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1

Adaptation of Rhizoctonia Solani Kuehn to Fungicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight transfers on media containing boric acid led to a 1.5-two-fold increased resistance to boric acid in Rhizoctonia solani. Evidently the main mechanism of increase in resistance is cytoplasmic adaptation. The increased resistance is not fixed in the p...

Y. T. Dyakov

1968-01-01

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Changes in ribonuclease with age in the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzyme ribonuclease (RNase) which was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn degraded ribonucleic acid from both Torula yeast and from Rhizoctonia solani mycelia. As the Rhizoctonia mycelia aged, there was an increase in both the total and the specific activities of the RNase present in the mycelia. This change is discussed in relation to the age dependent decrease in protein synthesis in this fungus.

Gottlieb D; Sharma VD

1976-01-01

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Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e destruiu as hifas de R. solani. A penetração das células hospedeiras parece ser acompanhada por atividade mecânica.

Itamar Soares de Melo; Jane L. Faull

2000-01-01

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Interrelationships of Rotylenchulus reniformis with Rhizoctonia solani on Cotton  

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The interrelationships between reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedling blight fungus (Rhizoctonia solani) were studied using three isolates of R. solani, two populations of R. reniformis at multiple inoculum levels, and the cotton cultivars Dehapine ...

Sankaralingam, A.; McGawley, E. C.

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Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a basidiomycetous fungus which includes important plant pathogens, saprophytes and mycorrhizae. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AGs) with distinct host plant specializations. In order to facilitate studies on its biol...

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Seedling Blight of Festuca arizonica Caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available We report here a damping-off disease occurring at the seedling stage of the grass Festuca arizonica (Arizona fescue) that is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

Mopuri N. Reddy; Stanley H. Faeth

2011-01-01

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Bodemweerbaarheid tegen Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in bloemkool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizoctonia solani is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel die bij diverse gewassen schade veroorzaakt. Dit pathogeen is moeilijk te bestrijden vanwege zijn goede overleving in de bodem. Bovendien kunnen geringe hoeveelheden van het pathogeen onder gunstige omstandigheden het gewas reeds ernstige ...

Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

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Patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani em morangueiro/ Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani to strawberry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhen tem sido isolado com maior freqüência de mudas e plantas adultas de morangueiro com sintomas de subdesenvolvimento, declínio progressivo, avermelhamento ou arroxeamento dos folíolos, pecíolos e estolhos, além do apodrecimento do ápice da coroa, estipulas e base dos pecíolos. As plantas doentes apresentavam, com freqüência, raízes escuras ou com áreas necrosadas. Fusarium spp. e Pythium spp. também estavam, reiteradamente, asso (more) ciados às plantas doentes. Para determinar a causa dos sintomas descritos e verificar, isoladamente ou em mistura, possível interação entre os patógenos R. solani, Fusarium sp. e Pythium sp., testaram-nos quanto à patogenicidade, em mudas de morangueiro, em casa de vegetação. Observou-se que somente quando R. solani estava presente havia reprodução dos sintomas, de modo semelhante ao observado no campo, comprovando sua patogenicidade. Fusarium e Pythium, no entanto, foram reisolados de lesões radiculares, o que indica seu possível envolvimento no complexo da doença, aumentando os sintomas de declínio em condições de campo. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani was consistently associated with strawberry plants in nurseries or in fruit production fields, with symptoms of progressive decline, stunt, reddening of leaflets, petioles and runners, besides dry rots of the crown apex, estipules and base of the petioles. These plants showed frequently roots with necrotic lesions. Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. also were isolated from the diseased plants. This study was conducted to determine the role of each referred (more) fungus on the disease and to investigate a possible interaction between them. For this purpose, R. solani, Pythium sp. and Fusarium sp., alone or combined one with other, were inoculated in strawberry plants, in the greenhouse. The results showed that only when R. solani was present, there was an identical reproduction of the symptoms observed in the field. Fusarium and Pythium, nevertheless, were reisolated from root lesions, indicating the possibility of its involvement with the disease, increasing the symptoms of decline under field conditions.

