DNA-dependent SSCP (Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism) analysis of 16S rDNA/ITS sequences. In this first assessment study for Trichoderma it was shown that the pathogen and the vegetation time had much more influence on the composition of the microbiota than the BCA treatment. After evaluation of all results, three Trichoderma strains originally isolated from Rhizoctonia sclerotia were selected as promising BCAs. PMID:17127047

Grosch, Rita; Scherwinski, Katja; Lottmann, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

2006-12-01

66

A One-Step, Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Specific to Rhizoctonia solani and Certain Related Species, and Its Use to Detect and Quantify R. solani in Soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A murine hybridoma cell line GD2 secreting an immunoglobulin (Ig)M monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced against surface antigens from an anastomosis group (AG) 4 isolate of Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Ascites were produced in mice using GD2 hybridoma cells and used to develop a rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of antigens from R. solani and certain related Rhizoctonia spp. The LFD was tested for specificity against surface antigens from related and unrelated soil fungi. Antigens from representative isolates of R. solani AGs 1, 2-1, 2-3, 2-t, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and BI gave a positive response in LFD tests, as did antigens from Thanatephorus orchidicola, T. praticola, R. fragariae (teleomorph: Ceratorhiza fragariae), Ceratorhiza goodyerae-repentis, Ceratobasidium cornigerum, and binucleate AGE. Antigens from R. solani AGs 2-2, 2-2IIIB, and 2-2IV and from the related fungi R. carotae, R. cerealis (teleomorph: Ceratobasium cereale), R. crocorum (teleomorph: Helicobasidium brebissonii), R. oryzae (teleomorph Waitea circinata), and R. zeae gave negative responses, as did antigens from a range of unrelated fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Pythium, and Phytophthora spp. The usefulness of the LFD to detect R. solani was demonstrated in soils naturally infested with R. solani AG3. There was close agreement between results of LFD tests and conventional plate enrichment tests employing selective medium. The specificity of the technique was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction PCR using R. solani AG3-specific primers and by analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of unrelated fungi recovered from soil samples. The LFD was used to quantify R. solani AG4 in artificially infested soil samples (chopped potato soil inoculum). Estimates of CFU per gram of soil were derived using a most-probable number technique, which was based on the presence or absence of a detectable signal in the LFD. Estimates of CFU obtained in LFD tests and those obtained in a plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay incorporating MAb GD2 were identical (449 CFU g(-1) of soil). PMID:18943976

Thornton, Christopher R; Groenhof, Andrew C; Forrest, Robert; Lamotte, Richard

2004-03-01

67

Sobrevivência de micélio e escleródios de Rhizoctonia solani tratados com Trichoderma spp., em restos de cultura de Eucalyptus sp. / Survival of Rhizoctonia solani mycelia and sclerotia treated with Trichoderma spp., in Eucalyp]tus sp. litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou estudar a sobrevivência de micélio e escleródios de Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1C, em restos de cultura de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) e avaliar a eficiência dos isolados Trichoderma longibrachiatum (UFV-1) e T. inhamatum (UFV-2 e UFV-3), comprovadamente antagônicos a R. solani, [...] em reduzir a sobrevivência do patógeno, em condições de campo. Ao longo de 12 meses de avaliação, a sobrevivência de R. solani em folhas de eucalipto infetadas não foi afetada por fatores ambientes e tampouco por possíveis antagonistas de ocorrência natural. Por outro lado, a sobrevivência dos escleródios decresceu progressivamente, atingindo cerca de 26%. Não se constatou influência dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. na sobrevivência de R. solani em folhas infetadas de eucalipto. Entretanto, redução significativa e contínua na viabilidade de escleródios, foi observada, equiparando-se ao tratamento com fungicida, aos 25 dias após inoculação dos antagonistas, sendo os três isolados igualmente efetivos. Já, a sobrevivência no tratamento com fungicida, atingiu níveis significativamente baixos na primeira avaliação, mas sua eficiência foi reduzida ao longo do período experimental. Redução progressiva e contínua na sobrevivência de escleródios da testemunha foi também constatada, mas inferior a quaisquer dos tratamentos. Abstract in english The survival of mycelium and sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1C was studied in Eucalyptus sp. litter treated with the antagonists Trichoderma longibrachiatum (UFV-1) and T. inhamatum (UFV-2 and UFV-3) isolates. For 12 months, R. solani survival in Rhizoctonia infected eucalypt leaves, was appare [...] ntly not affected by environmental factors, nor by possible naturally occurring antagonists. On the other hand, the sclerotial rate survival decreased progressively reaching 26%. The influence of Trichoderma spp. isolates did not affect R. solani survival in eucalypt-infected leaves, but significant and continuous reduction of sclerotia viability was observed when compared to captan treatment, 25 days after treatment with the antagonists. The survival in the fungicide treatment reached significantly low levels in the first evaluation, but its efficiency decreased with time. Progressive reduction and continuous survival of sclerotia was detected in the control as well, but significantly less than any other treatment.

Sandra, Kunieda-Alonso; Acelino C., Alfenas; Luiz A., Maffia.

2005-04-01

68

Volatiles of bacterial antagonists inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial antagonists are bacteria that negatively affect the growth of other organisms. Many antagonists inhibit the growth of fungi by various mechanisms, e.g., secretion of lytic enzymes, siderophores and antibiotics. Such inhibition of fungal growth may indirectly support plant growth. Here, we demonstrate that small organic volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from bacterial antagonists negatively influence the mycelial growth of the soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Strong inhibitions (99-80%) under the test conditions were observed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R3089, Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia odorifera 4Rx13, Pseudomonas trivialis 3Re2-7, S. plymuthica 3Re4-18 and Bacillus subtilis B2g. Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12 and Burkholderia cepacia 1S18 achieved 30% growth reduction. The VOC profiles of these antagonists, obtained through headspace collection and analysis on GC-MS, show different compositions and complexities ranging from 1 to almost 30 compounds. Most volatiles are species-specific, but overlapping volatile patterns were found for Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Many of the bacterial VOCs could not be identified for lack of match with mass-spectra of volatiles in the databases. PMID:17180381

Kai, Marco; Effmert, Uta; Berg, Gabriele; Piechulla, Birgit

2007-05-01

69

Detection of rDNA ITS polymorphism in Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequence variability of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, including the 5.8S gene, was investigated for Rhizoctonia solani isolates of anastomosis group (AG) 2-1. During PCR RFLP analysis of eight isolates, the restriction patterns of four isolates showed an excess of bands after restriction with the enzymes AvaII and/or HincII, which suggested the presence of more than one ITS region. By cloning the ITS region of six isolates sequence heterogeneity was detected in the isolates that showed an excess of bands in the PCR RFLP analysis; up to nine different ITS regions were identified within one isolate. The same level of diversity was found within the same isolate as among isolates. In the phylogenetic tree based on the rDNA ITS sequences of several AG 2-1 isolates, sequences derived from the same isolate did not form distinct clusters, questioning the relevance of further subdivision of heterogeneous AG 2-1 isolates based on the ITS region. PMID:19271668

Pannecoucque, Joke; Höfte, Monica

2009-01-01

70

Genetic variation and pathogenicity of anastomosis group 2 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collection of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 2 was examined for genetic diversity and pathogenicity. Anastomosis reactions classified the majority of isolates into the known subgroups of AG 2-1 and AG 2-2 but the classification of several isolates was ambiguous. Morphological characters were consistent with the species, with no discriminating characters existing between subgroups. Vertical PAGE of pectic enzymes enabled the separation of zymogram group (ZG) 5 and 6 within AG 2-1, but not the separation of ZG 4 and 10 within AG 2-2. PCR analysis using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and the intron-splice junction (ISJ) region supported the separation of ZG 5 and 6, while the AG 2-2 isolates were separated by geographic region. A comparison of distance matrices produced by the zymogram analysis and PCR indicated a strong correlation between the marker types. Pathogenicity studies suggested canola (Brassica napus) cultivars were most severely affected by AG 2-1, while cultivars of two species of medic (Medicago truncatula cv. Caliph and M. littoralis cv. Herald) were susceptible to both AG 2-1 and 2-2. The results indicate that AG 2 is a polyphyletic group in which the classification of subtypes is sometimes difficult. Further investigation of the population structure within Australia is required to determine the extent and origin of the observed diversity. PMID:17707626

Stodart, Benjamin J; Harvey, Paul R; Neate, Stephen M; Melanson, Dara L; Scott, Eileen S

2007-08-01

71

Molecular characterization of the genome of a partitivirus from the basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bisegmented genome of a double-stranded (ds) RNA virus from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani isolate Rhs 717 was characterized. The larger segment, dsRNA 1, is 2363 bases long whereas the smaller segment, dsRNA 2, has 2206 bases. The 5' ends of the coding strands of dsRNA 1 and dsRNA 2 are highly conserved (100% identity over 47 bases), and contain inverted repeats capable of forming stable stem-loop structures. Analysis of the coding potential of each of the two segments showed that dsRNAs 1 and 2 could code for polypeptides of 730 aa (bases 86-2275; molecular mass 86 kDa) and 683 aa (bases 79-2130; molecular mass 76 kDa), respectively. The 86 kDa polypeptide has all the motifs of dsRNA RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRP), and has significant homology with putative RDRPs of partitiviruses from Fusarium poae and Atkinsonella hypoxylon. The 76 kDa protein shows homology with the putative capsid proteins (CP) of the same viruses. Northern blot analysis revealed no subgenomic RNA species, consistent with the fact that the long open reading frames encoding the putative RDRP and CP cover the entire length of the respective dsRNAs. PMID:10644855

Strauss, E E; Lakshman, D K; Tavantzis, S M

2000-02-01

72

Role of bacterial communities in the natural suppression of Rhizoctonia solani bare patch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease. PMID:24056471

Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Mavrodi, Olga; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Dhingra, Amit; Schillinger, William F; Paulitz, Timothy C

2013-12-01

73

Mungbean plants expressing BjNPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance against the seedling rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek is an important pulse crop that is widely cultivated in semi- arid tropics. The crop is attacked by various soil-borne pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani, which causes dry rot disease and seriously affects its productivity. Earlier we characterized the non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene-1(BjNPR1) of mustard, Brassica juncea, the counterpart of AtNPR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we transformed mungbean with BjNPR1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Because of the recalcitrant nature of mungbean, the effect of some factors like Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (GV2260 and LBA4404), pH, L: -cysteine and tobacco leaf extract was tested in transformation. The transgenic status of 15 plants was confirmed by PCR using primers for nptII. The independent integration of T-DNA in transgenic plants was analyzed by Southern hybridization with an nptII probe and the expression of BjNPR1 was confirmed by RT-PCR. Some of the T(0) plants were selected for detached leaf anti-fungal bioassay using the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, which showed moderate to high level of resistance depending on the level of expression of BjNPR1. The seedling bioassay of transgenic T(2) plants indicated resistance against dry rot disease caused by R. solani. PMID:21584838

Vijayan, S; Kirti, P B

2012-02-01

74

Queima foliar e tombamento de mudas em plantas medicinais causadas por Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B / Leaf blight and seedling damping-off of medicinal plants caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Recentemente, em plantas medicinais da família Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis e Thymus vulgaris), constatou-se tombamento de mudas em pós-emergência e queima foliar ascendente. Em isolamentos efetuados a partir de tecidos doentes, observou-se o desenvolvimento de [...] um fungo com hifas ramificadas em ângulo de aproximadamente 90º, constrição na base da ramificação, septo próximo à inserção da hifa lateral e outras características típicas do gênero Rhizoctonia. Inoculou-se o fungo em plantas sadias cultivadas em vasos plásticos. Naquelas inoculadas por pincelamento de inóculo, ocorreu queima foliar de forma generalizada aos quatro dias da inoculação, enquanto nas inoculadas pela deposição de inóculo na superfície dos vasos, houve queima foliar ascendente, como observado em condições naturais, aos dez dias da inoculação. Com base na morfologia da colônia, crescimento micelial, número de núcleos, identificação do grupo e subgrupo de anastomose e da fase teleomórfica, o patógeno foi caracterizado como Rhizoctonia solani (fase anamórfica de Thanatephorus cucumeris). Com a reprodução dos sintomas da doença por inoculação artificial nas mudas e o reisolamento, em meio de batata dextrose ágar (BDA), do mesmo fungo a partir de tecidos doentes confirmou-se R. solani como o agente etiológico da doença. Abstract in english Recently, seedling damping off and blight progressing from old to young leaves were found on medicinal plants of the family Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris). A fungus was isolated from diseased tissues, in which the hyphae had diameter, ramific [...] ation angle of about 90º, basal constriction, a septum next to the lateral hyphae, and other typical characteristics of the genus Rhizoctonia. The fungus was inoculated on healthy plants cultivated in plastic pots by brushing inoculum suspension on leaves (brushing) or by pouring the inoculum suspension on the surface of pots (soil infestation). On plants inoculated by brushing, disease symptoms occurred on all leaves four days after inoculation. On plants inoculated by soil infestation, leaf blight continued to ascent for ten days after inoculation under natural conditions. Based on colony morphology, mycelial growth, number of nuclei, identification of anastomosys group and subgroup, and on the teleomorph, the pathogen was considered to be Rhizoctonia solani (anamorph of Thanatephorus cucumeris). As disease symptoms were reproduced by artificial inoculation on plants and the fungus was reisolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) from diseased tissues, R. solani was confirmed to be the causal agent of the disease.

Reginaldo G., Mafia; Acelino C., Alfenas; Luiz A., Maffia; Gizella M., Ventura; Eraclides M., Ferreira; Irislei F., Neves; Cláudia A., Vanetti; Clarice, Silva.

2005-06-01

75

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil / Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A diversidade genética de 18 isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivado na Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil foi avaliada através da análise do espaçadores transcritos internos (ITS), microssatélites e iniciadores ("primers") específicos para sequências teloméricas. [...] A análise de restrição da região ribossomal ITS1/5,8S/ITS2 produziu um padrão de bandas específico para o grupo de anastomose 4 (GA 4) e seus subgrupos. O padrão obtido com ITS/RFLP, microsatélites e os iniciadores teloméricos permitiram identificar cinco a 11 genótipos entre os isolados de R. solani. Enquanto todos os isolados foram patogênicos em feijoeiro, não houve correlação entre patogenicidade e diferenças genotípicas. Os diferentes iniciadores para PCR revelaram que muitos isolados são geneticamente similares, análise esta que pode ser confirmada por mais de um conjunto de iniciadores, fortalecendo a relação deste agrupamento. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-base [...] d PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP), telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.

LYNDEL W., MEINHARDT; NELSON A., WULFF; CLÁUDIA M., BELLATO; SIU M., TSAI.

2002-06-01

76

The role of an extracellular chitinase from Trichoderma virens Gv29-8 in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of extracellular chitinase in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma virens was examined using genetically manipulated strains of this fungus. The T. virens strains in which the chitinase gene (cht42) was disrupted (KO) or constitutively over-expressed (COE) were constructed through genetic transformation. The resulting transformants were stable and showed patterns similar to the wild-type (WT) strain with respect to growth rate, sporulation, antibiotic production, colonization efficiency on cotton roots and growth/survival in soil. Biocontrol activity of the KO and COE strains were significantly decreased and enhanced, respectively against cotton seedling disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani when compared with the WT strain. PMID:10022948

Baek, J M; Howell, C R; Kenerley, C M

1999-02-01

77

Técnica de inoculación rápida y eficiente para la evaluación de materiales de maíz (zea mays l.) ante rhizoctonia solani kuhn / Efficient and fast inoculation technique for evaluation of maize germplasms (Zea mays L.) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para la búsqueda de germoplasmas de maíz resistentes a Rhizoctonia solani es necesario realizar pruebas de inoculación para determinar su comportamiento. Para ello se requiere de una técnica de inoculación que proporcione una respuesta rápida, efectiva y confiable en la manifestación de la enfermeda [...] d, y que sea de fácil y práctica aplicación a una gran población de plantas y materiales genéticos. Con este fin se realizaron pruebas en el Posgrado de Agronomía de la Universidad Centroccidental "Lisandro Alvarado", en Tarabana, estado Lara, Venezuela, y en las instalaciones de la Fundación DANAC, San Javier, estado Yaracuy, con plantas de maíz de 15 días de edad, desarrolladas en vivero. Se utilizaron las siguientes ocho técnicas: inoculación a la semilla, siembra en suelo inoculado con una de las siguientes tres formas: hojas de maíz infectadas, esclerocios o granos de arroz infectados y aplicación sobre plantas de maíz de una de las siguientes cuatro formas: esclerocios, granos de arroz infectados, trocitos de hojas de maíz infectados o micelio sobre el ápice de plantas de 15 días de edad La cepa de R. solani fue aislada de la localidad El Playón, estado Portuguesa. La técnica más adecuada resultó ser la utilización de granos de arroz infectados aplicados al momento de la siembra (incidencia 100%), aunque la utilización de esclerocios de R. solani también resultó eficiente, pero menos práctica su aplicación; la inoculación a la semilla de maíz fue eficiente, pero presentó el menor tamaño de mancha. Para inoculaciones al follaje, el tratamiento con mayor incidencia en plantas (100%) fue el de granos de arroz; la aplicación de micelio produjo una respuesta más rápida y mayor tamaño de mancha (9,43 cm). La técnica más segura y factible para la inoculación de Rhizoctonia solani en plantas de maíz de 15 días de edad la constituyó la de granos de arroz infectados con el patógeno por su facilidad de aplicación y de multiplicación del inóculo. Abstract in english In search of resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in maize germplasms, it is necessary to make inoculation tests to determine its behavior. Inoculation techniques that provide fast, effective, and reliable responses in the manifestation of the disease and also of easy and practical application to a wide [...] population of plants and genetic materials are required. Tests were conducted at UCLA, Posgrado de Agronomia in Tarabana, Lara state, Venezuela and in the facilities of DANAC Foundation in San Javier, Yaracuy state, utilizing 15 days old maize plants, developed under nursery conditions. Eight techniques were tested, among them seed inoculation, sowing in soil inoculated with infected mayze leaves or infected rice grains or esclerotia, application of esclerotia, micelia, infected mayze leaves or infected rice grains on the apex of 15 days old plants. R. solani stock was isolated from the locality of El Playón- Portuguesa state. The most practical and reliable technique was the use of infected rice grains at the time of sowing (incidence 100 %), although the use of R. solani esclerotia also was efficient, but less practical its application; the inoculation to the maize seed was efficient, but it showed to be of minor size the lesions. In foliage inoculation, the treatment with more incidences in plants (100 %) also was the one of rice kernels. The application of micelia alone, gave a fast response and large size of lesions (9.43 cm). The more surely and feasible technique for R. solani inoculation in 15 days old maize plants, by its facility of application and inocula multiplication, it constituted the rice grains infected with the pathogen.

Juan, Pineda; Alexander, Hernández; Alex, González; Venancio, Barrientos; Herman, Nass; Elizabeth, Gil.

2005-04-01

78

Rhizoctonia solani Kühn aislado de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.: En los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo y Lara. I. Caracterización cultural Rhizoctonia solani Kühn isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.: in Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo and Lara States, Venezuela. I. Cultural characterization  

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Full Text Available La papa es uno de los rubros más importantes en la economía de Venezuela. Este cultivo se ve afectado por diferentes patógenos, uno de ellos es el hongo Rhizoctonia solani, que ocasiona la rizoctoniosis, enfermedad que está ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la causa de pérdidas económicas considerables. Con la finalidad de comparar las poblaciones del hongo en Venezuela, se llevó a cabo el trabajo; para ello se colectaron muestras en diferentes zonas productoras de papa de los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo, y Lara. El patógeno fue caracterizado culturalmente mediante el estudio de su condición nuclear y determinación del grupo de anastomosis (AG, así como la evaluación del desarrollo micelial, número y diámetro de esclerocios, a 10, 20 y 30 °C. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P?0,01 en cuanto a las características culturales de las cepas evaluadas, las cuales mostraron mejor comportamiento en su desarrollo a 20 °C; se determinó que 97,5 % de las cepas fueron AG-3 y 2,5 % AG-2.1. Los resultados indicaron diferencias culturales entre las poblaciones de R. solani analizadas lo que puede estar asociado con el comportamiento de la enfermedad en las diferentes localidades.Potato is one of the most important crops in Venezuelan economy. This crop is affected by different pathogens, one of which is the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, the inducer of rhizoctonia disease; which is widely distributed and is the cause of considerable economic losses. In order to know phenotypic variation among fungus populations, this research was carried out with samples collected at different potato producing areas of Táchira, Merida, Trujillo, and Lara States. The pathogen was culturally characterized by the study and determination of its nuclear condition, anastomosis group (AG, as well as colony growth, and number and diameter of sclerotia at 10, 20 and 30 °C. Significant differences (P?0.01 were found among strains with regard to the cultural characteristics; in general, strains showed better behavior of their development at 20 °C; 97.5 % of the strains were found to be AG-3 and the other 2.5 %, AG-2.1. Results indicated differences in cultural characteristics among the R. solani populations, which may be associated with disease behavior at the different localities.

Yoleidy Escalona

2011-12-01

79

Essential oil of mustard to control Rhizoctonia solani causing seedling damping off and seedling blight in nursery / Utilização de óleo essencial de mostarda no controle de tombamento e requeima causadas por Rhizoctonia solani em viveiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial extraído de sementes de mostarda (Brassica rapa) na supressão do crescimento in vitro de Rhizoctonia solani, na redução da colonização saprofítica no solo, e no tombamento e requeima de plântulas, utilizando feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris) como planta indica [...] dora. O crescimento in vitro de R. solani foi completamente inibido na concentração de 50 mil/l. A colonização saprofítica do substrato foi drasticamente reduzida para 45% na concentração de 150 mil/kg, 24 h após o tratamento. Nas concentrações de 0, 50 e 75 mil/kg de solo houve 100% de colonização do substrato. Esta taxa de recuperação diminuiu gradualmente para 6% e 60%, respectivamente, em nove dias. A irrigação de solos infestados por R. solani com água contendo o óleo essencial emulsificado para fornecer 150 mil/l de solo, dez dias antes do plantio, resultou em 95% de controle do tombamento e requeima em mudas de feijão-vagem, sem qualquer efeito aparente de fitotoxidez. O efeito do óleo essencial não foi influenciado pela textura do solo e parece ser um bom substituto para o fumigante brometo de metila em viveiros. Abstract in english The essential oil extracted from mustard (Brassica rapa) seeds was evaluated for its effect on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro, and in field soils, for reducing saprophytic substrate colonization and seedling damping off and blight using snap beans as indicator plant, the in vitro [...] growth was completely inhibited at a concentration of 50 mul/l. The saprophytic substrate colonization in soils 24 h after treatment was drastically reduced to 45% at 150 mul/kg soil concentration, in contrast to 100% colonization at concentrations of 0, 50, or 75 mul/kg. This recovery rate gradually declined to 6% and 60%, respectively, in nine days. A control of pre and post-emergence seedling damping off and blight in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), without any apparent phytotoxic effect was achieved by irrigating R. solani infested soils with water containing the emulsified essential oil to provide 150 mul/l soil volume ten days prior to planting, gave over 95%. The effect of the mustard essential oil was not influenced by the physical soil texture, and it appears to be a good substitute for methyl bromide fumigation in nurseries for seedling production.

Onkar D., Dhingra; Maria L. N., Costa; Geraldo J., Silva, Jr.; Eduardo S. G., Mizubuti.

2004-12-01

80

Essential oil of mustard to control Rhizoctonia solani causing seedling damping off and seedling blight in nursery Utilização de óleo essencial de mostarda no controle de tombamento e requeima causadas por Rhizoctonia solani em viveiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essential oil extracted from mustard (Brassica rapa seeds was evaluated for its effect on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro, and in field soils, for reducing saprophytic substrate colonization and seedling damping off and blight using snap beans as indicator plant, the in vitro growth was completely inhibited at a concentration of 50 mul/l. The saprophytic substrate colonization in soils 24 h after treatment was drastically reduced to 45% at 150 mul/kg soil concentration, in contrast to 100% colonization at concentrations of 0, 50, or 75 mul/kg. This recovery rate gradually declined to 6% and 60%, respectively, in nine days. A control of pre and post-emergence seedling damping off and blight in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, without any apparent phytotoxic effect was achieved by irrigating R. solani infested soils with water containing the emulsified essential oil to provide 150 mul/l soil volume ten days prior to planting, gave over 95%. The effect of the mustard essential oil was not influenced by the physical soil texture, and it appears to be a good substitute for methyl bromide fumigation in nurseries for seedling production.Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial extraído de sementes de mostarda (Brassica rapa na supressão do crescimento in vitro de Rhizoctonia solani, na redução da colonização saprofítica no solo, e no tombamento e requeima de plântulas, utilizando feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris como planta indicadora. O crescimento in vitro de R. solani foi completamente inibido na concentração de 50 mil/l. A colonização saprofítica do substrato foi drasticamente reduzida para 45% na concentração de 150 mil/kg, 24 h após o tratamento. Nas concentrações de 0, 50 e 75 mil/kg de solo houve 100% de colonização do substrato. Esta taxa de recuperação diminuiu gradualmente para 6% e 60%, respectivamente, em nove dias. A irrigação de solos infestados por R. solani com água contendo o óleo essencial emulsificado para fornecer 150 mil/l de solo, dez dias antes do plantio, resultou em 95% de controle do tombamento e requeima em mudas de feijão-vagem, sem qualquer efeito aparente de fitotoxidez. O efeito do óleo essencial não foi influenciado pela textura do solo e parece ser um bom substituto para o fumigante brometo de metila em viveiros.

Onkar D. Dhingra

2004-12-01

81

Transmission of the M2 double-stranded RNA in Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3).  

Science.gov (United States)

Horizontal transmission of the 3.57 kb M2 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) between mycelia of somatically incompatible isolates of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3), an economically important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae, was investigated. Nine donor isolates of R. solani AG-3 containing the M2 dsRNA were paired on potato-dextrose agar with each of three different recipient isolates where the M2 dsRNA was absent. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect horizontal transmission of the M2 dsRNA via hyphal anastomosis from donor to recipient isolates by examining hyphal explants taken 3 cm from the hyphal interaction zone. PCR-RFLP genetic-based markers of two nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus were used to confirm identity and transmission between donor and recipient isolates of R. solani AG-3. The frequency of transmission observed between 72 pairings of the eight donor and three recipient isolates was approximately 4% of the total pairings, and differences in the phenotype of the recipient isolates after acquisition of the M2 dsRNA via horizontal transmission were observed. To our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of transmission of dsRNA between genetically different individuals of R. solani confirmed with nuclear and mitochondrial markers. These results suggest that transmission can occur between somatically incompatible isolates of R. solani AG-3 but that maintenance of the dsRNA in the recipient isolates was not stable after repeated subculturing on nutrient medium. PMID:18333509

Charlton, Nikki D; Cubeta, Marc A

2007-01-01

82

Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, a Soil Isolate Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogens Dickeya spp. and Rhizoctonia solani  

OpenAIRE

Bacillus subilis MB73/2 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated in Poland from a meadow soil sample. When tested in vitro, the strain shows strong antagonism toward plant pathogens—the soft rot-causing bacteria Dickeya spp. and the crown rot fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the genome sequence of MB73/2.

Krzyzanowska, Dorota M.; Iwanicki, Adam; Ossowicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Micha?; Jafra, Sylwia

2013-01-01

83

Evolutionary diversification indicated by compensatory base changes in ITS2 secondary structures in a complex fungal species, Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rRNA cistron (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S) is used widely for phylogenetic analyses. Recent studies show that compensatory base changes (CBC) in the secondary structure of ITS2 correlate with genetic incompatibility between organisms. Rhizoctonia solani consists of genetically incompatible strain groups (anastomosis groups, AG) distinguished by lack of anastomosis between hyphae of strains. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences shows a strong correlation with AG determination. In this study, ITS sequences were reannotated according to the flanking 5.8S and 28S regions which interact during ribogenesis. One or two CBCs were detected between the ITS2 secondary structure of AG-3 potato strains as compared to AG-3 tobacco strains, and between these two strains and all other AGs. When a binucleate Rhizoctonia species related to Ceratobasidiaceae was compared to the AGs of R. solani, which were multinucleate (3-21 nuclei per cell), 1-3 CBCs were detected. The CBCs in potato strains of AG-3 distinguish them from AG-3 tobacco strains and other AGs yielding further evidence that the potato strains of AG-3 originally described as R. solani are a species distinct from other AGs. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences were analyzed by direct sequencing of PCR products from 497 strains of AG-3 isolated from potato. The same 10 and 4 positions in ITS1 and ITS2, respectively, contained variability in 425 strains (86%). Nine different unambiguous ITS sequences (haplotypes) could be detected in a single strain by sequencing cloned PCR products indicating that concerted evolution had not homogenized the rRNA cistrons in many AG-3 strains. Importantly, the sequence variability did not affect the secondary structure of ITS2 and CBCs in AG-3. PMID:19609478

Ahvenniemi, Paavo; Wolf, Matthias; Lehtonen, Mari J; Wilson, Paula; German-Kinnari, Malgorzata; Valkonen, Jari P T

2009-08-01

84

Identificación y virulencia de grupos de anastomosis de rhizoctonia solani kühn asociados con papa en mérida, venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na Venezuela a batata (Solanum tuberosum) tem importância econômica particularmente nos estados andinos (Mérida, Táchira e Trujillo), cuja contribuição à produção nacional aproxima-se ao 80%. Há cinco anos, a enfermidade de rhizoctoniose, causada por Rhizoctonia solani, se transformou em um importan [...] te fator limitante do cultivo. A presente investigação foi realizada para determinar a identidade e virulência dos grupos de anastomose (AGs) associados com batata em doze localidades de Mérida e uma de Trujillo. Cento e setenta e seis isolamentos, cujas hifas e septos apresentaram a morfologia típica dos fungos do Complexo Rhizoctonia, foram obtidos de raízes, estolões, talhos, pecíolos e, principalmente, esclerócios sobre tubérculos. Cento e setenta e três isolamentos foram multinucleados e três binucleados. Os multinucleados foram reconhecidos como cepas de R. solani. Das 173 cepas de R. solani, 163 pertenceram ao AG-3 e 10 ao AG-2-1. Os AG-3 e AG-2-1 mediaram 9,5 e 8,3 núcleos / célula vegetativa, respectivamente. Os AG-3 foram encontrados em 12 das 13 localidades avaliadas e os AG-2-1 em três. Em uma localidade (El Valle) unicamente foram obtidas as cepas AG-2-1. Em Bailadores e Mucuchíes, cepas AG-3 e AG-2-1 foram isoladas de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo campo. Em geral, os AG-3 foram mais virulentos que os AG-2-1. A ampla disseminação e alta virulência dos AG-3 indicam que as cepas deste grupo são a principal causa de rhizoctoniosis na batata cultivada no estado Mérida e em Tuñame (Estado Trujillo). Abstract in spanish En Venezuela la papa (Solanum tuberosum) tiene importancia económica particularmente en los estados andinos (Mérida, Táchira y Trujillo), cuya contribución a la producción nacional se aproxima al 80%. Desde hace cinco años, la enfermedad de rhizoctoniosis, causada por Rhizoctonia solani, se ha conve [...] rtido en un importante factor limitante del cultivo. La presente investigación fue realizada para determinar la identidad y virulencia de los grupos de anastomosis (AGs) asociados con papa en doce localidades de Mérida y una de Trujillo. Ciento setenta y seis aislamientos, cuyas hifas y septos presentaron la morfología típica de los hongos del Complejo Rhizoctonia, fueron obtenidos de raíces, estolones, tallos, pecíolos y, principalmente, esclerocios sobre tubérculos. Ciento setenta y tres aislamientos fueron multinucleados y tres binucleados. Los multinucleados fueron reconocidos como cepas de R. solani. De las 173 cepas de R. solani, 163 pertenecieron al AG-3 y 10 al AG-2-1. Los AG-3 y AG-2-1 promediaron 9,5 y 8,3 núcleos / célula vegetativa, respectivamente. Los AG-3 fueron encontrados en 12 de las 13 localidades evaluadas y los AG-2-1 en tres. En una localidad (El Valle) únicamente se obtuvieron cepas AG-2-1. En Bailadores y Mucuchíes, cepas AG-3 y AG-2-1 fueron aisladas de plantas cultivadas en un mismo campo. En general, los AG-3 fueron más virulentos que los AG-2-1. La amplia diseminación y alta virulencia de los AG-3, indican que las cepas de este grupo son la principal causa de rhizoctoniosis en la papa cultivada en el estado Mérida y en Tuñame (Estado Trujillo). Abstract in english In Venezuela potato (Solanum tuberosum) has economic relevance particularly in the Andean states (Mérida, Tachira and Trujillo), whose contribution to the national production is approximately 80%. In the last five years the Rhizoctonia disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, has become an important p [...] roduction limiting factor of potato production. The present study was carried out to determine the identity and virulence of R. solani anastomosis groups associated with potato in 12 localities of Mérida State and 1 locality in Trujillo State. One hundred and seventy six isolates whose hyphae and septa showed typical morphology of the fungi included in the Rhizoctonia Complex, were obtained from roots, stolons, petioles, and mainly from sclerotia on tubers. Of these isolates

Luis, Cedeño; Chrystian, Carrero; Kleyra, Quintero; Yoneise, Araujo; Henry, Pino; Rosaima, García.

2001-06-01

85

Caracterización y evaluacion de virulencia en aislamientos de rhizoctonia solani kühn, causante de la mancha bandeada en maíz / Characterization and evaluation of virulence in rhizoctonia solani kühn isolates, causal agent of leaf banded spot on maize / Caracterização e avaliação de virulência em isolamentos de rhizoctonia solani kühn, causante da mancha bandeada no milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na Venezuela a mancha bandeada do milho, causada por Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, tem uma alta incidência e distribuição nas principais áreas de plantio de milho, causando diminuição do rendimento. Em 2004 foram conduzidos ensaios com o objetivo de caracterizar e avaliar a virulência de 25 isolamentos d [...] e R. solani. Para a caracterização se realizaram avaliações culturais, microscópicas e moleculares, estas últimas utilizando uma seqüência de amplificação específica da região espaçadora transcrita interna do DNA ribossomal (rDNA-ITS). Para a avaliação da virulência se realizaram provas de inoculação nas línhas de milho CML-254 e L-82201-22-1-1, tanto em laboratório, usando uma solução de cinetina (6- furfuril-amino-purina), como em estufa, inoculando plântulas. As provas de caracterização demonstraram que os isolamentos efetivamente correspondiam a R. solani, ainda quando houve diferenças na cor das colônias, crescimento micelial e tamanho de esclerócios, entre outras. A análise molecular demonstrou que os isolamentos pertencem ao grupo de anastomosis AG1-IA. Na prova de inoculação em laboratório os isolamentos G1SOM1 e P2TUR3 tiveram maior índice de virulência. Em estufa, os isolamentos mais virulentos foram B1TOR1, P2TUR6 e B2SAB1. A linha CML-254 mostrou o maior nível de resistência à enfermidade em ambas provas de virulência. Os resultados permitiram identificar e caracterizar isolamentos que podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético para a identificação de possíveis fontes de resistência e na avaliação do germoplasma melhorado. Abstract in spanish En Venezuela la mancha bandeada del maíz, causada por Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, tiene una alta incidencia y distribución en las principales zonas maiceras, causando disminución de los rendimientos. En 2004 se condujeron ensayos con el objetivo de caracterizar y evaluar la virulencia de 25 aislamiento [...] s de R. solani. Para la caracterización se realizaron evaluaciones culturales, microscópicas y moleculares, estas últimas utilizando una secuencia de amplificación específica de la transcrita región espaciadora interna del ADN ribosomal (rADN-ITS). Para la evaluación de la virulencia se realizaron pruebas de inoculación en las líneas de maíz CML-254 y L-82201-22-1-1, tanto en laboratorio, usando una solución de cinetina (6- furfuril-amino-purina), como en invernadero, inoculando plántulas. Las pruebas de caracterización demostraron que los aislamientos efectivamente correspondían a R. solani, aun cuando hubo diferencias en el color de las colonias, crecimiento micelial y tamaño de esclerocios, entre otras. El análisis molecular demostró que los aislamientos pertenecen al grupo de anastomosis AG1-IA. En la prueba de inoculación en laboratorio los aislamientos G1SOM1 y P2TUR3 tuvieron mayor índice de virulencia. En invernadero los aislamientos más virulentos fueron B1TOR1, P2TUR6 y B2SAB1. La línea CML-254 mostró el mayor nivel de resistencia a la enfermedad en ambas pruebas de virulencia. Los resultados permitieron identificar y caracterizar aislamientos que pueden ser utilizados en programas de mejoramiento genético para la identificación de posibles fuentes de resistencia y en la evaluación del germoplasma mejorado. Abstract in english In Venezuela, banded leaf spot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a widely distributed disease in the most important maize growing areas, causing important yield losses. In 2004, experiments were conducted with the purpose of characterizing and evaluating the virulence of 25 isolates of R. solani. [...] Characterization tests were performed throughout cultural, microscopic, and molecular evaluations, the latter using a specific ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (rADN-ITS). Virulence tests were performed on the maize inbred lines CML-254 y L-82201-22-1-1, both in the laboratory using KIN solution (6-furfurilaminopurine), and in a greenhouse inoculat

Rosaura, Perdomo; Alexander, Hernández; Alex, González; Juan, Pineda; Jesús, Alezones.