Tanaka, Maria Aparecida de Souza; Ito, Margarida Fumiko; Passos, Francisco Antonio

1995-01-01

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Patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani em morangueiro Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani to strawberry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhen tem sido isolado com maior freqüência de mudas e plantas adultas de morangueiro com sintomas de subdesenvolvimento, declínio progressivo, avermelhamento ou arroxeamento dos folíolos, pecíolos e estolhos, além do apodrecimento do ápice da coroa, estipulas e base dos pecíolos. As plantas doentes apresentavam, com freqüência, raízes escuras ou com áreas necrosadas. Fusarium spp. e Pythium spp. também estavam, reiteradamente, associados às plantas doentes. Para determinar a causa dos sintomas descritos e verificar, isoladamente ou em mistura, possível interação entre os patógenos R. solani, Fusarium sp. e Pythium sp., testaram-nos quanto à patogenicidade, em mudas de morangueiro, em casa de vegetação. Observou-se que somente quando R. solani estava presente havia reprodução dos sintomas, de modo semelhante ao observado no campo, comprovando sua patogenicidade. Fusarium e Pythium, no entanto, foram reisolados de lesões radiculares, o que indica seu possível envolvimento no complexo da doença, aumentando os sintomas de declínio em condições de campo.Rhizoctonia solani was consistently associated with strawberry plants in nurseries or in fruit production fields, with symptoms of progressive decline, stunt, reddening of leaflets, petioles and runners, besides dry rots of the crown apex, estipules and base of the petioles. These plants showed frequently roots with necrotic lesions. Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. also were isolated from the diseased plants. This study was conducted to determine the role of each referred fungus on the disease and to investigate a possible interaction between them. For this purpose, R. solani, Pythium sp. and Fusarium sp., alone or combined one with other, were inoculated in strawberry plants, in the greenhouse. The results showed that only when R. solani was present, there was an identical reproduction of the symptoms observed in the field. Fusarium and Pythium, nevertheless, were reisolated from root lesions, indicating the possibility of its involvement with the disease, increasing the symptoms of decline under field conditions.

Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka; Margarida Fumiko Ito; Francisco Antonio Passos

1995-01-01

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A rare case of human mycosis by Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani is a most widely recognized strong saprophyte with a great diversity of host plants. It is a first ever case of extensive human mycosis caused by Rhizoctonia solani in a 65-year-old diabetic and hypertensive farmer, with a history of head injury caused by fall of mud wall. Necrotic material collected revealed septate fungal hyphae with bacterial co-infection. Fungal culture on SDA at 25°C showed cotton wooly growth progressing to greyish-white to shiny metallic black colonies and identified on basis of septate mycelial growth without conidia, right angle branching, presence of compact hyphal forms and anastomosis between branching hyphae on LPCB mount.

Kaore NM; Atul AR; Khan MZ; Ramnani VK

2012-07-01

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Soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani and microbial diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-2IIIB causes damping-off, black root rot and crown rot in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Based on experiences of growers and field experiments, soils can become suppressive to R. solani. The fungus may be present in the soil, but the plant does not show symptoms. Understanding the mechanisms causing soil suppressiveness to R. solani is essential for the development of environmentally friendly control strategies of rhizoctonia root rot in sugar beet. A bioassay that discriminates soils in their level of disease suppressiveness was developed. Results of bioassays were in accordance with field observations. Preliminary results indicate an active role of microbial communities. Our research is focused on the disentanglement of biological mechanisms causing soil suppressiveness to R. solani in sugar beet. Therefore, we are handling a multidisciplinary approach through experimental fields, bioassays, several in vitro techniques and molecular techniques (PCR-DGGE). PMID:16637155