2007-01-01

86

Characterization of mycolytic enzymes of Bacillus strains and their bio-protection role against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four antagonists bacteria namely, Bacillus megaterium MB3, B. subtilis MB14, B. subtilis MB99 and B. amyloliquefaciens MB101 were able to produce chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase and protease in different range with the presence of Rhizoctonia solani cell wall as a carbon source. Amplification of chitinase (chiA) gene of 270 bp and ?-1, 3-glucanase gene of 415 bp was given supportive evidence at molecular level of antibiosis. After in vitro screening, all antagonists were tested against R. solani under greenhouse conditions. Root treatment of Bacillus strains showed superior defense during pathogen suppression in terms of chitinase, glucanase, peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total phenolic content in leaves of tomato. All these enzymes accumulated high in tomato leaves as compared to roots. Pathogenesis-related proteins and defense-related enzymes accumulation was directly correlated with plant protection and greenhouse results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens MB101- and B. subtilis MB14-treated plants offered 69.76 and 61.51 % disease reductions, respectively, over the infected control. These results established that these organisms have the potential to act as biocontrol agents. This study could be highlighted a mutual importance of liquid formulation of antagonistic Bacillus spp. against root associated sclerotia former pathogen R. solani. PMID:22684745

Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Robert, Amrita Shalini; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

2012-09-01

87

Screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against Rhizoctonia solani AG3 on potato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soilborne pathogen of potato plants whose control typically depends on chemicals. Here, we screened six fungal endophytes for the suppression of R. solani growth both in vitro and in a greenhouse. These isolates were identified using morphology and internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA as Alternaria longipes, Epicoccum nigrum, Phomopsis sp., and Trichoderma atroviride. Both T. atroviride and E. nigrum showed significant in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of R. solani, with the greatest inhibition zone observed for E. nigrum species in dual cultures. The highest inhibition was observed for T. atroviride. The inhibition rate was also significantly correlated with the culture filtrates of these isolates. Confocal microscopy showed that T. atroviride acts as a mycoparasite and competitor. However, E. nigrum and A. longipes produce secondary metabolites, while Phomospsis sp. competes for nutrients and space. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that T. atroviride and E. nigrum improved potato yield significantly and decreased the stem disease severity index of sensitive potato. PMID:20738401

Lahlali, Rachid; Hijri, Mohamed

2010-10-01

88

Encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum para o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus / Encapsulation of Trichoderma inhamatum for the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Testou-se um novo sistema para o encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum em grânulos de alginato de sódio, visando o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani, agente etiológico da mela de estacas/miniestacas de Eucalyptus spp. para enraizamento. No novo sistema idealizado, foi utilizado um aparato s [...] imples capaz de substituir eficientemente o equipamento (Bomba Peristáltica) anteriormente utilizado, sendo possível aumentar a produção de 594 grânulos/min para aproximadamente 6.734 grânulos/min. Com este novo sistema, um isolado de T. inhamatum (UFV – 03) foi encapsulado em grânulos contendo as fontes alimentares: farelo de trigo, palha de arroz, farelo de aveia, folhas de eucalipto ou farelo de milho na concentração de 50 g/l. Na segunda etapa, a melhor fonte alimentar foi testada nas concentrações de 0 a 60 g/l. Os grânulos foram veiculados em substrato de enraizamento de eucalipto na concentração de 2% (p/p) inoculado com micélio triturado de R. solani (2 mg/g de substrato) e a atividade saprofítica do patógeno foi quantificada por meio do método de iscas. Posteriormente, os grânulos produzidos com a fonte alimentar e concentração que promoveram maior inibição do desenvolvimento de R. solani foram utilizados para determinar o tempo mínimo de pré-incubação e competição para supressão do patógeno, com a mesma metodologia. Observou-se aumento da supressão da atividade saprofítica de R. solani ao acréscimo de uma fonte alimentar. Daquelas testadas, farelo de trigo foi a melhor. Além disso, houve interação significativa e positiva ao aumento de sua concentração na formulação. Abstract in english A new system of encapsulating Trichoderma inhamatum in sodium alginate was developed for controlling Rhizoctonia solani blight of Eucalyptus spp. cuttings/mini-cuttings used for rooting. In this system, simpler materials and apparatus efficiently replaced the peristaltic pump, increasing pellet prod [...] uction from 594 pellets/min to approximately 6,734 pellet/min. An isolate of T. inhamatum (UFV-3) was encapsulated in pellets containing wheat bran, rice husk, oat bran, eucalyptus leaf or maize meal as food base at a concentration of 50g/l. In the second step, the best food base was evaluated at the concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 g/l. The pellets were added to R. solani infested (2 mg-macerated mycelium/g) eucalyptus rooting substrate at the rate of 2% (w/w) and the saprophytic activity of the pathogen was quantified with a baiting technique. The pellets containing wheat bran, which maximally inhibited R. solani, were used to determine the minimum pre-incubation and competition period for pathogen suppression. Increasing food base concentration in the pellets increased suppression of R. solani. Additionally, there was a significant positive interaction between food base concentration in the formulation and pathogen suppression.

Reginaldo G., Mafia; Acelino C., Alfenas; Luiz A., Maffia; Gizella M., Ventura; Eugênio A., Sanfuentes.

2003-01-01

89

Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground areas, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N total; P; K; Ca; Mg; Al; H; S; Na; Fe; Mn; Cu; Zn; B; cation exchange capacity; sum of bases and base saturation and biotic variables (total microbial activity evaluated by the CO2 evolution and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; culturable bacterial, fungal, actinomycetes, protozoa, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Fusarium spp. communities. The contribution and relationships of these variables to suppression to R. solani were assessed by path analysis. When all samples were analyzed together, only abiotic variables correlated with suppression of R. solani, but the entire set of variables explained only 51% of the total variation. However, when samples were grouped and analyzed by vegetation cover, the set of evaluated variables in all cases accounted for more than 90% of the variation in suppression of the pathogen. In highly suppressive soils of forest and pasture/fallow ground areas, several abiotic variables and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis correlated with suppression of R. solani and the set of variables explained more than 98% of suppressiveness.As atividades agrícolas podem modificar as características do solo e, como conseqüência, alterar a incidência de patógenos veiculados pelo solo. Este trabalho avaliou a supressividade a R. solani em 59 amostras de solos de uma microbacia. As áreas amostradas foram selecionadas quanto à vegetação, incluindo mata, pasto/pousio, culturas anuais, culturas perenes e solo arado. As amostras de solo foram caracterizadas quanto às propriedades abióticas (pH, condutividade elétrica, teor de matéria orgânica, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, capacidade de troca catiônica, soma de bases e saturação de bases e bióticas (atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pelo desprendimento de CO2 e hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína; comunidades de bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, protozoários, Pseudomonas fluorescentes e Fusarium spp.. A contribuição e relação dessas variáveis para a supressividade a R. solani foram quantificadas por análise de coeficientes de trilha. Quando se avaliaram todas as amostras em conjunto, somente variáveis abióticas apresentaram correlação com a supressão a R. solani, mas o conjunto das variáveis explicou somente 51% da variação total. Entretanto, quando as amostras foram agrupadas e analisadas considerando o tipo de cobertura vegetal, o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 90% da variação da supressividade. Para as áreas de floresta e pasto/pousio, as quais foram classificadas como as mais supressivas, algumas variáveis abióticas e a hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína apresentaram correlação com a supressão de R. solani e o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 98% da supressividade nesses solos.

Raquel Ghini

2006-04-01

90

Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani / Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As atividades agrícolas podem modificar as características do solo e, como conseqüência, alterar a incidência de patógenos veiculados pelo solo. Este trabalho avaliou a supressividade a R. solani em 59 amostras de solos de uma microbacia. As áreas amostradas foram selecionadas quanto à vegetação, in [...] cluindo mata, pasto/pousio, culturas anuais, culturas perenes e solo arado. As amostras de solo foram caracterizadas quanto às propriedades abióticas (pH, condutividade elétrica, teor de matéria orgânica, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, capacidade de troca catiônica, soma de bases e saturação de bases) e bióticas (atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pelo desprendimento de CO2 e hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína; comunidades de bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, protozoários, Pseudomonas fluorescentes e Fusarium spp.). A contribuição e relação dessas variáveis para a supressividade a R. solani foram quantificadas por análise de coeficientes de trilha. Quando se avaliaram todas as amostras em conjunto, somente variáveis abióticas apresentaram correlação com a supressão a R. solani, mas o conjunto das variáveis explicou somente 51% da variação total. Entretanto, quando as amostras foram agrupadas e analisadas considerando o tipo de cobertura vegetal, o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 90% da variação da supressividade. Para as áreas de floresta e pasto/pousio, as quais foram classificadas como as mais supressivas, algumas variáveis abióticas e a hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína apresentaram correlação com a supressão de R. solani e o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 98% da supressividade nesses solos. Abstract in english Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground are [...] as, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N total; P; K; Ca; Mg; Al; H; S; Na; Fe; Mn; Cu; Zn; B; cation exchange capacity; sum of bases and base saturation) and biotic variables (total microbial activity evaluated by the CO2 evolution and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; culturable bacterial, fungal, actinomycetes, protozoa, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Fusarium spp. communities). The contribution and relationships of these variables to suppression to R. solani were assessed by path analysis. When all samples were analyzed together, only abiotic variables correlated with suppression of R. solani, but the entire set of variables explained only 51% of the total variation. However, when samples were grouped and analyzed by vegetation cover, the set of evaluated variables in all cases accounted for more than 90% of the variation in suppression of the pathogen. In highly suppressive soils of forest and pasture/fallow ground areas, several abiotic variables and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis correlated with suppression of R. solani and the set of variables explained more than 98% of suppressiveness.

Raquel, Ghini; Marcelo Augusto Boechat, Morandi.

2006-04-01

91

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodão com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani / Effect of cotton seed dressing with fungicides for the control of seedling damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, e teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas, aplicados no tratamento de sementes de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum), no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. Foi realizado test [...] e em casa de vegetação, utilizando a cultivar DeltaOpal. Sementes tratadas e não tratadas com fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Foram utilizados 9 g de inóculo por bandeja de areia. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, com destaque para triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid e triadimenol + tolylfluanid, seguidos de carboxin + thiram, triadimenol e carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle do tombamento de pós-emergência do algodoeiro foi obtido com a mistura triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, seguida de triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid e carboxin+thiram. Nenhum dos fungicidas testados foi fitotóxico ao algodão. Abstract in english This work was carried out at Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS in order to evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides, applied as seed dressing, in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Greenhouse testing was performed, using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv. DeltaOpal [...] . Treated and untreated seeds with the fungicides were sowed in sand contained in plastic flats, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3 cm deep. Inoculation with R. solani was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1 mm). Nine grams of the fungus inoculum were put into each plastic flat. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence was observed, with distinction to triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid and triadimenol + tolylfluanid, followed by carboxin + thiram, triadimenol and carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. The most efficient treatments in the control of cotton seedling pos-emergence damping-off were triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, followed by triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid and carboxin + thiram. No phytotoxic effects were observed on cotton.

AUGUSTO C. P., GOULART.

2002-07-01

92

Efecto diferencial de seis aislamientos de trichoderma sobre la severidad de Rhizoctonia solani, desarrollo radical y crecimiento de plantas de maíz Differential effect of six Trichoderma isolates on root development, plant growth and severity of Rhizoctonia solani on mayze  

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Full Text Available La mancha bandeada de la hoja en maíz, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, ha incrementado su incidencia en Venezuela y ocasiona considerables pérdidas en la producción. En muchos casos la microbiota del suelo sirve para proteger a la planta del ataque de patógenos y contribuye a su mayor desarrollo. Para estudiar medidas de biocontrol de R. solani se seleccionaron seis aislamientos de Trichoderma provenientes de la rizósfera de plantas de maíz colectadas en varias localidades de los estados Portuguesa y Yaracuy, las cuales fueron utilizadas en pruebas de antagonismo en vivero con un sustrato esterilizado. En el sustrato se hicieron dos hoyos y en ellos se colocaron dos granos de arroz esterilizados y 2 mL de solución de esporas del antagonista a 3-7x10(6 conidios·mL-1. Luego se colocó una semilla de maíz híbrido D2000 en cada hoyo y dos esclerocios de R. solani, se adicionaron 3 mL de la solución del antagonista y se cubrió con suelo esterilizado. Con relación a la sobrevivencia de plantas, hubo un efecto positivo en los tratamientos donde se utilizaron las cepas de Trichoderma, obteniéndose valores entre 70 y 90 %. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad en la planta hasta los 60 días, se obtuvieron valores de 82,5 % en el testigo y 16,2 % en el mejor tratamiento con Trichoderma. Para un aislamiento proveniente de Píritu-estado Portuguesa se produjo el avance de la enfermedad fue el menor. Este aislamiento, seguido por el procedente de Yaritagua-estado Yaracuy, propiciaron un mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor desarrollo radical.The banded leaf spot disease on maize, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, has increased its incidence in Venezuela, causing considerable damages and yield reduction. In many cases, soil microbiota can protect the plant from the pathogen attack and contributes to better plant development. In order to study forms of biocontrol of R. solani, six isolations of Trichoderma obtained from maize plant rizosphere were collected in several localities of Portuguesa and Yaracuy States; the isolations were used in antagonism tests on a sterilized substrate in nursery. Two orifices were made in the substrate and sterilized grains of rice were placed on them, covering with 2 mL of spore solution of the antagonist (3-7x10(6 conidia mL-1. Later, one maize of seed hybrid D2000 and two esclerotia of R. solani was placed in each hole and added 3 mL of the solution of the antagonist, covering with sterilized soil. In relation to plant survival, there was a positive effect of the treatments where Trichoderma was used, obtaining values between 70 and 90 %. As far as plant disease severity up to 60 days, it was obtained a value of 82.5 % in the control and 16.2 % in the best treatment with Trichoderma. For the isolation coming from Píritu-Portuguesa State, the advance of the disease was the smallest. This isolation, followed by the one coming from Yaritagua-Yaracuy State, promoted a greater plant growth and better root development.

Yuleidy López

2010-04-01

93

Controle de Rhizoctonia solani e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli por biopreparados de isolados de Trichoderma spp. / Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli control by biopreparation with Trichoderma spp. isolates  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os experimentos objetivaram avaliar em condições de casa de vegetação o biocontrole dos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani (RS) e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli (FOP) em alface (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar Regina, e feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Alessa, respectivamente, utilizando c [...] omo agentes antagonistas, 10 isolados de Trichoderma spp. selecionados em testes in vitro. Foram feitos biopreparados à base de arroz previamente colonizado por isolados de Trichoderma spp. e posteriormente triturados. Para a realização dos testes, os biopreparados foram inoculados previamente na proporção de 10(9) conídios.mL-1, em substrato comercial para produção de mudas. Após sete dias, os patógenos foram introduzidos separadamente em duas concentrações distintas: R. solani na proporção de 144 mg de meio de arroz por kg de substrato e F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli inoculado na forma de suspensão contendo 4,75 x 10(6) conídios.mL-1. Avaliou-se a influência dos biopreparados na % de damping-off de pós-emergência em plantas de alface e a severidade de murcha em plantas de feijão-vagem. O biopreparado referente ao isolado T-03 foi o mais eficiente no controle de R. solani em plantas de alface cultivar Regina, por ter reduzido a incidência de damping-off de pós-emergência nessa cultura. Por outro lado, nenhum dos biopreparados apresentou efeito antagonista satisfatório à F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli em plantas de feijão-vagem. Abstract in english The experiments aimed to evaluate under greenhouse conditions the biocontrol of plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (RS) and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli (FOP) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar Regina and in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Alessa, respectively, using as antago [...] nistic agents 10 Trichoderma spp. isolates selected from in vitro tests. Inoculants were prepared with rice previously colonized by Trichoderma spp. and subsequently ground. For the tests, the antagonists were previously inoculated at a ratio of 10(9) conidia mL-1 on commercial substrate for seedling production. Following seven days, the pathogens were separately introduced at two different concentrations: R. solani at a ratio of 144 mg rice medium per kg of substrate and F oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli inoculated as a suspension containing 4.75 x 10(6) conidia mL-1. The influence of antagonists on % post-emergence damping-off in lettuce and the severity of wilt in common beans were evaluated. The biopreparation with T-03 isolate was most effective in controlling R. solani in lettuce cultivar Regina, for having reduced the incidence of post-emergence damping-off in this culture. On the other hand, none of the biopreparations showed satisfactory antagonistic effect on F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli in common bean plants.

Pedro Paulo, Dias; Ricardo Luis Louro, Berbara; Maria do Carmo de Araújo, Fernandes.

2013-12-01

94

Development of a DNA probe and a PCR based diagnostic assay for Rhizoctonia solani using a repetitive DNA sequence cloned from a Sri Lankan isolate.  

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Rhizoctonia solani is a destructive fungal pathogen of many economically important plants all over the world and the causative organism of sheath blight of rice in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. A repetitive sequence from the genome of R. solani was cloned and characterized with a view to develop a DNA probe and a PCR diagnostic assay for detection of the fungus. The cloned sequence was 1550 bp long and appeared to be interspersed throughout the genome. The cloned sequence hybridized only to R. solani DNA and was sensitive enough to detect 100 pg of R. solani genomic DNA. PCR primers were designed from the cloned sequence and it was possible to develop a PCR assay for the specific detection of the fungal DNA with 10 pg sensitivity. PMID:15323247

Weerasena, O V D S Jagathpriya; Chandrasekharan, N Vishvanath; Wijesundera, Ravi L C; Karunanayake, Eric H

2004-06-01

95

A PCR-based method to distinguish fungi of the rice sheath-blight complex, Rhizoctonia solani, R. oryzae and R. oryzae-sativae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of Rhizoctonia solani, R. oryzae and R. oryzae-sativae, components of the rice sheath disease complex, is extremely difficult and often inaccurate and as a result may hinder the success of extensive breeding programmes throughout Asia. In this study, primers designed from unique regions within the rDNA internal transcribed spacers have been used to develop a rapid PCR-based diagnostic test to provide an accurate identification of the species on rice. Tests on the specificity of the primers concerned showed that they provide the means for accurate identification of the Rhizoctonia species responsible for sheath diseases in rice. PMID:9627963

Johanson, A; Turner, H C; McKay, G J; Brown, A E

1998-05-15

96

Effect of Certain Fungicides and Isolates of Antagonistic Fungi on Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight  

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Full Text Available Antagonistic fungi Trichoderma harzianum (T1, from bean fields in Ahwaz, T2, from rice fields in Rasht, T. viride (T3 from bean fields in Shahriar, T4 from the collection in Plant Pest and Disease Institute, Tehran, Gliocladium virens (from bean fields in Kamal Abad, Karaj and some fungicides (Benomyl, Carbendazim, Carboxin-Thiram, edifenphos and Zineb were used to control sheath blight of rice incited by Rhizoctonia solani in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments and four replications on Khazar rice cultivar in a soil infected by R. solani under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the antagonistic fungi reduce sheath blight by 19.8 (T1, 21.5 (T2, 27.5 (T3, 19.6 (T4 and 18.5 (G1 percent. The antagonistic fungi in order of efficacy were T2>T3>T1>T4>G1. Benomyl, Carbendazim, Carboxin-thiram, Edifenphos and Zineb reduced disease by 32.5, 21.5, 12.8, 9.5 and 0 percent, respectively. Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed no significant differences between T1, T3, T4, and G1 and Carbendazim fungicide to control disease; however, the isolate T2 was as effective as Benomyl but Zineb had no effect on sheath blight.

S. A. Elahinia

2003-01-01

97

Silicon potentiates the activities of defense enzymes in the leaf sheaths of rice plants infected by Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to assess the ability of silicon (Si) to potentiate defense enzyme activities in rice leaf sheaths and thus reduce sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, development. Rice plants of BR-Irga 409 and Labelle cultivars were grown in a hydroponic solution containing 0 (-Si) or 2 m [...] M (+Si) Si and inoculated with R. solani. Silicon concentration in the leaf sheaths was significantly higher in the +Si plants than the -Si plants by 727% for BR-Irga 409 and 714% for Labelle. The area under relative lesion expansion progress curve was significantly lower for +Si plants than -Si plants, by 34.2% for BR-Irga 409 and 30.59% for Labelle. Increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and chitinases in the leaf sheaths of plants supplied with Si, especially of those from BR-Irga 409, led to reduced progress of sheath blight lesions.

Daniel A., Schurt; Maria F. A., Cruz; Kelly J. T., Nascimento; Marta C. C., Filippi; Fabrício A., Rodrigues.

2014-12-01

98

Isolation of mycoparasitic-related transcripts by SSH during interaction of the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans with its host Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoparasitism by antagonistic fungi involves changes in the biochemistry and physiology of both partners. Analysis of genes that are expressed during mycoparasite-host interaction represents a powerful strategy to obtain insight into the molecular events underlying these changes. The aim of this study is to identify genes whose expression is upregulated when the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans is in direct confrontation with its host Rhizoctonia solani. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to create a subtracted cDNA library, and differential screening was applied to identify the over-expressed transcripts. We report the analysis of 2,166 clones, among which 47% were upregulated during mycoparasitism. Two hundred and sixty-one clones were sequenced that corresponded to 94 unique genes. Forty-four of these were identified as novel genes, while the remainder showed similarity to a broad diversity of genes with putative functions related to toxin production, pathogenicity, and metabolism. As a result of mycoparasitism, 15 genes belonged to R. solani among which 9 genes were assigned putative functions. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the upregulation of 12 genes during the course of mycoparasitism. Seven genes showed significant upregulation at least at one-time point during interaction of the mycoparasite with its host. This study describes a first step toward knowledge of S. elegans genome. The results present the useful application of EST analysis on S. elegans and provide preliminary indication of gene expression putatively involved in mycoparasitism. PMID:18058103

Morissette, Danielle C; Dauch, Amélie; Beech, Robin; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Jabaji-Hare, Suha

2008-02-01

99

Overexpression of snakin-1 gene enhances resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Erwinia carotovora in transgenic potato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snakin-1 (SN1), a cysteine-rich peptide with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to pathogens in transgenic potatoes. Genetic variants of this gene were cloned from wild and cultivated Solanum species. Nucleotide sequences revealed highly evolutionary conservation with 91-98% identity values. Potato plants (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum cv. Kennebec) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a construct encoding the S. chacoense SN1 gene under the regulation of the ubiquitous CaMV 35S promoter. Transgenic lines were molecularly characterized and challenged with either Rhizoctonia solani or Erwinia carotovora to analyse whether constitutive in vivo overexpression of the SN1 gene may lead to disease resistance. Only transgenic lines that accumulated high levels of SN1 mRNA exhibited significant symptom reductions of R. solani infection such as stem cankers and damping-off. Furthermore, these overexpressing lines showed significantly higher survival rates throughout the fungal resistance bioassays. In addition, the same lines showed significant protection against E. carotovora measured as: a reduction of lesion areas (from 46.5 to 88.1% with respect to the wild-type), number of fallen leaves and thickened or necrotic stems. Enhanced resistance to these two important potato pathogens suggests in vivo antifungal and antibacterial activity of SN1 and thus its possible biotechnological application. PMID:18705874

Almasia, Natalia I; Bazzini, Ariel A; Hopp, H Esteban; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2008-05-01

100

Relato de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HG I em crisântemo (Papiro Branco e Amarelo) e R. solani AG-4 HG III em gipsófila no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, e sua patogenicidade cruzada / Report of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HG I on chrysanthemum (White and Yellow Papyrus) and R. solani AG-4 HG III on gypsophila in the São Paulo State, Brazil, and their cross pathogenicity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Atualmente, grupamento de anastomose (AG) de Rhizoctonia sp. em crisântemo e ocorrência deste fungo em gipsófila ainda não foram relatados no Brasil. Assim, realizou-se teste de patogenicidade normal e cruzada e sequenciamento da região ITS-5.8S rDNA para identificar o AG de isolado obtido de planta [...] s de crisântemo (Papiro Branco) e de gipsófila, ambas originárias de Holambra / São Paulo, Brasil. Após os testes, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de R. solani AG-4 HG I em crisântemo (Papiro Branco e Amarelo) e R. solani AG-4 HG III em gipsófila, no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, e, também, a sua patogenicidade cruzada. Abstract in english Currently, anastomosis groups (AG) of Rhizoctonia sp. on chrysanthemum and occurrence of this fungus on gypsophila have not been reported in Brazil. However, in the present study, normal and cross pathogenicity and sequencing of ITS-5.8S rDNA regions were used to confirm the AG of isolate of Rhizoct [...] onia sp. obtained from chrysanthemum (White Papyrus) and from gypsophila plants cultivated in Holambra / São Paulo, Brazil. After these tests, it was confirmed the report of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HG I on chrysanthemum (White and Yellow Papyrus) and R. solani AG-4 HG III on gypsophila in the São Paulo state, Brazil, and also their cross pathogenicity.

César Júnior, Bueno; Wagner, Bettiol; Edisson Chavarro, Mesa; Paulo Cézar, Ceresini.

2013-12-01

101

Efecto de algunos fungicidas sobre la interacción Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn-Micorriza vesículo arbuscular en soya, Glycine max Merril  

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Full Text Available En el campo se dispuso de dos preparaciones de suelo: natural y desinfectado químicamente (Ditrapex-CE y en el invernadero de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Se utilizaron los fungicidas Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax-300. Se contó con la flora micorrizógena natural y una cepa introducida, Glomus manihotis. R. solani disminuyó en un 50 % la emergencia de la soya, comportándose más agresivo en suelo desinfectado. En los primeros 15 días su ataque se incrementó y redujo el desarrollo de MVA en suelo natural. Al avanzar la edad de la planta decreció su infección. Con relación a la MVA la tendencia es contraria. La presencia de la MVA, incluyendo G. manihotis no incrementó significativamente la materia seca y el rendimiento de la soya. Al desinfectar el suelo los fungicidas afectaron negativamente la infección micorrizógena, mientras que en suelo natural no sucedió este fenómeno, al contrario SN-84364 incrementó su presencia. Este producto es el que menos afecta la simbiosis en el suelo desinfectado. Los fungicidas SN-84364 y PCNB mostraron gran especificidad contra R. solani y Vitavax-300 mayor espectro de acción.With the object to evaluate in the soybeans crop behavior in the interaction of Rhizoctonia solani, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM and fungicides used to treatment of seed, two different soil preparations were used in the field trials: natural and chemically disinfected (Ditrapex-CE and under greenhouse: using vapor- sterilized. Was utilized the fungicides Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax- 300. Be had into account the natural mycorrhizal flora and a source of Glomus manihotis introduced. R. solani reduced the emergence of soybean by 50%, the above-metioned pathogen was more agressive in disinfected soil. In the 15 days first the attack increased and reduced the VAM development in the natural soil. With the age of the plant the pathogen infection decreased. With relation by VAM is contrary the tendency. The presence of VAM, G. manihotis including, not increased significantly the dry mass and yield of the soybean. The fungicides diminished the VAM infection in both chemically and physically disinfected soil, whereas this does not ocurr in natural soil,SN-84364, on the other hand, increased the VAM infection. This product affected least the simbiosis in the disinfected soil. SN-84364 and PCNB exhibitited their great especifity against R. solani and Vitavax-300 a greater spectrum of action.

Sánchez de Prager Marina

1987-09-01

102

Identification of Rhizoctonia solani associated with soybean in Brazil by rDNA-ITS sequences / Identificação de Rhizoctonia solani associada à soja no Brasil através de seqüências da região rDNA-ITS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, através da seqüência de nucleotídeos das regiões ITS-5.8S do rDNA, isolados de Rhizoctonia solani causadores de podridão de hipocótilos e de queima foliar em soja (Glycine max), no Brasil. A seqüência do gene 5.8S do rDNA (155 bp) foi altamente conservada ent [...] re todos os isolados, mas foram observadas diferenças no tamanho e na seqüência de nucleotídeos nas regiões ITS1 e ITS2 entre os isolados obtidos de soja e os padrões de grupos de anastomose (AGs). A similaridade na seqüência de nucleotídeos entre os isolados do AG-1 IA, causadores de queima foliar, foi 95,1-100% na região ITS1 e 98,5-100% na região ITS2. A similaridade na seqüência de nucleotídeos entre os subgrupos IA, IB e IC variaram de 84,3 a 89% no ITS1 e de 93,3 a 95,6% no ITS2. Entre os isolados obtidos de soja pertencentes ao AG-4 e o padrão AG-4 HGI foram observadas 99,1% e 99,3-100% de similaridades para ITS1 e ITS2, respectivamente. Foi possível confirmar através da análise das regiões ITS-5.8S do rDNA que os isolados de R. solani brasileiros, causadores de queima foliar são pertencentes ao AG-1 IA e que, os isolados causadores de podridão de hipocótilos pertencem ao AG-4 HGI. A análise das regiões ITS-5.8S do rDNA não foi determinante na identificação do isolado AG-2-2 IIIB obtido de soja. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify isolates of Rhizoctonia solani causing hypocotyl rot and foliar blight in soybean (Glycine max) in Brazil by the nucleotide sequences of ITS-5.8S regions of rDNA. The 5.8S rDNA gene sequence (155 bp) was highly conserved among all isolates but differences in len [...] gth and nucleotide sequence of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed between soybean isolates and AG testers. The similarity of the nucleotide sequence among AG-1 IA isolates, causing foliar blight, was 95.1-100% and 98.5-100% in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively. The nucleotide sequence similarity among subgroups IA, IB and IC ranged from 84.3 to 89% in ITS1 and from 93.3 to 95.6% in ITS2. Nucleotide sequence similarity of 99.1% and 99.3-100% for ITS1 and ITS2, respectively, was observed between AG-4 soybean isolates causing hypocotyl rots and the AG-4 HGI tester. The similarity of the nucleotide sequence of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region confirmed that the R. solani Brazilian isolates causing foliar blight are AG-1 IA and isolates causing hypocotyl rot symptoms are AG-4 HGI. The ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence was not determinant for the identification of the AG-2-2 IIIB R. solani soybean isolate.

Roseli C., Fenille; Maísa B., Ciampi; Eiko E., Kuramae; Nilton L., Souza.

2003-08-01

103

Evaluation of chitinase activity in biological control process of rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomate, by using seed priming in the presence of trichoderma koningii Evaluación de la actividad quitinasa en procesos de control biológico de rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici en tomate, mediante fitoinvigorización de semillas en presencia de trichoderma koningii  

OpenAIRE

The present work intended to establish in a control model, the possible role of chitinases by using seed priming in the presence of Trichoderma koningii. This method showed to be efficient to control Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in tomato. The analysis of seed extracts and e...

Cotes A. M.; Clavijo A.

1998-01-01

104

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

OpenAIRE

A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplifi...

Ciampi, Maisa B.; Liane Rosewich Gale; Macedo Lemos, Eliana G.; Ceresini, Paulo C.

2009-01-01

105

Polymorphism of genes coding for nuclear 18S rRNA indicates genetic distinctiveness of anastomosis group 10 from other groups in the Rhizoctonia solani species complex.  

OpenAIRE

DNA polymorphism in the 18S nuclear rRNA gene region was investigated by using 11 restriction endonucleases for 161 isolates of 25 intraspecific groups (ISGs) representing 11 reported anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani. A PCR-based restriction mapping method in which enzymatically amplified DNA fragments and subfragments were digested with one or two restriction enzymes was employed. Four types of DNA restriction maps of this region were constructed for these 25 ISGs. Map type I o...

Liu, Z. L.; Domier, L. L.; Sinclair, J. B.

1995-01-01

106

Screening of bacterial isolates from various European soils for in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum: Site-dependent composition and diversity revealed  

OpenAIRE

A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the in vitro antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease suppression, located in France (FR), the Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). Similarly, two sites from Germany (Berlin, G-BR; and Braunschweig, G-BS) without documentation of disease s...

Adesina, M. F.; Lembke, A.; Costa, R.; Speksnijder, A. G. C. L.; Smalla, K.

2007-01-01

107

Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. PMID:25528673

Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

2015-01-01

108

Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio / Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA) é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle an [...] tes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queima foliar (Cercospora kikuchii), a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção. Abstract in english The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA) is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of th [...] e disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii), pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The hypothesis tested went that the foliar blight could be controlled by potassium amendments. In general, under controlled conditions, the increments of potassium in soil did not result in disease control. Therefore, to corroborate this observation it is necessary to conduct follow-up field experiments and to evaluate the effects of the soybean foliar blight and its impact on yield.

Marco Antonio, Basseto; Paulo Cezar, Ceresini; Walter Veriano, Valério Filho.

2007-03-01

109

Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium  

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Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle antes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queima foliar (Cercospora kikuchii, a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção.The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of the disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii, pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The hypothesis tested went that the foliar blight could be controlled by potassium amendments. In general, under controlled conditions, the increments of potassium in soil did not result in disease control. Therefore, to corroborate this observation it is necessary to conduct follow-up field experiments and to evaluate the effects of the soybean foliar blight and its impact on yield.

Marco Antonio Basseto

2007-03-01

110

Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p?>?0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. PMID:24277414

Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K

2013-11-26

111

Suscetibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro a Rhizoctonia solani e benefícios do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas / Susceptibility of cotton cultivars to Rhizoctonia solani and benefits of fungicide seed treatment  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento de seis cultivares de algodoeiro (BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, BRS-Cedro, Fibermax 966, DeltaOpal e CNPA Ita 90-II) ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 e os benefícios do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas para cada cultivar em estudo, e [...] m relação à densidade de inóculo deste fungo. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS. Foram definidas quatro densidades populacionais do fungo (0; 1; 2 e 3g de inóculo do fungo/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10cm) para a realização do ensaio. As avaliações foram realizadas com base no desenvolvimento de sintomas e sobrevivência das plântulas, utilizando os dados de emergência inicial e final e de tombamento de pós-emergência. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com a mistura fungicida tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g do i.a./100kg de sementes) foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm). Houve efeito significativo das interações cultivares x níveis de inóculo, cultivares x fungicidas e níveis de inóculo x fungicidas. O comportamento das cultivares foi significativamente influenciado pelas diferentes populações de R. solani, sendo que, a medida que se aumentou a densidade de inóculo do patógeno, menores índices de emergência e maiores índices de doença foram observados. Ficou claramente demonstrada também a importância do tratamento das sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, sendo que as melhores emergências e os menores índices de doença (tombamento e plântulas lesionadas), independente da cultivar testada, foram obtidos quando as sementes foram tratadas com a mistura tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol. Observou-se ainda que as populações do patógeno influenciaram significativamente nos benefícios do tratamento de sementes, demonstrando que a performance da mistura fungicida testada (tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol) foi melhor na presença dos níveis mais baixos de inóculo do fungo. Com relação as cultivares avaliadas e na ausência do tratamento da sementes com fungicidas, observou-se comportamento diferenciado de alguns materiais com relação ao ataque do fungo R. solani, merecendo destaque os genótipos CNPA ITA 90 II E BRS Aroeira, seguidas de BRS Cedro e BRS Ipê, demonstrando uma maior tolerância destas cultivares ao ataque de R. solani em comparação às demais. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of six cotton cultivars (BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, BRS-Cedro, Fibermax 966, DeltaOpal and CNPA Ita 90-II) in relation to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 and the benefits of cotton seed treatment with fungicides, for each tested cultivar, for the control of [...] damping-off in relation to inoculum densities of this fungus. This experiment was carried out at greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, in Dourados, MS. Four inoculum densities were tested (0; 1; 2 and 3g of fungus inoculum/plastic tray with dimensions of 56x35x10cm) in the trial. The evaluations were done based on symptoms development and seedling survival, using initial and final emergence and pre and pos damping-off data. Treated and untreated seeds with fungicides mixture tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g a.i./100kg of seeds) were sowed in sand contained in plastic trays, by placing in equidistant 3-cm-deep wells. The inoculation with R. solani AG-4 was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1mm). Significant effect of the interactions cultivars x inocul

Augusto César Pereira, Goulart.

2007-09-01

112

Caracterização citomorfológica, cultural, molecular e patogênica de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn associado ao arroz em Tocantins, Brasil / Citomorphological, cultural, molecular and pathogenical characterization of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn associated with rice in Tocantins, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Estado do Tocantins, no Norte do Brasil, a incidência de rizoctoniose no arroz é importante, causando danos significativos em lavouras de arroz irrigado. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o grupo de anastomose (AG) de isolados de R. solani associados ao arroz naquela região, test [...] ando a hipótese de que esses isolados pertencem ao grupo padrão de anastomose AG-1 IA, que também é o agente causal da mela em soja em áreas úmidas do Norte do Brasil. Todos os quatro isolados de arroz foram caracterizados, através de fusão de hifas, como AG-1 IA. A caracterização cultural, em função das temperaturas basais (mínimas, máximas e ótimas), evidenciou que os isolados de R. solani de arroz apresentaram perfis semelhantes aos padrões AG-1 IA, AG-1 IB e AG-1 IC. Os isolados de arroz foram caracterizados como autotróficos para tiamina assim como os isolados padrões AG-1 IA, IB, IC, AG-4 HGI e o isolado da mela da soja. O teste de patogenicidade em plantas de arroz cultivar IRGA-409 e de patogenicidade cruzada à cultivar IAC-18 de soja (suscetível à mela), indicou que além de causar a queima da bainha em arroz, esses isolados causam mela em soja. Da mesma forma, o isolado SJ-047 foi patogênico ao arroz. As seqüências de bases de DNA da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA dos isolados do arroz foram similares às seqüências do AG-1 IA, depositadas no GenBank® - NCBI. A filogenia do ITS-rDNA indicou um grupo filogenético comum formado pelos isolados do arroz, o isolado da soja e o isolado teste do AG-1 IA. Assim, com base em características citomorfológicas, culturais, filogenéticas e patogênicas, foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados de R. solani patógenos de arroz do Estado do Tocantins pertencem ao grupo de anastomose AG-1 IA, além da indicação de que esses isolados podem também causar a mela em soja. Abstract in english In Tocantins State, Northern Brazil, the incidence of Rhizoctonia sheath blight on rice is important, causing significant yield losses on rice crops under irrigation. The main objective of this research was to determine the anastomosis group (AG) of R. solani associated with rice in that area, testi [...] ng the hypothesis that these isolates are from the AG-1 IA, which is also associated with the soybean leaf blight occurring in wet areas of Northern Brazil. All the four rice isolates were characterized, by hyphal fusion, as AG-1 IA. By cultural characterization, based on basal temperatures for mycelial growth (minimum, optimum and maximum), the rice isolates had growth profile similar to the tester isolates AG-1 IA, AG-1 IB and AG-1 IC. The rice isolates were characterized as autotrophic for thiamine, as well as the AG testers AG-1 IA, IB, IC, AG-4 HGI and the soybean leaf blight isolate SJ-047. The pathogenicity test on rice IRGA-409 and the cross pathogenicity on soybean IAC-18 (susceptible to the leaf blight disease) indicated that, besides causing sheath blight, these rice isolates also cause leaf blight on soybean. Similarly, the soybean isolates SJ-047 was pathogenic to rice. The sequences from the ITS-5.8S region of rDNA from the rice isolates were similar to sequences of AG-1 IA deposited at GenBank® - NCBI. The ITS-rDNA phylogeny indicated a common phylogenetic group formed by these rice isolates, the isolate SJ-047 and the tester AG-1 IA. Thus, based on cytomorphological, cultural, phylogenetics and pathogenic attributes, the hypothesis that the rice isolates of R. solani from Tocantins all belong to the AG-1 IA was confirmed, besides the indication that these isolates can also cause soybean foliar blight.

Elaine Costa, Souza; Eiko Eurya, Kuramae; Andreia Kazumi, Nakatani; Marco Antonio, Basseto; Anne Sitarana, Prabhu; Paulo Cezar, Ceresini.

2007-06-01

113

Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

2010-01-01

114

Some Properties of Inulinase from Rhizoctonia solani  

OpenAIRE

The preparation and some biochemical properties of inulinase from R. solani which isolated from soil in Tekirdag - Turkey, was carried out by dialysis and concentrated with silica gel-60 then, further proceeded with Sephadex G-150 and DEAE-Cellulose chromatographies. The specific activity of the enzyme was enhanced from 0.256-5.43 U mg -1. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 35?C and pH 5.0, it was stable in the pH range of 5.0-6.5 and up to 40?C. The activity of enzym...