Bakker, Y; Van Loon, F M J; Schneider, J H M

2005-01-01

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Reaction of melon genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani Reação de genótipos de melão a Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available The intensive exploration of melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops in the Brazilian Northeast favors the occurrence of root diseases such as the Rhizoctonia canker, caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Twenty melon genotypes were challenged against the pathogen isolates RS-9 and RS-10 aiming at selecting those potentially useful for breeding programs and/or integrated disease management. Seeds were planted in infested soil (50 mg of colonized rice grains kg-1 of soil). Disease severity was assessed 15 days after inoculation, by means of a disease scale from 0 to 4, used later to cluster genotypes in five classes. None of the genotypes presented immune-like reaction to R. solani, independent of the pathogen isolate. Disease severity ranged from 6.2 to 85.4% and from 7.8 to 85.2%, for isolates RS-9 and RS-10, respectively. When both isolates were considered simultaneously, genotypes Sancho, AF-1805, Athenas, AF-682, Torreon, and Galileo were highly resistant. Genotypes Sancho and AF-1805 had the lowest disease severity levels in relation to isolate RS-9, and genotype Gold Pride, in relation to RS-10. These genotypes differed significantly from the others, within isolates. Therefore, they are potential sources of resistance to R. solani and should be considered as a priority planting choice in infested areas.O cultivo intensivo de melão (Cucumis melo L.) no Nordeste brasileiro tem favorecido a ocorrência de doenças radiculares como a rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar genótipos com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 20 genótipos de melão, em relação a dois isolados do patógeno (RS-9 e RS-10). As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o patógeno pela incorporação de 50 mg de substrato (grãos de arroz) colonizado kg-1 de solo. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de escala de notas de 0 a 4, para agrupamento de cada genótipo em cinco classes e cálculo do índice de severidade da doença. Nenhum dos genótipos apresentou reação de imunidade a R. solani, independentemente do isolado. Os índices de severidade da doença variaram de 6,2 a 85,4% e de 7,8 a 85,2% para os isolados RS-9 e RS-10, respectivamente. Quando considerados os dois isolados do patógeno simultaneamente, os genótipos Sancho, AF-1805, Athenas, AF-682, Torreon e Galileo comportaram-se como altamente resistentes. Os genótipos Sancho e AF-1805 apresentaram os menores índices de severidade da rizoctoniose em relação a RS-9 e, o genótipo Gold Pride, em relação a RS-10. Esses genótipos diferiram significativamente dos demais, considerando cada isolado do patógeno individualmente e, portanto, constituem fontes promissoras de resistência a R. Solani, devendo ser preferidos para plantio em áreas infestadas pelo patógeno.

Sami J Michereff; Domingos EGT Andrade; Rui Sales Júnior

2008-01-01

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Reaction of melon genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani/ Reação de genótipos de melão a Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O cultivo intensivo de melão (Cucumis melo L.) no Nordeste brasileiro tem favorecido a ocorrência de doenças radiculares como a rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar genótipos com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 20 genótipos de melão, em relação a dois isolados do patógeno (RS-9 e RS-10). As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o patógeno pela (more) incorporação de 50 mg de substrato (grãos de arroz) colonizado kg-1 de solo. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de escala de notas de 0 a 4, para agrupamento de cada genótipo em cinco classes e cálculo do índice de severidade da doença. Nenhum dos genótipos apresentou reação de imunidade a R. solani, independentemente do isolado. Os índices de severidade da doença variaram de 6,2 a 85,4% e de 7,8 a 85,2% para os isolados RS-9 e RS-10, respectivamente. Quando considerados os dois isolados do patógeno simultaneamente, os genótipos Sancho, AF-1805, Athenas, AF-682, Torreon e Galileo comportaram-se como altamente resistentes. Os genótipos Sancho e AF-1805 apresentaram os menores índices de severidade da rizoctoniose em relação a RS-9 e, o genótipo Gold Pride, em relação a RS-10. Esses genótipos diferiram significativamente dos demais, considerando cada isolado do patógeno individualmente e, portanto, constituem fontes promissoras de resistência a R. Solani, devendo ser preferidos para plantio em áreas infestadas pelo patógeno. Abstract in english The intensive exploration of melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops in the Brazilian Northeast favors the occurrence of root diseases such as the Rhizoctonia canker, caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Twenty melon genotypes were challenged against the pathogen isolates RS-9 and RS-10 aiming at selecting those potentially useful for breeding programs and/or integrated disease management. Seeds were planted in infested soil (50 mg of colonized rice grains kg-1 of soil). Disease severity (more) was assessed 15 days after inoculation, by means of a disease scale from 0 to 4, used later to cluster genotypes in five classes. None of the genotypes presented immune-like reaction to R. solani, independent of the pathogen isolate. Disease severity ranged from 6.2 to 85.4% and from 7.8 to 85.2%, for isolates RS-9 and RS-10, respectively. When both isolates were considered simultaneously, genotypes Sancho, AF-1805, Athenas, AF-682, Torreon, and Galileo were highly resistant. Genotypes Sancho and AF-1805 had the lowest disease severity levels in relation to isolate RS-9, and genotype Gold Pride, in relation to RS-10. These genotypes differed significantly from the others, within isolates. Therefore, they are potential sources of resistance to R. solani and should be considered as a priority planting choice in infested areas.