Figen Ertan; Sanal, Filiz E.; Kaboglu, Aysegul C.; Tulin Aktac; Elvan Bakar

2005-01-01

115

Bioprospecção de isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani na produção de mudas de pepino Bioprospection of Trichoderma spp. isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani on cucumber seedling production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e identificar isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle do tombamento causado por Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 em plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L., além de avaliar o efeito de concentrações crescentes e de combinações dos isolados mais eficientes no controle da doença. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, com 490 isolados. O tombamento das mudas foi avaliado uma semana após a aplicação à base das plântulas de substrato infestado com antagonista (1% e patógeno (1%. Os doze isolados que proporcionaram mais de 85% de redução da doença foram testados em concentrações crescentes para o controle do patógeno (1%: 0,5, 1, 2, 3 e 4%. Também foi avaliado o efeito das combinações dos cinco isolados mais promissores. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados pelo sequenciamento da região espaçadores internos transcritos (ITS do DNA ribossômico. Dos 490 isolados testados 44 (9% reduziram o tombamento. As concentrações de antagonistas superiores a 2% foram as mais efetivas no controle da doença. Apenas duas combinações resultaram no aumento do controle da doença. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados como T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60, T. harzianum (IB34, IB35, T. atroviride (IB13, T. spirale (IB16, IB24 e T. asperellum (IB44. Não foi possível a identificação da espécie de três isolados.The objective of this work was to select and identify Trichoderma spp. isolates for the control of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 damping-off on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings, as well as to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations and different combinations of the most efficient isolates in the disease control. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse with 490 isolates. The disease on cucumber seedlings was evaluated one week after the application of a commercial substrate infested with both antagonist (1% and pathogen (1% to the seedlings' root collar. The twelve isolates that conferred more than 85% of disease reduction were further evaluated in pathogen control (1% at the concentrations 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%. The effect of combining five of the most promising isolates in disease control was also evaluated. The most effective isolates were identified through the sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS region. Out of the 490 isolates tested 44 (9% caused reduction of damping-off. Antagonist concentrations higher than 2% conferred the most effective disease control. Only two combinations of isolates resulted in increased disease control. The most effective isolates were identified as T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60, T. harzianum (IB34, IB35, T. atroviride (IB13, T. spirale (IB16, IB24 and T. asperellum (IB44. Three isolates could not be identified at species level.

Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon

2009-03-01

116

Control del mal de los almácigos causado por Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii con caldos de cebolla / Control of seedling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii using onion broths  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mal de los almácigos causa muerte de plántulas. Los controles cultural y biológico constituyen las únicas herramientas orgánicas para su manejo. Acerca de la eficiencia de preparaciones vegetales, sólo se encuentra información de divulgación. Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de caldos fermentados de [...] cebolla sobre el crecimiento de Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii y la incidencia de la enfermedad. Se obtuvieron caldo (B) y caldo esterilizado (SB), respectivamente, mediante hervido de trozos de cebollas y fermentación a temperatura ambiente, con o sin esterilización posterior. Se cultivaron los patógenos en APG suplementado con B y SB diluidos 1,7; 3,3; 8,3; 16,7 y 25%. Su crecimiento decreció con B al 8,3, 16,7 y 25%. La producción de esclerocios por S. rolfsii disminuyó con B, pero aumentó con SB. Penicillium purpurogenum, P. simplicissimum y Aspergillus niger aislados de B evidenciaron antibiosis, competencia e hiperparasitismo respecto de ambos patógenos. B y SB diluidos 10 y 50% fueron aplicados en almácigos de acelga (Beta vulgaris), tomate (Solanum lycopersicum), pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y berenjena (Solanum melongena) infestados. La pérdida de plántulas fue menor en el tratamiento con B al 50%, en relación al tratamiento con SB. Se concluye que la actividad antifúngica de B depende de su dilución y de su micota. La utilización de caldos de cebolla debería ser contemplada como alternativa para el manejo fitosanitario de bajo impacto ambiental. Se requiere continuar los estudios para completar el conocimiento acerca de los componentes químicos y microbiológicos de los caldos, y sus posibles cambios durante la fermentación. Abstract in english Damping off is a frequent disease that kills seedlings. Cultural and biological controls are the only tools in organic crops to manage this disease, and only empirical information is available on the eficiency of plant preparations. This work evaluates the effects of fermented onion decoctions on th [...] e growth of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and disease incidence. Broth (B) and sterilized broth (SB) were respectively obtained by boiling chopped yellow onions in water, and incubating for 14 days at room temperature, with or without subsequent sterilization. The pathogens were grown on potato dextrose agar supplemented with B and SB, diluted at 1.7, 3.3, 8.3, 16.7 and 25% (v/v). Their growth was reduced by B at 8.3, 16.7 and 25%. Production of sclerotia by S. rolfsii was diminished by B, but stimulated by SB. Penicillium purpurogenum, P. simplicissimum and Aspergillus niger obtained from B behaved as antagonistic against both pathogens, showing antibiosis, competition and hyperparasitism in dual confrontations with them. Broth and SB at 10 and 50% dilutions were sprayed on chard (Beta vulgaris), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings cultivated in pathogen-colonized soil. Damping of incidence in the B treatment at 50% dilution was markedly lower than that in SB. It is concluded that B antifungal activity depends on its dilution and mycota. Broth sprays should be considered as a tool to control damping of in low-environment-impact crop production. Further studies are needed for a complete understanding of B chemical and microbiological components, as well as their changes during fermentation.

MC, Rivera; ER, Wright; MC, Fabrizio; G, Freixá; R, Cabalini; SE, Lopez.

2013-12-01

117

Efeito da solarização do solo, seguida pela aplicação de Trichoderma spp: ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 Effect of soil solarization, followed or not by the application of Trichoderma spp: or fungicides for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani AG-4  

OpenAIRE

O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar alternativas para a desinfestação de solos, especialmente considerando a retirada do brometo de metila do mercado. Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização do solo, seguida ou não pela aplicação de isolados de Trichoderma spp. ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, responsáveis por tombamento e podridão de raízes em várias culturas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Piracic...

Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Hiroshi Kimati; João Tessarioli Neto; Ademir Petenatti; Benedito De Camargo Barros

2007-01-01

118

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani, sob condições de casa de vegetação of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of Rhizoctonia solani seedling damping-off under greenhouse conditions  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com os fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. s...

Augusto César Pereira Goulart

2008-01-01

119

Correlation between specific double-stranded (ds) RNA elements and up- or down- regulation of virulence, laccase activity and mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (AG2) isolates  

OpenAIRE

A search for double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was done in 18 isolates of the pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani (AG2) isolated from Iranian sugar beet fields. Nucleic acids were extracted from freeze-dried mycelia and dsRNA separated by cellulose CF-11 chromatography. The nature of dsRNA was confirmed by digestion with specific nuclease (RNase A). Electrophoretic bands of dsRNAs were detected on agarose gel in one to 10 Kb from eight isolates. The partial curing of dsRNA attempted to remo...

Shoaei Naeeni S.

2012-01-01

120

Management of the Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica. Treub) and Sore Shin (Rhizoctonia Solani. Kuhn) Using A Nematicide and Poor Host Crops in Rotations  

OpenAIRE

In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10), root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8), grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10), grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8), KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr) and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr), on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide u...

Mazarura, U.; Chisango, C.; Goss, M.

2012-01-01

121

Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil  

OpenAIRE

Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from a pear orchard not having a cauliflower crop for at least 40 years. These two soils were subjected to five successive cropping cycles with cauliflower or remaining fallow in a greenhouse experimen...

Postma, J.; Scheper, R. W. A.; Schilder, M. T.

2010-01-01

122

Identification at strain level of Rhizoctonia solani AG4 isolates by direct sequence of asymmetric PCR products of the ITS regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relatedness of nine isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group (AG) 4, and one isolate of AG1 was determined by comparative sequence analysis based on direct sequencing of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA [the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the 5.8 s ribosomal DNA]. The 5.8 s rDNA is completely conserved, but both ITS regions show variation among strains. AG1 was an outgroup based on anastomosis ability and RFLP analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS sequences suggest that the analyzed AG4 strains can be divided into three groups that correlate with habitat and virulence. PMID:8821665

Boysen, M; Borja, M; del Moral, C; Salazar, O; Rubio, V

1996-01-01

123

Intraspecific variation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates recovered from potato fields in Central Iran and South Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pectic zymogram, RFLP and PCR analyses were used to characterize Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates collected from diseased potatoes in South Australia. The pectic zymogram data were compared with those obtained for isolates collected from central Iran. Analyses of bands corresponding to pectin esterase and polygalacturonase revealed three zymogram subgroups (ZG) in AG 3. In addition to the previously reported ZG7 (here renamed ZG7-1), two new zymogram subgroups, ZG7-2 and ZG7-3, were identified. Of the 446 isolates tested, 50% of the South Australian and 46% of the Iranian isolates were ZG7-1. The majority of the isolates originating from stem and root cankers were ZG7-1, whereas most of the isolates designated ZG7-2 and ZG7-3 originated from tuber-borne sclerotia. Pathogenicity tests revealed that ZG7-1 generally produced fewer sclerotia and more severe cankers of underground parts of the potato plants than the other two ZGs. Two random DNA clones, one originating from an AG 3 isolate and the other from an AG 4 isolate, were used as probes for RFLP analyses of Australian isolates. The AG 3 probe, previously identified to be specific to this group, detected a high level of genetic diversity, with 11 genotypes identified amongst 50 isolates analysed. The low-copy AG 4 probe resolved three genotypes amongst 24 isolates. For 23 isolates analysed with both markers, the combined data distinguished a total of six genotypes and similarity analysis resolved the isolates into two main groups with 50% homology. PCR, using primers for the plant intron splice junction region (R1), also revealed variation. No obvious relationship among pectic zymogram groups, RFLP and PCR genotypes was observed. PMID:17245557

Balali, G R; Neate, S M; Kasalkheh, A M; Stodart, B J; Melanson, D L; Scott, E S

2007-02-01

124

Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR of Defense-Associated Gene Transcripts of Rhizoctonia solani-Infected Bean Seedlings in Response to Inoculation with a Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Certain isolates of nonpathogenic binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR) are effective biocontrol agents against seedling root rot and damping-off. Inoculation of bean seed with np-BNR strain 232-CG at sowing reduced disease symptoms in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings caused by R. solani. Molecular analyses of the spatial expression of three defense-associated genes were carried out using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assays. This method allowed accurate quantitative evaluation of transcript levels of pG101 encoding for 1,3-beta-D-glucanase, gPAL1 encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and CHS17 encoding for chalcone synthase in 1- and 2-week-old bean seedlings that were inoculated simultaneously with np-BNR and infected with R. solani, and in seedlings that were singly inoculated with either fungi or not inoculated. In the seedlings that were infected with R. solani only, results revealed that, following infection, activation of all defense-associated gene transcripts was achieved with significant increases ranging from 7- to 40-fold greater than the control, depending on the defense gene and tissue analyzed. Seedlings that were treated with np-BNR and infected with R. solani had expression similar to those that were treated with np-BNR only, but the levels were significantly down-regulated compared with those that were infected with R. solani only. These findings indicate that disease suppression by np-BNR isolate is not correlated to pG101, gPAL1, and CHS17 gene activation. PMID:18943035

Wen, Kui; Seguin, Philippe; St-Arnaud, Marc; Jabaji-Hare, Suha

2005-04-01

125

Evaluation of chitinase activity in biological control process of rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomate, by using seed priming in the presence of trichoderma koningii  

OpenAIRE

The present work intended to establish in a control model, the possible role of chitinases by using seed priming in the presence of Trichoderma koningii. This method showed to be efficient to control Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in tomato. The analysis of seed extracts and e...

Clavijo, A.; Cotes, A. M.

2012-01-01

126

Evaluación de la actividad quitinasa en procesos de control biológico de rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici en tomate, mediante fitoinvigorización de semillas en presencia de trichoderma koningii Evaluation of chitinase activity in biological control process of rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomate, by using seed priming in the presence of trichoderma koningii  

OpenAIRE

El propósito del presente trabajo fue el de establecer el posible papel de las quitinasas en un modelo de control, utilizando pregerminación controlada de semillas en presencia de Trichoderma koningii. Este método mostró ser eficiente para el control de Rhizoctonia solani y de Fusarium oxysporum en tomate. Al analizar los extractos y exudados de semillas y los extractos de suel...

Cotes A. M.; Clavijo A.

1998-01-01

127

Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII associated with weed species from a potato cropping area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4 do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill., uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4 of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and tobacco. The AG-4 cause considerable losses in crops of economic importance, such as soybean, beans and peanuts and may also occur in vegetables such as spinach, pepper, broccoli, tomatoes, potatoes and fruit such as melons. The association of R. solani with invasive plants was recently established in potato production areas from Brasília, DF. However, there is no information about the etiology of the pathogen as well as the role of invasive species as alternative hosts in the life cycle of the pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of R. solani obtained from potatoes and three other invasive plant species associated with areas of potato production: Shoo-fly plant [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], pigweed (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, and low-amaranth (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. It was confirmed the hypothesis that the R. solani isolates obtained from pigweed, low-amaranth and Shoo-fly plant belong to the anastomosis group 4 and, except for the isolate from pigweed, are pathogenic to potatoes. These isolates were cross pathogencic to all the three weed species tested and also to American nightshade (Solanum americanum Mill., another Solanaceae invasive of potato fields. The placement of the isolates in the group AG-4 HGI or in the group AG-4 HGIII (isolate from caruru was confirmed by cultural and molecular characteristics (sequencing of the ITS-5.8S region of rDNA. The results of this study provide important implications for the management of the Rhizoctonia root rot in potatoes.

Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto

2010-06-01

128

Eficiência de diferentes moléculas na redução dos sintomas da queima das bainhas em arroz e no crescimento de Rhizoctonia solani in vitro / Efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of sheath blight symptoms in rice and on Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo verificou a eficiência da aplicação de diferentes moléculas em reduzir o comprimento relativo da lesão (CRL) da queima das bainhas em arroz. Plantas dos cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva e inoculadas com Rhizoctonia solani, no estádio de máximo perfil [...] hamento. Às 24 horas antes da inoculação, as bainhas das plantas foram pulverizadas com soluções de silicato de potássio (SP), silicato de potássio + fósforo (SP+F), Acibenzolar-S-Metil (ASM), fungicida Carbendazim, quitosana desacetilada (QD), etileno (ET) e fosfito de potássio (FP). Plantas cujas bainhas foram pulverizadas com água destilada serviram como testemunhas. O efeito das moléculas contidas nesses produtos no crescimento micelial de R. solani foi testado in vitro. Para BR-Irga 409, o CRL foi menor com a aplicação do FP, em relação aos demais tratamentos, exceto o Carbendazim. A aplicação do Carbendazim reduziu em 86,1% o CRL, em relação à testemunha. O CRL foi significativamente menor no cultivar BR-Irga 409 do que no 'Labelle', com aplicação do FP. O crescimento micelial de R. solani foi reduzido apenas pelo FP e Carbendazim, em comparação com os demais tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos testemunha, SP e SP+F para a concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas dos dois cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to test the efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of the relative lesion extension (RLE) of sheath blight in rice. Plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle were grown in nutrient solution and inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani at the maximum tillering stage. At 24 ho [...] urs before inoculation, sheaths of plants were sprayed with solutions of potassium silicate (PS), potassium silicate + phosphorus (PS+P), Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM), Carbendazim fungicide, deacetylated chitosan (DC), ethylene (ET) and potassium phosphite (PP). Sheaths from plants sprayed with water served as the control treatment. The effect of these products on R. solani mycelia growth was also studied in vitro. For BR-Irga 409, the RLE was lower with the application of PP compared with the other treatments, except the Carbendazim. The application of Carbendazim reduced in 86.1% the RLE in comparison with the control. The RLE was lower for BR-Irga 409 than for Labell with the application of PP. Mycelia growth of R. solani was inhibited only by PP and Carbendazim in comparison with the other treatments. There was no significant difference among the treatments control, PS, and PS+P for silicon concentration on sheaths of plants of the two cultivars.

Daniel Augusto, Schurt; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues; Naiara Fernandes Abreu, Souza; Ricardo Dutra, Reis.

2013-04-01

129

Efeitos de materiais orgânicos e da umidade do solo na patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn GA-4 HGI ao feijoeiro The role of the organic material amended and the soil moisture on the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 HGI in snap bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados, em casa de vegetação, os efeitos das seguintes variáveis sobre a patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani GA-4 HGI a plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em solo artificialmente infestado: presença de materiais orgânicos com diferentes relações C:N (torta de mamona e bagaço de cana; níveis de decomposição da matéria orgânica, e condições de umidade do solo incorporado. A umidade do solo até o momento da semeadura foi mantida sob duas condições: 20% ou acima de 80% da capacidade de campo. Foram realizadas semeaduras aos 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após inoculação e incorporação. As avaliações foram realizadas 14 dias após cada semeadura. O material com baixa relação C:N propiciou o aumento da incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, enquanto o material com alta relação C:N não interferiu na incidência do patógeno. A incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, em solo incorporado, foi independente da condição de umidade.The pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants was evaluated, in artificially infested soil under greenhouse conditions, when submitted to the following treatments: amendments with different C:N ratios (castor-oil cake and sugar-cane bagasse; different organic matter decomposition levels; different moisture contents of the amended soil. Until the moment of sowing the soil moisture was maintained at 20% of the moisture-holding capacity or above 80%. The sowings were made at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the inoculation and amendments incorporation. Evaluations were carried out 14 days after each sowing date. The amendment with low C:N ratio increased the incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in any decomposition level, whereas the amendment with high C:N ratio did not interfere on the incidence of the pathogen. The incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in a soil amended with both castor-oil cake or sugar-cane bagasse, was independent of the soil moisture condition.

Roseli Chela Fenille

1999-10-01

130

Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

2013-01-01

131

Molecular characterization of the pathogenic plant fungus Rhizoctonia solani (Ceratobasidiaceae) isolated from Egypt based on protein and PCR-RAPD profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were categorized into three anastomosis groups consisting of AG-4-HG-I (eight isolates), AG-2-2 (nine isolates) and AG-5 (four isolates). Their pathogenic capacities were tested on cotton cultivar Giza 86. Pre-emergence damping-off varied in response to the different isolates; however, the differences were not significant. Soluble proteins of the fungal isolates were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE and gel electrophoreses. A dendrogram of the protein banding patterns by the UPGMA of arithmetic means placed the fungal isolates into distinct groups. There was no evidence of a relationship between protein dendrogram, anastomosis grouping or level of virulence or geographic origin. The dendrogram generated from these isolates based on PCR analysis with five RAPD-PCR primers showed high levels of genetic similarity among the isolates from the same geographical locations. There was partially relationship between the genetic similarity and AGs or level of virulence or geographic origin based on RAPD dendrogram. These results demonstrate that RAPD technique is a useful tool in determining the genetic characterization among isolates of R. solani. PMID:23096684

Mahmoud, M A; Al-Sohaibani, S A; Abdelbacki, A M M; Al-Othman, M R; Abd El-Aziz, A R M; Kasem, K K; Mikhail, M S; Sabet, K K; Omar, M R; Hussein, E M

2012-01-01

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Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA. PMID:21637462

Ciampi, Maisa B; Gale, Liane Rosewich; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana G; Ceresini, Paulo C

2009-10-01

133

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

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Full Text Available A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA.

Maisa B. Ciampi

2009-01-01

134

Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.  

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The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), ?-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-?-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens. PMID:25522548

Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

2014-10-01

135

Antagonistic Potentials of Rhizosphere-associated Bacterial Isolates Against Soil-borne Diseases of Tomato and Pepper Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available By use of selective media, putative antagonist bacterial isolates were isolated from rhizosphere-associated soils from different parts of the Amik plain. Isolates to be tested were chosen in approximate proportion to their abundance on the plates. Selected 113 bacterial isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards two important soil-borne root infecting plant pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani by using dual culture test. From this test, significant numbers of bacterial isolates, but not the yeast, were found to produce inhibition zones by inhibiting the hyphal growth of fungal pathogens to a varying degree. On the basis of the result obtained from the preliminary screening test, isolates belonging to Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. found to be highly efficient against fungal pathogens used in the experiment. Among the inhibitory isolates, bacterial isolates AKB50 and AFP104 significantly suppressed hyphal growth of S. sclerotiorum and R. solani by 75.3 and 83.3%, respectively. This study indicates that selected bacterial strain have potential for controlling of soil-borne disease agents.

Soner Soylu

2005-01-01

136

Development of specific PCR primers for the detection of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 LP from the leaf sheaths exhibiting large-patch symptom on zoysia grass.  

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Detection of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 LP isolates causing large-patch disease on zoysia grass was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific primers were designed based on an amplified region using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Fifteen primers and three cultural types of R. solani AG 2-2 (types IIIB, IV and LP) were used for RAPD-PCR. The banding patterns by RAPD-PCR showed that the three cultural types were clearly distinguishable. A dendrogram constructed from the results of RAPD-PCR showed that the three cultural types of AG 2-2 clustered separately. The sequence of one PCR-amplified region which appeared only in LP isolates using primer A09 was selected for designing specific primers. Primer pair A091-F/R gave a single product from pure fungal DNA of LP isolates but not from those of the other two types (IIIB and IV), R. solani AG 1, 2-1, 2-3, 2-tulip, 3-10 and BI isolates and other turfgrass fungal pathogens. Primer pair A091-F/R also gave a single product from diseased leaf sheaths and this product was in accordance with those of pure fungal DNA of LP isolates. Primer pair A091-F/R did not yield PCR product from healthy leaf sheaths. The frequencies of detection of LP isolates from leaf sheaths of zoysia grass using PCR with primer pair A091-F/R were higher than those of the conventional isolation technique. These results showed that the PCR-based technique using specific primers A091-F/R is useful for the rapid detection of LP isolates from leaf sheaths of zoysia grass exhibiting large-patch symptoms. PMID:15019736

Toda, Takeshi; Mushika, Tomoyuki; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2004-03-12

137

Efeito da solarização do solo, seguida pela aplicação de Trichoderma spp: ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 / Effect of soil solarization, followed or not by the application of Trichoderma spp: or fungicides for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani AG-4  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar alternativas para a desinfestação de solos, especialmente considerando a retirada do brometo de metila do mercado. Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização do solo, seguida ou não pela aplicação de isolados de Trichoderma spp. ou de fungicidas, s [...] obre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, responsáveis por tombamento e podridão de raízes em várias culturas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Piracicaba, SP (latitude 22º 42' e longitude 47º38'), um em campo aberto e outro no interior de uma casa-de-vegetação vedada, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (2x3), tendo como fatores a solarização (com e sem) e os tratamentos (com fungicida, um isolado de Trichoderma sp. e uma testemunha). Bolsas de náilon contendo solo naturalmente infestado com P. aphanidermatum ou solo contendo propágulos de R. solani AG-4 foram enterradas a 10 cm de profundidade, em parcelas solarizadas ou não, nos dois ambientes. Após 30 dias de solarização, as bolsas foram coletadas e o solo infestado com P. aphanidermatum recebeu os tratamentos: o isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-26 ou o fungicida metalaxyl + mancozeb. O solo contendo propágulos de R. solani foi tratado com o isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-17 ou o fungicida pencycuron. As soluções dos fungicidas foram aplicadas na forma de rega. Também foram mantidas testemunhas para ambos os patógenos. Avaliou-se a viabilidade de P. aphanidermatum pelo tombamento de pós-emergência de plântulas de pepino e de R. solani pelo número de plântulas de rabanete sobreviventes ao tombamento de pré e pós-emergência. A solarização, o controle biológico e a solarização seguida pelo controle biológico não promoveram o controle de P. aphanidermatum, obtido apenas com metalaxyl + mancozeb, nos solos solarizados ou não. A solarização aplicada nos dois ambientes controlou R. solani, assim como o fungicida pencycuron, mas não houve efeito sinérgico na associação entre as técnicas. A aplicação do isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-17 não proporcionou o controle desse patógeno nos solos solarizados ou não. Abstract in english The development of alternative strategies for soil desinfestation with methyl bromide is necessary since the use of this compound faces increasing restrictions worldwide. Therefore the effect of soil solarization, followed by the application of isolates of Trichoderma spp. or fungicides, was evaluat [...] ed for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani, both can cause damping-off and root rots of several crops. Two experiments were carried out, one under greenhouse conditions and the other one under field conditions, both in a randomized block design, in factorial scheme (2x3), involving the combination of soil solarization (solarized and non-solarized soils) and the application of chemical or biological treatments, plus controls. Nylon bags containing soil naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum or soil with propagules of R. solani AG-4 were buried at 10 cm soil depth in plots solarized or non-solarized. After 30 days of solarization the bags were collected and the soil infested with P. aphanidermatum was treated with Trichoderma sp. (isolate IB-26) or with the fungicide metalaxyl + mancozeb, whereas the soil containing propagules of R. solani received an isolate of Trichoderma sp. (isolate IB-17) or the fungicide pencycuron. Fungicide suspensions were irrigated over the soil. A control was maintained for the soils infested with both pathogens. Viability of P. aphanidermatum and R. solani was evaluated by post-emergence damping-off of cucumber seedlings and by pre and post-emergence damping-off of radish seedling, respectively. Soil solarization, the biological treatment and the association of both treatments had no effect on the control of P. aphanidermatum, which was achieved only by the treatment with metalaxyl + mancozeb in the solarized

Flávia Rodrigues Alves, Patrício; Hiroshi, Kimati; João, Tessarioli Neto; Ademir, Petenatti; Benedito Camargo, Barros.

2007-06-01

138

Reacción de genotipos de frijol a Fusarium spp. y Rhizoctonia solani bajo condiciones de campo e invernadero / Reaction of common bean genotypes to Fusarium spp. y Rhizoctonia solani under field and greenhose conditions  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las pudriciones de raíz inducidas por R. solani y Fusarium spp. afectan al cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en el altiplano de México. Para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a ambos hongos bajo condiciones de invernadero y campo, se realizaron dos experimentos en 2001. En campo, b [...] ajo condiciones de temporal, se sembraron 15 genotipos el 24 de julio, en suelo naturalmente infestado con hongos inductores de pudriciones de raíz, en Texcoco, Estado de México. Durante el ciclo del cultivo se determinó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad en las etapas fenológicas V3, R5, R7 y R8; además, se registraron temperatura ambiente y precipitación pluvial diaria. Los mismos genotipos se sembraron en invernadero el 27 de julio de 2001 en macetas con suelo del mismo sitio, las determinaciones realizadas en ambos ensayos fueron similares. Se tomaron muestras de tejido vegetal para el aislamiento e identificación de los hongos causantes de pudriciones de raíz; ambos, R. solani y Fusarium spp. se recuperaron. En campo, se observaron pudriciones de raíz durante todo el ciclo, con la mayor severidad en las etapas R5 y R7, sin que se observaran genotipos inmunes. Negro Tacaná mostró resistencia intermedia a Fusarium spp. y G 12729 (genotipo silvestre) fue resistente en las primeras etapas fenológicas. En invernadero, ningún genotipo mostró un patrón de resistencia durante el ciclo. En campo, el ataque de R. solani fue menos severo que el de Fusarium spp., mientras que en invernadero el ataque de R. solani fue más alto. En campo, los genotipos Pinto Villa, Wisc RRR, PI 203958 y BAT 477 mostraron resistencia intermedia y fueron consistentes en su respuesta a ambos hongos, pero en invernadero mostraron susceptibilidad. La incidencia y la severidad de los patógenos mostraron diferencias relacionadas con las condiciones climáticas registradas durante el ciclo del cultivo. Abstract in english The root rot induced damage caused by R. solani and Fusarium spp. affects common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production at the highlands of Mexico. To identify bean genotypes resistant to both fungi, two experiments were conductedunderfieldand greenhouse conditions. In the field, under rainfed cond [...] itions, 15 bean genotypes were planted on July 24 2001, at Texcoco, state of Mexico. Incidence and attack severity were determined at the phenological stages V3, R5, R7 and R8; also, daily temperature and precipitation were recorded. The same genotypes were planted under greenhouse conditions on July 27th, 2001 in pots with soil from the same site. Plant samples were collected from all genotypes for isolation and identification of fungi causing root rots. Both,R. solani and Fusarium spp. were recovered. Under field conditions, root rots were observed throughout the cycle, with the greatest severity at the R5 and R7 stages, no immune genotypes were observed. Cultivar Negro Tacana showed intermediate resistance to Fusarium spp. and G 12729 (a wild genotype) was resistant during the early phenological stages. Under greenhouse conditions, any genotype showed a consistent resistance pattern during the cycle. Atthe field, the attack by R. solani was less severe than that of Fusarium spp., whereas in the greenhouse the attack R. solani was severe. Atthe field, cultivars Pinto Villa, Wisc RRR, PI 203,958 and BAT 477 were intermediate and consistent in its response to both fungi; however, were susceptible in the greenhouse. The disease incidence and severity on the genotypes showed differences related to climatic conditions registered during the growth cycle.

Rosa, Navarrete-Maya; Evangelina, Trejo-Albarrán; Jorge, Navarrete-Maya; José Manuel, Prudencio-Sains; Jorge Alberto, Acosta Gallegos.

2009-12-01

139

Evaluación del método de conservación en papel de filtro en dos cepas de Bacillus subtilis Cohn mediante la actividad antagónica frente a Rhizoctonia solani Kühn / Evaluation of Filter Paper Disks Preserving Method in Two Bacillus subtilis Cohn. Strains by Antagonistic Activity on Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la actividad antagónica de dos cepas de Bacillus subtilis conservadas en discos de papel de filtro a 4°C por un período de tres años. Se escogieron las cepas del género B. subtilis: Bs-21 y Bs-42, aisladas del suelo, autóctonas de Cuba, y antagónicas de la cepa Rs-10 de Rhizoctonia solani. [...] Se determinó la viabilidad, pureza y actividad antagónica de cinco colonias de Bs-42 y una de Bs-21, escogidas al azar y cultivadas en agar nutriente. Las colonias seleccionadas se evaluaron por el método de enfrentamiento dual en papa dextrosa agar, después de 96 h de incubación a 30°C. Ambas cepas presentaron una viabilidad de 108 UFC/mL. Los cultivos mantuvieron la pureza, las características morfológicas y respuesta positiva a la tinción de Gram, comparadas con la cepa de B. subtilis ATCC 6633. Todas las colonias seleccionadas inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de la cepa Rs-10 de R. solani, no así la de referencia. El análisis de varianza realizado mostró diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de inhibición de las colonias ensayadas. La cepa Bs-21 resultó ser la de menor inhibición con el 78%, y Bs-421 y Bs-422 las de mayor porcentaje con el 98%. Abstract in english Antagonistic activity of two Bacillus subtilis strains preserved in filter paper disks at 4°C for a period of three years was evaluated. Strains Bs-21 and Bs-42, isolated from Cuban soil and antagonists to Rhizoctonia solani Rs-10 were choiced. Five colonies from Bs-42 and one from Bs-21, randomly s [...] elected were growth in nutrient agar. The antagonism was compared by dual culture method in PDA after 96 h at 30°C. Viability of both strains was 108 CFU/mL. Selected colonies kept purity, morphological characteristics and positive response to Gram stain compared with B. subtilis ATCC 6633. All selected colonies inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani Rs-10, but not the reference strain. Strain Bs-21 had the lower inhibition (78%) while Bs-421 and Bs-422 had the higher percent (98%). Variance analysis showed significant differences in the percentage of inhibition exhibited by tested colonies.

Acenet I, Sosa López; Victoria, Pazos Álvarez-Rivera; Giovanni, Borges Marín; Marleny, González García; Enrique, Ponce Grijuela.

2011-03-01

140

Influence of Weather and Soil Parameters on Development of Wet Root Rot in Pulse Crops and Virulence Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Isolates  

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Full Text Available Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn in pulse crops was favored by wide range of soil parameters like temperature, humidity, pH, electric conductivity and soil texture. The areas surveyed for the collection of the isolates showing variable atmospheric temperature and relative humidity and low to medium levels of soil organic carbon and high level of available phosphorus influenced the development of the disease incidence from 2-48%. Seventy three cultivars of mungbean, twenty eight cultivars of urdbean and eight cultivars of cowpea were evaluated against virulent isolate of R. solani (RASC 30 to design a set of differential cultivars for virulence analysis. Two cultivars of urdbean, namely, NDU3-4 and IPU2-14, one cultivar of mungbean, namely, HUM 1 and three cultivars of cowpea, namely, V240, V585 and DCP7 showed resistant reactions. Four cultivars of urdbean, namely, TU94-2, KU323, KUG216 and B3-8-8, one cultivar of mungbean, namely, PDM54 and two cultivars of cowpea, namely, V578 and DCP13 were moderately resistant against the pathogen. The virulence analysis of 90 isolates of the pathogen representing 7 anastomosis groups (AGs isolated from pulse crops of 16 agro-ecological regions of India on a set of differential cultivars, namely, HUM 1, PDM 54 and Pusa Vishal of mungbean, NDU 3-4, KU 323, Uttara of urdbean and V 240, V 578 and Pusa Sukomal of cowpea grouped the isolates into five pathotypes. The differential cultivar for each pathotype was identified. The pathotypes were not corresponding to the AG type of the isolates. Except one pathotype (isolate RMPG28 belonging to AG2-3, each pathotype had the isolates from different AGs.

S. C. Dubey

2012-10-01

141

Polymorphism of genes coding for nuclear 18S rRNA indicates genetic distinctiveness of anastomosis group 10 from other groups in the Rhizoctonia solani species complex.  

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DNA polymorphism in the 18S nuclear rRNA gene region was investigated by using 11 restriction endonucleases for 161 isolates of 25 intraspecific groups (ISGs) representing 11 reported anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani. A PCR-based restriction mapping method in which enzymatically amplified DNA fragments and subfragments were digested with one or two restriction enzymes was employed. Four types of DNA restriction maps of this region were constructed for these 25 ISGs. Map type I of the 18S rDNA region was represented by isolates of a majority of R. solani ISGs. Map types II and III, represented by ISG 2E and 9 isolates and 5C isolates, respectively, differed from map I by the absence of one (map type II) or two (map type III) restriction sites. Map type IV, represented by ISG 10A and B (or AG 10) isolates, showed significant restriction site variations, with five enzymes in this region compared with those of the remaining ISGs or AGs. Ten of the 25 restriction sites in the 18S rRNA gene region were informative and selected for analysis. Previously reported restriction maps of the 5.8S rRNA gene region, including the internal transcribed spacers, were aligned with each other, and 12 informative restriction sites were identified. These data were used alone and in combination to evaluate group relationships. Analyses derived from these data sets by maximum parsimony and likelihood methods showed that AG 10 isolates were distinct and distantly related to the majority isolates of the other AGs of this species complex. PMID:7618879

Liu, Z L; Domier, L L; Sinclair, J B

1995-07-01

142

High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on many crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG1-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin and rice cultivar's sensitivity to the toxin correlates with disease susceptibility. Unlike genetic analyses of sheath blight resistance where resistance loci have been reported as quantitative trait loci, phytotoxin sensitivity is inherited as a Mendelian trait that permits high-resolution mapping of the sensitivity genes. An F(2) mapping population derived from parent cultivars 'Cypress' (toxin sensitive) and 'Jasmine 85' (toxin insensitive) was used to map Rsn1, the necrosis-inducing locus. Initial mapping based on 176 F(2) progeny and 69 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers located Rsn1 on the long arm of chromosome 7, with tight linkage to SSR marker RM418. A high-resolution genetic map of the region was subsequently developed using a total of 1,043 F(2) progeny, and Rsn1 was mapped to a 0.7 cM interval flanked by markers NM590 and RM418. Analysis of the corresponding 29 Kb genomic sequences from reference cultivars 'Nipponbare' and '93-11' revealed the presence of four putative genes within the interval. Two are expressed cytokinin-O-glucosyltransferases, which fit an apoptotic pathway model of toxin activity, and are individually being investigated further as potential candidates for Rsn1. PMID:21424397

Costanzo, Stefano; Jackson, Aaron K; Brooks, Steven A

2011-06-01

143

Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50?µL on Petri dish of 8.5?cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5?µL/20?mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses. PMID:22840199

Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

2013-01-01

144

Interaction of Collimonas strain IS343 with Rhizoctonia solani at low carbon availability in vitro and in soil (online first)  

OpenAIRE

Collimonas sp. IS343, isolated from an organically-farmed arable soil and characterized as a broad-range oligotrophic bacterium, was shown to degrade chitin and to suppress R. solani mycelium growth under in vitro conditions at high and low carbon availabilities. In contrast to C. fungivorans Ter331, strain IS343 did not respond with an increase in growth rate to higher carbon levels in liquid medium, it reached higher cell numbers in carbon-poor media and it showed better survival in bulk so...

Senechkin, I. V.; Overbeek, L. S.; Er, H. L.; Vos, O. J.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2013-01-01

145

Management of the Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica. Treub and Sore Shin (Rhizoctonia Solani. Kuhn Using A Nematicide and Poor Host Crops in Rotations  

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Full Text Available In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10, root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8, grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10, grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8, KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr, on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide used was ethylene dibromide (EDB and was applied to each tobacco crop, as is standard practice. Chloris gayana cv. ‘Rhodes Katambora’, presumably a poor host of nematodes, was the grass used in all the grass-grass-grass-Tobacco rotations. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. ContKM10, KM10-Cr, G-G-G-RK8, ContiRK8 and RK8-Cr reduced root knot galling while G-G-G-KM10 increased galling. Sore shin increased with every year of rotation regardless of rotation, except in the case of G-G-G-KM10 and G-G-G-RK8 which reduced infection relative to other rotations. With the exception of G-G-G-RK8, all rotations that included RK8 suppressed root knot infection but did not suppress sore shin infection. The rotations including KM10 suppressed nematodes only with EDB treatment yearly and did not suppress sore shin except the rotation G-G-G-KM10. The role of Crotolaria juncea was masked by either RK8 or EDB. Host plant resistance in the form of RK8 was effective in controlling nematodes but did not reduce sore shin except mildly when rotated with the grass. This work recommends the use of resistant cultivars with broad-spectrum resistances.

U. Mazarura

2012-12-01

146

Detection of trypsin inhibitor in seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla and its influence on the in vitro growth of the fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizoctonia solani / Descoberta de inibidor de tripsina em sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla e sua influência sobre o crescimento in vitro dos fungos Pisolithus tinctorius e Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os inibidores de proteases de plantas podem regular a hidrólise de proteínas no interior celular e também participar de seus mecanismos de defesa contra insetos herbívoros e patógenos. No presente trabalho, nós demonstramos que sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentam atividades de inibidores de [...] tripsina e papaína, duas proteases comumente encontradas em seres vivos. Pequenas quantidades de proteínas do extrato protéico bruto de sementes e de frações parcialmente purificadas por filtração em gel, com atividade inibitória de tripsina, inibiram o crescimento micelial in vitro de um isolado compatível do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus tinctorius e permitiram um crescimento insatisfatório de outro isolado de Pinus taeda, considerado compatível para esta espécie de eucalipto. As mesmas concentrações de proteínas, quando testadas in vitro sobre o patógeno Rhizoctonia solani, não demonstraram qualquer efeito sobre seu crescimento. Estes resultados indicam a existência de inibidores de proteases em sementes de E. urophylla, os quais poderiam influenciar o complexo sistema bioquímico que diferencia mecanismos de simbiose e patogenicidade entre plantas e microrganismos. Abstract in english Inhibitors of plant proteases can regulate the hydrolysis of proteins inside the cells and also participate in the mechanisms of plant defense against herbivore insects and pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla exhibit activities of trypsin and papain inhibitors, two pr [...] oteases commonly found in living cells. Low amounts of proteins of the crude protein extract of seeds and fractions partially purified by gel filtration, with inhibitory activity against trypsin, inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of a compatible isolate of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and allowed an unsatisfactory growth of another isolate from Pinus taeda, considered incompatible for this eucalyptus species. The same amounts of inhibitory proteins, when tested in vitro on the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, did not exhibit any effect on the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the existence of proteases inhibitors in seeds of E. urophylla which could influence the complex biochemical system that differentiates mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenicity between plants and microorganisms.

Célia Regina, Tremacoldi; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

2002-12-01

147

Identificación y caracterización de seis aislados pertenecientes al género Bacillus promisorios para el control de Rhizoctonia solani Künh y Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. / Identification and Characterization of Six Isolates from Genera Bacillus with Antagonistic Capacity against Rhizoctonia solani Künh and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad la identificación de los microorganismos se realiza por varios métodos. Existen métodos clásicos que utilizan como criterios de diferenciación los caracteres fenotípicos morfológicos y fisiológicos. Los kits miniaturizados, como los API 50CHB para Bacillusayudan a caracterizar la fi [...] siología de las bacterias pertenecientes a este grupo, de manera fácil y rápida; además, resultan muy útiles para la identificación hasta el nivel de especie por su elevada precisión. La observación de la morfología y esporulación, la respuesta a la tinción de Gram y algunas pruebas bioquímicas permiten, en el caso de Bacillus spp., ubicarlos dentro de su género. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar morfológica, bioquímica y fisiológicamente seis aislados de suelo y rizosfera pertenecientes al género Bacillus con capacidad antagónica frente a Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii (Sr.), con la utilización del API 50 CHB.Tres de los aislados resultaron pertenecer a la especie de Bacillus subtilisy otro a B. megateriumcon más del 95% de confiabilidad, además un aislado de B. licheniformis y otro de B. circulans, ambos con el 82,7%. Abstract in english Microorganism identification is realized by several methods, currently. Classical methods utilize phenotypic, morphologic and physiological characters as differentiation criteria. Commercial miniaturized kits as API 50CHB for Bacillus, helps to characterize physiology of this kind of bacteria in an [...] easy and fast way; furthermore they are useful for identification until species level due to their high precision. Observation of morphology and sporulation, the answer to Gram tinction and some biochemical tests permit, in the case of Bacillus spp., put them within they genera. The objective of this investigation was to characterize morphologic, biochemical and physiologically six isolated of genera Bacillusfrom soil and rhizosphere with antagonistic capability in front of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii(Sr.), with the utilization of the API 50 CHB. Three of the isolated proved to belong to species Bacillus subtilis and another one to B. megaterium with over than 95% of reliability, also one isolated of B. licheniformis and another one of B. circulans, both with 82.7%.

Acenet I., Sosa López; Victoria, Pazos Álvarez-Rivera; Dania, Torres Campos; Luis, Casadesús Romero.

2011-03-01

148

Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.  

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Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

Zbigniew J. Burgie?

2005-12-01

149

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani, sob condições de casa de vegetação of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of Rhizoctonia solani seedling damping-off under greenhouse conditions  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com os fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani AG-4 foi feita utilizando-se 5g do inóculo do fungo/bandeja, distribuídos de forma homogênea na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm. Foi observado efeito significativo do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência do algodoeiro, com os melhores resultados sendo obtidos pelos tratamentos tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol e azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, seguidos de carboxin+thiram, PCNB e pencycuron. O fungicida menos eficiente foi o carbendazim+thiram. Melhores resultados com relação às variáveis estudadas foram obtidos com a utilização de misturas de fungicidas em comparação ao uso isolado de um determinado produto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação ao índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e peso fresco das plântulas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of R. solani seedling damping-off. This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, in Dourados city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Treated and untreated seeds of the cultivar DeltaOpal were sowed in sand contained in plastic trays, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3cm deep. Into each plastic tray were put 5g of the pathogen inoculum. The inoculation of R. solani AG-4 was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1mm. The evaluations were done based on symptoms development and seedling survival. The significant effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as in the control of pre and post-emergence damping-off was observed. The best results were obtained with tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol and azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, followed by carboxin+thiram, PCNB and pencycuron. The least efficient fungicide was carbendazim+thiram. Seed treatment with fungicide combinations provided better results than the use of the single ones. No significant effect was observed in relation to speed of emergence index, seedling height and seedling fresh weight.

Augusto César Pereira Goulart

2008-10-01

150

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani, sob condições de casa de vegetação / of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of Rhizoctonia solani seedling damping-off under greenhouse conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. Sementes não trat [...] adas e tratadas com os fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani AG-4 foi feita utilizando-se 5g do inóculo do fungo/bandeja, distribuídos de forma homogênea na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm). Foi observado efeito significativo do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência do algodoeiro, com os melhores resultados sendo obtidos pelos tratamentos tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol e azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, seguidos de carboxin+thiram, PCNB e pencycuron. O fungicida menos eficiente foi o carbendazim+thiram. Melhores resultados com relação às variáveis estudadas foram obtidos com a utilização de misturas de fungicidas em comparação ao uso isolado de um determinado produto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação ao índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e peso fresco das plântulas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of R. solani seedling damping-off. This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, in Dourados city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Treated an [...] d untreated seeds of the cultivar DeltaOpal were sowed in sand contained in plastic trays, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3cm deep. Into each plastic tray were put 5g of the pathogen inoculum. The inoculation of R. solani AG-4 was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1mm). The evaluations were done based on symptoms development and seedling survival. The significant effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as in the control of pre and post-emergence damping-off was observed. The best results were obtained with tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol and azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, followed by carboxin+thiram, PCNB and pencycuron. The least efficient fungicide was carbendazim+thiram. Seed treatment with fungicide combinations provided better results than the use of the single ones. No significant effect was observed in relation to speed of emergence index, seedling height and seedling fresh weight.

Augusto César Pereira, Goulart.

2008-10-01

151

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controledo tombamento em relação à densidade de inóculo de Rhizoctonia solani Effect of cotton seed treatments with fungicides to control damping-off in relation to inoculum densities of Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn é considerado o principal agente causal do tombamento de plântulas do algodoeiro no Brasil. A maneira mais eficiente e econômica de controlar essa doença é através do tratamento das sementes com fungicidas. A performance dos fungicidas depende, dentre outros fatores, da população desse fungo no solo. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, com o objetivo de determinar o efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, no controle do tombamento, em relação a diferentes densidades de inóculo de R. solani no solo. Sementes da cultivar DeltaOpal, tratadas e não tratadas com diferentes fungicidas, foram semeadas a 3 cm de profundidade em areia contida em bandejas plásticas. As sementes foram dispostas em orifícios individuais e eqüidistantes. A inoculação com o fungo foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm. Quatro densidades de inóculo foram testadas: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10 cm. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência. O tratamento das sementes com a mistura de fungicidas proporcionou os melhores resultados no controle do tombamento em comparação ao seu uso isolado. A interação fungicidas x densidade de inóculo foi significativa, indicando que a eficiência dos fungicidas foi influenciada pela densidade de inóculo do fungo. A performance dos fungicidas testados foi melhor na presença dos níveis mais baixos de inóculo do fungo (1,0 g e 2,0 g/bandeja. A eficiência dos fungicidas testados foi menor para as populações de 3,0g e 4,0g do patógeno, sendo que a maioria dos tratamentos fungicidas apresentou perda significativa de eficiência na presença desses níveis de R. solani. Os fungicidas usados neste estudo não apresentaram efeitos fitotóxicos às plântulas de algodoeiro.The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is considered the most important cause of cotton damping-off in Brazil. Treatment of seeds with fungicides is the most efficient and economical procedure to control this disease. The performance of fungicides depends, among many other factors, of the pathogen population in the soil. This work was carried out, under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, MS, with the goal to determine the effect of treatment of cotton seeds with fungicides to control damping-off at different inoculum densities of R. solani in the soil. Seeds of cultivar DeltaOpal treated or not with different fungicides were sowed 3 cm deep in sand contained in plastic flats. Seeds were placed in individual and equidistant wells. Inoculum of the fungus was homogeneously distributed in the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill until reach the size of 1mm. Four inoculum densities were tested: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/plastic flat with dimensions of 56x35x10 cm. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as, in the control of post and pre-emergence damping-off was observed. Treatment of seed with a combinations of fungicides gave the best results in controlling damping-off as compared to the use of each fungicide alone. The interaction fungicides x inoculum densities, was significant indicating that the efficiency of the fungicides was somehow affected by the fungus densities. Fungicides had the best performance at low inoculum densities (1g and 2g/flat. As for fungi populations of 3g and 4g/flat, the efficiency of all fungicides tested decreased sharply, with a reduced control of the disease. The fungicides used in this study did not have any phytotoxic effect on cotton seedlings.

Augusto César Pereira Goulart

2006-09-01

152

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controledo tombamento em relação à densidade de inóculo de Rhizoctonia solani / Effect of cotton seed treatments with fungicides to control damping-off in relation to inoculum densities of Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn é considerado o principal agente causal do tombamento de plântulas do algodoeiro no Brasil. A maneira mais eficiente e econômica de controlar essa doença é através do tratamento das sementes com fungicidas. A performance dos fungicidas depende, dentre outros fatores, [...] da população desse fungo no solo. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, com o objetivo de determinar o efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, no controle do tombamento, em relação a diferentes densidades de inóculo de R. solani no solo. Sementes da cultivar DeltaOpal, tratadas e não tratadas com diferentes fungicidas, foram semeadas a 3 cm de profundidade em areia contida em bandejas plásticas. As sementes foram dispostas em orifícios individuais e eqüidistantes. A inoculação com o fungo foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Quatro densidades de inóculo foram testadas: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10 cm. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência. O tratamento das sementes com a mistura de fungicidas proporcionou os melhores resultados no controle do tombamento em comparação ao seu uso isolado. A interação fungicidas x densidade de inóculo foi significativa, indicando que a eficiência dos fungicidas foi influenciada pela densidade de inóculo do fungo. A performance dos fungicidas testados foi melhor na presença dos níveis mais baixos de inóculo do fungo (1,0 g e 2,0 g/bandeja). A eficiência dos fungicidas testados foi menor para as populações de 3,0g e 4,0g do patógeno, sendo que a maioria dos tratamentos fungicidas apresentou perda significativa de eficiência na presença desses níveis de R. solani. Os fungicidas usados neste estudo não apresentaram efeitos fitotóxicos às plântulas de algodoeiro. Abstract in english The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is considered the most important cause of cotton damping-off in Brazil. Treatment of seeds with fungicides is the most efficient and economical procedure to control this disease. The performance of fungicides depends, among many other factors, of the pathogen popul [...] ation in the soil. This work was carried out, under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, MS, with the goal to determine the effect of treatment of cotton seeds with fungicides to control damping-off at different inoculum densities of R. solani in the soil. Seeds of cultivar DeltaOpal treated or not with different fungicides were sowed 3 cm deep in sand contained in plastic flats. Seeds were placed in individual and equidistant wells. Inoculum of the fungus was homogeneously distributed in the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill until reach the size of 1mm. Four inoculum densities were tested: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/plastic flat with dimensions of 56x35x10 cm. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as, in the control of post and pre-emergence damping-off was observed. Treatment of seed with a combinations of fungicides gave the best results in controlling damping-off as compared to the use of each fungicide alone. The interaction fungicides x inoculum densities, was significant indicating that the efficiency of the fungicides was somehow affected by the fungus densities. Fungicides had the best performance at low inoculum densities (1g and 2g/flat). As for fungi populations of 3g and 4g/flat, the efficiency of all fungicides tested decreased sharply, with a reduced control of the disease. The fungicides used in this study did not have any phytotoxic effect on cotton seedlings.

Augusto César Pereira, Goulart.

2006-09-01

153

A double-stranded RNA element from a hypovirulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani occurs in DNA form and is genetically related to the pentafunctional AROM protein of the shikimate pathway  

OpenAIRE

M2 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) element occurring in the hypovirulent isolate Rhs 1A1 of the plant pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani. Rhs 1A1 originated as a sector of the virulent field isolate Rhs 1AP, which contains no detectable amount of the M2 dsRNA. The complete sequence (3,570 bp) of the M2 dsRNA has been determined. A 6.9-kbp segment of total DNA from either Rhs 1A1 or Rhs 1AP hybridizes with an M2-specific cDNA probe. The sequences of M2 dsRNA and of PCR products gener...

Lakshman, Dilip K.; Jian, Jianhua; Tavantzis, Stellos M.

1998-01-01

154

Evaluación de aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. contra Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii bajo condiciones in vitro y de invernadero  

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Full Text Available

Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de ocho aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. provenientes de suelos de Colombia para el control de los agentes causales de volcamiento, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani, bajo condiciones in vitro y de invernadero. Los análisis in vitro mostraron la capacidad antagónica de todos los aislamientos evaluados. En condiciones de invernadero, cuatro aislamientos fueron altamente eficaces contra S. rolfsii en plantas de fríjol en semillero (>90% de reducción de la enfermedad y dos aislamientos fueron eficaces contra R. solani en plantas de algodón en semillero (58 y 61% de reducción de la enfermedad. El análisis UP-PCR y DS-PCR permitió determinar tres grupos de aislamientos; dentro de estas asociaciones formadas no se encontró ninguna relación evidente entre la posición en el dendrograma y la actividad antagónica, pero sí permitió separar las especies de Trichoderma por grupos, e incluso encontrar diferencias dentro de aislamientos de una misma especie. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento micoparasítico de los aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. varía según el hongo fitopatógeno, evidenciando una amplia especificidad del antagonista por su sustrato, es decir por el hongo atacado; por lo tanto es necesario realizar cuidadosas selecciones del aislamiento de Trichoderma que se utilice en programas de control de fitopatógenos.

Hoyos-Carvajal Liliana

2008-12-01

155

Strain-specific SCAR markers for the detection of Trichoderma harzianum AS12-2, a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment. PMID:21388921

Naeimi, S; Kocsubé, S; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Vágvölgyi, C; Kredics, L

2011-03-01

156

A double-stranded RNA element from a hypovirulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani occurs in DNA form and is genetically related to the pentafunctional AROM protein of the shikimate pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

M2 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) element occurring in the hypovirulent isolate Rhs 1A1 of the plant pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani. Rhs 1A1 originated as a sector of the virulent field isolate Rhs 1AP, which contains no detectable amount of the M2 dsRNA. The complete sequence (3,570 bp) of the M2 dsRNA has been determined. A 6.9-kbp segment of total DNA from either Rhs 1A1 or Rhs 1AP hybridizes with an M2-specific cDNA probe. The sequences of M2 dsRNA and of PCR products generated from Rhs 1A1 total DNA were found to be identical. Thus this report describes a fungal host containing full-length DNA copies of a dsRNA element. A major portion of the M2 dsRNA is located in the cytoplasm, whereas a smaller amount is found in mitochondria. Based on either the universal or the mitochondrial genetic code of filamentous fungi, one strand of M2 encodes a putative protein of 754 amino acids. The resulting polypeptide has all four motifs of a dsRNA viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) and is phylogenetically related to the RDRP of a mitochondrial dsRNA associated with hypovirulence in strain NB631 of Cryphonectria parasitica, incitant of chestnut blight. This polypeptide also has significant sequence similarity with two domains of a pentafunctional polypeptide, which catalyzes the five central steps of the shikimate pathway in yeast and filamentous fungi. PMID:9600982

Lakshman, D K; Jian, J; Tavantzis, S M

1998-05-26

157

Interactions between cauliflower and Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups with different levels of aggressiveness  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia is one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi, with a wide host range and worldwide distribution. In cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), several anastomosis groups (AGs) including both multinucleate R. solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia species have been identified showing different levels of aggressiveness. The infection and colonization process of Rhizocton...

Höfte Monica; Pannecoucque Joke

2009-01-01

158

Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

159

Rhizoctonia damping off stem canker and root rot  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

160

Análise de proteínas e isoenzimas de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. patogênicos a Eucalyptus / Protein and isozyme analysis of isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. pathogenic to Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se caracterizar isolados de Rhizoctonia solani AG1 e AG4 e isolados binucleados de Rhizoctonia spp. patogênicos a Eucalyptus, por meio de eletroforese de proteínas, em gel de poliacrilamida, e de isoenzimas (ACP, 6-PGDH, LAP, SOD, MDH e IDH), em gel de amido. Para comparação, incluíram-se [...] alguns isolados brasileiros de outros hospedeiros e isolados-padrões de R. solani AG1, procedentes do Japão. Observaram-se diferenças nos padrões gerais de proteínas e nos fenótipos isoenzimáticos entre isolados binucleados e multinucleados e entre isolados de diferentes grupos e subgrupos de anastomose. Isolados de R. solani AG1, procedentes do Brasil e Japão, apresentaram baixa similaridade nos padrões de proteínas e de isoenzimas. Isolados brasileiros morfologicamente semelhantes a R. solani AG1-IB (microesclerodiais) apresentaram padrões de proteínas similares e um maior número de fenótipos isoenzimáticos idênticos entre si. Esta tendência foi independente do hospedeiro e da origem geográfica. Variações nos padrões de proteínas e de isoenzimas foram também observadas dentre isolados brasileiros de R. solani AG4. Discute-se o uso da eletroforese de proteínas e isoenzimas na caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. e em estudos genéticos e filogenéticos de fungos deste gênero. Abstract in english Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis groups AG1 and AG4) and binucleate isolates of other unidentified species, all pathogenic to Eucalyptus in Brazil, were characterized by protein and isozyme (ACP, 6-PGDH, LAP, SOD, MDH e IDH) analysis. Japanese strains of R. solani AG1 and other Brazilian [...] isolates from others hosts were also included for comparison. Differences in protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes were observed between binucleate and multinucleate isolates, and among isolates of different anastomosis groups and subgroups. The protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes of Japanese isolates of R. solani AG1 differed from those of Brazilian isolates of the same anastomosis groups and the same morphological subgroups. Some Brazilian isolates morphologically similar to R. solani AG1-IB presented high similarity in protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes. This similarity was independent of the host plant and geographical origin. Polymorphisms in protein and isozyme patterns were also observed within the Brazilian R. solani AG4 group. We discuss the usefulness of protein and isozyme analyses for characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. isolates and for genetic and phylogenetic studies of fungi of this genus.

SILVALDO F., SILVEIRA; ACELINO C., ALFENAS.

2002-02-01

161

Interactions between cauliflower and Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups with different levels of aggressiveness  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia is one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi, with a wide host range and worldwide distribution. In cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, several anastomosis groups (AGs including both multinucleate R. solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia species have been identified showing different levels of aggressiveness. The infection and colonization process of Rhizoctonia during pathogenic interactions is well described. In contrast, insights into processes during interactions with weak aggressive or non-pathogenic isolates are limited. In this study the interaction of cauliflower with seven R. solani AGs and one binucleate Rhizoctonia AG differing in aggressiveness, was compared. Using microscopic and histopathological techniques, the early steps of the infection process, the colonization process and several host responses were studied. Results For aggressive Rhizoctonia AGs (R. solani AG 1-1B, AG 1-1C, AG 2-1, AG 2-2 IIIb and AG 4 HGII, a higher developmental rate was detected for several steps of the infection process, including directed growth along anticlinal cell walls and formation of T-shaped branches, infection cushion formation and stomatal penetration. Weak or non-aggressive AGs (R. solani AG 5, AG 3 and binucleate Rhizoctonia AG K required more time, notwithstanding all AGs were able to penetrate cauliflower hypocotyls. Histopathological observations indicated that Rhizoctonia AGs provoked differential host responses and pectin degradation. We demonstrated the pronounced deposition of phenolic compounds and callose against weak and non-aggressive AGs which resulted in a delay or complete block of the host colonization. Degradation of pectic compounds was observed for all pathogenic AGs, except for AG 2-2 IIIb. Ranking the AGs based on infection rate, level of induced host responses and pectin degradation revealed a strong correlation with the disease severity caused by the AGs. Conclusion The differences in aggressiveness towards cauliflower observed among Rhizoctonia AGs correlated with the infection rate, induction of host defence responses and pectin breakdown. All Rhizoctonia AGs studied penetrated the plant tissue, indicating all constitutive barriers of cauliflower were defeated and differences in aggressiveness were caused by inducible defence responses, including cell wall fortifications with phenolic compounds and callose.

Höfte Monica

2009-07-01

162

DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia, Waitea and Ceratobasidium isolates to their infra-species level. PMID:23709576

Amaradasa, B S; Horvath, B J; Lakshman, D K; Warnke, S E

2013-01-01

163

Método fácil y confiable para teñir núcleos en hongos del complejo Rhizoctonia / Easy and reliable method for nuclei staining of Rhizoctonia complex fungi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el complejo Rhizoctonia la morfología hifal y configuración del septo permiten diferenciar los géneros, mientras que las especies pueden ser distinguidas por la condición nuclear y el grosor de hifas “guías” ó la morfometría del teleomorfo. Para caracterizar las especies en uni, bi y multinuclead [...] as se han desarrollado varios métodos de tinción nuclear con acridina naranja, azules de anilina y tripano, diamina fenil indol (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxilina, orceina y safranina O. Algunos de esos procedimientos son rápidos, pero otros requieren técnicas especiales (fluorescencia) o consumen mucho tiempo y limitan la cantidad de muestras a procesar. Un nuevo método fue desarrollado durante análisis de anastomosis (AGs) en aislamientos de R. solani que atacan la papa cultivada en Mérida, Venezuela. El procedimiento es rápido, fácil, confiable y permite la manipulación simultánea de un número considerable de especimenes, y tanto el núcleo como el nucléolo conservan su integridad. El método fue probado exitosamente en 10 patrones de AGs de R. solani, y permitió separar 173 cepas multinucleadas y 3 binucleadas, todas del género Rhizoctonia. El método fue efectivo utilizando sustrato de agua-agar 2,4 % más PDA 0,39 %, en cultivos de 18 a 48 h fijado con formaldehído 4 % y coloreado con fucsina ácida 0,025 en ácido láctico 50 %. Abstract in english Hyphal morphology and septal structure configuration of the fungi included in Rhizoctonia complex allows for differentiation of genus, while species may be distinguished by nuclear condition and thickness of the runner hyphae, or teleomorph morphometry. For characterization of species in uni, bi, an [...] d multinucleate diverse methods of staining have been developed using acridine orange, aniline and trypan blue, diamine phenyl indole (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxiline, orcein and saphranin O. Some of these procedures are quick to perform, while others require special techniques (fluorescence) or are time consuming, which impose a limit on the number of samples that can be processed at a time. A new method of nuclei staining was developed during the analysis of anastomosis groups (AGs) of R. solani strains isolated from potato plants cultivated in Mérida, Venezuela. The procedure is quick, easy, and reliable, and allows for simultaneous manipulation of a significant number of samples, and both nucleus and nucleolus maintain their integrity. The method was successfully assayed in 10 different AGs testers of R. solani, and allowed separation of 173 multinucleate and 3 binucleate Rhizoctonia strains. Method effectiveness depends upon growth medium (water agar 2.4 % plus PDA 0.39 %), culture age (18-48 h), fixing agent (formaldehyde 4 %), and stain (fuchsin acid 0.025 % in lactic acid 50 %).

Luis, Cedeño.

2008-12-01

164

Fusarium solani breast abscess  

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Full Text Available An unusual manifestation of breast fusariosis was encountered in a 55-year-old female diabetic patient. Two fine needle aspirates (FNA from the abscess were done at three days interval and they showed hyaline, septate, branched, fungal hypahe in 10% potassium hydroxide mount. Fungal infection was confirmed by demonstrating the fungal hyphae in the midst of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in Leishman stained smears. Culture of both FNAs yielded a heavy and pure growth of Fusarium solani . The patient responded to oral ketoconazole 200 mg once daily for 3 weeks. The breast fusariosis reported here is presumably the first case in India.

Anandi V

2005-01-01

165

Overwintering of Rice Sclerotial Disease Fungi, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium spp. in Paddy Fields in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Rice sclerotial diseases are caused by sclerotium-forming fungi including Rhizoctonia fumigata, R. oryzae-sativae, R. oryzae, R. solani AG-2-2 (IIIB) and Sclerotium hydrophilum. In the early March pretransplanting season of rice plants in 3 paddy fields (area: 6 to 8 a), rice stubble and surface soil containing plant debris and sclerotia were collected at ca. 5 m intervals from each field, followed by fungal isolation in order to examine the survival rates ...

Inagaki Kimiharu; Guo Qingyuan; Arakawa Masao

2004-01-01

166

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli AND Rhizoctonia solani ON THE SEVERITY OF DRY BEAN ROOT ROT INTERAÇÕES ENTRE Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli E Rhizoctonia solani NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR DO FEIJOEIRO  

OpenAIRE

181

Variation in microbial responses and Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB growth in soil under different organic amendment regimes  

OpenAIRE

Organic amendments influence chemical and microbial compositions in soils and also susceptibility to plant diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish different parameters that interfere with pathogen growth in soil. Four different organic-amendment regimes, i.e. slurry, compost, slurry-dung and compost-slurry-dung, were applied to two fields proximate to each other on the same farm and covered with the same grass-clover ley in the last two years preceding sampling. Before that perio...

Overbeek, L. S.; Senechkin, I.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2012-01-01

182

Ribosome Inactivating Protein of barley enhanced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic potato cultivar 'Desirée' in greenhouse conditions  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, the potato cultivar 'Desirée' was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing the plasmid pBIN19 which harbors the Ribosome Inactivating Protein (rip30). The potato leaf discs were used as an explant for transformation. The in vitro regeneration parameters (percentage of callus regenerated, number of shoots per callus, percentage of regenerated roots and percentage of the transgenic plants) were evaluated. The PCR technique was used for identific...

M Hamdi, M.; Chikh-rouhou, H.; Boughalleb, N.; Ruiz Galarreta, Ji

2013-01-01

183

FIRST REPORT OF DAMPING-OFF OF CANOLA CAUSED BY RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AG 2-1 IN WASHINGTON STATE  

Science.gov (United States)

In early Sept. 2003, winter canola (Brassica napus) cv. Inca was direct-seeded into plots previously cropped with spring barley, as part of a long-term irrigated cropping systems experiment at the WSU Dryland Research Station at Lind, WA. Before planting, the plots received 80 mm of water by sprinkl...

184

Biochemical characterization of a beta-1,3-glucanase from Trichoderma koningii induced by cell wall of Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichoderma species are readily isolated from Brazilian cerrado soil by conventional methods and some of them were characterized as Trichoderma koningii. The effect of carbon source on the production of beta-1,3-glucanases in the culture filtrates of a specific Trichoderma koningii strain (ALL 13) was investigated. Enzyme activity was detected in all carbon sources tested and only one band of beta-1,3-glucanase was detected in non-denaturing PAGE. This enzyme was purified by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration and Phenyl Sepharose CL 4B chromatography. A typical procedure provided 105-fold purification with 13.4% yield. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 75 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme hydrolyzed laminarin in an endo-like fashion to form small oligosaccharides and glucose. The Km and Vmax values for beta-1,3-glucanase, using laminarin as substrate, were 0.148 mg.mL-1 and 0.159 U.min-1, respectively. The pH optimum for the enzyme was pH 4.6 and maximum activity was obtained at 50 degrees C. Hg2+ inhibited the purified enzyme. PMID:16450064

Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Ulhoa, Cirano José

2006-02-01

185

Immobilization of lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 Imobilização de lipase de Fusarium solani FS1  

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Full Text Available Lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 was immobilized by covalent attachment to polyacrylamide beads and onto magnetized Dacron, retaining 12% and 97% of activity, respectively. Lipase was also entrapped within polyacrylamide beads, retaining 53% of activity. Investigations of the kinetic characteristics of the immobilized derivatives using triolein as substrate showed that lipase immobilized onto polyacrilamide beads and Dacron did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics.Lipase de Fusarium solani FS1 foi imobilizada por ligação covalente usando esferas de poliacrilamida e Dacron magnetizado, retendo 12%, e 97% de atividade, respectivamente. A lipase foi também enclausurada em esferas de poliacrilamida e reteve 53% de sua atividade específica. Investigações sobre o comportamento cinético usando trioleína como substrato mostraram que as lipases imobilizadas não seguem a cinética de Michaelis-Menten.

Kirsty Knight

2000-09-01

186

Immobilization of lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 / Imobilização de lipase de Fusarium solani FS1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lipase de Fusarium solani FS1 foi imobilizada por ligação covalente usando esferas de poliacrilamida e Dacron magnetizado, retendo 12%, e 97% de atividade, respectivamente. A lipase foi também enclausurada em esferas de poliacrilamida e reteve 53% de sua atividade específica. Investigações sobre o c [...] omportamento cinético usando trioleína como substrato mostraram que as lipases imobilizadas não seguem a cinética de Michaelis-Menten. Abstract in english Lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 was immobilized by covalent attachment to polyacrylamide beads and onto magnetized Dacron, retaining 12% and 97% of activity, respectively. Lipase was also entrapped within polyacrylamide beads, retaining 53% of activity. Investigations of the kinetic characteristics [...] of the immobilized derivatives using triolein as substrate showed that lipase immobilized onto polyacrilamide beads and Dacron did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

Kirsty, Knight; Maria do Carmo Barros, Pimentel; Marcia Maria Camargo de, Morais; William M., Ledingham; José Luiz de, Lima Filho; Maria de Mascena Diniz, Maia.

2000-09-01

187

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by a Bryophilous Rhizoctonia species  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a potentially benign species of bryophilous Rhizoctonia in two different media. The first medium supports fungal growth and the up?regulation of nitrate reductase, while the second medium supports fungal growth and the repression of nitrate reductase. For both media, the resulting silver nanoparticles were ca. 25? 50nm and were subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal in shape. The optical analysis of the silver nano...

Raudabaugh, Daniel B.; Tzolov, Marian B.; Calabrese, Joseph P.; Overton, Barrie E.

2013-01-01

188

Bioactive dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives from Fusarium solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

New dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives, karuquinone A (1), karuquinone B (2), and karuquinone C (3), were isolated from a fungal culture broth of Fusarium solani. The structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS, and IR). Three known compounds, javanicin (4), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2,4-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-6,9-dione (5), and 5-hydroxydihydrofusarubin C (6), were also isolated. The six isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Of these, karuquinone A exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity. Karuquinone B did not affect the proliferation of the cancer cell lines but did inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC. Additionally, we demonstrated that karuquinone A induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25163667

Takemoto, Kenji; Kamisuki, Shinji; Chia, Pei Thing; Kuriyama, Isoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Fumio

2014-09-26

189

In vitro production of conidia of Alternaria solani / Produção in vitro de conídios de Alternaria solani  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A esporulação de Alternaria solani in vitro pode ser escassa e tende a reduzir após sucessivas repicagens. Conduziram-se vários experimentos para avaliar o efeito da umidade, injúria da colônia, qualidade de luz e fotoperíodo, bem como do meio de cultura na produção de conídios. Adaptou-se a técnica [...] bifásica para induzir esporulação, por meio de injúria de micélio e desidratação do meio de cultura. Obtiveram-se melhores resultados quando colônias cresceram em meio V8 a 25ºC, no escuro, sob agitação durante sete dias; a massa de micélio foi triturada e a suspensão depositada em meio BDA (pH 6,5) em placas de Petri, incubando-se a 25 ± 2ºC, sob luz negra com 12 h de fotoperíodo. Validou-se o protocolo para 30 isolados de A. solani distintos quanto ao hospedeiro, local de origem, idade e forma de armazenamento. Quantificaram-se a produção, germinação e infectividade de conídios. Dos 30 isolados, 75% esporularam e a germinação mínima de conídios foi de 68%. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos em seus respectivos hospedeiros. Avaliou-se, também, o efeito de repicagens sucessivas na esporulação. Todos os isolados produziram conídios após seis repicagens sucessivas. Abstract in english Sporulation of Alternaria solani can be scarce and is often reduced when the fungus is cultivated in vitro. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effects of moisture, mycelial wounding, light quality and photoperiod, and culture media on conidial production. A procedure to induce spor [...] ulation based on mycelial wounding and dehydration was adapted and validated. Best results were obtained when fungal colonies were grown in V8 medium at 25ºC in the dark with agitation for seven days; the mycelium mass was ground, poured into potato dextrose agar (pH 6.5) in plates, and incubated at 25 ± 2ºC under near ultraviolet light and 12 h-photoperiod. The procedure was validated with 30 isolates of A. solani from different hosts, sampling locations, ages, and storage conditions. Conidial production, germination, and infectivity were quantified. Seventy-five percent of the isolates sporulated and the lowest germination rate was 68%. Inoculations of conidial suspension of all isolates resulted in lesions on tomato and potato plants. The effect of subculturing on A. solani sporulation was also assessed. After six subcultures, every seven days, there was no reduction in sporulation of colonies that were induced with the protocol.

Tatiana T.M.S, Rodrigues; Luiz A, Maffia; Onkar D, Dhingra; Eduardo S.G, Mizubuti.

2010-08-01

190

In vitro production of conidia of Alternaria solani Produção in vitro de conídios de Alternaria solani  

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Full Text Available Sporulation of Alternaria solani can be scarce and is often reduced when the fungus is cultivated in vitro. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effects of moisture, mycelial wounding, light quality and photoperiod, and culture media on conidial production. A procedure to induce sporulation based on mycelial wounding and dehydration was adapted and validated. Best results were obtained when fungal colonies were grown in V8 medium at 25ºC in the dark with agitation for seven days; the mycelium mass was ground, poured into potato dextrose agar (pH 6.5 in plates, and incubated at 25 ± 2ºC under near ultraviolet light and 12 h-photoperiod. The procedure was validated with 30 isolates of A. solani from different hosts, sampling locations, ages, and storage conditions. Conidial production, germination, and infectivity were quantified. Seventy-five percent of the isolates sporulated and the lowest germination rate was 68%. Inoculations of conidial suspension of all isolates resulted in lesions on tomato and potato plants. The effect of subculturing on A. solani sporulation was also assessed. After six subcultures, every seven days, there was no reduction in sporulation of colonies that were induced with the protocol.A esporulação de Alternaria solani in vitro pode ser escassa e tende a reduzir após sucessivas repicagens. Conduziram-se vários experimentos para avaliar o efeito da umidade, injúria da colônia, qualidade de luz e fotoperíodo, bem como do meio de cultura na produção de conídios. Adaptou-se a técnica bifásica para induzir esporulação, por meio de injúria de micélio e desidratação do meio de cultura. Obtiveram-se melhores resultados quando colônias cresceram em meio V8 a 25ºC, no escuro, sob agitação durante sete dias; a massa de micélio foi triturada e a suspensão depositada em meio BDA (pH 6,5 em placas de Petri, incubando-se a 25 ± 2ºC, sob luz negra com 12 h de fotoperíodo. Validou-se o protocolo para 30 isolados de A. solani distintos quanto ao hospedeiro, local de origem, idade e forma de armazenamento. Quantificaram-se a produção, germinação e infectividade de conídios. Dos 30 isolados, 75% esporularam e a germinação mínima de conídios foi de 68%. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos em seus respectivos hospedeiros. Avaliou-se, também, o efeito de repicagens sucessivas na esporulação. Todos os isolados produziram conídios após seis repicagens sucessivas.

Tatiana T.M.S Rodrigues

2010-08-01

191

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis), causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum), produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring microcuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp) toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of static incubation on potato sucrose broth at 25 ºC under illumination. Changes in the pH...

Duarte Maria de Lourdes R.; Archer Simon A.

2003-01-01

192

Chemical disinfectants can reduce potato blackleg caused by ‘Dickeya solani  

OpenAIRE

Treatments of tubers with chemical disinfectants (70 % ethanol, 1 % sodium hypochlorite, 2 % copper sulphate, 5 % peracetic acid, 10 % hydrogen peroxide, 1 % MennoClean (benzoic acid), 5 % trisodium phosphate and 0.2 % caffeine) were evaluated for control of blackleg caused by ‘D. solani’. All disinfectants effectively killed bacteria in axenic cultures within 5 min and all, except hydrogen peroxide and trisodium phosphate, were able to kill ‘D. solani’ in spiked potato extracts. Trea...

Czajkowski, R. L.; Boer, W. J.; Wolf, J. M.

2013-01-01

193

Fusarium solani: An Emerging Fungus in Chronic Diabetic Ulcer  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium species, a mold which causes disease mainly in plants has emerged as pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Fusarium is known to cause keratitis, onychomycosis, and endophthalmitis. Fusarium solani, is the most common isolate from clinical specimen. Here is a case, a 65-year-old male with type II diabetes mellitus since 10 years presented with a large ulcer on the left leg since 8 months following trauma. The fungal culture of the escar of the ulcer isolated a mold, Fusarium solani....

Pai, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Shreevidya, K.; Shenoy, Divakar

2010-01-01

194

Studies of genetic polymorphism in the isolates of Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani is the important pathogen causing wilt disease of guava in India. In the present investigation six representative isolate of Fusarium solani, collected from different places of India were subjected to analysis of genetic variability in terms of Carboxylesterases isozyme pattern and DNA polymorphism using RAPD-PCR. Pattern of Carboxylesterase revealed a similar isozyme cluster in the isolate namely, Allahabad (isolate-3), Faizabad, (isolate-4), Unnao (isolate-5) and Lucknow (i...

Gupta, Vijai K.; Misra, Ashok K.; Gaur, R.; Pandey, R.; Chauhan, U. K.

2009-01-01

195

Chemical and Hot Water Treatments to Eliminate Rhizoctonia From Azalea Stem Cuttings: Failures and Successes  

Science.gov (United States)

Azalea web blight is an annual problem on some evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. The binucleate Rhizoctonia species, which cause the disease, are spread on new shoot growth harvested for propagation. Rhizoctonia can be eli...

196

Chemical and hot water treatments to control rhizoctonia AGP infesting stem cuttings of azalea  

Science.gov (United States)

In the southern and eastern U.S., azalea 'Gumpo' stems cut during the spring for propagation may be infested with Rhizoctonia spp. Multiple methods were evaluated for the purpose of eliminating Rhizoctonia spp. from stem cuttings to prevent spread into the propagation house. Stems were inoculated w...

197

Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with damping-off and crown rot of rooibos seedlings  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia species were reported to be an important component of the complex involved in damping-off of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) seedlings and cause severe crown rot of seedlings in nurseries. However, no information is available on the anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia associated with d...

198

Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 ?M ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, ?-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities. PMID:21530290

Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

2011-07-01

199

Evaluation of a Biological Agent for Control of Helminthosporium solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silver scurf of potatoes is an economically important disease of potato caused by Helminthosporium solani Durieu and Mont. Serenade ASOTM, a biological control agent for H. solani, was tested as postharvest treatment for silver scurf control in 2004 and 2005. Serenade ASO reduced both the incidence and the severity of silver scurf under low disease pressure and the severity of silver scurf under high disease pressure. Under low disease pressure, Serenade ASO delayed the onset of silver scurf until 5 months of storage. Serenade ASO has potential as a biological control of silver scurf under low disease pressure.

Steven B. Johnson

2007-01-01

200

Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.  

OpenAIRE

This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly), powder fungi...