Michereff, Sami J; Andrade, Domingos EGT; Sales Júnior, Rui

2008-09-01

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Mycoparasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by Endophytic Chaetomium spirale ND35 : Ultrastructure and Cytochemistry of the Interaction  

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The interaction between endophytic biocontrol agent Chaetomium spirale ND35 and the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as further investigated by gold cytochemistry to assess the potential role of cell wall...

Gao, Kexiang; Liu, X.; Kang, Zhensheng; Mendgen, Kurt

15

SEEDLING RESISTANCE TO RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI IN SUGAR BEET  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) causes damping'off at the seedling stage and crown and root rot in the adult plant. Managing damping-off by azoxystrobin fungicides is promising but genetic resistance is being sought. Phenotypic and microscopic analysis of disease progress pattern...

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In Vitro Protein Synthesis and Aging in Rhizoctonia solani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was made of the ability of cell-free protein synthesis systems from vegetative cells of different age of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani to produce polyphenylalanine. Polyuridylic acid-directed phenylalanine incorporation into peptides decreased linearly with cell age. The 105,000 × g supernat...

Obrig, T. G.; Gottlieb, David

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GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI IN THE SOYBEAN CULTIVAR 'SAVOY'  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is a soilborne disease that can cause yield loss in soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)). The soybean cultivar 'Savoy' has partial resistance to R. solani. 'Savoy' was crossed to 'Jack', a cultivar that is susceptible to R. solani. Progeny from...

18

Pea seed treatment for Rhizoctonia solani control/ Desempenho de sementes de ervilhas em função do controle químico de Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Durante o estabelecimento das lavouras de ervilha, a ocorrência de Rhizoctonia solani causando tombamento de plântulas tem sido observada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência do uso de fungicidas no tratamento de sementes de ervilha cultivar Mikado, visando o controle de Rhizoctonia solani e seus efeitos na qualidade fisiológica dessas sementes. Sementes foram tratadas com os seguintes fungicidas: Carbendazim, Carbendazim + Thiram, Captan, Ip (more) rodione, Iprodione + Thiram, Metalaxil-M + Fludioxonil, Pencicurom, Procimidone e Tolifluanida. Como testemunha, foi utilizada sementes tratadas com água destilada. A avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes após o tratamento foi realizada pelos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica e emergência de plântulas. As sementes tratadas foram semeadas em solo não inoculado e inoculado com R. solani. A emergência de plântulas foi reduzida em solo inoculado, sendo que os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores resultados foram Carbendazim, Pencicurom, Iprodione e Carbendazim + Thiram. O fungicida Captan prejudicou a qualidade fisiológica das sementes tanto em laboratório como no campo. Com relação à germinação, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores resultados foram Carbendazim, Pencicurom, Iprodione e Carbendazim + Thiram. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides for pea seed treatment against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani and to verify their effects on physiological seed quality. 'Mikado' pea seeds were treated with the following fungicides: Carbendazim, Carbendazim + Thiram, Captan, Iprodione, Iprodione + Thiram, Metalaxyl-M + Fludioxonil, Pencycuron, Procymidone and Tolyfluanid. Control seeds were treated with deionized water. Physiological se (more) ed quality was evaluated with the following tests: germination, first count, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity. Seeds were sown in soil inoculated and no inoculated with R. solani. The experimental design was completely random with four replications. Seedling emergence was reduced in inoculated soil and the best treatments for R. solani control were Carbendazim, Pencycuron, Iprodione and Carbendazim + Thiram. Captan reduced seed physiological quality in both the laboratory and field.

Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Freitas, Raquel Alves de; Nascimento, Warley Marcos

2013-01-01

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Antifungal effect and mechanism of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antifungal properties and mechanism of three types of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, were evaluated. Each chitosan had strong antifungal activity against R. solani and protected rice seedlings from sheath blight, in particular, two types of acid-soluble chitosan caused a 60-91 % inhibition in mycelial growth, 31-84 % inhibition of disease incidence, and 66-91 % inhibition in lesion length. The mechanism of chitosan in protection of rice from R. solani pathogen was attributed to direct destruction of the mycelium, evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations and pathogenicity testing; indirect induced resistance was evidenced by the changes in the activities of the defense-related phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in rice seedling. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal activity of chitosan against rice R. solani. PMID:22932934

Liu, He; Tian, Wenxiao; Li, Bin; Wu, Guoxing; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Tao, Zhongyun; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Hongye; Sun, Guochang

2012-08-30

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Antifungal effect and mechanism of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antifungal properties and mechanism of three types of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, were evaluated. Each chitosan had strong antifungal activity against R. solani and protected rice seedlings from sheath blight, in particular, two types of acid-soluble chitosan caused a 60-91 % inhibition in mycelial growth, 31-84 % inhibition of disease incidence, and 66-91 % inhibition in lesion length. The mechanism of chitosan in protection of rice from R. solani pathogen was attributed to direct destruction of the mycelium, evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations and pathogenicity testing; indirect induced resistance was evidenced by the changes in the activities of the defense-related phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in rice seedling. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal activity of chitosan against rice R. solani.

Liu H; Tian W; Li B; Wu G; Ibrahim M; Tao Z; Wang Y; Xie G; Li H; Sun G

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Incompatibilidade somática em Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja Somatic incompatibility in Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA of soybean  

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Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes que afeta a cultura da soja no Brasil, causando a mela ou queima foliar. A doença está associada com a fase teleomórfica de R. solani, o basidiomiceto Thanatephorus cucumeris. Neste estudo, baseando em conhecimento prévio sobre a biologia de R. solani AG-1 IA, duas hipóteses foram testadas. Na primeira hipótese postulou-se a ocorrência de incompatibilidade somática em populações de R. solani AG-1 IA. A segunda hipótese testada foi de que esta população de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja apresenta indicações de estrutura sexual clonal. Duas amostras de isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja obtidas no Maranhão e no Mato Grosso foram utilizadas. Na primeira amostra, foram selecionados isolados apresentando diferentes perfis de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), procurando maximizar a diversidade dos isolados, e evitando a introdução de possíveis clones no teste. Os isolados foram pareados em todas as combinações possíveis em meio de BDA mais carvão ativado e examinados quanto às interações somáticas resultantes. Seis grupos de incompatibilidade somática (GCS) foram detectados entre 24 isolados do AG-1 IA. Entretanto, análises microscópicas dos pareamentos entre isolados indicaram maior freqüência de incompatibilidade somática, impossibilitando o grupamento em GCS. No geral, a metodologia de avaliação das interações somáticas macroscópicas em meio BDA + carvão ativado, não se mostrou totalmente apropriada para discriminação das categorias de reações de compatibilidade entre isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA. Com a segunda amostra procurou-se determinar a ocorrência de clones na população do patógeno, ou seja, isolados que compartilham o mesmo padrão fenotípico de RAPD e somaticamente compatíveis. No caso de R. solani AG 1 IA da soja, a gama de interações somáticas entre pareamentos de isolados e, principalmente, os desvios na associação estrita entre os GCS detectados neste trabalho, conjuntamente com os perfis de RAPD observados anteriormente por Fenille (11) e Meyer (20), são consistentes com recombinação. Entretanto, o patógeno ainda apresenta um componente clonal expressivo na população. De um total de 43 isolados, os exemplos de prováveis clones na população do patógeno totalizaram 16 isolados.Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA (AG-1 IA) is considered one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil, causing the aerial or foliar blight. This disease is associated with the teleomorphase of R. solani AG-1 IA, the basidiomycete fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris. In this study, based on previous knowledge of the biology of R. solani AG-1 IA, two hypotheses were tested. In the first we postulated the occurrence of somatic incompatibility in populations of R. solani AG-1 IA. The second was that the population of R. solani AG1 IA from soybean has a clonal structure. Two population samples of R. solani AG-1 IA from soybean, obtained in Maranhão and Mato Grosso were analyzed. In the first sample, isolates with distinct RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) profile were selected to maximize the genetic diversity of isolates and to avoid the introduction of clones in the assay. The isolates were paired in all possible combinations in PDA plus charcoal medium and examined according to the resulting somatic interactions. Six somatic compatibility groups (SCG) were detected among 24 isolates of AG-1 IA. However, microscopic analyzes of the pairings indicated higher frequency of somatic incompatibility, resulting in the impossibility of grouping any two isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA into SCG. In general, the methodology for evaluating the macroscopic somatic interactions in PDA plus charcoal medium seemed not totally appropriate for discriminating between categories of somatic compatibility amongst isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA. With the second sample of isolates we aimed to determine the occurrence of clones in the population of the pathogen, i.e., isolates t