Marília Lazarotto; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Rafael Beltrame; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos; Jucéli Müller; Maristela Machado Araújo

2013-01-01

201

Resistance induction in the pathosystem tomato - Alternaria solani  

OpenAIRE

Die Zielsetzung war die Untersuchung des Pathosystems Tomate ? Alternaria solani und die Entwicklung einer Pflanzenschutzstrategie, die verschiedenste Ansätze beinhaltet. Die Wirkstoffe und Symbionten wurden sowohl allein als auch in Kombinationen getestet, um eine umweltfreundliche aber auch effektive Methode zur Dürrfleckenkrankheitskontrolle zu finden. Die untersuchten Wirkstoffe und Symbionten umfassten: (i) systemische induzierte Resistenz (ISR), induziert durch den Wirkstoff ASM des ...

Fritz, Maendy

2005-01-01

202

Production of paclitaxel by Fusarium solani isolated from Taxus celebica  

OpenAIRE

A fungus was isolated from the stem cuttings of Taxus celebica, which produced paclitaxel in liquid-grown cultures.The fungus was identified as Fusarium solani based on colony characteristics, morphology of conidia and the 26S rDNA sequence. Paclitaxel was identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic comparison with authentic paclitaxel and its cytotoxic activity towards Jurkat cells in vitro.

Chakravarthi, Bvsk; Das, Prasanta; Surendranath, Kalpana; Karande, Anjali A.; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

2008-01-01

203

Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

Mohanty, N K; Sahu, S

2014-09-01

204

Optimization of Xylanase Production from Fusarium solani F7  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterization of xylanase producing Fusarium solani isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for xylanase enzyme production. Screening of Fusarium solani isolate was based on the diameter of the clear zone formation in oat spelt xylan agar plates, Fusarium solani isolate F7 was selected and optimized for xylanase enzyme production using cheaper substrate like wheat straw, rice straw, rice bran and wood husk. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in wheat straw (78.32 U mL-1. Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were found to be 5.5 and 30° at 3% substrate concentration. In purification step, 75% ammonium sulphate saturation was found to be suitable giving maximum xylanase activity. Purified xylanase yielded single band with a molecular weight of 89 kDa. The use of wheat straw as a major carbon source is particularly valuable because oat spelt xylan is very expensive, The Fusarium solani F7 isolate proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

I.J. Yadav

2009-01-01

205

Tratamentos biológico e químico em sementes de Cedrela fissilis para controle de Rhizoctonia sp. / Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de um fungicida protetor e de um produto biológico, utilizados isoladamente e combinados, no controle de patógenos presentes em sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis), especialmente de Rhizoctonia sp. Anteriormente ao tratamento das sementes, parte das sem [...] entes foi previamente inoculada com Rhizoctonia sp., isolado de sementes de cedro, e parte recebeu os tratamentos sem a inoculação. Após, as sementes foram submetidas a tratamentos com produto biológico em pó à base de Trichoderma spp. (aplicado isoladamente), fungicida Captan em pó (também aplicado isoladamente), combinação dos dois produtos aplicados em uma dose considerada máxima (100%) e combinação de metade da dose de ambos os produtos (50%) e ainda a testemunha. As avaliações constaram dos testes de germinação, sanidade em papel-filtro, emergência e das avaliações de mudas. Nenhum tratamento conseguiu erradicar Rhizoctonia sp. das sementes inoculadas, porém o tratamento com 100% da dose de ambos os produtos reduziu sua incidência. A combinação de produto químico e biológico, apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável para o tratamento de sementes de cedro, especialmente no controle de Rhizoctonia sp. Abstract in english This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and [...] considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly), powder fungicide Captan (also singly), combination of two products in a maximum dose considered (100%) and combination of half dose of both products, besides the control. After the seeds treatments the following tests were done: germination, emergence in vermiculite, with evaluations of seedlings and sanitary by blotter-test. No treatment could eradicate Rhizoctonia sp. inoculated seed, but the treatment with 100% of the dose of both products reduced its incidence. The combination of chemical and biological products can be a viable alternative for the treatment of C. fissililis seeds, especially in the control of Rhizoctonia sp.

Marília, Lazarotto; Marlove Fátima Brião, Muniz; Rafael, Beltrame; Álvaro Figueredo dos, Santos; Jucéli, Müller; Maristela Machado, Araújo.

2013-03-01

206

Vegetative compatibility group of Fusarium solani pathogenic to tobacco plant in peninsular Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Five strains of Fusarium solani isolated from root rot of tobacco from Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia were tested for the pathogenicity on tobacco seedlings by root dipping method. All 5 isolates showed discoloration on the roots. The nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were generated from these pathogenic strains of F. solani and a compatible nit1 and NitM pair was obtained in each strain. Vegetative Compatible Groups (VCGs) by nit mutants were determined. All 5 strains of F. solani were ...

Mohd Norhafeez bin Jusoh; Nabihah binti Mohd Zin; Hideyuki Nagao

2013-01-01

207

Interrelationship of Heterodera glycines and Fusarium solani in Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean  

OpenAIRE

Experiments were established in field microplots to examine the association between Heterodera glycines and the blue form of Fusarium solani in sudden death syndrome of soybean (SDS). Foliar disease symptoms occurred on more plants per plot, appeared 3 to 7 days earlier, and were more severe on plants grown in plots infested with F. solani + H. glycines than on those inoculated with F. solani only. Yields were suppressed only in treatments that included the nematode. Numbers of H. glycines cy...

Mclean, Kathy S.; Lawrence, Gary W.

1993-01-01

208

Preparation of Somatic Antigen from Fusarium Solani for Serological Diagnosis of Fusariosis  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: Fusariosis is one of the most important systemic mycosis, often caused by Fusarium Solani and resist to antifungal drugs. The appropriate F. Solani antigen preparation could be useful in serodiagnosis of fusariosis. Materials & Methods : The extraction procedure was preformed using F.Solani strain 7419 UAMH. The antigenic extract was obtained through grinding of fungal mass yielding from broth culture medium. Results : Following fractionation of somatic antigen, two...

Aghamirian, M. R.; Zaini, F.

2005-01-01

209

FUNGICIDAL POTENTIAL OF CHITOSAN AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC Fusarium Solani  

OpenAIRE

nhibitory effects of chitosan (CHN) on colony growth, sporulation, spore germination and germ tube elongation of phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was reported under in vitro condition. Inhibition caused by chitosan was concentration dependent and maximum inhibition was on 0.20% chitosan dose, that led to the highest growth inhibition of fungal colony development (76.0%), lowest spore production (9 x 104 /ml culture filtrate) and complete cessation o...

Anirban Bhattacharya

2013-01-01

210

Immobilization of lipase from Fusarium solani FS1  

OpenAIRE

Lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 was immobilized by covalent attachment to polyacrylamide beads and onto magnetized Dacron, retaining 12% and 97% of activity, respectively. Lipase was also entrapped within polyacrylamide beads, retaining 53% of activity. Investigations of the kinetic characteristics of the immobilized derivatives using triolein as substrate showed that lipase immobilized onto polyacrilamide beads and Dacron did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

Knight Kirsty; Pimentel Maria do Carmo Barros; Morais Marcia Maria Camargo de; Ledingham William M.; Lima Filho José Luiz de; Maia Maria de Mascena Diniz

2000-01-01

211

Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups associated with diseased rooibos seedlings and the potential of compost as soil amendment for disease suppression  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia spp. associated with rooibos in the Western Cape province of South Africa were recovered during the 2008 season by planting seedlings in rhizosphere soils collected from 14 rooibos nurseries. Seventy five Rhizoctonia isolates were obtained and 67 were multinucleate and 8 binucleate Rhiz...

212

Arbuscular mycorrhiza reduces susceptibility of tomato to Alternaria solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycorrhiza frequently leads to the control of root pathogens, but appears to have the opposite effect on leaf pathogens. In this study, we studied mycorrhizal effects on the development of early blight in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria solani. Alternaria-induced necrosis and chlorosis of all leaves were studied in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants over time course and at different soil P levels. Mycorrhizal tomato plants had significantly less A. solani symptoms than non-mycorrhizal plants, but neither plant growth nor phosphate uptake was enhanced by mycorrhizas. An increased P supply had no effect on disease severity in non-mycorrhizal plants, but led to a higher disease severity in mycorrhizal plants. This was parallel to a P-supply-induced reduction in mycorrhiza formation. The protective effect of mycorrhizas towards development of A. solani has some parallels to induced systemic resistance, mediated by rhizobacteria: both biocontrol agents are root-associated organisms and both are effective against necrotrophic pathogens. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed. PMID:16614816

Fritz, Maendy; Jakobsen, Iver; Lyngkjaer, Michael Foged; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn

2006-09-01

213

Temperature and dosage dependent suppression of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani in vermicompost amended nurseries of white pumpkin: (with 3 tables & 2 figures)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english It is generally accepted that composts have the potential to provide biological control of plant diseases. However, there has been little research on the use of vermicomposts for the same purpose. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a vermicompost suppressiveness in nurseries of white pumpkin infe [...] sted with Rhizoctoniasolani. Two assays were carried out at 22 ± 2 °Cand 15 ± 3 °C, with increasing proportions of compost in the substratum. Seedlings with damping-off or incipient crown rot, as well as those that did not emerge as expected for the germination power, were considered diseased. Vermicompost's effectiveness in suppressing the disease depended on dosage and temperature.

MC, Rivera; Eduardo R, Wright; MV, López; MC, Fabrizio.

2004-12-01

214

Efficacy of rhizobacteria for growth promotion and biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani on wheat in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Access to this thesis is restricted until 2014-09-07. Copyright © 2012, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria E12/9/45/ag

Pretorius, Theresa

2012-01-01

215

Effect of above-ground plant species on soil microbial community structure and its impact on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG3  

OpenAIRE

The extent of soil microbial diversity is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality. Different agricultural practices are able to affect soil microbial diversity and thus the level of suppressiveness of plant diseases. In a 4-year field experiment, we investigated the microbial diversity of soil under different agricultural regimes. We studied permanent grassland, grassland turned into arable land, long-term arable land and arable land turned into grassland. The divers...

Garbeva, P.; Postma, J.; Veen, J. A.; Elsas, J. D.

2006-01-01

216

Impact of Rhizophagus sp. (syn. Glomus sp.) and Trichoderma harzianum on the potato resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans, two major potato pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Potato is the fourth largest food crop cultivated in the world. This crop is susceptible to numerous pests and diseases, which control requires large quantities of pesticides in conventional agriculture. In the last decade, several studies have suggested the use of beneficial microorganisms as promising alternatives to reduce/replace chemicals. Among these microorganisms, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the fungal antagonist, Trichoderma spp. are the most frequently cited in the lit...

Gallou, Adrien

2011-01-01

217

Fusarium Solani Causing Quasi-Invasive Infection of the Foot in an Immunocompetent Middle-Aged Man from South India  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium Solani is commonly found in soil, and it is associated with infections in immunocompromised individuals. Fusaroium solani causing infection in immunocompetent adult male is rare and usually overlooked. We report a case of mycetoma caused by Fusariom solani in an immunocompetent adult male from South India.

Kudur, Mohan H.; Prakash, Py; Savitha, M.

2013-01-01

218

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis Produção de toxinas in vitro por Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis), causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum), produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring microcuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp) toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of static incubation on potato sucrose broth at 25 ºC under illumination. Changes in the pH...

Duarte, Maria Lourdes R.; Archer, Simon A.

2003-01-01

219

FUNGICIDAL POTENTIAL OF CHITOSAN AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC Fusarium Solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available nhibitory effects of chitosan (CHN on colony growth, sporulation, spore germination and germ tube elongation of phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. was reported under in vitro condition. Inhibition caused by chitosan was concentration dependent and maximum inhibition was on 0.20% chitosan dose, that led to the highest growth inhibition of fungal colony development (76.0%, lowest spore production (9 x 104 /ml culture filtrate and complete cessation of spore germination and germ tube emergence. Findings of the present study show that chitosan may be an alternative control agent against the pathogenic fungus, replacing the harmful chemical fungicides

Anirban Bhattacharya

2013-09-01

220

Chemical and Hot Water Treatments to Control Rhizoctonia on Infected Azalea Stem Cuttings  

Science.gov (United States)

Spring shoot growth of azalea 'Gumpo White' used for propagation of stem cuttings can harbor binucleate Rhizoctonia species that cause web blight, thus the pathogen is unsuspectingly propagated with the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of disinfesting methods (commercially...

221

Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly, powder fungicide Captan (also singly, combination of two products in a maximum dose considered (100% and combination of half dose of both products, besides the control. After the seeds treatments the following tests were done: germination, emergence in vermiculite, with evaluations of seedlings and sanitary by blotter-test. No treatment could eradicate Rhizoctonia sp. inoculated seed, but the treatment with 100% of the dose of both products reduced its incidence. The combination of chemical and biological products can be a viable alternative for the treatment of C. fissililis seeds, especially in the control of Rhizoctonia sp.

Marília Lazarotto

2013-03-01

222

Incidence and spatial distribution of Rhizoctonia and Pythium species determined with real-time PCR  

Science.gov (United States)

Populations of Rhizoctonia and Pythium are diverse in eastern Washington, with multiple species/anastomosis groups present throughout the region and within individual fields. Recent evidence suggests that species composition may be influenced by crop rotation. The Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA...

223

Potencial antagônico de Trichoderma spp. originários de diferentes agroecossistemas contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e Fusarium solani / Antagonist potential of Trichoderma spp. from distinct agricultural ecosystems against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de 40 amostras de solo, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Bahia, Goiás e Tocantins, uma coleção de 230 isolados monospóricos de Trichoderma spp. foi estabelecida, usando o meio seletivo TSM. Com o objetivo de selecionarem-se isolados com potencial para [...] controle biológico de doenças, foram conduzidos testes de pareamento de culturas em meio BDA, a 20 ºC para Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e a 25 ºC para Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli. Antagonismo contra os dois patógenos foi observado em 10% dos isolados. Avaliações ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura de sete isolados selecionados in vitro mostraram que nem todos promoveram o hiperparasitismo dos patógenos, sugerindo a existência de outros mecanismos de antagonismo, como antibiose ou competição. Abstract in english From 40 soil samples collected in the Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Bahia, Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil, a collection of 230 monosporic isolates of Trichoderma spp. was established using TSM selective media. In order to select efficient isolates for biological control, dual cultu [...] re tests were carried out on PDA media at 20 ºC for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and at 25 ºC for Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli. From the whole collection, 50 isolates presented antagonism against F. solani and 111 isolates to S. sclerotiorum. The antagonism against both pathogens was found in only 10% of the isolates. Scanning electron microscopy assessments with seven in vitro selected isolates showed that not all promoted hyperparasitism on the pathogens, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of antagonism, as antibiosis or competition.

Gisele Angélica de Souza, Louzada; Daniel Diego Costa, Carvalho; Sueli Corrêa Marques, Mello; Murillo, Lobo Júnior; Irene, Martins; Leonardo Minaré, Braúna.

2009-09-01

224

Development of Heterodera glycines as Affected by Fusarium solani, the Causal Agent of Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean  

OpenAIRE

The effects of the blue form of Fusarium solani, the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), on Heterodera glycines were examined in the greenhouse. Roots of soybean cv. Coker 156 were inoculated with either H. glycines alone or F. solani + H. glycines in combination. Population levels of H. glycines were reduced 47% in the presence of F. solani. Life-stage development of H. glycines increased 3% in 30 days in the presence of F. solani. Fusarium solani colonized epidermal and cortical ce...

Mclean, Kathy S.; Lawrence, Gary W.

1995-01-01

225

In vitro effect of essential oils on Alternaria solani Sorauer / Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales sobre Alternaria solani Sorauer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de diez aceites esenciales sobre Alternaria solani Sorauer, importante patógeno de las solanáceas. Se evaluó el efecto por contacto directo y por exposición a los vapores. Los bioensayos se realizaron según diseño completam [...] ente aleatorizado, se utilizó el método de discos de papel inoculados con los aceites, enfrentados a discos del fitopatógeno y se evaluó el crecimiento radial del hongo. Todos los aceites, excepto Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (naranjo dulce), inhibieron el crecimiento micelial hasta los 7 días. A los 14 días se observó inhibición total en los tratamientos con los aceites de Pimpinella anisum L. (anís), Ocimum basilicum L. (albahaca blanca), Ocimum basilicum L. variedad genovese (albahaca genovesa) y Piper auritum Kunth (caisimón de anís). Los metabolitos volátiles de los aceites no mostraron efecto fungicida; no obstante se observó inhibición del crecimiento micelial de A. solani en los tratamientos con los extractos de Ruta chalepensis L. (ruda) y Piper auritum. Los resultados abren nuevas perspectivas para el control de este patógeno. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of ten essential oils on Alternaria solani SORAUER. The effect by direct contact and exposure to vapors was evaluated. The bioassays were performed using a completely randomized design and the method of paper discs inoculated wit [...] h the oils facing phytopathogen discs; the fungal radial growth was evaluated. All the oils, except those from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange), inhibited the mycelial growth until the seventh day. At day 14, a total inhibition was observed in the treatments with the oils from Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Ocimum basilicum L. (white basil), Ocinum basilicum L. var. genovese (Genovese basil), and Piper auritum Kunth (anise caisimon). No fungicidal effect was shown by the volatile metabolites of the oils; however, the inhibition of A. solani mycelial growth was observed in the treatments with the extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. (ruda) and P. auritum. These results open new perspectives for the control of this pathogen.

Yanisia, Duarte; Oriela, Pino; Danay, Infante; Yaima, Sánchez; María del Carmen, Travieso; B, Martínez.

2013-04-01

226

RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum AO PATÓGENO Alternaria solani RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum TO Alternaria solani PATHOGEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de resistência de variedades comerciais de tomateiro ao patógeno Alternaria solani. Os genótipos são pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma do CNPH-Embrapa, compreendendo híbridos F1, que foram avaliados em condições de campo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia-GO, a uma altitude de 730 m, latitude de 16° 41'S e longitude de 49° 17'W. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 e 85 dias após o transplantio, combinando-se escala diagramática e de notas. As variedades Ohio 4013 e CNPH 738 foram as mais resistentes entre os materiais tutorados. Entre os materiais rasteiros os mais resistentes foram o híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense e Rotam 4. O genótipo Ohio 4013 e híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense foram os que mais se destacaram para resistência a este patógeno, podendo ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomateiro; resistência; Alternaria solani.

The main objective of this study was to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the germoplasm bank of CNPH-Embrapa and hibrids F1 of tomat to Alternaria solani, in field condition. The trials were conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brasil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41'S and longitude of 49° 17'W. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting, combining diagramatic scale and grades. Among indeterminate cultivars Ohio 4013 and CNPH 738 were the most resistants. Among determined ones the most resistant were F1 hibrid Hawaii 7998 x Monense and Rotam 4. The genotypes Ohio 4013 and the F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense hibrid were the ones that more stood out for resistance to these pathogen and could be suitable for future breeding programs.

KEY-WORDS: Tomato; resistance; Alternaria solani.

Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

2007-09-01

227

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis, causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum, produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring microcuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of static incubation on potato sucrose broth at 25 ºC under illumination. Changes in the pH of the culture filtrate did not alter the effect of toxic metabolites. However, when the pH was changed before the medium had been autoclaved, a more intense biological response was observed, with an optimum at pH 6.0. Isolates that produced red pigments in liquid cultures were more efficient in producing biologically active culture filtrates than those which produced pink coloured or clear filtrates suggesting that these pigments could be related to toxigenic activity. Detached leaves of seven black pepper cultivars and Piper betle showed symptoms of vein discoloration after immersion in autoclaved and non-autoclaved Fsp culture filtrates indicating the thermostable nature of these toxic metabolites.

Duarte Maria de Lourdes R.

2003-01-01

228

Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C/sub 16/ acid and trihydroxy-C/sub 18/ acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a (/sup 32/P)-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested.

Woloshuk, C.P.

1986-01-01

229

Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis  

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Full Text Available Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship with F. solani that is not limited by geographic location or host tree.

Kelli Hoover

2012-02-01

230

Análise de restrição de DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA pode diferenciar Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli de F. solani f. sp. glycines  

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Full Text Available Métodos moleculares têm sido utilizados para caracterizar a diversidade entre isolados de Fusarium spp. patogênicos e não patogênicos a uma cultura e, para determinar relações genéticas entre formae speciales. Testes de patogenicidade realizados em soja (Glycine max e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris com 17 isolados de Fusarium solani não demonstraram especificidade de hospedeiros. Utilizou-se a técnica ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis para analisar a região ITS1 - 5,8S rDNA - ITS2, amplificada com os primers ITS5 e ITS4. Os produtos amplificados foram digeridos com as enzimas de restrição Hae III e Msp I. Os padrões de bandas gerados pela digestão com a enzima Hae III permitiram diferenciar três grupos entre os isolados de F. solani, sendo um grupo específico para isolados de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli com 100% de similaridade entre os 11 isolados. Entre os isolados de F. solani f. sp glycines foram observados dois padrões distintos de restrição. A técnica de ARDRA utilizando a enzima Hae III apresenta, portanto, potencial para utilização como um marcador para diferenciação entre as formae specialesphaseoli e glycines, dentro do complexo F. solani.

OLIVEIRA VIRGÍNIA C. de

2002-01-01

231

Role of activated macrophages in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophages under the conjunctival tissue are the first line defender cells of the corneas. Elimination of these cells would lead to aggravation of fungal keratitis. To determine how the course of fungal keratitis would be altered after the activation of these macrophages, a murine model was achieved by intrastromal instillation of latex beads before the corneas were infected with Fusarium solani. The keratitis was observed and clinically scored daily. Infected corneas were homogenized for colony counts. The levels of the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS cytokines were measured in the corneas using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the corneas, submaxillary lymph nodes and peripheral blood were detected using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. The latex bead-treated mice exhibited aggravated keratitis. Substantially increased macrophage and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was detected in the corneas, although few colonies were observed. There was a marked increase in the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS expression in the corneas. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly enhanced in the corneas and submaxillary lymph nodes. However, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes was decreased in the peripheral blood, while the number of CD8+ lymphocytes increased. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the activation of macrophages in the cornea may cause an excessive immune response. Macrophages appear to play a critical role in regulating the immune response to corneal infections with F. solani. PMID:25447809

Hu, Jianzhang; Hu, Yingfeng; Chen, Shikun; Dong, Chenhuan; Zhang, Jingjin; Li, Yanling; Yang, Juan; Han, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xuejun; Xu, Guoxing

2014-12-01

232

Atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido por Fusarium solani / Allelopathic activity of culture filtrate produced by Fusarium solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As plantas daninhas se constituem no principal problema a impor limitação à exploração da agropecuária nas áreas tropicais. Entretanto, o controle químico dessas plantas tem gerado insatisfações de ordem social, quer porque contaminam as fontes de recursos naturais ou por comprometerem a qualidade d [...] os alimentos da dieta dos animais, em geral, e dos humanos, em particular. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido pelo fungo Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers. Foram avaliados os efeitos das toxinas, nas concentrações de 1,0 e 4,0%, sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica) e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia). Os resultados mostraram presença de atividade alelopática inibitória, com variações de acordo com a concentração e a planta receptora. A intensidade dos efeitos inibitórios induzidos pelo extrato esteve positivamente associada à concentração, com efeitos mais intensos verificados a 4,0%. Independentemente da concentração e do bioensaio, a espécie malícia se mostrou mais sensível aos efeitos do filtrado da cultura. O desenvolvimento da radícula foi o fator da planta mais intensamente inibido. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial de utilização da toxina produzida pelo fungo, como fonte alternativa no controle de plantas daninhas, o que justifica estudos mais avançados. Abstract in english Weeds are a major problem limiting agriculture and cattle raising activities in the tropics. Current chemical control measures have raised environmental concerns due to their potential of contaminating natural resources and compromising the quality of animal feed. The objective of this paper was to [...] identify and characterize the potential allelopathic activity of Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers culture filtrate. The effects of the toxin were analyzed at 1% and 4% concentration, on seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl elongation of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The results showed potential inhibitory allelopathic activity of the Fusarium culture filtrate, varying according to concentration and receiving plants. The intensity of the inhibition effects promoted by the extracts was clearly associated to concentration, with the major effect being observed at 4%. Regardless of concentration and bioassays, Mimosa pudica was more sensitive to the toxin effects of the culture filtrate. Radicle elongation was more intensely inhibited by the culture filtrate toxins. The results showed potential for the use of the toxins produced by Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers, as an alternative source to control weeds. However, further studies should be carried out.

A.P.S., Souza Filho; M.L.R., Duarte.

2007-03-01

233

Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species. The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology behind metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy using A. dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila strains as examples of the group. The results confirmed that A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila are three distinct species each with their own specific metabolite profiles, and that A. solani and A. tomatophila both produce altersolanol A, altertoxin 1, and macrosporin. By using automated chemical image analysis and other multivariate statistic analyses, three sets of species-specific metabolites could be selected, one each for A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila.

Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita

2008-01-01

234

Bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient : a case report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient.

JØrgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Prause, Jan Ulrik

2014-01-01

235

Morphological and Physiological Characterization of Alternaria solani Isolated from Tomato in Jordan Valley  

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Full Text Available Alternaria solani is known economically important and the casual agent of early blight on potato and tomato. Identification of plant pathogens is very important in helping to find effective disease control or management methods. Morphology and physiology characteristics of Alternaria solani were investigated for identification and variability. The optimum pH levels of Alternaria solani grow in vitro were 6-7 and the optimum growing temperatures of the isolates recovery in this study was 25 and 30°C. The mycelial width between 0.8-1.5 ?m and the conidia are 35-75 ?m in length and 10-20 ?m in width and 2-7 transverse septa and 1-4 longitudinal septa. This study pointed that there was a variation in the population of Alternaria solani isolated from Jordan valley based on morphology and physiology characteristics.

Khalaf M. Alhussaen

2012-01-01

236

C-20 Ketone reduction of hydrocortisone by Fusarium solani and Aspergillus ochraceus.  

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The biotransformation of hydrocortisone (1) by Fusarium solani and Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated for the first time. After 10 days at 30 °C, just one metabolite was produced by both fungi: 11?, 17?, 20?, 21-tetrahydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (2) established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The reaction was reduction of the 20-carbonyl group. Time course study determined by HPLC showed 60 and 45 % yield for the metabolite by F. solani and A. ochraceus, respectively. PMID:25048228

Gandomkar, Somayyeh; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Habibi, Zohreh

2014-11-01

237

Biocontrol of Sugarbeet Pathogen Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. by Streptomyces aureofaciens  

OpenAIRE

The potential of microbial antagonism was explored in the control of sugarbeet Fusarium disease. The in vitro studies showed that a 70% concentration of the culture filtrate of S. aureofaciens significantly inhibited the spore germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium solani. The in vivo studies involved different treatments. Seed coating treatment was the most effective in controlling F. solani at all cultivation periods in all the thr...

Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Rizk, Mohamed A.

2002-01-01

238

Produção de enzimas extracelulares por Fusarium solani de maracujazeiro amarelo Production of extracellular enzymes by Fusarium solani from yellow passion fruit  

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Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças do maracujazeiro, na maioria dos estados produtores do Brasil, é a podridão do colo, causada por Fusarium solani. Pouco se sabe a respeito da fisiologia deste patógeno do maracujazeiro amarelo, principalmente quanto à produção de enzimas extracelulares. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar, em meios de cultura individuais e apropriados, a produção das enzimas extracelulares amilase, lipase, celulase, proteases (caseinase e gelatinase, lacase (oxidase e catalase por isolados de F. solani, provenientes de maracujazeiro amarelo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de dois fatores (nove isolados versus sete enzimas, com três repetições. Todos os isolados de F. solani produziram, de maneira semiquantitativa, as enzimas extracelulares amilase, lipase, celulase, caseinase (protease e lacase (oxidase. No entanto, a quantidade produzida de cada enzima foi significativamente diferente entre os isolados. As enzimas extracelulares gelatinase (protease e catalase foram produzidas em pouca quantidade e de maneira igual por todos os isolados do fungo.In most Brazilian producer states, one of the main diseases of the passion fruit is collar rot caused by Fusarium solani. Little is known about the physiology of this pathogen from yellow passion fruit, which mainly involves the production of extracellular enzymes. The objective of this work was to verify, in individual and appropriate culture media, the production of the extracellular enzymes amylase, lipase, cellulase, proteases (caseinase and gelatinase, lacase (oxydase and catalase by isolates of F. solani from yellow passion fruit. The experimental design adopted was an entirely randomized two-factor scheme (nine isolates and seven enzymes with three repetitions. All the isolates of F. solani produced, in a semi-quantitative manner, the extracellular enzymes amylase, lipase, cellulase, caseinase (protease and lacase. However, the amount of each enzyme produced was significantly different among the isolates. The extracellular enzymes gelatinase (protease and catalase were produced in a small amount and in an equal manner by all the isolates of the fungus.

César Júnior Bueno

2009-10-01

239

Regulators involved in Dickeya solani virulence, genetic conservation, and functional variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria from the genus Dickeya (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) are plant pathogens causing severe diseases in many economically important crops. A majority of the strains responsible for potato disease in Europe belong to a newly identified Dickeya solani species. Although some ecological and epidemiological studies have been carried out, little is known about the regulation of D. solani virulence. The characterization of four D. solani strains indicates significant differences in their virulence on potato, although they are genetically similar based on genomic fingerprinting profiles. A phenotypic examination included an analysis of virulence on potato; growth rate in culture; motility; Fe3+ chelation; and pectate lyase, cellulase, protease, biosurfactant, and blue pigment production. Mutants of four D. solani strains were constructed by inactivating the genes coding either for one of the main negative regulators of D. dadantii virulence (kdgR, pecS, and pecT) or for the synthesis and perception of signaling molecules (expI and expR). Analysis of these mutants indicated that PecS, PecT, and KdgR play a similar role in both species, repressing, to different degrees, the synthesis of virulence factors. The thermoregulator PecT seems to be a major regulator of D. solani virulence. This work also reveals the role of quorum sensing mediated by ExpI and ExpR in D. solani virulence on potato. PMID:24625032

Potrykus, Marta; Golanowska, Ma?gorzata; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lojkowska, Ewa

2014-07-01

240

Evaluation of the anti-alternaria solani activity of allium hirtifolium boiss  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm +- 0.48 and 15.58 mm +- 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani. (author)

241

Vegetative compatibility group of Fusarium solani pathogenic to tobacco plant in peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Five strains of Fusarium solani isolated from root rot of tobacco from Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia were tested for the pathogenicity on tobacco seedlings by root dipping method. All 5 isolates showed discoloration on the roots. The nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants were generated from these pathogenic strains of F. solani and a compatible nit1 and NitM pair was obtained in each strain. Vegetative Compatible Groups (VCGs by nit mutants were determined. All 5 strains of F. solani were assigned to the independent VCGs. Non-pathogenic strains of F. solani previously isolated from root rot of tobacco in Malaysia also generated nit mutants and were assigned to 10 different VCGs. However, complementation of nit mutants between 5 pathogenic strains and 7 non-pathogenic strains of F. solani was not achieved. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were assigned to the independent VCGs. This suggested that the isolates of F. solani pathogenic to tobacco were derived from the progenies of crossing in the field. However, perithecium formation was not observed in their cultures.

Mohd Norhafeez bin Jusoh

2013-12-01

242

Studies on the interactive effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani on Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill  

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Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the pathogenesis of both the pathogens individually, simultaneously and sequentially. Isolates of M. incognita and F. solani singly caused a significant reduction in plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, number of fruits and fruit weight over the un-inoculated one but the reduction was more by M. incognita as compared to F. solani. A significant reduction in different plant growth parameters was observed on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of M. incognita and F. solani. However, the reduction was more prominent on simultaneous inoculation of both the pathogens. Among the sequential inoculations more damages were assessed during inoculation of M. incognita followed by F. solani (N+f10. Nematode multiplication, number of galls and number of females were adversely affected on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of both the pathogens in all the treatments. In the present study it was concluded that both the pathogens viz M. incognita and F. solani are virulent against the tomato c.v pusa ruby and therefore measures to prevent the spread of disease become important.

T.A. Khan

2011-01-01

243

Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C16 acid and trihydroxy-C18 acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a [32P]-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested

244

Localização de peróxido de hidrogênio durante a resposta de defesa de tomateiro contra Stemphylium solani Localization of hydrogen peroxide during defense response of tomato against Stemphylium solani  

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Full Text Available Peróxido de hidrogênio foi localizado citoquimicamente em virtude de sua reação com cloreto de cério, evidenciando H2O2 produzido em tomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum resistente e suscetível a Stemphylium solani. Precipitados de peridróxido de cério foram constatados nas células do mesofilo, na parede em contato com as hifas do patógeno. Portanto, não tendo sido observada reação diferencial entre as cultivares quanto ao acúmulo de H2O2, e, sendo sua presença detectada num dos controles negativos, sugere-se que este composto possivelmente não participe diretamente da resistência manifestada pela c.v. 'Motelle' contra S. solani, no tocante ao fortalecimento da parede celular.Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars were studied due to their reaction with cerium perhydroxide, verifying H2O2 produced in tomato plants boyh resistant and susceptible to Stemphylium solani. There was an accumulation of cerium perhydroxide on the wall of mesophyll cells in contact with the pathogen hyphae. Different reactions were not found int the two tomato cultivars concerning H2O2 accumulation. Since cerium perhydroxide was detected on negative control as well, it is suggested that H2O2 may possibly not participate in the resistance of c.v. 'Motelle' to S. Solani, in terms of cell wall buttressing.

Jânia L. S. Bentes

2005-12-01

245

Localização de peróxido de hidrogênio durante a resposta de defesa de tomateiro contra Stemphylium solani / Localization of hydrogen peroxide during defense response of tomato against Stemphylium solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Peróxido de hidrogênio foi localizado citoquimicamente em virtude de sua reação com cloreto de cério, evidenciando H2O2 produzido em tomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum) resistente e suscetível a Stemphylium solani. Precipitados de peridróxido de cério foram constatados nas células do mesofilo, na p [...] arede em contato com as hifas do patógeno. Portanto, não tendo sido observada reação diferencial entre as cultivares quanto ao acúmulo de H2O2, e, sendo sua presença detectada num dos controles negativos, sugere-se que este composto possivelmente não participe diretamente da resistência manifestada pela c.v. 'Motelle' contra S. solani, no tocante ao fortalecimento da parede celular. Abstract in english Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars were studied due to their reaction with cerium perhydroxide, verifying H2O2 produced in tomato plants boyh resistant and susceptible to Stemphylium solani. There was an accumulation of cerium perhydroxide on the wall of mesophyll cells in contact with t [...] he pathogen hyphae. Different reactions were not found int the two tomato cultivars concerning H2O2 accumulation. Since cerium perhydroxide was detected on negative control as well, it is suggested that H2O2 may possibly not participate in the resistance of c.v. 'Motelle' to S. Solani, in terms of cell wall buttressing.

Jânia L. S., Bentes; Kiyoshi, Matsuoka.

2005-12-01

246

CONTROLE DE ALTERNARIA SOLANI COM FUNGICIDAS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO / CONTROL OF ALTERNARIA SOLANI WITH FUNGICIDES IN TOMATO PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pinta-preta, causada pelo fungo Alternaria solani, caracteriza-se por ser uma importante e destrutiva doença da cultura do tomate, sob condições de alta temperatura e umidade. Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de diferentes fungicidas no controle da Alternaria solani na cultura do tomateiro na reg [...] ião de Lavras (MG). O experimento foi desenvolvido na Universidade Federal de Lavras - Departamento de Agricultura, no período de novembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 10 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada parcela composta por 12 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas com um pulverizador costal manual (45 lbf/pol2), volume de aplicação de 800 L•ha-1, totalizando sete aplicações, com intervalos de sete dias. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações para a severidade foliar da doença com o uso de escala diagramática. Todos os fungicidas apresentaram potencial de controle da pinta-preta dentro das características inerentes ao seu grupo químico. Os melhores níveis de controle foram obtidos com os tratamentos Chlorothalonil 500 g•L-1 + Tetraconazole 20 g•L-1 (dosagem 200 mL•100 L-1), Chlorothalonil 400 g•L-1+ Oxicloreto de Cobre 420 g•kg-1 e Chlorothalonil 750 g•kg-1 + Tetraconazole 20 g•kg-1 (dosagem 150 g•100 L-1). Tetraconazole 100 g•L-1 proporcionou os menores níveis de controle. Abstract in english The early blight disease on tomato, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is referred to in importance due its destructive power, under conditions of high temperature and humidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various fungicides in your control in the region of Lavras-MG, Braz [...] il. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agriculture in the period from November 2004 to January 2005. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 10 treatments and four replications, each plot comprise 12 plants. The applications were made with a manual spray costal (45 lbf/pol2), volume for the application of 800 L•ha-1 and seven applications in an interval of seven days. Five evaluations were accomplished for the leaf severity of the disease with the use of a diagrammatic scale. All the fungicides presented potential for the control of early blight inside of the inherent characteristics in their chemical group. The best control levels were obtained with the treatments Chlorothalonyl 500 g•L-1 + Tetraconazol 20 g•L-1 (dosage 200 mL•100 L-1), Chlorothalonyl 400 g•L-1 + Copper oxychloride 420 g•kg-1 and Chlorothalonyl 750 g•kg-1 + Tetraconazol 20 g•kg-1 (dosage 150 g•100 L-1). Tetraconazol 100 g•L-1 provided the smallest control levels.

Fabrício, Silva Coelho; Marco Antônio, Rezende Alvarenga; Armindo, Bezerra Leão; Leandro, Rodrigues.

2011-06-01

247

CONTROLE DE ALTERNARIA SOLANI COM FUNGICIDAS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO CONTROL OF ALTERNARIA SOLANI WITH FUNGICIDES IN TOMATO PLANTS  

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Full Text Available A pinta-preta, causada pelo fungo Alternaria solani, caracteriza-se por ser uma importante e destrutiva doença da cultura do tomate, sob condições de alta temperatura e umidade. Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de diferentes fungicidas no controle da Alternaria solani na cultura do tomateiro na região de Lavras (MG. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Universidade Federal de Lavras - Departamento de Agricultura, no período de novembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 10 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada parcela composta por 12 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas com um pulverizador costal manual (45 lbf/pol2, volume de aplicação de 800 L•ha-1, totalizando sete aplicações, com intervalos de sete dias. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações para a severidade foliar da doença com o uso de escala diagramática. Todos os fungicidas apresentaram potencial de controle da pinta-preta dentro das características inerentes ao seu grupo químico. Os melhores níveis de controle foram obtidos com os tratamentos Chlorothalonil 500 g•L-1 + Tetraconazole 20 g•L-1 (dosagem 200 mL•100 L-1, Chlorothalonil 400 g•L-1+ Oxicloreto de Cobre 420 g•kg-1 e Chlorothalonil 750 g•kg-1 + Tetraconazole 20 g•kg-1 (dosagem 150 g•100 L-1. Tetraconazole 100 g•L-1 proporcionou os menores níveis de controle.The early blight disease on tomato, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is referred to in importance due its destructive power, under conditions of high temperature and humidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various fungicides in your control in the region of Lavras-MG, Brazil. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agriculture in the period from November 2004 to January 2005. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 10 treatments and four replications, each plot comprise 12 plants. The applications were made with a manual spray costal (45 lbf/pol2, volume for the application of 800 L•ha-1 and seven applications in an interval of seven days. Five evaluations were accomplished for the leaf severity of the disease with the use of a diagrammatic scale. All the fungicides presented potential for the control of early blight inside of the inherent characteristics in their chemical group. The best control levels were obtained with the treatments Chlorothalonyl 500 g•L-1 + Tetraconazol 20 g•L-1 (dosage 200 mL•100 L-1, Chlorothalonyl 400 g•L-1 + Copper oxychloride 420 g•kg-1 and Chlorothalonyl 750 g•kg-1 + Tetraconazol 20 g•kg-1 (dosage 150 g•100 L-1. Tetraconazol 100 g•L-1 provided the smallest control levels.

Fabrício Silva Coelho

2011-06-01

248

The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests. PMID:25529980

Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

2015-03-01

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EVALUACION DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTAGÓNICA DE TRECE AISLAMIENTOS DE Trichoderma spp. SOBRE Rhizoctonia sp. / EVALUATION OF THE ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF THIRTEEN Trichoderma spp. isolates ON Rhizoctonia sp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Tizón de la Vaina o mancha oriental, se considera la segunda enfermedad de importancia en Cuba y el mundo en el cultivo del arroz. Los métodos utilizados para su control aún no son efectivos; en la actualidad existe una tendencia al uso del Control Biológico, donde se reconoce la potencialidad de [...] Trichoderma, con resultados positivos como antagonista sobre Rhizoctonia y otros patógenos del suelo. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo seleccionar los aislamientos de Trichoderma promisorios en dependencia de su antagonismo in vitro y su eficacia en condiciones semicontroladas para el biocontrol de Rhizoctonia sp . El antagonismo se evaluó por el método del cultivo dual, donde se observó la competencia por el sustrato, micoparasitismo y la antibiosis . Se calculó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial (PICR) a las 96 horas. Los aislados que presentaron más de un 50 PICR y al menos dos tipos de interacción hifal se seleccionaron para el ensayo en condiciones semicontroladas donde se evaluó la eficacia técnica sobre el patógeno en bandejas de acero inoxidable de 0,30m². Los resultados mostraron que el 100% de los aislados presentaron alta capacidad antagónica, con diferentes tipos de interacción hifal : lisis, vacuolización , enrollamiento y penetración, p or lo que se pudieron seleccionar cinco aislados. De estos tres mostraron una efectividad técnica del 50% en condiciones semicontroladas . Los aislamientos 39, 56 y 78 resultaron promisorios para ser evaluados en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english The sheath blight or blot easterly is considered the second important disease on rice in Cuba and worldwide. The methods used to control this disease have not been effective and, at present, there is a tendency to use the biological control. Trichoderma is recognized as a potential antagonist of soi [...] l pathogens, with positive results as an antagonist to Rhizoctonia . The objective of this work was to select promising strains of Trichoderma spp . according to their in vitro antagonism and effectiveness to control Rhizoctonia sp. under semicontrolled conditions. Antagonism was evaluated using the dual culture method, where the competition for the substrate, mycoparasitism and antibiosis could be observed. The colony radial growth was measured with a graduated ruler and the inhibition percentage was calculated after 96 hours. Micoparasitism was also observed using an optic microscope with 400x magnification, where the interaction between strains was evaluated. Strains showing a radial growth inhibition higher than 50 % and at least two types of hyphae interaction were selected to be tested under semicontrolled conditions for evaluating the technical effectiveness on the pathogen in stainless steel trays of 0,30cm². The 100 % of the strains had high antagonism capabilities with different types of hyphal interactions, lysis , vacuolization, rolling, and penetration. Five strains were selected, three of them showing a technical effectiveness of 50% under semicontrolled conditions. Strains 39, 56 and 78 resulted promising to control the disease under field conditions.

Yusimy, Reyes; B, Martínez; Danay, Infante.

2008-08-01

250

Thresholds and management strategies for Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in greenhouse pepper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold (ET) were established for Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in greenhouse pepper, Capsicum annuum L. The high toxicity of the salivary secretion of A. solani produces deformation and decoloration of leaves, complete plant defoliation, and unmarketable deformed fruits at high densities. Low, high and null infestation rate treatments provided a broad range of population densities to determine the relationship between yield and the cumulative A. solani-days (CAD). In all infested compartments, A. solani reached a very high population density that eventually produced the complete defoliation of the plants and losses in total and marketable yield. At low A. solani density, pepper plants showed a tolerance response. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Gompertz equation were used to determine the relationship between yield and CAD. Both models explained a high proportion of the variance and described well the relationship between the two variables. However, GAM predicted the tolerance phase of the yield-CAD relationship more satisfactorily. The theoretical damage curve predicted by GAM describes a tolerance, compensation and a linearity part. EIL was estimated at 57 CAD. ET was established at 20 CAD to prevent aphid density from reaching EIL within the gap between sampling periods. PMID:17370819

Sanchez, J A; Cánovas, F; Lacasa, A

2007-02-01

251

Eggs of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Inhibit Growth of Phytophthora nicotianae and Fusarium solani in vitro.  

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In previous greenhouse and laboratory studies, citrus seedlings infested with the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans and later inoculated with the fungus Phylophthora nicotianae grew larger and contained less fungal protein in root tissues than plants infected by only the fungus, demonstrating antagonism of the nematode to the fungus. In this study, we determined whether eggs of the citrus nematode T. semipenetrans and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria affected mycelial growth of P. nicotianae and Fusarium solani in vitro. Approximately 35,000 live or heat-killed (60 degrees C, 10 minutes) eggs of each nematode species were surface-sterilized with cupric sulfate, mercuric chloride, and streptomycin sulfate and placed in 5-pl drops onto the center of nutrient agar plates. Nutrient agar plugs from actively growing colonies of P. nicotianae or F. solani were placed on top of the eggs for 48 hours after which fungal colony growth was determined. Live citrus nematode eggs suppressed mycelial growth of P. nicotianae and F. solani (P solani mycelial growth. The experiment demonstrated a species-specific, direct effect of the eggs of the citrus nematode on P, nicotianae and F. solani. PMID:19265943

El-Borai, F E; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H

2002-09-01

252

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons storage by Fusarium solani in intracellular lipid vesicles  

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Accumulation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the fungus Fusarium solani. When the fungus was grown on a synthetic medium containing benzo[a]pyrene, hyphae of F. solani contained numerous lipid vesicles which could be stained by the lipid-specific dyes: Sudan III and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence produced by Rhodamine B and PAH benzo[a]pyrene were at the same locations in the fungal hyphae, indicating that F. solani stored PAH in pre-existing lipid vesicles. A passive temperature-independent process is involved in the benzo[a]pyrene uptake and storage. Sodium azide, a cytochrome c oxidation inhibitor, and the two cytoskeleton inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin did not prevent the transport and accumulation of PAH in lipid vesicles of F. solani hyphae. F. solani degraded a large range of PAHs at different rates. PAH intracellular storage in lipid vesicles was not necessarily accompanied by degradation and was common to numerous other fungi. - Fungi can store PAHs intracellularly in lipid vesicles independently of their PAH degradation abilities.

Verdin, Anthony [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France); Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)]. E-mail: lounes@univ-littoral.fr; Newsam, Ray [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Robinson, Gary [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Durand, Roger [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)

2005-01-01

253

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons storage by Fusarium solani in intracellular lipid vesicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the fungus Fusarium solani. When the fungus was grown on a synthetic medium containing benzo[a]pyrene, hyphae of F. solani contained numerous lipid vesicles which could be stained by the lipid-specific dyes: Sudan III and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence produced by Rhodamine B and PAH benzo[a]pyrene were at the same locations in the fungal hyphae, indicating that F. solani stored PAH in pre-existing lipid vesicles. A passive temperature-independent process is involved in the benzo[a]pyrene uptake and storage. Sodium azide, a cytochrome c oxidation inhibitor, and the two cytoskeleton inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin did not prevent the transport and accumulation of PAH in lipid vesicles of F. solani hyphae. F. solani degraded a large range of PAHs at different rates. PAH intracellular storage in lipid vesicles was not necessarily accompanied by degradation and was common to numerous other fungi. - Fungi can store PAHs intracellularly in lipid vesicles independently of their PAH degradation abilities

254

Multinucleate Rhizoctonia sp.: Pathogen of sugar beet and susceptibility of cultivars under field conditions  

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Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot has severely occurred in our country recently, especially in localities of Pazova, Pe?inci, Ruma, Sremska Mitrovica and Šid. From diseased roots as well as from soil collected from the localities where decay occurred, fungal isolates were obtained by bait plant method. Based on their characteristics, they were identified as multinucleate Rhizoctonia sp. During the year of 2004 in Mitrosrem trial field T-11, where the presence of multinucleate Rhizoctonia sp. was confirmed, an experiment under the coordination of Committee for Acknowledgement and Registration of New Cultivars in our country was conducted in order to determine cultivars' tolerance, i.e. their susceptibility and possibility for growing on infested fields. Six cultivars of sugar beet, Laetitia (as standard and five new ones were included in the investigation. The trial was conducted in accordance with the established and accepted method (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Resources, Republic of Serbia. Susceptibility of investigated cultivars was evaluated according to significant production characteristics root yield, sugar content, corrected sugar content, thick juice Q, molasses sugar, content of K, Na and amino-N, polarized sugar yield and white sugar yield, as it was recommended by the method. Conducted investigations have revealed that tested sugar beet cultivars showed different reactions to natural infection with multinucleate Rhizoctonia sp. Concerning root yield as the most important agricultural characteristic, statistically significantly higher yield was obtained with the cultivar under code mark 5 (61.120 kg/ha whereas the cultivar marked under code 6 had significantly lower yield comparing to the standard (38.100 kg/ha.

Vico Ivana M.

2006-01-01

255

Preparation of Somatic Antigen from Fusarium Solani for Serological Diagnosis of Fusariosis  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fusariosis is one of the most important systemic mycosis, often caused by Fusarium Solani and resist to antifungal drugs. The appropriate F. Solani antigen preparation could be useful in serodiagnosis of fusariosis. Materials & Methods : The extraction procedure was preformed using F.Solani strain 7419 UAMH. The antigenic extract was obtained through grinding of fungal mass yielding from broth culture medium. Results : Following fractionation of somatic antigen, two different component, that is, crude antigen as well as antigenic fractions (12,28 were collected. The antigenic fractions in comparison with the crude antigen, demonstrated more effective antibody responses using ELISA method. Conclusion: Availability of a suitable antigenic source could play a key role for serologic detecting of opportunistic fungal disease including fusariosis. Injection of this antigenic preparation in Rabbit resulted antibody response.

M.R. Aghamirian

2005-10-01

256

Biochemical evaluation of resistance responses of potato to different isolates of Alternaria solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance phenotypes of nine potato cultivars to five isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied after inoculation and growth under greenhouse conditions. We identified potato cultivars with both susceptible and resistant phenotypes as well as A. solani isolates with varying degrees of aggressiveness. Two potato cultivars and two pathogen isolates were selected for biochemical analysis of phenol production and peroxidase activity after inoculation. Phenol compounds were evaluated 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after inoculation, while peroxidase activities were monitored daily for 10 days. Native polyacrylamide electrophoresis was used to identify one protein with peroxidase activity in extracts taken 6 days after inoculation. Significantly higher peroxidase activity as well as total phenol content in potato was correlated with resistance in the Iranian potato cultivar Diamond. Variability of responses within the same cultivar to different isolates of A. solani suggests genotypic diversity between isolates that results in phenotypic diversity for pathogen aggressiveness. PMID:20373966

Shahbazi, Hadis; Aminian, Heshmatollah; Sahebani, Navazollah; Halterman, Dennis A

2010-05-01

257

Biocontrol of Sugarbeet Pathogen Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. by Streptomyces aureofaciens  

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Full Text Available The potential of microbial antagonism was explored in the control of sugarbeet Fusarium disease. The in vitro studies showed that a 70% concentration of the culture filtrate of S. aureofaciens significantly inhibited the spore germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium solani. The in vivo studies involved different treatments. Seed coating treatment was the most effective in controlling F. solani at all cultivation periods in all the three-sugarbeet cultivars Raspoly, TOP and Tribel. The former cultivar showed the highest growth response compared with the other two cultivars. Soil pre-inoculation was less effective whereas seed-soaking treatment was the least effective in this respect.

Tarek A. A. Moussa

2002-01-01

258

First Report of Antifungal Spectra of Activity of Iranian Actinomycetes Strains Against Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora megasperma, Verticillium dahliae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available This is the first report of antifungal activity of Iranian Actinomycetes isolates against Alternaria solani Sorauer, Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc., Phytophthora megasperma Drechsler, Verticillium dahliae Klebahn and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex Hansen. Biological control of plant diseases has received worldwide attention in recent years mainly as a response to public concern about the use of hazardous chemicals in the environment. Soil Actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of soil-borne plant pathogens. In search for soil Actinomycetes having antifungal activity against plant fungal-pathogens, 110 isolates were screened from which 14 isolates were found active at least against one of the tested fungi. Streptomyces plicatus strain101, Frankia sp. strain 103 and Streptomyces sp. strain 44 had the widest antifungal spectra of activity. Antifungal genes from these strains may be proper candidates for genetic engineering of plants for increased tolerance against the tested cosmopolitan fungal pathogens.

S. Aghighi

2004-01-01

259

Produção de enzimas extracelulares por Fusarium solani de maracujazeiro amarelo Production of extracellular enzymes by Fusarium solani from yellow passion fruit  

OpenAIRE

Uma das principais doenças do maracujazeiro, na maioria dos estados produtores do Brasil, é a podridão do colo, causada por Fusarium solani. Pouco se sabe a respeito da fisiologia deste patógeno do maracujazeiro amarelo, principalmente quanto à produção de enzimas extracelulares. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar, em meios de cultura individuais e apropriados, a produção das enzimas extracelulares amilase, lipase, celulase, proteases (caseinase e gelatinase), lacase (oxid...

César Júnior Bueno; Ivan Herman Fischer; Daniel Dias Rosa; Edson Luiz Furtado

2009-01-01

260

Natural occurrence of the Fusarium solani on Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1876) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) Ocorrência natural de Fusarium solani em Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1876) (Scorpions: Buthidae)  

OpenAIRE

Members of the Fusarium solani species complex are agents of human mycoses, also affecting plants and other animals. Nevertheless, this fungus has not been reported on scorpions. Ten specimens of Tityus stigmurus collected in the field and showing their surface covered by white mycelia were used to assess fungus presence in the animal after its death. Identification of the fungi was based upon the cultural and morphological characteristics. The fungus was isolated from chelicerae and interseg...

Pl, Santana-neto; Cmr, Albuquerque; App, Silva; Vm, Svedese; Eala, Lima

2010-01-01

261

Análise de restrição de DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA) pode diferenciar Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli de F. solani f. sp. glycines  

OpenAIRE

Métodos moleculares têm sido utilizados para caracterizar a diversidade entre isolados de Fusarium spp. patogênicos e não patogênicos a uma cultura e, para determinar relações genéticas entre formae speciales. Testes de patogenicidade realizados em soja (Glycine max) e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) com 17 isolados de Fusarium solani não demonstraram especificidade de hospedeiros. Utilizou-se a técnica ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) para analisar a região ITS1...

Oliveira Virgi?nia, C.; Da, Costa Jefferson L. S.

2002-01-01

262

Posibilidades del antagonista Trichoderma harzianum PARA EL manejo del “tizon temprano” (Alternaria solani Sor) en papa  

OpenAIRE

Se realizaron pruebas de laboratorio y de campo para evaluar las posibilidades del antagonista Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) como biorregulador del hongo Alternaria solani Sor, en el cultivo de la papa. Se consideró como factor de estudio la Protección fitosanitaria, definiéndose la Protección Química como testigo estándar y la Protección Biológica a base de aplicaci...

Marialys Trujillo Albelo; Moisés Figueroa Hernández; Odalys Corbea Suárez; Manuel Pérez Quintana; Neysi Avila

2010-01-01

263

OPTIMIZATION OF XYLANASE PRODUCTION FROM FREE AND IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF FUSARIUM SOLANI F7  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to characterize a xylanase-producing Fusarium solani isolate and to optimize cultural conditions for xylanase enzyme production from free and immobilized cells. Screening of Fusarium solani isolate was based on the diameter of the clear zone formation in oat spelt xylan agar plates. Fusarium solani isolate F7 was selected and optimized for xylanase enzyme production using cheaper substrates such as wheat straw, rice straw, rice bran, and wood husk. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in wheat straw (78.32 U ml-1 for free cells and 94.68 U ml-1 for immobilized cells. Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were found to be 5.5 and 30°C at 3% substrate concentration for free cells and 5.0 and 30°C at 3% substrate concentration for immobilized cells. In the purification step, 75% ammonium sulphate saturation was found to be suitable, giving maximum xylanase activity. Production of xylanase was greater from immobilized cells than from free cells. Purified xylanase from free cells yielded a single band with a molecular weight of 89kDa, while it was 92.8kDa for immobilized cells. The use of wheat straw as a major carbon source is particularly valuable, because oat spelt xylan is very expensive. The Fusarium solani F7 isolate proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

Vijai Kumar Gupta

2009-08-01

264

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. PMID:7217337

Cuero, R G

1980-09-01

265

Mycetoma of the Foot Caused by Fusarium solani: Identification of the Etiologic Agent by DNA Sequencing  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of Fusarium solani mycetoma of the foot that could not be diagnosed by culture, but was correctly identified after amplification and sequence analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and 5.8S ribosomal DNA regions.

Yera, H.; Bougnoux, M. E.; Jeanrot, C.; Baixench, M. T.; Pinieux, G.; Dupouy-camet, J.

2003-01-01

266

In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Activities of Antifungal Agents against Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective.

Guarro, J.; Pujol, I.; Mayayo, E.

1999-01-01

267

Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

El-banna, A. A.; Scott, P. M.; Lau, P. Y.; Sakuma, T.; Platt, H. W.; Campbell, V.

1984-01-01

268

Universal In Vitro Antifungal Resistance of Genetic Clades of the Fusarium solani Species Complex?  

OpenAIRE

Eleven antifungal drugs were tested against representative isolates of the four phylogenetic clades of the Fusarium solani species complex obtained in a multilocus sequence analysis. They all showed very poor activity, with no differences among the clades. Amphotericin B was the most active drug.

Azor, Mo?nica; Gene?, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Guarro, Josep

2007-01-01

269

Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium  

Science.gov (United States)

Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

270

Atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de Alternaria solani e a relação com a agressividade em tomateiro / Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of Alternaria solani and aggressiveness in tomato plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de 45 isolados de Alternaria solani, provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros, foram estimadas por meio da difusão enzimática em meio sólido específico e mensuração do halo de degradação do substrato. Todos os isolados degradaram pectina. Apenas 17 isolados ap [...] resentaram atividade amilolítica, sendo nove isolados provenientes de batateira. Somente o isolado AS18 se destacou como bom produtor de ambas as enzimas. Uma vez que a atividade pectinolítica foi mais evidente, avaliou-se a influência de pectinases na agressividade de A. solani ao tomateiro. Para isso, cinco isolados (2 de berinjela, 2 de tomateiro e 1 de batateira) contrastantes quanto à produção de pectinases foram selecionados para testes em folíolos destacados e plantas inteiras. Quatro isolados foram utilizados no teste em folíolos destacados (AS6, AS7, AS12 e AS26), e constatou-se haver variabilidade patogênica. A correlação obtida entre o tamanho das lesões e a atividade pectinolítica foi de r = 0,963 (P = 0,087). Cinco isolados (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25 e AS26) foram inoculados em plantas inteiras de tomate. Os isolados não diferiram quanto ao número de lesões/cm² de área foliar, porém variaram em agressividade. Houve correlação (r = 0,916; P = 0,042) entre a atividade de pectinases e o índice de doença, sugerindo possível papel para as enzimas pécticas durante a infecção de A. solani em tomateiro. É provável que as diferenças no perfil enzimático dos isolados estejam associadas ao hospedeiro original de onde os mesmos foram obtidos. Os resultados reforçaram evidências de especificidade por hospedeiro em populações de A. solani. Abstract in english Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of 45 isolates of Alternaria solani from distinct hosts were investigated. Enzyme secretion was evaluated in glucose-free medium amended with pectin or starch as carbon source. All isolates degraded pectin. Only 17 isolates had amilolytic activity, and nine of [...] these isolates were isolated from potato. Only AS18 had good amilolytic and pectinolytic activities. The role of pectinases produced by A. solani in its aggressiveness on tomato was examined. Five isolates showing substantial differences regarding the ability to produce pectic enzymes were selected, two from eggplant, two from tomato plants, and one from potato plant. Four isolates (AS6, AS7, AS12, and AS26) were inoculated on detached leaflets of tomato and pectinolytic activity was correlated with lesion size (r = 0.963; P = 0.087). Pathogenicity test with five isolates (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25, and AS26) was conducted in tomato plants. Variation in the number of lesions per cm² of leaf area was not detected, but isolates varied in aggressiveness. Pectinolytic activity and aggressiveness were correlated (r = 0.916; P = 0.042). In general, pectinases-producing isolates caused larger lesions on tomato plants. It is possible that enzymatic profile differences are associated with the host origin. The results contribute to cumulative evidences of host specificity in populations of A. solani.

Carlos Eduardo, Marchi; Mirian de Freitas, Borges; Eduardo Seiti Gomide, Mizubuti.

2006-09-01

271

Atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de Alternaria solani e a relação com a agressividade em tomateiro Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of Alternaria solani and aggressiveness in tomato plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de 45 isolados de Alternaria solani, provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros, foram estimadas por meio da difusão enzimática em meio sólido específico e mensuração do halo de degradação do substrato. Todos os isolados degradaram pectina. Apenas 17 isolados apresentaram atividade amilolítica, sendo nove isolados provenientes de batateira. Somente o isolado AS18 se destacou como bom produtor de ambas as enzimas. Uma vez que a atividade pectinolítica foi mais evidente, avaliou-se a influência de pectinases na agressividade de A. solani ao tomateiro. Para isso, cinco isolados (2 de berinjela, 2 de tomateiro e 1 de batateira contrastantes quanto à produção de pectinases foram selecionados para testes em folíolos destacados e plantas inteiras. Quatro isolados foram utilizados no teste em folíolos destacados (AS6, AS7, AS12 e AS26, e constatou-se haver variabilidade patogênica. A correlação obtida entre o tamanho das lesões e a atividade pectinolítica foi de r = 0,963 (P = 0,087. Cinco isolados (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25 e AS26 foram inoculados em plantas inteiras de tomate. Os isolados não diferiram quanto ao número de lesões/cm² de área foliar, porém variaram em agressividade. Houve correlação (r = 0,916; P = 0,042 entre a atividade de pectinases e o índice de doença, sugerindo possível papel para as enzimas pécticas durante a infecção de A. solani em tomateiro. É provável que as diferenças no perfil enzimático dos isolados estejam associadas ao hospedeiro original de onde os mesmos foram obtidos. Os resultados reforçaram evidências de especificidade por hospedeiro em populações de A. solani.Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of 45 isolates of Alternaria solani from distinct hosts were investigated. Enzyme secretion was evaluated in glucose-free medium amended with pectin or starch as carbon source. All isolates degraded pectin. Only 17 isolates had amilolytic activity, and nine of these isolates were isolated from potato. Only AS18 had good amilolytic and pectinolytic activities. The role of pectinases produced by A. solani in its aggressiveness on tomato was examined. Five isolates showing substantial differences regarding the ability to produce pectic enzymes were selected, two from eggplant, two from tomato plants, and one from potato plant. Four isolates (AS6, AS7, AS12, and AS26 were inoculated on detached leaflets of tomato and pectinolytic activity was correlated with lesion size (r = 0.963; P = 0.087. Pathogenicity test with five isolates (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25, and AS26 was conducted in tomato plants. Variation in the number of lesions per cm² of leaf area was not detected, but isolates varied in aggressiveness. Pectinolytic activity and aggressiveness were correlated (r = 0.916; P = 0.042. In general, pectinases-producing isolates caused larger lesions on tomato plants. It is possible that enzymatic profile differences are associated with the host origin. The results contribute to cumulative evidences of host specificity in populations of A. solani.

Carlos Eduardo Marchi

2006-09-01

272

Pathogenicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Seed-before Fusarium solani (Mart. Appel and Wollenw. Emend. Snyd and Hans Strains  

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Full Text Available Eight strain/isolates of seed-borne Fusarium solani tested for pathogenicity on sunflower, sesame, tomato, wheat and millet showed variations in pathogenicity in in vitro on test host. Some strains were found pahtogen in their original host while some isolates showed pathogenicity on other host with out causing rot on roots of their original host. Culture filtrates of these eight strains of F. solani also showed variation in antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Fusarium solani (roots isolates.

Shamim A. Qureshi

2003-01-01

273

Molecular diversity and evolutionary processes of Alternaria solani in Brazil inferred using genealogical and coalescent approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternaria spp. form a heterogeneous group of saprophytic and plant-pathogenic fungi widespread in temperate and tropical regions. However, the relationship between evolutionary processes and genetic diversity with epidemics is unknown for several plant-pathogenic Alternaria spp. The interaction of Alternaria solani populations with potato and tomato plants is an interesting case study for addressing questions related to molecular evolution of an asexual fungus. Gene genealogies based on the coalescent process were used to infer evolutionary processes that shape the A. solani population. Sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the genes which encode the allergenic protein alt a 1 (Alt a 1) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd) were used to estimate haplotype and nucleotide diversity as well as for the coalescent analyses. The highest number of parsimony informative sites (n = 14), nucleotide diversity (0.007), and the average number of nucleotide differences (3.20) were obtained for Alt a 1. Although the highest number of haplotypes (n = 7) was generated for ITS, haplotype diversity was the lowest (0.148) for this region. Recombination was not detected. Subdivision was inferred from populations associated with hosts but there was no evidence of geographic subdivision, and gene flow is occurring among subpopulations. In the analysis of the Alt a 1, balancing selection and population expansion or purifying selection could have occurred in A. solani subpopulations associated with potato and tomato plants, respectively. There is strong evidence that the subpopulation of A. solani that causes early blight in potato is genetically distinct from the subpopulation that causes early blight in tomato. The population of A. solani is clonal, and gene flow and mutation are the main evolutionary processes shaping its genetic structure. PMID:19453237

Lourenço, Valdir; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando; Carbone, Ignazio; Maffia, Luiz A; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G

2009-06-01

274

Basidiochrome -- a novel siderophore of the Orchidaceous Mycorrhizal Fungi Ceratobasidium and Rhizoctonia spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel trishydroxamate siderophore, named basidiochrome, was isolated as the principal siderophore from low-iron culture filtrates of Ceratobasidium and Rhizoctonia species which are known as mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchid roots. Ion-exchange chromatography and preparative HPLC yielded a pure compound which contained two components according to GC-MS analysis: L: -N(5)-hydroxy-ornithine and 3-methyl-2-cis-pentenedioic acid (3-methyl-cis-glutaconic acid). FTICR-ESI-MS of both the iron-free and ferric form indicated an elemental composition of C(33)H(47)N(6)O(16)Fe (MW = 839) for the ferric form of basidiochrome. The connectivity was further elucidated by 2D-NMR techniques (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) indicating that basidiochrome is a novel linear tripeptide consisting of three L: -N(5)-hydroxy-ornithines each linked to 3-methyl-2-cis-pentenedioic acid residues. PMID:16799871

Haselwandter, K; Passler, V; Reiter, S; Schmid, D G; Nicholson, G; Hentschel, P; Albert, K; Winkelmann, G

2006-06-01

275

Seleção de antagonistas fúngicos a Fusarium solani e Fusarium oxysporum em substrato comercial para mudas Selection of fungi antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in commercial substrate for seedlings  

OpenAIRE

Testes in vitro são geralmente utilizados para a seleção inicial de agentes de biocontrole contra fungos de solo, faltando metodologias que utilizem solo e/ou substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a seleção massal de isolados fúngicos antagônicos a F. solani e F. oxysporum em substrato comercial para mudas. Foram realizados dois experimentos com os patógenos F. solani e F. oxysporum e com 98 possíveis antagonistas fúngicos, dos gêneros Penicillium claviforme, Penicilliu...

Luciana Zago Ethur; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Maria Georgina Veiga Flores

2007-01-01

276

Compatibilidade vegetativa de nit-mutantes de Fusarium solani patogênicos e não-patogênicos ao feijoeiro e à soja Nit-mutant vegetative compatibility of Fusarium solani pathogenic and non pathogenic to dry-bean and soybean  

OpenAIRE

Este trabalho objetivou determinar o grau de relacionamento entre 18 isolados de Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli e F. solani f. sp. glycines. A maioria destes isolados (14) demonstrou inespecificidade de hospedeiro sendo patogênicos ao feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) e a soja (Glycine max). Grupos de compatibilidade vegetativa de nit-mutantes destes isolados foram então determinados. Utilizou-se, como indutor de mutação, o clorato de potássio (KClO3), sendo estes nit-mutantes justapostos ...

Oliveira, Virgi?nia C.; Da Costa, Jefferson L. S.

2003-01-01

277

Genetic variability within Fusarium solani specie as revealed by PCR-fingerprinting based on pcr markers Variabilidade genética em espécies de Fusarium solani revelada pela técnica de impressão genética baseada em marcadores PCR  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani fungus (teleomorph Haematonectria haematococca) is of relevance for agriculture, producing a disease that causes significant losses for many cultivars. Moreover, F. solani is an opportunistic pathogen to animals and humans. The complexity associated to its correct identification by traditional methods justifies the efforts of using molecular markers for isolates characterization. In this work, three PCR-based methods (one PCR-ribotyping and two PCR-fingerprinting) were used to...

Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente Brasileiro; Maria Raquel Moura Coimbra; Marcos Antonio de Morais Jr; Neiva Tinti de Oliveira

2004-01-01

278

Enanismo y podredumbre basal de eustoma grandiflorum y su relación con la densidad de fusarium solani en el suelo Stunt and basal rot of Eustoma grandiflorum and its relationship with Fusarium solani density in the soil  

OpenAIRE

En cultivos comerciales de lisianthus de La Plata y alrededores (Argentina), se observó que Fusarium solani afecta al 100% de los establecimientos productivos provocando enanismo y podredumbre basal. Se realizó un ensayo para analizar la densidad de F. solani del suelo bajo el efecto de distintos tratamientos y relacionarla con la evolución de ambas patologías. Los análisis del suelo se hicieron en 3 épocas: antes del transplante (octubre), al inicio (enero) y al final (marzo) de la flo...

Wolcan, Silvia M.; Lori, Gladys A.; LIA RONCO; Mitidieri, Adria?n F.; ROBERTO FERNÁNDEZ

2001-01-01

279

Pathogenicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Seed-before Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel and Wollenw. Emend. Snyd and Hans Strains  

OpenAIRE

Eight strain/isolates of seed-borne Fusarium solani tested for pathogenicity on sunflower, sesame, tomato, wheat and millet showed variations in pathogenicity in in vitro on test host. Some strains were found pahtogen in their original host while some isolates showed pathogenicity on other host with out causing rot on roots of their original host. Culture filtrates of these eight strains of F. solani also showed variation in antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subt...

Qureshi, Shamim A.; Rubina Riaz; Viqar Sultana; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Jehan Ara

2003-01-01

280

Antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai sobre Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., asociado a la marchitez en maracuyá  

OpenAIRE

Cultivos de maracuyá de la región Caribe colombiana presentan problemas de marchitez y el hongo Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., está asociado a esta patología. Plantas de maracuyá de la Estación Experimental (E.E Caribia de Corpoica) poseen este problema y por tal razón se determinó el antagonismo in vitro de aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, frente a F. solani, aislado de plantas enfermas de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis). Utilizando la técnica de cultivo dual en platos ...

Carol Libeth Suárez Meza; Reinel José Fernández Barbosa; Nelson Osvaldo Valero; Rocío Margarita Gámez Carrillo; Alberto Rafael Páez Redondo

2009-01-01

281

Frequency and pathogenicity of fusarium wilts (Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum in Adamawa in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cotton fungi were surveyed in Ngurore, Adamawa, Nigeria in 1992 and 1993 by counting the number of isolates in each 100 infested plants per plot. Approximately 90% of the isolated fungi were Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti, both pathogenic; F. solani isolates were more virulent and frequent than F. equiseti. The high frequency and virulence of both fungi make them important pathogens of cotton in the area.

I. B. Chimbekujwo

2000-03-01

282

Recurrent Colonization of Successively Implanted Tracheoesophageal Vocal Prostheses by a Member of the Fusarium solani Species Complex  

OpenAIRE

Tracheoesophageal vocal prostheses (TVP) in laryngectomized patients commonly deteriorate due to overgrowth by yeasts, particularly Candida species. We describe the first case of colonization of such devices by a member of the Fusarium solani species complex in a patient with a history of glottal carcinoma. Three isolates, from three prostheses, were found morphologically consistent with the traditional picture of F. solani. Ribosomal sequence analysis showed that the isolates belonged to a d...

Honraet, K.; Vos, M. M.; Summerbell, R. C.; Kempen, I.; Saeger, S.; Vermeersch, H.; Peteghem, C.; Nelis, H. J.

2005-01-01

283

Frequency and pathogenicity of fusarium wilts (Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in Adamawa in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Cotton fungi were surveyed in Ngurore, Adamawa, Nigeria in 1992 and 1993 by counting the number of isolates in each 100 infested plants per plot. Approximately 90% of the isolated fungi were Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti, both pathogenic; F. solani isolates were more virulent and frequent than F. equiseti. The high frequency and virulence of both fungi make them important pathogens of cotton in the area.

Chimbekujwo, I. B.

2000-01-01

284

Enanismo y podredumbre basal de eustoma grandiflorum y su relación con la densidad de fusarium solani en el suelo  

OpenAIRE

En cultivos comerciales de lisianthus de La Plata y alrededores (Argentina), se observó que Fusarium solani afecta al 100% de los establecimientos productivos provocando enanismo y podredumbre basal. Se realizó un ensayo para analizar la densidad de F. solani del suelo bajo el efecto de distintos tratamientos y relacionarla con la evolución de ambas patologías. Los análisis del suelo se hicieron en 3 épocas: antes del transplante (octubre), al inicio (enero) y al final (marzo) de la flo...

Wolcan Silvia, M.; Lori Gladys, A.; RONCO LIA; Mitidieri Adria?n, F.; FERNÁNDEZ ROBERTO

2001-01-01

285

Seleção de antagonistas fúngicos a Fusarium solani e Fusarium oxysporum em substrato comercial para mudas / Selection of fungi antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in commercial substrate for seedlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Testes in vitro são geralmente utilizados para a seleção inicial de agentes de biocontrole contra fungos de solo, faltando metodologias que utilizem solo e/ou substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a seleção massal de isolados fúngicos antagônicos a F. solani e F. oxysporum em substrato c [...] omercial para mudas. Foram realizados dois experimentos com os patógenos F. solani e F. oxysporum e com 98 possíveis antagonistas fúngicos, dos gêneros Penicillium claviforme, Penicillium, Aspergillus e Cladosporium. A suspensão dos patógenos foi inserida no substrato, em copos plásticos, sendo acrescentada, cinco dias depois, a suspensão dos demais fungos. Avaliou-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônia de F. solani e F. oxysporum por grama de substrato após nove dias. Dos 98 isolados utilizados contra F. solani, 43 % não diferiram da testemunha e 57% reduziram o seu desenvolvimento em substrato, sendo que os três melhores isolados fúngicos foram do gênero Penicillium claviforme. Os três isolados de Penicillium claviforme selecionados para F. solani também foram eficientes para F. oxysporum. Abstract in english Tests in vitro are usually used for the initial selection of biocontrol agents against soil fungi, lacking methodologies using soil and/or substrate. The objective of this research was to accomplish the mass selection of fungi isolates antagonistic to F. solani and F. oxysporum in commercial substra [...] te for seedlings. Two experiments were conducted, with the pathogens F. solani and F. oxysporum, and 98 possible antagonistic fungi of the genera Penicillium claviforme, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. The suspension of the pathogens was inoculated in the substrate, in plastic cups, and the suspension of the other fungi was added five days later. The number of colony-forming unit of F. solani and F. oxysporum/g of substrate was counted after nine days. Of the 98 isolates used against F. solani, 43% did not differ from the control, and 57% reduced its development in the substrate, with the three best isolates belonging to the genus Penicillium claviforme. The three isolates of Penicillium claviforme selected for F. solani were also efficient against F. oxysporum.

Luciana Zago, Ethur; Elena, Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião, Muniz; Maria Georgina Veiga, Flores.

1801-18-01

286

Seleção de antagonistas fúngicos a Fusarium solani e Fusarium oxysporum em substrato comercial para mudas Selection of fungi antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in commercial substrate for seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Testes in vitro são geralmente utilizados para a seleção inicial de agentes de biocontrole contra fungos de solo, faltando metodologias que utilizem solo e/ou substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a seleção massal de isolados fúngicos antagônicos a F. solani e F. oxysporum em substrato comercial para mudas. Foram realizados dois experimentos com os patógenos F. solani e F. oxysporum e com 98 possíveis antagonistas fúngicos, dos gêneros Penicillium claviforme, Penicillium, Aspergillus e Cladosporium. A suspensão dos patógenos foi inserida no substrato, em copos plásticos, sendo acrescentada, cinco dias depois, a suspensão dos demais fungos. Avaliou-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônia de F. solani e F. oxysporum por grama de substrato após nove dias. Dos 98 isolados utilizados contra F. solani, 43 % não diferiram da testemunha e 57% reduziram o seu desenvolvimento em substrato, sendo que os três melhores isolados fúngicos foram do gênero Penicillium claviforme. Os três isolados de Penicillium claviforme selecionados para F. solani também foram eficientes para F. oxysporum.Tests in vitro are usually used for the initial selection of biocontrol agents against soil fungi, lacking methodologies using soil and/or substrate. The objective of this research was to accomplish the mass selection of fungi isolates antagonistic to F. solani and F. oxysporum in commercial substrate for seedlings. Two experiments were conducted, with the pathogens F. solani and F. oxysporum, and 98 possible antagonistic fungi of the genera Penicillium claviforme, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. The suspension of the pathogens was inoculated in the substrate, in plastic cups, and the suspension of the other fungi was added five days later. The number of colony-forming unit of F. solani and F. oxysporum/g of substrate was counted after nine days. Of the 98 isolates used against F. solani, 43% did not differ from the control, and 57% reduced its development in the substrate, with the three best isolates belonging to the genus Penicillium claviforme. The three isolates of Penicillium claviforme selected for F. solani were also efficient against F. oxysporum.

Luciana Zago Ethur

2007-12-01

287

Characterization of Bacteria That Suppress Rhizoctonia Damping-Off in Bark Compost Media by Analysis of Fatty Acid Biomarkers  

OpenAIRE

Examination of cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in bark compost media and of the surrounding edaphic substrate showed profiles of polar lipid fatty acids commonly found in bacteria. The composition of fatty acids in these profiles differed significantly between roots grown in a medium naturally suppressive to Rhizoctonia damping-off and roots from a conducive medium. Cucumber roots from the suppressive medium had higher proportions of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 ? 7c) and the iso-branch...

Tunlid, A.; Hoitink, H. A. J.; Low, C.; White, D. C.

1989-01-01

288

Use of SCAR-PCR in diagnostics of stem base pathogens of the Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula genus  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the paper is to compare the efficacy of SCAR-PCR assay and conventional diagnostic technique (visual assessment, isolation on PDA medium) in the identification of fungi from the genera Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula from winter triticale, rye, and barley during the shooting stage. The usefulness of molecular diagnosis of fungal pathogens in crop plants has been demonstrated. The application of SCAR- -PCR assay allowed early detection of the following pathogens: O. yal...

Grzegorz Lema?czyk

2011-01-01

289

LA SARNA PLATEADA (Helminthosporium solani (DUR. & MONT., UNA ENFERMEDAD DE CRECIENTE IMPORTANCIA EN PAPA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre la enfermedad de la sarna plateada y su agente causal Helminthosporium solani (Dur. & Mont. en el cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.. Desde hace 15 años, esta enfermedad juega un papel cada vez más importante en la producción de este tubérculo. Esta revisión abarca la importancia económica de la enfermedad, su detección en los tubérculos y en el suelo, y su aislamiento. También se desarrolla el tema del ciclo de vida de H. solani, el cual todavía no se conoce por completo. Además, se incluye el control de la sarna plateada mediante fungicidas, prácticas del manejo del cultivo en el campo y en almacenamiento, uso de antagonistas y a través de la mejora genética.

Lili Marijke Hofmann

2009-01-01

290

Antifungal Activity of (KWn or (RWn Peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of lysine (Lys or arginine (Arg and tryptophan (Trp are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg and Trp repeats [(KW and RWn-NH2, where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5 strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum, at 4–32 ?M. Furthermore, longer peptides displayed potent fungicidal activities against a variety of agronomical important filamentous fungi, including F. solani and F. oxysporum, at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. However, RW series peptides showed slightly higher fungicidal activities than KW peptides against the two strains. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that these short peptides would be good candidates for use as synthetic or transgenic antifungal agents.

Yoonkyung Park

2012-11-01

291

Análise de restrição de DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA) pode diferenciar Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli de F. solani f. sp. glycines Restriction analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) can differentiate Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli from F. solani f. sp. glycines  

OpenAIRE

Métodos moleculares têm sido utilizados para caracterizar a diversidade entre isolados de Fusarium spp. patogênicos e não patogênicos a uma cultura e, para determinar relações genéticas entre formae speciales. Testes de patogenicidade realizados em soja (Glycine max) e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) com 17 isolados de Fusarium solani não demonstraram especificidade de hospedeiros. Utilizou-se a técnica ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) para analisar a região ITS1...

Oliveira, Virgi?nia C.; Da Costa, Jefferson L. S.

2002-01-01

292

Mezzi innovativi nella difesa delle cucurbitacee da Fusarium solani f.sp. cucurbitae  

OpenAIRE

Lo studio “Lotta biologica a Fusarium solani f.sp. cucurbitae su zucchino” si colloca nell’ambito della difesa integrata delle colture orticole dalle fitopatie fungine, in particolare quelle causate da patogeni ad habitat terricolo nei confronti dei quali è sempre più frequente il ricorso a mezzi di lotta diversi dai prodotti chimici. Interessante e innovativa appare la prospettiva di utilizzare microrganismi adatti a svilupparsi nel suolo, competenti per la rizosfer...

Sigala, Cristian

2008-01-01

293

Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Fusarium solani in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta L.).  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium solani was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in an injured sea turtle collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The turtle was treated with both a topical 10% solution of iodine in alcohol and ketoconazole. The source of the causal agent was traced to the sand in the tank in which the turtle was maintained. The strain was only sensitive in vitro to amphotericin B and was resistant to 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole.

Caban?es, F. J.; Alonso, J. M.; Castella?, G.; Alegre, F.; Domingo, M.; Pont, S.

1997-01-01

294

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

OpenAIRE

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungu...

Cuero, R. G.

1980-01-01

295

UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

296

Assessment of early blight (Alternaria solani) resistance in tomato using a droplet inoculation method  

OpenAIRE

A droplet inoculation method was used for evaluation of tomato resistance to early blight, a destructive foliar disease of tomato caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer. In this test method, leaflets are inoculated with small droplets of a spore suspension in either water or a 0.1% agar solution. Early blight resistance was evaluated based on lesion size. The droplet method better discriminated the level of resistance (P < 0.001) for a range of spore densities in comparison wi...

Chaerani, R.; Groenwold, R.; Stam, P.; Voorrips, R. E.

2006-01-01

297

QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.  

OpenAIRE

Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that has hampered effective breeding. In order to identify and estimate the effect of genes conditioning resistance to EB, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study was performed in F2 and F3 populati...

Chaerani, R.; Smulders, M. J. M.; Linden, C. G.; Vosman, B.; Stam, P.; Voorrips, R. E.

2007-01-01

298

Tomato early blight (Alternaria solani): the pathogen, genetics and breeding for resistance  

OpenAIRE

Alternaria solani causes diseases on foliage (early blight), basal stems of seedlings (collar rot), stems of adult plants (stem lesions), and fruits (fruit rot) of tomato. Early blight is the most destructive of these diseases and hence receives considerable attention in breeding. For over 60 years, breeding for early blight resistance has been practiced, but the development of cultivars with high levels of resistance has been hampered by the lack of sources of strong resistance in the cultiv...

Chaerani, R.; Voorrips, R. E.

2006-01-01

299

Salicylic Acid Induces Resistance to Alternaria solani in Hydroponically Grown Tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Alternaria solani is the causal agent of early blight disease in tomato and is responsible for significant economic losses sustained by tomato producers each year. Because salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion, we investigated if the exogenous application of SA would activate systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against A. solani in tomato leaves. The addition of 200 muM SA to the root system significantly increased the endogenous SA content of leaves. Free SA levels increased 65-fold over basal levels to 5.85 mug g(-1) fresh weight (FW) after 48 h. This level of SA had no visible phytotoxic effects. Total SA content (free SA + SA-glucose conjugate) increased to 108 mug g(-1) FW after 48 h. Concomitant with elevated SA levels, expression of the tomato pathogenesis-related (PR)-1B gene was strongly induced within 24 h of the addition of 200 muM SA. PR-1B expression was still evident after 48 h; however, PR-1B induction was not observed in plants not receiving SA treatment. Challenge inoculation of SA-treated tomato plants using conidia of A. solani resulted in 83% fewer lesions per leaf and a 77% reduction in blighted leaf area as compared with control plants not receiving SA. Our data indicate that root feeding 200 muM SA to tomato plants can (i) significantly elevate foliar SA levels, (ii) induce PR-1B gene expression, and (iii) activate SAR that is effective against A. solani. PMID:18944699

Spletzer, M E; Enyedi, A J

1999-09-01

300

In silico analysis and prioritization of drug targets in Fusarium solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotic keratitis has emerged as a major ophthalmic problem and a leading cause of blindness, since its recognition in 1879. Filamentous fungi are major causative of mycotic keratitis. In India, the main etiological organism responsible for mycotic keratitis is Aspergillus species followed by Fusarium species. In South India, Fusarium based keratitis scales up to 43%. Nearly one-third of mycotic keratitis treatment results in failure, as fungal infections are highly resistant to antibiotic therapies. Therefore, there is need to determine novel and specific targets to constrain Fusarium infections in human eye. In this study, we implemented subtractive proteomics coupled with in silico functional annotation to prioritize potential and specific drug targets which can be used to modulate the virulence of Fusarium solani subsp.pisi (Nectria haematococca MPVI). The results infer that Thiamine thiazole synthase (Thi4), an intracellular membrane bound protein as the potential target, which is a core protein in biological and metabolic process of this pathogen. Moreover, this protein occurs in the thiamine thiazole biosynthesis pathway which is unique to F.solani and devoid in human. Hence, we predicted a plausible structure for this protein and also performed ligand-binding cavity analysis which can be for a strong base for drug designing studies. This study will pave way in better understanding of potential drug targets in F.solani and also leading to therapeutic interventions of fungal keratitis. PMID:25555413

Sivashanmugam, Muthukumaran; Nagarajan, Hemavathy; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Ramasubban, Gayathri; Therese, Kulandai Lily; Hajib Narahari, Madhavan

2015-02-01

301

Efficacy and Safety of Some Plant Extracts against Tomato Early Blight Disease Caused by Alternaria solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to establish new control practices with low mammalian toxicity and low persistence in the environment against plant pathogens, crude extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea and Cassia fistula were evaluated against Alternaria solani in tomato under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the biologically active components of the most effective extract against A. solani. Moreover, the safety of the most effective extract was evaluated with respect to histological changes in treated rats organs. The results showed that, B. purpurea was most effective plant extract against early blight pathogen under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The GC-MS analysis for the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive chemical components than known by its antifungal activity. The most effective plant extract showed low toxicity on rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the using of plant extracts can be regarded as effective and safe control of A. solani in tomato.

A.B. El-Sayed

2011-01-01

302

Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one nar [...] rower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications.

Sofia, Palacios; Francisco, Casasnovas; María L., Ramirez; María. M., Reynoso; Adriana M., Torres.

1105-11-01

303

Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

2014-01-01

304

Variability among Alternaria solani isolates associated with early blight of tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability among isolates of Alternaria solani, the causal agent of early blight of tomato, from Northern and Southern parts of India was determined based on conidial morphology, pathogenicity tests and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques. The isolates varied with respect to size of conidia and number of septa. The average size of conidia varied from 150-224.9 microm x 12.4-17.2 microm. The number of horizontal (4-14), vertical (0-3) and beak (0-8) septa also varied among the isolates. The test isolates differed in the virulence pattern on ten tomato genotypes under screen house conditions. Based on disease severity, test isolates were categorized into three main groups. Isolates RAS (Rohtak) and HAS-I (Hisar) were more virulent than all other isolates. None of the genotypes were completely resistant to all the test isolates. The analysis of RAPD profiles showed that there was a high level of genetic variability among the isolates of A. solani. The cluster analysis based on similarity coefficients separated the ten A. solani isolates into two major clusters. There was no evidence for geographical clustering of isolates with high levels of genetic similarity, suggesting that isolates are widely spread across India. PMID:17612350

Varma, P Kishore; Singh, Sher; Gandhi, S K; Chaudhary, K

2006-01-01

305

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis / Produção de toxinas in vitro por Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomórfico: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis) agente causal da podridão-das-raízes e do secamento-dos-ramos da pimenteira-do-reino (Piper nigrum) produz metabólitos secundários com propriedades tóxicas capazes de induzir descoloração das nervuras em folhas destac [...] adas e murcha em micro-estacas. A produção de metabólitos tóxicos alcançou o pico após 25 dias de incubação, sob iluminação. Variações no pH do filtrado da cultura não aumentaram o efeito tóxico, entretanto, quando o pH foi ajustado antes da esterilização do meio de cultura, uma resposta biológica mais intensa foi observada, atingindo o máximo em pH 6,0. Isolados que produziram pigmentos vermelhos no meio de cultura foram mais eficientes em produzir filtrados biologicamente ativos do que aqueles que produziram filtrados de coloração rósea ou branca sugerindo que estes pigmentos podem estar relacionados com atividade toxigênica. Folhas destacadas de sete cultivares de pimenta-do-reino e Piper betle exibiram sintomas de descoloração das nervuras após imersão em filtrados autoclavado e não-autoclavado indicando a natureza termoestável destes metabólitos tóxicos. Abstract in english Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis), causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum), produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring mi [...] crocuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp) toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of static incubation on potato sucrose broth at 25 ºC under illumination. Changes in the pH of the culture filtrate did not alter the effect of toxic metabolites. However, when the pH was changed before the medium had been autoclaved, a more intense biological response was observed, with an optimum at pH 6.0. Isolates that produced red pigments in liquid cultures were more efficient in producing biologically active culture filtrates than those which produced pink coloured or clear filtrates suggesting that these pigments could be related to toxigenic activity. Detached leaves of seven black pepper cultivars and Piper betle showed symptoms of vein discoloration after immersion in autoclaved and non-autoclaved Fsp culture filtrates indicating the thermostable nature of these toxic metabolites.

Maria de Lourdes R., Duarte; Simon A., Archer.

2003-06-01

306

Compatibilidade vegetativa de nit-mutantes de Fusarium solani patogênicos e não-patogênicos ao feijoeiro e à soja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar o grau de relacionamento entre 18 isolados de Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli e F. solani f. sp. glycines. A maioria destes isolados (14 demonstrou inespecificidade de hospedeiro sendo patogênicos ao feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris e a soja (Glycine max. Grupos de compatibilidade vegetativa de nit-mutantes destes isolados foram então determinados. Utilizou-se, como indutor de mutação, o clorato de potássio (KClO3, sendo estes nit-mutantes justapostos sobre meio mínimo contendo NAN0(3 para verificar a formação de heterocariose. Dos 18 isolados de F. solani, 13 foram reunidos em um único GCV. Neste grupo os isolados nit-mutantes F42, f. sp. phaseoli e F46, f. sp. glycines, foram compatíveis entre si. Três isolados constituíram em membros únicos de GCVs diferentes, sendo um destes isolados considerado auto-incompatível. Encontrou-se, portanto, compatibilidade vegetativa entre isolados de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli e F. solani f. sp. glycines. Esta compatibilidade pode ser uma justificativa para existência de isolados patogênicos a ambas culturas.

Oliveira Virgínia C. de

2003-01-01

307

Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks. PMID:8592393

Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

1995-10-01

308

In vitro Control of Alternaria solani, the Cause of Early Blight of Tomato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro control of Alternaria solani was studied with different fungicides. Using Poison Food Technique (PFT, seven fungicides, Antracol, Benlate, Copper oxychloride, Dithane M-45, Ridomil, Topas, and Topsin were evaluated at four different concentrations (250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm to control colony growth of fungi . The lowest colony growth was recorded in Dithane M-45 treatment at 1000 ppm, and the highest in treatment where no fungicide was used, indicating the significance of using fungicides in controlling early blight disease in tomato

Ashraf Saber Hawamdeh

2001-01-01

309

Fatal Fusarium solani infection after stem cell transplant for aplastic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium is a saprophytic and opportunistic pathogen that can cause local tissue infection and life-threatening systemic infection. Systemic infection is rare and is observed primarily in immunocompromised patients. The early diagnosis is difficult, and the optimal treatment is unclear. However, the mortality is high. A 21-year-old man with aplastic anemia was treated with an allogeneic stem cell transplant. He developed fatal Fusarium solani infection. Fusarium species may be overlooked pathogenic fungi in immunocompromised patients, especially bone marrow transplant recipients. PMID:24679137

Cheng, Ping; Meng, Fankai; Zhang, Donghua

2014-08-01

310

Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils  

OpenAIRE

Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K(sup14)CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first reaction involves the conversion of cyanide to formamide by a cyanide-hydrolyzing enz...

Dumestre, A.; Chone, T.; Portal, J.; Gerard, M.; Berthelin, J.

1997-01-01

311

The interactive effects of temperature and osmotic potential on the growth of marines isolates of Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

The mycelial growth of 18 Fusarium solani strains isolated from sea beds of the south-eastern coast of Spain was tested on potato-dextrose agar adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NACl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) in 10ºC intervals ranging from 15 to 35ºC. Fungal growth was determined by measuring colony diameter after 4 days incubation. Mycelial growth was maximal at 25ºC. The quantity and frequency pattern of mycelial growth of F. solani differ significantly at 15 and ...

Palmero Llamas, Daniel; Cara Garcia, Miguel; Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion; Rui?z Lo?pez, Gabriel; Tello Marquina, Julio

2008-01-01

312

Analysis of Growth and Resistance to Different Population of Fusarium Solani in Soybean Legume Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations (10,000, 100,000 and 1000, 000 cfu of Fusariumsolani on growth and resistance to soybean (Glycine max(L. Merr leguminous plant. Sterilized seeds of Glycine max were sown in 350g of acid washed sand. The plants were regularly watered with complete Nutrient Hoagland solution. Leaves samples were weekly collected for analysis of biochemical tests. The growth and morphology of G. max were adversely affected with F.solani which show damping of fseedling root rot. The symptom was first appearing in root. Infected seedling of G. max showed a marked decreased in root, shoot length and discoloration and decay in roots. Stem diameter was also decreased in infected plants as compared with the control plants. There were not marked differences occurring in leaf area but the color of leaves turn yellowish green in infected plants. The infected tissues of soybean with different colonies of F.solani showed the highest level of total phenolic content as compared to healthy tissues.

N. H amid

2014-03-01

313

Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region. PMID:22007613

Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

2012-02-01

314

Genetic variability within Fusarium solani specie as revealed by PCR-fingerprinting based on pcr markers Variabilidade genética em espécies de Fusarium solani revelada pela técnica de impressão genética baseada em marcadores PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fusarium solani fungus (teleomorph Haematonectria haematococca is of relevance for agriculture, producing a disease that causes significant losses for many cultivars. Moreover, F. solani is an opportunistic pathogen to animals and humans. The complexity associated to its correct identification by traditional methods justifies the efforts of using molecular markers for isolates characterization. In this work, three PCR-based methods (one PCR-ribotyping and two PCR-fingerprinting were used to investigate the molecular variability of eighteen F. solani isolates from four Brazilian States, collected from different substrates. Genetic analysis revealed the intraspecific variability within the F. solani isolates, without any correlation to their geographical origin and substrate. Its polymorphism was observed even in the very conserved sequence of rDNA locus, and the SPAR marker (GTG5 showed the highest polymorphism. Together, those results may contribute to understand the relation between fungal genetic variability and cultivars resistance phenotypes to fungal-caused diseases, helping plant-breeding programs.O fungo Fusarium solani (teleomorfo Haematonectria haematococca apresenta uma expressiva importância na agricultura por ser considerado patógeno para várias culturas de interesse econômico causando doença conhecida por podridão das raízes, além de ser patógeno aos animais e ao homem, provocando nestes últimos, micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. A complexidade associada a sua identificação correta através de métodos tradicionais justifica os esforços de usar marcadores moleculares para caracterização dos isolados. Neste trabalho, três métodos baseados na tecnologia da PCR (um por ribotipagem por PCR e dois por impressão genética por PCR foram utilizados para investigar a variabilidade molecular de dezoito isolados de F. solani de quatro Estados brasileiros, coletados de diferentes substratos. A análise genética revelou a variabilidade intraespecífica dos isolados de F. solani, sem qualquer correlação para a origem geográfica e substrato. Seu polimorfismo foi observado até mesmo na seqüência conservada do locus do rDNA, e o marcador SPAR (GTG5 mostrou o mais alto polimorfismo. Em conjunto, estes resultados poderão auxiliar nos estudos da relação entre variabilidade do perfil genético de isolados e os fenótipos de resistência de determinados cultivares às doenças provocadas pelo fungo, orientando programas de melhoramento vegetal.

Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente Brasileiro

2004-09-01

315

Molecular Phylogenetic Diversity, Multilocus Haplotype Nomenclature, and In Vitro Antifungal Resistance within the Fusarium solani Species Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the species-rich Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are responsible for approximately two-thirds all fusarioses of humans and other animals. In addition, many economically important phytopathogenic species are nested within this complex. Due to their increasing clinical relevance an...

316

Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphologi [...] cal approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable.

R., Hafizi; B., Salleh; Z., Latiffah.

2013-09-01

317

Deoxycholate amphotericin B and amphotericin B lipid complex exert additive antifungal activity in combination with pulmonary alveolar macrophages against Fusarium solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium spp. have emerged as important causes of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) exhibited fungicidal activity against conidia of Fusarium solani and achieved a time-dependent increase in killing. Neither deoxycholate amphotericin B (DAMB) nor amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) exerted a suppressive effect on PAMs by decreasing their conidiocidal activity against F. solani. On the contrary, at a concentration of 0.125 microg ml(-1), ABLC and, to a lesser degree, DAMB additively augmented the fungicidal activity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages against conidia of Fusarium solani. PMID:16466443

Roilides, Emmanuel; Lyman, Caron A; Armstrong, Derek; Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Petraitiene, Ruta; Walsh, Thomas J

2006-03-01

318

Degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled lignins and /sup 14/C-labeled aromatic acids by fusarium solani  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abilities of isolate AF-W1 of Fusarium solani to degrade the side chain and the ring structure of synthetic dehydrogenative polymerizates, aromatic acids, or lignin in sound wood were investigated under several conditions of growth substrate or basal medium and pH. Significant transformations of lignins occurred in 50 days in both unextracted and extracted sound wood substrances with 3% malt as the growth substrate and the pH buffered initially at 4.0 with 2,2-dimethylsuccinate. Degradation of lignin in such woods also occurred under unbuffered pH conditions when a basal medium of either 3% malt or powdered cellulose in deionized water was present. Decomposition of the lignin in these woods did not occur in cultures where D-glucose was present as a growth substrate. F. solani significantly transformed, as measured as evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, both synthetic side chain (beta, gamma)-/sup 14/C- and U-ring-/sup 14/C-labeled lignins in 30 days under liquid culture conditions of only distilled deionized water and no pH adjustment. Degradation of dehydrogenative polymerizates by F. solani was reduced drastically when D2 was the liquid medium. AF-W1 also cleaved the alpha-/sup 14/C from p- hydroxybenzoic acid and evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from the substrace, (3-/sup 14/C) cinnamic acid. Thus, the fungus cleaved side chain carbon from substrate that originally lacked hydroxyl substitution on the aromatic nucleus. Surprisingly, small amounts of /sup 14/C cleaved from aromatic acids by F. solani were incorporated into cell mass. Initial buffering of the culture medium to pH 4.0 or 5.0 with 0.1 M2,2-dimethylsuccinate significantly increased F. solani degradation of all lignins or aromatic acids. Results indicated that AF-W1 used lignin as a sole carbon source.

Norris, D.M.

1980-08-01

319

Vegetative Compatibility Groups among Fusarium solani Isolates Causing Potato Dry Rot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty-eight isolates of Fusarium solani from potato tubers originated from Ardabil, Tehran and Hamadan Provinces of Iran, were grouped in 15 Vegetative Compatible Groups (VCGs using nitrate non-utilising (nit mutants. Within the 15 VCGs, seven groups contained one member and the other eight groups had at least two members each. To discover any possible relationship between the Iranian VCGs determined in this research and those from New Zealand, these mutants were paired with nit mutants of 22 isolates from five plant species in New Zealand. Therefore, out of 60 studied isolates 24 VCGs were identified. The results revealed high genetic divergence among isolates studied. There was no correlation between VCGs and virulence; however, there was some correlation between VCGs and geographical origin of isolates.

K. Sharifi

2008-01-01

320

Optimization of culture conditions of Fusarium solani for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of Fusarium solani KCCM90040 on cereal grain for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide, a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide exhibiting cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects. From the analysis of variance results using response surface methodology, temperature, initial moisture content, and growth time were shown to be important parameters for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on cereal grain. A model was established in the present study to describe the relationship between environmental conditions and the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on rice, the selected cereal grain. The optimal culture conditions were determined at 25.79?°C with the initial moisture content of 40.79%, and 16.19?days of growth time. This report will give important information concerning the optimization of environmental conditions using statistic methodology for the production of a new cyclic pentadepsipeptide from fungi. PMID:25130748

Lee, Hee-Seok; Phat, Chanvorleak; Nam, Woo-Seon; Lee, Chan

2014-01-01

321

Chemical mediation of egg dumping in the lace bug Gargaphia solani Heidemann (Heteroptera: Tingidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the hypothesis that the proximate cue for egg dumping in the lace bug Gargaphia solani Heidemann is a chemical deposited by females on eggs during or shortly after oviposition. The results of this study show that: (1) dumping frequency declines as eggs age but can be elevated to its highest levels by exposure to chemical extracts from young egg masses; and (2) visual cues are not necessary to stimulate dumping. Further data support the hypothesis that the ovipositional chemical is used by egg dumpers as a long-distance signal of an appropriate oviposition site, and is not a mechanism by which guarding females relocate their eggs if separated from them. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933547

Monaco; Tallamy; Johnson

1998-12-01

322

Screening of peas for resistance to Fusarium wilt and root rot (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the introduction to this chapter, two fungal pathogens (Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum) are reviewed from the viewpoint of their incidence, importance, symptoms, mode of infection, harmfullness for peas, and known resistance resources. Further, this chapter gives detailed information about the screening of germplasm and plant breeding material, including the methods of pathogen isolation, cultivation and maintenance, preparation of plant material for screening and inoculum preparation. Three types of laboratory screening methods (tube tests, seed soaking test, root submersion test) are described. The results of testing are assessed via root and shoot symptom expression and further evaluated as a degree of infection. In F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi, six races are described, including the reaction to them on a set of differential genotypes. Finally, practical applications of these screening methods are summarised. (author)

323

Potencial antifúngico de extratos de plantas e de basidiomicetos nativos sobre Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani e Sclerotium rolfsii / Antifungal potential of extracts of native plants and basidiomycetes on Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani and Sclerotium rolfsii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O emprego de fungicidas na agricultura, principalmente quando utilizados de forma inadequada, tem provocado danos tanto ao homem como ao ambiente. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo in vitro da eficácia de extratos de três plantas e de dois basidiomicetos nativos do Brasil no controle do [...] s fungos Alternaria solani e Colletotrichum acutatum, causadores de graves prejuízos às culturas de tomate e morango, respectivamente, além de Sclerotium rolfsii, considerado como patógeno polífago. No trabalho foram avaliados: a) a inibição de crescimento micelial dos três fitopatógenos, b) inibição da germinação de conídios de A. solani e C. acutatum e c) inibição da germinação de escleródios de S. rolfsii. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Oudemansiella canarii, que proporcionou os menores valores de crescimento micelial dos três patógenos, além inibir totalmente a germinação de conídios de A. solani e C. acutatum e de escleródios de S. rolfsii. O extrato de Irpex lacteus inibiu parcialmente o crescimento micelial dos patógenos estudados e o extrato de Avicennia schaueriana promoveu apenas 16 % de inibição do crescimento micelial de S. rolfsii. Nenhum efeito sobre os patógenos foi verificado com os extratos de Senna spectabilis e Senna multijuga nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos. Abstract in english The use of fungicides in agriculture, especially when inadequate, has caused damages to both the environment and humans. The present study aimed to investigate in vitro the efficacy of extracts of three plants and two basidiomycetes of the Brazilian flora in controlling Alternaria solani and Colleto [...] trichum acutatum, which causes serious damages to tomato and strawberry crops, respectively, and Sclerotium rolfsii, considered as non-specific pathogen. This work evaluated: a) mycelial growth inhibition for the three phytopathogens, b) conidial germination inhibition (A. solani and C. acutatum) and c) sclerotial germination inhibition for S. rolfsii. The best results were obtained with Oudemansiella canarii extract, which provided the lowest mycelial growth values for the three pathogens, besides totally inhibiting A. solani and C. acutatum conidial germination and S. rolfsii sclerotial germination. I. lacteus extract partially inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens and Avicennia schaueriana promoted only 16% inhibition in S. rolfsii mycelial growth. Senna spectabilis and Senna multijuga extracts had no effect on the pathogens under the conditions of the present experiments.

Ricardo José, Domingues; Maria Cláudia Marx, Young; Jesus Guerino, Töfoli; Dácio Roberto, Matheus.

2011-09-01

324

Potencial antifúngico de extratos de plantas e de basidiomicetos nativos sobre Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani e Sclerotium rolfsii Antifungal potential of extracts of native plants and basidiomycetes on Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani and Sclerotium rolfsii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O emprego de fungicidas na agricultura, principalmente quando utilizados de forma inadequada, tem provocado danos tanto ao homem como ao ambiente. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo in vitro da eficácia de extratos de três plantas e de dois basidiomicetos nativos do Brasil no controle dos fungos Alternaria solani e Colletotrichum acutatum, causadores de graves prejuízos às culturas de tomate e morango, respectivamente, além de Sclerotium rolfsii, considerado como patógeno polífago. No trabalho foram avaliados: a a inibição de crescimento micelial dos três fitopatógenos, b inibição da germinação de conídios de A. solani e C. acutatum e c inibição da germinação de escleródios de S. rolfsii. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Oudemansiella canarii, que proporcionou os menores valores de crescimento micelial dos três patógenos, além inibir totalmente a germinação de conídios de A. solani e C. acutatum e de escleródios de S. rolfsii. O extrato de Irpex lacteus inibiu parcialmente o crescimento micelial dos patógenos estudados e o extrato de Avicennia schaueriana promoveu apenas 16 % de inibição do crescimento micelial de S. rolfsii. Nenhum efeito sobre os patógenos foi verificado com os extratos de Senna spectabilis e Senna multijuga nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos.The use of fungicides in agriculture, especially when inadequate, has caused damages to both the environment and humans. The present study aimed to investigate in vitro the efficacy of extracts of three plants and two basidiomycetes of the Brazilian flora in controlling Alternaria solani and Colletotrichum acutatum, which causes serious damages to tomato and strawberry crops, respectively, and Sclerotium rolfsii, considered as non-specific pathogen. This work evaluated: a mycelial growth inhibition for the three phytopathogens, b conidial germination inhibition (A. solani and C. acutatum and c sclerotial germination inhibition for S. rolfsii. The best results were obtained with Oudemansiella canarii extract, which provided the lowest mycelial growth values for the three pathogens, besides totally inhibiting A. solani and C. acutatum conidial germination and S. rolfsii sclerotial germination. I. lacteus extract partially inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens and Avicennia schaueriana promoted only 16% inhibition in S. rolfsii mycelial growth. Senna spectabilis and Senna multijuga extracts had no effect on the pathogens under the conditions of the present experiments.

Ricardo José Domingues

2011-09-01

325

Effect of biotherapic of Alternaria solani on the early blight of tomato-plant and the in vitro development of the fungus  

OpenAIRE

Background: homeopathy is a means permitted in organic agriculture to control disease and plagues; biotherapics are a practical means for farmers to intervene on the health of plants in agro-ecological systems of production. Tomato-plants can be affected by several diseases, one of the most significant ones in Brazil is early blight, caused by fungus Alternaria solani, due to the damage it causes and its wide distribution in the country. Aims: to establish whether a biotherapic of A. solani m...

Marcus Zulian Teixeira; Maria Elizabeth da Costa Vasconcelos; José Carlos Gomes; Erika Pignoni; Euclides Davidson Bueno Romano; Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

2010-01-01

326

Enanismo y podredumbre basal de eustoma grandiflorum y su relación con la densidad de fusarium solani en el suelo / Stunt and basal rot of Eustoma grandiflorum and its relationship with Fusarium solani density in the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En cultivos comerciales de lisianthus de La Plata y alrededores (Argentina), se observó que Fusarium solani afecta al 100% de los establecimientos productivos provocando enanismo y podredumbre basal. Se realizó un ensayo para analizar la densidad de F. solani del suelo bajo el efecto de distintos tr [...] atamientos y relacionarla con la evolución de ambas patologías. Los análisis del suelo se hicieron en 3 épocas: antes del transplante (octubre), al inicio (enero) y al final (marzo) de la floración. En enero y marzo se evaluó la incidencia de cada enfermedad y se cuantificaron las plantas cosechadas. La población de F. solani no varió en las 3 épocas y se redujo significativamente con los fumigantes y el vapor. Esto determinó una incidencia del enanismo (enero) de 0 a 9,5% con los primeros y de 31,4% con el vapor. Para el testigo y los fungicidas la incidencia varió entre el 87,9 y el 100%, disminuyendo las plantas cosechadas. La podredumbre basal comenzó con el ingreso del patógeno a través de las heridas producidas por la cosecha. Ésta fue significativamente mayor con los fumigantes (90,7 a 99%) y también con el vapor (76,8%), produciéndose la mayor incidencia en marzo (15,7 a 22,2 y 10,1% respectivamente), reduciéndose el período productivo. Se destaca la importancia de disminuir la densidad de F. solani en el momento del transplante. Entre los métodos de control el Metam sodio y Dazomet podrían ser eficaces sustitutos del Bromuro de metilo, seguidos por el vapor. Abstract in english Fusarium solani was recorded in 100% of the commercial crops of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) located around La Plata (Argentina). The pathogen causes stunt and basal rot. A trial was carried out to analyse the F. solani soil density and its relation to the development of both diseases. Soil sam [...] ples were analysed at three times: before transplant (October), at the beginning of flowering (January) and at the ending of flowering (March) of flowering. The incidence of each disease was evaluated in January and March, and the plants harvested were quantified. The soil density of F. solani was not altered during the three times for each treatment, and fumigants and steam decrease it significantly. In January the stunt incidence reached 0 to 9.5% with the fumigants and 31.4% with the steam treatment. In the control and fungicide plots, the incidence reached 87.9 to 100%, and a consequent reduction of flower production was observed. Stem rot began after the flowers were harvested as a result of pathogen entry through the wounds. The major values of harvested plants were obtained with fumigants (90.7 to 99%) and steam (76.8%), so the greatest stem rot incidence was 15.7 to 22.2 and 10.1%, respectively, in March, and the productive period was shortened. The need of reducing F. solani soil density before lisianthus transplant is emphasized. Among soil control treatments, Metham sodium and Dazomet could be effective substitutes for Methil bromide followed by steam treatment.

SILVIA M., WOLCAN; GLADYS A., LORI; LIA, RONCO; ADRIÁN F., MITIDIERI; ROBERTO, FERNÁNDEZ.

2001-12-01

327

Reação de cultivares de soja à podridão vermelha da raiz causada por Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Reaction of soybean cultivars to Sudden Death Syndrome caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines  

OpenAIRE

A podridão vermelha da raiz, causada por Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, é considerada uma das doenças mais severas de soja (Glycine max) no Sul do Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou a reação de 30 genótipos de soja em experimentos conduzidos em câmara de crescimento, na Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS. Inoculou-se o fungo nos genótipos pelo método "palito-de-dente", através da introdução de uma ponta de palito colonizada pelo fungo no hipocótilo de cada plântula e pelo método "grã...

Ga?speri, Audir C.; Prestes, Ariano M.; Costamilan, Leila M.

2003-01-01

328

Potencial antifúngico de extratos de plantas e de basidiomicetos nativos sobre Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani e Sclerotium rolfsii Antifungal potential of extracts of native plants and basidiomycetes on Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria solani and Sclerotium rolfsii  

OpenAIRE

O emprego de fungicidas na agricultura, principalmente quando utilizados de forma inadequada, tem provocado danos tanto ao homem como ao ambiente. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo in vitro da eficácia de extratos de três plantas e de dois basidiomicetos nativos do Brasil no controle dos fungos Alternaria solani e Colletotrichum acutatum, causadores de graves prejuízos às culturas de tomate e morango, respectivamente, além de Sclerotium rolfsii, considerado como patógeno po...

Ricardo José Domingues; Maria Cláudia Marx Young; Jesus Guerino Töfoli; Dácio Roberto Matheus

2011-01-01

329

Controle de Alternaria solani em tomateiro por extratos de Curcuma longa e curcumina: II. Avaliação in vivo Control of Alternaria solani in tomato by Curcuma longa extracts and curcumin: II. In vivo evaluation  

OpenAIRE

A pinta preta, causada por Alternaria solani, é uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomateiro no Brasil. Várias alternativas aos fungicidas têm sido avaliadas nos últimos anos na busca de produtos que controlem satisfatoriamente as doenças, tenham pequeno impacto ambiental e baixa toxicidade aos seres vivos. A cúrcuma, Curcuma longa, apresenta em seus rizomas compostos com comprovada atividade antimicrobiana. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle de p...

Balbi-pen?a, Mari?a I.; Andrea Becker; José Renato Stangarlin; Gilmar Franzener; Lopes, Ma?rio C.; Schwan-estrada, Ka?tia R. F.

2006-01-01

330

Potencial de rizobactérias no controle de Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. em pepino (Cucumis sativum L.) / Potential of rhizobacteria in the control of Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. in cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Rizobactérias, isoladas da rizosfera de diferentes hospedeiros foram selecionadas in vitro quanto ao antagonismo contra Fusarium solam agente causai da podridão radicular. In vitro, foram selecionadas 18 bactérias isoladas da rizosfera de plantas sadias de pepino e, destas, somente três foram eficie [...] ntes em inibir consideravelmente o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Dois isolados de Bacillus subtilis e dois de Pseudomonas sp., antagônicos a outros fungos fitopatogênicos foram incluidos nos testes, os quais mostraram-se capazes de antagonizar F. solani. Em condições de casa-de-vegetação, B. subtilis, linhagem 0G, controlou totalmente o patógeno em todos os ensaios realizados. Promoção do crescimento de plantas foi verificada pela inoculação com linhagens 0G (B. subtilis), St. Barb. e CBPN (Pseudomonas sp). Abstract in english Rhizobacteria, isolated from the rhizosphere of different hosts were selected in vitro, based on the antagonism against Fusarium solani, agent of root rot. In vitro, 18 bacterias were selected from rhizosphere of healthy plants of cucumber and, from those, only three were efficient in inhibiting the [...] micelial growth of the pathogen. In these tests two isolates of Bacillus subtilis (0G and 5G), and two of Pseudomonas (CBPN and St Barb.), antagonistic to some pathogenic fungi, were included. These bolates also inhibited the growth of F solani. The bolate OG of B. subtilis reduced significantly the root rot of cucumber. Beneficial effects were obtained with the bolates St Barb., 0G and CBPN in relation to plant growth.

I S. de, Melo; P. J., Valarini.

1995-08-01

331

Potencial de rizobactérias no controle de Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. em pepino (Cucumis sativum L. Potential of rhizobacteria in the control of Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. in cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rizobactérias, isoladas da rizosfera de diferentes hospedeiros foram selecionadas in vitro quanto ao antagonismo contra Fusarium solam agente causai da podridão radicular. In vitro, foram selecionadas 18 bactérias isoladas da rizosfera de plantas sadias de pepino e, destas, somente três foram eficientes em inibir consideravelmente o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Dois isolados de Bacillus subtilis e dois de Pseudomonas sp., antagônicos a outros fungos fitopatogênicos foram incluidos nos testes, os quais mostraram-se capazes de antagonizar F. solani. Em condições de casa-de-vegetação, B. subtilis, linhagem 0G, controlou totalmente o patógeno em todos os ensaios realizados. Promoção do crescimento de plantas foi verificada pela inoculação com linhagens 0G (B. subtilis, St. Barb. e CBPN (Pseudomonas sp.Rhizobacteria, isolated from the rhizosphere of different hosts were selected in vitro, based on the antagonism against Fusarium solani, agent of root rot. In vitro, 18 bacterias were selected from rhizosphere of healthy plants of cucumber and, from those, only three were efficient in inhibiting the micelial growth of the pathogen. In these tests two isolates of Bacillus subtilis (0G and 5G, and two of Pseudomonas (CBPN and St Barb., antagonistic to some pathogenic fungi, were included. These bolates also inhibited the growth of F solani. The bolate OG of B. subtilis reduced significantly the root rot of cucumber. Beneficial effects were obtained with the bolates St Barb., 0G and CBPN in relation to plant growth.

I S. de Melo

1995-08-01

332

Influence of Potassium in the Agar Medium on the Growth Pattern of the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

A decrease in the concentration of K+ ions below 3 mM in agar medium which also contained starch, casein hydrolysate, MgSO4, and K2HPO4 changed the growth pattern of Fusarium solani illuminated in diurnal 12-h light/12-h dark cycles from zonation to a feathery growth mode. Rubidium or cesium ions could replace potassium, but lithium, sodium, and the bivalent alkaline earth ions could not.

Das, Joachim

1991-01-01

333

Reação de cultivares de soja à podridão vermelha da raiz causada por Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines  

OpenAIRE

A podridão vermelha da raiz, causada por Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, é considerada uma das doenças mais severas de soja (Glycine max) no Sul do Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou a reação de 30 genótipos de soja em experimentos conduzidos em câmara de crescimento, na Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS. Inoculou-se o fungo nos genótipos pelo método "palito-de-dente", através da introdução de uma ponta de palito colonizada pelo fungo no hipocótilo de cada plântula e pelo método "grã...

Gásperi Audir C.; Prestes Ariano M.; Costamilan Leila M.

2003-01-01

334

A case of mycotic keratitis caused by Fusarium solani Um caso de ceratite micótica causada por Fusarium sotani  

OpenAIRE

A 36-year-old black man, without history of systemic disease or ocular trauma developed a corneal infection in his left eye. He was treated with antibacterial antibiotic and corticosteroids for one month prior to diagnosis. Fungal hyphae and chlamydospores were found in a KOH preparation of the corneal scrapings, and positive cultures for Fusarium solani were obtained in Sabouraud dextrose agar. It is emphasized the cautious use of antibiotics and steroids in corneal diseases, and the need of...

Junia Soares Hamdan; Maria Aparecida Resende; Sarah Piancastelli Franzot; Daniel Vieira Dias; Evelin Márcia Viana; Agnes Kiesling Casali

1995-01-01

335

Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against...

Karim Mardani; Samira Ebrahimzadeh; Abbas Hasani; Abdulghaffar Ownagh

2010-01-01

336

Molecular Phylogenetic Diversity, Multilocus Haplotype Nomenclature, and In Vitro Antifungal Resistance within the Fusarium solani Species Complex?  

OpenAIRE

Members of the species-rich Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are responsible for approximately two-thirds all fusarioses of humans and other animals. In addition, many economically important phytopathogenic species are nested within this complex. Due to their increasing clinical relevance and because most of the human pathogenic and plant pathogenic FSSC lack Latin binomials, we have extended the multilocus haplotype nomenclatural system introduced in a previous study (D. C. Chang, G. B...

O Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Mccarthy, Dora; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Brandt, Mary E.; Zhang, Ning; Geiser, David M.

2008-01-01

337

Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).  

OpenAIRE

This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

Mustika, I.

1990-01-01

338

Antifungal Activity of (KW)n or (RW)n Peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

OpenAIRE

The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)n-NH2, where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, ...

Yoonkyung Park; Chang Ho Seo; Ramamourthy Gopal; Hyungjong Na

2012-01-01

339

Enanismo y podredumbre basal de eustoma grandiflorum y su relación con la densidad de fusarium solani en el suelo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En cultivos comerciales de lisianthus de La Plata y alrededores (Argentina, se observó que Fusarium solani afecta al 100% de los establecimientos productivos provocando enanismo y podredumbre basal. Se realizó un ensayo para analizar la densidad de F. solani del suelo bajo el efecto de distintos tratamientos y relacionarla con la evolución de ambas patologías. Los análisis del suelo se hicieron en 3 épocas: antes del transplante (octubre, al inicio (enero y al final (marzo de la floración. En enero y marzo se evaluó la incidencia de cada enfermedad y se cuantificaron las plantas cosechadas. La población de F. solani no varió en las 3 épocas y se redujo significativamente con los fumigantes y el vapor. Esto determinó una incidencia del enanismo (enero de 0 a 9,5% con los primeros y de 31,4% con el vapor. Para el testigo y los fungicidas la incidencia varió entre el 87,9 y el 100%, disminuyendo las plantas cosechadas. La podredumbre basal comenzó con el ingreso del patógeno a través de las heridas producidas por la cosecha. Ésta fue significativamente mayor con los fumigantes (90,7 a 99% y también con el vapor (76,8%, produciéndose la mayor incidencia en marzo (15,7 a 22,2 y 10,1% respectivamente, reduciéndose el período productivo. Se destaca la importancia de disminuir la densidad de F. solani en el momento del transplante. Entre los métodos de control el Metam sodio y Dazomet podrían ser eficaces sustitutos del Bromuro de metilo, seguidos por el vapor.

WOLCAN SILVIA M.

2001-01-01

340

Oxidative burst and the activity of defense-related enzymes in compatible and incompatible tomato-Alternaria solani interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypersensitive response (HR, and the activity of the enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, were studied in leaves of resistant [CNPH 1287 (Solanum habrochaites syn. Lycopersicon hirsutum] and susceptible [Santa Cruz Kada (S. lycopersicum syn. L. esculentum] tomato genotypes inoculated with Alternaria solani. Leaves were collected at the time of inoculation and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post inoculation. Conidia germination occurred equally onto the leaf surface in both genotypes and germination tubes grew without apparent orientation. Lesion frequency was lower in CNPH 1287, and it was the consequence of a lower number of appressoria formed in that genotype. ROS were observed in low frequency in both genotypes. HR was observed in penetrated epidermal host cells also in both genotypes. It seems that ROS and HR would not contribute to the resistance of S. habrochaites to A. solani in this study. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase was significantly increased in the resistant genotype. These results suggest that defense-related enzymes but no oxidative burst play a role in the defense response of S. habrochaites to A. solani.

Maria Isabel Balbi-Peña

2014-10-01

341

Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial properties of ultraviolet A/riboflavin mediated crosslinking on Candida albicans and Fusarium solani  

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Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of ultraviolet A (UVA (365 nm/riboflavin against Candida albicans and Fusarium solani.METHODS:Two fungus isolates were cultured in vitro and prepared with 10-fold serial PBS dilutions of cell concentration. For each dilution of fungus suspension, the concentration (colony-forming units/mL, CFU/mL and the inactivation ratio of fungal cells were evaluated under 4 conditions:no treatment (control, UVA (365 nm/riboflavin, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm.RESULTS:The cell concentration decreased in UVA (365 nm/riboflavin group for Candida albicans at each dilution and Fusarium solani at dilutions of 104, 103, 102 CFU/mL, when compared with that in control, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm groups (P<0.01. No difference of cell concentration was detected amongst the culture of control, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm groups for the two fungus. There is a negative correlation between suspension concentration (log-transformed and the inactivation ratio in UVA (365 nm/riboflavin group for Candida albicans and Fusarium solani (P<0.01.CONCLUSION: According to the standard protocol of corneal collagen cross-linking, UVA (365 nm/riboflavin combination treatment is found to moderately inactivate the viability of Candida albicans and Fusarium solaniin vitro. The inactivation ratio was found to increase with the decrease of cell concentration under UVA (365 nm/riboflavin condition.

Bing Sun

2014-04-01

342

Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicides in Alternaria solani.  

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Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] 100 ?g ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 ?g ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 ?g ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with sensitive, moderate, highly resistant, and very highly resistant boscalid phenotypes, and the AsSdhD H133R exchange was observed in isolates with both moderate and very high EC50 value boscalid phenotypes. Detection and differentiation of point mutations in AsSdhB resulting in H278R and H278Y exchanges in the AsSdhB subunit were facilitated by the development of a mismatch amplification mutation assay. Detection of these two mutations in boscalid-resistant isolates, in addition to mutations in AsSdhC and AsSdhD resulting in an H134R and H133R exchange, respectively, was achieved by the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect and differentiate the sensitive and resistant isolates based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in all three genes. A single A. solani isolate with resistance to boscalid did not contain any of the above-mentioned exchanges but did contain a substitution of aspartate to glutamic acid at amino acid position 123 (D123E) in the AsSdhD subunit. Among A. solani isolates possessing resistance to boscalid, point mutations in AsSdhB were more frequently detected than mutations in genes coding for any other subunit. PMID:23901829

Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C

2014-01-01

343

Geostatistical analysis of soil moisture distribution in a part of Solani River catchment  

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The aim of this paper is to estimate soil moisture at spatial level by applying geostatistical techniques on the point observations of soil moisture in parts of Solani River catchment in Haridwar district of India. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at 69 locations with soil core sampler at a depth of 0-10 cm from the soil surface. Out of these, discrete soil moisture observations at 49 locations were used to generate a spatial soil moisture distribution map of the region. Two geostatistical techniques, namely, moving average and kriging, were adopted. Root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and estimated soil moisture at remaining 20 locations was determined to assess the accuracy of the estimated soil moisture. Both techniques resulted in low RMSE at small limiting distance, which increased with the increase in the limiting distance. The root mean square error varied from 7.42 to 9.77 in moving average method, while in case of kriging it varied from 7.33 to 9.99 indicating similar performance of the two techniques.

Kumar, Kamal; Arora, M. K.; Hariprasad, K. S.

2014-06-01

344

Morphological and Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Species Complex in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) have been known as plant, animal, and human pathogens. Nevertheless, the taxonomic status of such an important group of fungi is still very confusing and many new species as well as lineages have been elucidated recently. Unfortunately, most of the new taxa came from temperate and subtropical regions. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to identify strains of FSSC recovered from different sources in Malaysia. In the present study, 55 strains belonging to the FSSC were examined and phylogenetically analyzed on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and partial translation elongation factor-1 (TEF-1?) sequences. Based on morphological features, a total of 55 strains were selected for molecular studies. Based on morphological features, the strains were classified into four described Fusarium species, namely Fusarium keratoplasticum, Fusarium falciforme, FSSC 5, and Fusarium cf. ensiforme, and one unknown phylogenetic species was introduced. Although the data obtained from morphological and molecular studies sufficiently supported each other, the phylogenetic trees based on ITS and TEF-1? dataset clearly distinguished closely related species and distinctly separated all morphological taxa. All members of FSSC in this research were reported for the first time for Malaysian mycoflora. PMID:25238930

Chehri, Khosrow; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2014-09-20

345

Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1  

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Full Text Available A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v peptone plus 0.5% (v/v olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5% did not further stimulate lipase production. The optimum lipase activity was achieved at pH 8.6 and 30oC and a good enzyme stability (80% activity retention was observed at pH ranging from 7.6 to 8.6, and the activity rapidly dropped at temperatures above 50oC. Lipase activity was stimulated by the addition of n-hexane to the culture medium supernatants, in contrast to incubation with water-soluble solvents.

Maia Maria de Mascena Diniz

1999-01-01

346

Genetic diversity in Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi based on SSR markers  

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Full Text Available Pea root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp, is one of the most important diseases on pea (Pisum sativum. Assessing the genetic diversity of the pathogen isolates from different geographical regions is crucially important for understanding of the genetic background of this pathogen and intelligently deploying host resistance. We screened SSRs in complete genome sequence of Nectria haematococca MPVI, and 107 SSR loci were selected for designing markers, from which 24 polymorphic primer pairs were developed. The 24 primer pairs were used to assess genetic diversity of 96 Fsp isolates from different geographical regions. Among 24 SSR markers, a total of 132 alleles were detected among the 96 Fsp isolates, the number ofalleles for each of the loci ranged from 3 to 15 with an average of 5.5. The genetic diversity was estimated to range from 0.4855 to 0.8264 with the average value of 0.738. Using these markers, 93 genotypes were detected. When the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.8, 96 Fsp isolates were clustered into 10 groups by phylogeneticanalysis. There was no correlation between SSR profile and either geographic origin or pathogenicity. Analysis of AMOVA revealed that variation mainly presented within Fsp populations (86.14%, and genetic differentiation of Fsp was significantly affected by geographical conditions and ecological environment.

Ni Xiang

2012-11-01

347

Suppression of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli on Bean by Aluminum in Acid Soils.  

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ABSTRACT The severity of bean root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli in vitro was studied with regard to exchangeable soil aluminum for 25 soil samples collected from northeastern Honshyu island, Japan. Of these, 24 were Andosols, typically acidic and of volcanic ash origin. Disease severity was assessed based on the number of lesions produced by the pathogen on a 6-cm section of bean stem buried and incubated for 8 days at 25 degrees C in artificially infested soil samples. The number of lesions differed considerably among soil samples. In all soils in which disease incidence was very low, macroconidial germination was strongly inhibited. The inhibition was observed in all soil samples with exchangeable aluminum contents of at least 0.4 meq/100 g of soil, although it is unclear if this concentration is the lowest limit for inhibition. When soil pH was 5.6 or lower, higher amounts of exchangeable aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was chloritized 2:1 minerals, while no or limited amounts of aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was allophane/imogolite. Macroconidial germination and disease incidence are thus closely related to clay mineralogy, which regulates the behavior of exchangeable aluminum. PMID:18944802

Furuya, H; Takahashi, T; Matsumoto, T

1999-01-01

348

QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that has hampered effective breeding. In order to identify and estimate the effect of genes conditioning resistance to EB, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study was performed in F2 and F3 populations derived from the cross between the susceptible Solanum lycopersicum (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) cv. 'Solentos' and the resistant Solanum arcanum (syn. Lycopersicon peruvianum) LA2157 and genotyped with AFLP, microsatellite and SNP markers. Two evaluation criteria of resistance were used: measurements of EB lesion growth on the F2 plants in glasshouse tests and visual ratings of EB severity on foliage of the F3 lines in a field test. A total of six QTL regions were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 5-7, and 9 with LOD scores ranging from 3.4 to 17.5. Three EB QTL also confer resistance to stem lesions in the field, which has not been reported before. All QTL displayed significant additive gene action; in some cases a dominance effect was found. Additive x additive epistatic interactions were detected between one pair of QTL. For two QTL, the susceptible parent contributed resistance alleles to both EB and stem lesion resistance. Three of the QTL showed an effect in all tests despite methodological and environmental differences. PMID:17093974

Chaerani, R; Smulders, M J M; van der Linden, C G; Vosman, B; Stam, P; Voorrips, R E

2007-02-01

349

Isolation and In Vivo and In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Phenylacetic Acid and Sodium Phenylacetate from Streptomyces humidus  

OpenAIRE

The antifungal substances SH-1 and SH-2 were isolated from Streptomyces humidus strain S5-55 cultures by various purification procedures and identified as phenylacetic acid and sodium phenylacetate, respectively, based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization mass spectral, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectral data. SH-1 and SH-2 completely inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pseudomonas syringa...

Hwang, Byung Kook; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik

2001-01-01

350

Effect of topical 0.5% povidone-iodine compared to 5% natamycin in fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani in a rabbit model: a pilot study Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of 0.5% povidone-iodine in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis in rabbits. METHODS: Fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 24 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 different treatment groups: Group I (povidone-iodine) - treated with topical 0.5% povidone-iodine; Group II (natamycin) - treated with topical 5% natamycin; and Group III (control) - treated with topical saline...

Lauro Augusto de Oliveira; Thales Takeo Takata; Alvio Isao Shiguematsu; Luiz Alberto Soares Melo Júnior; Olga Fischman Gompertz; Luciene Barbosa de Sousa; Mannis, Mark J.

2008-01-01

351

Possibilidade de transmissão de Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines, agente causal da podridão vermelha da raiz da soja, através da semente / Possible transmission of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, causal agent of Sudden Death Syndrome, through soybean seed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um isolado de Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines, coletado em plantas de soja (Glycine max) na região de Cruz Alta - RS, foi utilizado em experimentos conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de a semente ser um veículo eficiente de disseminação da podridão vermelha da raiz na cultura da soj [...] a. A transferência de propágulos do patógeno para sementes de soja, armazenada durante um, seis e 12 meses, foi realizada através da mistura de grãos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor), solo e resíduos de colheita, previamente esterilizados e posteriormente infetados, em condições de laboratório, com F. solani f.sp. glycines. As evidências de que sementes de soja podem ser uma das fontes de inóculo primário de Podridão Vermelha da Raiz relacionaram-se à presença de clamidósporos aderidos externamente às sementes, após seis meses de armazenamento. As sementes apresentando crescimento do fungo após 12 meses de armazenamento, um mínimo de 75 unidades formadoras de colônias/ml removidas do tegumento das sementes de soja e plântulas formadas a partir das sementes infetadas após 12 meses de armazenamento mostrando sintomas da doença. Abstract in english A Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines isolate collected in Cruz Alta RS, Brazil, was utilized in these experiments to evaluate the possibility of the Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) pathogen being transmitted by soybean (Glycine max) seeds. The seedborne nature of SDS pathogen was demonstrated using infected [...] sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds, infested soil, and infected plant debris as transport vehicles of inoculum. The following evidence of soybean seeds being the primary inoculum of SDS pathogen was chlamidospores were externally adhered to the soybean seeds after six months; soybean seeds had with the fungus mycelium after 12 months of storage; 75 c.f.u./ml were removed from the seed coat after 12 months of storage; and the fungus was transmissible after 12 months of storage.

Clarice R., Balardin; Alisson F., Celmer; Ervandil C., Costa; Rosana C., Meneghetti; Ricardo S., Balardin.

2005-12-01

352

Possibilidade de transmissão de Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines, agente causal da podridão vermelha da raiz da soja, através da semente Possible transmission of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, causal agent of Sudden Death Syndrome, through soybean seed  

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Full Text Available Um isolado de Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines, coletado em plantas de soja (Glycine max na região de Cruz Alta - RS, foi utilizado em experimentos conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de a semente ser um veículo eficiente de disseminação da podridão vermelha da raiz na cultura da soja. A transferência de propágulos do patógeno para sementes de soja, armazenada durante um, seis e 12 meses, foi realizada através da mistura de grãos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, solo e resíduos de colheita, previamente esterilizados e posteriormente infetados, em condições de laboratório, com F. solani f.sp. glycines. As evidências de que sementes de soja podem ser uma das fontes de inóculo primário de Podridão Vermelha da Raiz relacionaram-se à presença de clamidósporos aderidos externamente às sementes, após seis meses de armazenamento. As sementes apresentando crescimento do fungo após 12 meses de armazenamento, um mínimo de 75 unidades formadoras de colônias/ml removidas do tegumento das sementes de soja e plântulas formadas a partir das sementes infetadas após 12 meses de armazenamento mostrando sintomas da doença.A Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines isolate collected in Cruz Alta RS, Brazil, was utilized in these experiments to evaluate the possibility of the Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS pathogen being transmitted by soybean (Glycine max seeds. The seedborne nature of SDS pathogen was demonstrated using infected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seeds, infested soil, and infected plant debris as transport vehicles of inoculum. The following evidence of soybean seeds being the primary inoculum of SDS pathogen was chlamidospores were externally adhered to the soybean seeds after six months; soybean seeds had with the fungus mycelium after 12 months of storage; 75 c.f.u./ml were removed from the seed coat after 12 months of storage; and the fungus was transmissible after 12 months of storage.

Clarice R. Balardin

2005-12-01

353

Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL) induces phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages in THP-1 cells and human monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported that a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), stimulates proliferation and secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the present study, we evaluated the ability of RBL to differentiate human monocytes to macrophages. RBL induced morphological changes indicative of differentiation in primary monocytes and THP-1 cells. Stimulation with RBL resulted in significant up-regulation of differentiation markers - CD54, HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines - IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6. Functionally, RBL profoundly increased phagocytic activity in monocytes. In THP-1 cells, RBL-induced phagocytosis was higher compared to the effect induced by combination of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RBL induced a significant increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in comparison with a combined treatment of PMA+LPS. Mechanistic studies revealed the involvement of the NF-?B pathway in RBL-induced differentiation of monocytes. The data suggest that RBL mimics the combined action of PMA and LPS to induce morphological and functional differentiation in human monocytes and monocytic cell line - THP-1 to macrophages. Human monocytes differentiated to macrophages with RBL have the potential as an in vitro model to study macrophage biology. PMID:25555439

Pujari, Radha; Kumar, Natesh; Ballal, Suhas; Eligar, Sachin M; Anupama, S; Bhat, Ganapati; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Shastry, Padma

2015-02-01

354

INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN  

OpenAIRE

Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0) e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: n?...

Gesimária Ribeiro Costa; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

2007-01-01

355

An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bois noir (BN) associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of 'Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus, respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated 'Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica. Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri, rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples. PMID:25309042

Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

2014-10-01

356

Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Variability of Alternaria solani Causing Early Blight in Tomato  

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Full Text Available Experiment was conducted at BHU in the year 2012-13. Radial growth was not significantly different for most of the isolates. Seven DAI (days after inoculation highest radial growth has obtained in isolate RF-1 (35.50 mm, Ten DAI maximum growth was observed in isolate EC-1 (52.00 mm and Thirteen DAI maximum radial growth was same observed in two isolates IIVR and BHU-1 (88.75 mm. The maximum mean mycelial growth was observed in isolate IIVR (57.83 mm followed by MF-4 (57.66 mm and BHU-1 (56.83 mm. Isolates of A. solani depicted high variability in pigment production on PDA medium. Mycelial growth patterns were observed on PDA where BG RF-1 SF-1 MF-4 BHU-1 grew with circular margin with smooth surfaced colony and AF-2, PN-4, EC-1, BX-2 and IIVR isolates grew with irregular margin and rough surface. Five varieties of tomato were screened with 10 different isolates. The variety Selection-7 and H-86 were highly susceptible and susceptible, respectively with all the isolates tested. The variety Feb-2 was resistant while, the variety Flora Dade and Swarna Naveen were highly resistant with all the isolates. There was no significant difference between Flora Dade and Swarna Naveen. Out of 10 isolates, only three major groups were recorded on the basis of SAS analysis likewise Group-A isolates were highly virulent (MF-4 and PN-4, Group-C isolates indicate virulent (BG, AF-2, EC-1 and RF-1 and Group- E isolates were less virulent (BHU-1, IIVR, SF-1 and BX-2 with all the five varieties.

Abhishek Singh

2014-01-01

357

Degradation of 14C-Labeled Lignins and 14C-Labeled Aromatic Acids by Fusarium solani  

OpenAIRE

Abilities of isolate AF-W1 of Fusarium solani to degrade the side chain and the ring structure of synthetic dehydrogenative polymerizates, aromatic acids, or lignin in sound wood were investigated under several conditions of growth substrate or basal medium and pH. Significant transformations of lignins occurred in 50 days in both unextracted and extracted sound wood substrates with 3% malt as the growth substrate and the pH buffered initially at 4.0 with 2,2-dimethylsuccinate. Degradation of...

Norris, Dale M.

1980-01-01

358

Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani  

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Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 ?l ml-1.

Karim Mardani

2010-09-01

359

Biodégradation des cyanures libres par le champignon Fusarium solani: relation avec le pH et la distribution des espèces cyanurées en solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Free cyanide biodégradation by Fusarium solani, a fungi isolated from cyanide-contaminated soils. involves a cyanide hydrolyzing enzyme. cyanide hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66). This enzyme specifically seems to convert cyanhydric acid (HCN) to formamide but not the cyanide ion (CN -). Hence. the rate of free cyanide biodégradation is a function of the equilibrium HCN/CN - in solution. A better understanding of cyanide hydratase properties allows the definition of optimal conditions of F.solani biodégradation activity. and the proposition of a biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated alkaline soils and effluents.

Dumestre, Alain; Bousserrhine, Noureddine; Berthelin, Jacques

1997-07-01

360

A case of mycotic keratitis caused by Fusarium solani / Um caso de ceratite micótica causada por Fusarium sotani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O caso estudado refere-se a paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, feoderma, sem história de doença sistêmica ou trauma ocular, apresentando úlcera corneana no olho esquerdo. Antes do estabelecimento do diagnóstico específico, o paciente foi tratado com antibiótico associado a corticosteróides durante [...] um mês. O exame direto realizado a partir de raspado de córnea tratado com KOH revelou a presença de hifas fúngicas e clamidosporos, e o cultivo do material em ágar Sabouraud dextrose mostrou-se positivo para Fusarium solani. É enfatizada a necessidade do uso cauteloso de antibióticos e corticosteróides no tratamento de infecções da córnea, bem como de se considerar a possibilidade de etiologia fúngica destes quadros. Abstract in english A 36-year-old black man, without history of systemic disease or ocular trauma developed a corneal infection in his left eye. He was treated with antibacterial antibiotic and corticosteroids for one month prior to diagnosis. Fungal hyphae and chlamydospores were found in a KOH preparation of the corn [...] eal scrapings, and positive cultures for Fusarium solani were obtained in Sabouraud dextrose agar. It is emphasized the cautious use of antibiotics and steroids in corneal diseases, and the need of considering the involvement of opportunistic fungi in the etiology of these infections.

Junia Soares, Hamdan; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Sarah Piancastelli, Franzot; Daniel Vieira, Dias; Evelin Márcia, Viana; Agnes Kiesling, Casali.

1995-04-01

361

A case of mycotic keratitis caused by Fusarium solani Um caso de ceratite micótica causada por Fusarium sotani  

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Full Text Available A 36-year-old black man, without history of systemic disease or ocular trauma developed a corneal infection in his left eye. He was treated with antibacterial antibiotic and corticosteroids for one month prior to diagnosis. Fungal hyphae and chlamydospores were found in a KOH preparation of the corneal scrapings, and positive cultures for Fusarium solani were obtained in Sabouraud dextrose agar. It is emphasized the cautious use of antibiotics and steroids in corneal diseases, and the need of considering the involvement of opportunistic fungi in the etiology of these infections.O caso estudado refere-se a paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, feoderma, sem história de doença sistêmica ou trauma ocular, apresentando úlcera corneana no olho esquerdo. Antes do estabelecimento do diagnóstico específico, o paciente foi tratado com antibiótico associado a corticosteróides durante um mês. O exame direto realizado a partir de raspado de córnea tratado com KOH revelou a presença de hifas fúngicas e clamidosporos, e o cultivo do material em ágar Sabouraud dextrose mostrou-se positivo para Fusarium solani. É enfatizada a necessidade do uso cauteloso de antibióticos e corticosteróides no tratamento de infecções da córnea, bem como de se considerar a possibilidade de etiologia fúngica destes quadros.

Junia Soares Hamdan

1995-04-01

362

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

363

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

364

Developmental times and life table statistics of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at six constant temperatures, with recommendations on the application of temperature-dependent development models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (known as foxglove aphid or glasshouse potato aphid) is a pest of increasing economic importance in several agricultural crops worldwide, including greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals. Developmental rates and age-specific life tables for a North American population of A. solani on pansy (Viola × wittrockiana) (Gams.) were determined at six constant temperatures, and comparisons were made to previous studies of A. solani from differing geographic regions and host crops. On pansy, A. solani developed fastest at 25°C, passing through the four nymphal instars in an average of 6.9 d. The highest intrinsic rates of population increase (0.410 and 0.445) and shortest population doubling times (1.69 and 1.56 d) were recorded at 20 and 25°C, respectively. Average total fecundity remained high from 10 to 20°C (74-68 nymphs/adult); a significant decrease to 39 nymphs/adult occurred at 25°C. For calculating developmental thresholds, we present here a method of adjusting the lower developmental threshold (t(min)) using estimates from nonlinear models to provide an improved estimate of the thermal constant (K, in degree-days). We also call attention to the necessity of using a simulation method to estimate the true upper developmental threshold (t(max)) and optimum developmental temperature (t(opt)) from the Lactin-2 model of temperature-dependent development. PMID:22546462

Jandricic, S E; Wraight, S P; Bennett, K C; Sanderson, J P

2010-10-01

365

Pathological and molecular identification of Fusarium Solani F.Sp, phaseoli isolates and determination of suitable gamma ray dose rate for mutation induction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1384-1385, the plants showing root and crown rot were collected from 48 bean fields in the Khuzestan and Markazi provinces. Twenty isolates were identified as Fusarium solani based on morphological characteristics. The pathogenicity tests confirmed four isolates as Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli. By using specific primers for this specific form, three isolates showed concordant results with pathogenicity tests. As a result three isolates morphologically and molecularly identified as F.solani f.sp. phaseoli. In order to induce mutation, conidia scraped from F.solani f.sp. phaseoli cultures, were counted, diluted and then plated on water agar. The plates containing conidia were irradiated in a 60 Co-gamma cell (with activity of 2500 curi and 0.38 gray per second dose rates) in doses 0, 60, 90,120, 150, 180 Gy. After 18 hours, the percentage germination of spores were scored. The comparison of percentage germination and vegetative growth in different dose rates Showed that spore mutagenesis can be expected in 120-180 Gy.

366

The Effect of Endophytic Fungi of Tall and Meadow Fescues on Biological Control of Mealybug (Phenococcus solani Ferris, Hom.:Pseudococcidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endophytic fungi, Neotyphodium spp. symbiotically infect host grasses, Fescue arundinacea Schreb. and F. pratensis Huds. and Mealybug, Phenococcus solani Ferris attacks some forage plants. To evaluate the role of these fungi to control this pest, four genotypes of F. arundinacea and two genotypes of F. pratensis were used. Plant tillers were split into two sections, one section of which was freed from endophyte using a fungicide mixture. The mixture contained 2 grams of active ingredients of Propiconazol and 1 ml of Folicur per liter of water. New tillers from endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants were transferred into the field. The number of mealybugs was measured after the first visible sign of infestation on roots. To count mealybug, one plant hill of each plot was randomly selected. Hay yield of each plot was measured by clipping the plants 5 cm above ground level. Correlation of hay yield and other growth characteristics with the number of mealybugs on roots as an index for mealybug damage on infested plants was determined. The results indicated that endophyte-free plants were highly infested with mealybug, P. solani compared with endophyte-infected plants that were completely free of P. solani, correlation coefficients showed that there was significant negative correlation between forage yield and mealybug numbers, indicating mealybug damage on infested plants. It seems that endophytic fungi are effective biocontrol factors for some root feeding pest such as mealybug, P. solani.

A.F. Mirlohi

2006-07-01

367

Controle de Alternaria solani em tomateiro por extratos de Curcuma longa e curcumina: I. avaliação in vitro / Control of Alternaria solani in tomato by Curcuma longa extracts and curcumin: I. In vitro evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A descoberta de compostos secundários de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana mostra-se promissora para o controle de fitopatógenos. A cúrcuma, Curcuma longa, apresenta em seus rizomas compostos com atividade antifúngica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fungitoxidade in vit [...] ro dos extratos de cúrcuma e da curcumina contra Alternaria solani. Foram utilizados extratos brutos aquosos (EB) de rizomas de cúrcuma (esterilizados por autoclavagem) nas concentrações de 0, 1, 5, 10 e 20% e curcumina nas concentrações de 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg/L, os quais foram incorporados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar para avaliação de crescimento micelial e esporulação do fungo. Também foram testados extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% esterilizados por filtração. O efeito dos extratos de cúrcuma autoclavados e não autoclavados e da curcumina na germinação de esporos in vitro foi também avaliado. Os extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% não autoclavados inibiram em 38,2% e 23,2%, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e 71,7% e 87%, respectivamente, a esporulação do fungo. Quando autoclavados, não apresentaram inibição do crescimento micelial nem da germinação de esporos e a inibição da esporulação foi menor, indicando a presença de compostos antimicrobianos termolábeis. O extrato não autoclavado na concentração de 5% inibiu em até 15% a germinação dos esporos. A curcumina inibiu o crescimento micelial em 29,5% na maior concentração testada, sem, contudo, afetar a esporulação e a germinação de esporos in vitro. Esses resultados indicam o potencial antifúngico da cúrcuma e curcumina contra A. solani. Abstract in english The discovery of plant secondary compounds with antimicrobial activity is very promising. Turmeric, Curcuma longa, has compounds in its rhizomes with fungicidal activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fungitoxic activity of turmeric extracts and curcumin against Alternaria [...] solani. Four different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20%) of aqueous extracts of turmeric rhizomes (sterilized by autoclave) and four curcumin solutions (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L) were incorporated into potato dextrose agar medium in order to evaluate fungal mycelial growth and sporulation. To evaluate the effect of using an autoclave, 10% and 15% turmeric extracts were sterilized by filtration. The effects of autoclaved and non-autoclaved turmeric extracts and curcumin on in vitro spore germination were tested. The concentrations of 10 and 15% of non-autoclaved turmeric extracts inhibited the mycelial growth by 38.2% and 23.2% respectively and the fungal sporulation by 71.7% and 87% respectively. When turmeric extracts were autoclaved, neither mycelial growth nor spore germination was inhibited and the effect on sporulation was reduced, suggesting the presence of thermolabile antimicrobial compounds. The non-autoclaved 5% extract inhibited spore germination by up to 15%. At the highest concentration, the curcumin solution inhibited mycelial growth by 29.5%. Neither in vitro sporulation nor spore germination was affected by curcumin. These results show the fungitoxic potential of turmeric and curcumin against A. solani.

María I., Balbi-Peña; Andrea, Becker; José Renato, Stangarlin; Gilmar, Franzener; Mário C., Lopes; Kátia R. F., Schwan-Estrada.

2006-06-01

368

Controle de Alternaria solani em tomateiro por extratos de Curcuma longa e curcumina: I. avaliação in vitro Control of Alternaria solani in tomato by Curcuma longa extracts and curcumin: I. In vitro evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A descoberta de compostos secundários de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana mostra-se promissora para o controle de fitopatógenos. A cúrcuma, Curcuma longa, apresenta em seus rizomas compostos com atividade antifúngica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fungitoxidade in vitro dos extratos de cúrcuma e da curcumina contra Alternaria solani. Foram utilizados extratos brutos aquosos (EB de rizomas de cúrcuma (esterilizados por autoclavagem nas concentrações de 0, 1, 5, 10 e 20% e curcumina nas concentrações de 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg/L, os quais foram incorporados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar para avaliação de crescimento micelial e esporulação do fungo. Também foram testados extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% esterilizados por filtração. O efeito dos extratos de cúrcuma autoclavados e não autoclavados e da curcumina na germinação de esporos in vitro foi também avaliado. Os extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% não autoclavados inibiram em 38,2% e 23,2%, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e 71,7% e 87%, respectivamente, a esporulação do fungo. Quando autoclavados, não apresentaram inibição do crescimento micelial nem da germinação de esporos e a inibição da esporulação foi menor, indicando a presença de compostos antimicrobianos termolábeis. O extrato não autoclavado na concentração de 5% inibiu em até 15% a germinação dos esporos. A curcumina inibiu o crescimento micelial em 29,5% na maior concentração testada, sem, contudo, afetar a esporulação e a germinação de esporos in vitro. Esses resultados indicam o potencial antifúngico da cúrcuma e curcumina contra A. solani.The discovery of plant secondary compounds with antimicrobial activity is very promising. Turmeric, Curcuma longa, has compounds in its rhizomes with fungicidal activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fungitoxic activity of turmeric extracts and curcumin against Alternaria solani. Four different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20% of aqueous extracts of turmeric rhizomes (sterilized by autoclave and four curcumin solutions (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L were incorporated into potato dextrose agar medium in order to evaluate fungal mycelial growth and sporulation. To evaluate the effect of using an autoclave, 10% and 15% turmeric extracts were sterilized by filtration. The effects of autoclaved and non-autoclaved turmeric extracts and curcumin on in vitro spore germination were tested. The concentrations of 10 and 15% of non-autoclaved turmeric extracts inhibited the mycelial growth by 38.2% and 23.2% respectively and the fungal sporulation by 71.7% and 87% respectively. When turmeric extracts were autoclaved, neither mycelial growth nor spore germination was inhibited and the effect on sporulation was reduced, suggesting the presence of thermolabile antimicrobial compounds. The non-autoclaved 5% extract inhibited spore germination by up to 15%. At the highest concentration, the curcumin solution inhibited mycelial growth by 29.5%. Neither in vitro sporulation nor spore germination was affected by curcumin. These results show the fungitoxic potential of turmeric and curcumin against A. solani.

María I. Balbi-Peña

2006-06-01

369

Search of antibiotic metabolites from phytopathogenic fungi  

OpenAIRE

Los extractos de acetato de etilo y diclorometano de cultivos de los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum musae, Cladosporium fulvum, Septoria lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani y Alternaria solani mostraron actividad antibacteriana utilizando técnicas de bioautografia contra algunas bacterias multi-droga resistentes aisladas de pacientes del hospital universitario (HUOP-Unioeste).

Nogueira, Marisa A.; Di?az, Gaspar; Stangarlin, Jose? Renato

2007-01-01

370

Watermelon Sudden Decay in Tunisia: Identification of Pathogenic Fungi and Determination of Primary Agents  

OpenAIRE

Isolation from infected watermelon samples has demonstrated the presence of some fungal complex including Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, Monosporascus cannonballus, Pythium ultimum and P. echinulatum. These fungal species are different in their distribution among the infected plants and areas surveyed. However, F. oxysporum and F. solani are always predominant. These results showed ...

Naima Boughalleb; Mohamed El Mahjoub

2006-01-01

371

Deep granulomatous dermatitis of the fin caused by Fusarium solani in a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year-old female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) developed skin lesions in the left breast fin. Histopathologically, the lesions consisted of multiple granulomas spread diffusely into the deep dermis and bone; characteristically, each granuloma had septate, branching fungal hyphae and chlamydospores surrounded by eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli materials. Macrophages, epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells in the granulomas reacted mainly to anti-SRA-E5 antibody against human macrophage scavenger receptor type I. Fusarium solani was isolated and its gene was detected from the skin samples. Mycotic skin lesions by Fusarium spp. reported so far in marine mammals were regarded as superficial dermatitis; therefore, the present case is very uncommon in that the lesions spread deeper into the skin. PMID:22214860

Tanaka, Miyuu; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Nakao, Tatsuko; Maezono, Yuko; Ito, Shu; Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru; Sano, Ayako; Yamate, Jyoji

2012-06-01

372

Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification. PMID:24880475

Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2014-08-01

373

Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 ?g/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 ?g/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 ?g/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 ?g/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

Sharma Bechan

2009-03-01

374

Serine protease identification (in vitro) and molecular structure predictions (in silico) from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine proteases are involved in an enormous number of biological processes. The present study aims at characterizing three-dimensional (3D) molecular architecture of serine proteases from early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani that are hypothesized to be markers of phytopathogenicity. A serine protease was purified to homogeneity and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed that protease produced by A. solani belongs to alkaline serine proteases (AsP). AsP is made up of 403 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 42.1?kDa (Isoelectric point - 6.51) and its molecular formula was C1859 H2930 N516 O595 S4 . AsP structure model was built based on its comparative homology with serine protease using the program, MODELER. AsP had 16 ?-sheets and 10 ?-helices, with Ser(350) (G347-G357), Asp(158) (D158-H169), and His(193) (H193-G203) in separate turn/coil structures. Biological metal binding region situated near 6th-helix and His(193) residue is responsible for metal binding site. Also, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is coordinated by the carboxyl groups of Lys(84), Ile(85), Lys(86), Asp(87), Phe(88), Ala(89), Ala(90) (K84-A90) for first Ca(2+) binding site and carbonyl oxygen atom of Lys(244), Gly(245), Arg(246), Thr(247), Lys(248), Lys(249), and Ala(250) (K244-A250), for second Ca(2+) binding site. Moreover, Ramachandran plot analysis of protein residues falling into most favored secondary structures were determined (83.3%). The predicted molecular 3D structural model was further verified using PROCHECK, ERRAT, and VADAR servers to confirm the geometry and stereo-chemical parameters of the molecular structural design. The functional analysis of AsP 3D molecular structure predictions familiar in the current study may provide a new perspective in the understanding and identification of antifungal protease inhibitor designing. PMID:24122785

Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Sa, Tongmin; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

2014-07-01

375