Ana Paula da Silva de Campos; Paulo Cezar Ceresini

2006-01-01

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Antagonism of some soil microflora species against pathogenic Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn agents  

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Full Text Available In vitro results of some soil micoflora species antagonisms against pathogenic Fussarium graminearum Schwabe and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn agents are presented. Following tets performed Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma viride and Penicillium spp. Were found to be antagonist against Fusarium graminearum. Antagonist against Rhizoctonia solani were found to be Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Trichothecium roseum.

N. FLOREA

1973-01-01

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Changes in Fungi with Age I. Chemical Composition of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium bataticola1  

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Gottlieb, David (University of Illinois, Urbana), and James L. Van Etten. Changes in fungi with age. I. Chemical composition of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium bataticola. J. Bacteriol. 91:161–168. 1966.—The chemical composition of the mycelium of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium bataticola was d...

Gottlieb, David; Van Etten, James L.

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Incompatibilidade somática em Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja/ Somatic incompatibility in Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA of soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes que afeta a cultura da soja no Brasil, causando a mela ou queima foliar. A doença está associada com a fase teleomórfica de R. solani, o basidiomiceto Thanatephorus cucumeris. Neste estudo, baseando em conhecimento prévio sobre a biologia de R. solani AG-1 IA, duas hipóteses foram testadas. Na primeira hipótese postulou-se a ocorrência de incompatibilidade somática em populações de R. solan (more) i AG-1 IA. A segunda hipótese testada foi de que esta população de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja apresenta indicações de estrutura sexual clonal. Duas amostras de isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA da soja obtidas no Maranhão e no Mato Grosso foram utilizadas. Na primeira amostra, foram selecionados isolados apresentando diferentes perfis de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), procurando maximizar a diversidade dos isolados, e evitando a introdução de possíveis clones no teste. Os isolados foram pareados em todas as combinações possíveis em meio de BDA mais carvão ativado e examinados quanto às interações somáticas resultantes. Seis grupos de incompatibilidade somática (GCS) foram detectados entre 24 isolados do AG-1 IA. Entretanto, análises microscópicas dos pareamentos entre isolados indicaram maior freqüência de incompatibilidade somática, impossibilitando o grupamento em GCS. No geral, a metodologia de avaliação das interações somáticas macroscópicas em meio BDA + carvão ativado, não se mostrou totalmente apropriada para discriminação das categorias de reações de compatibilidade entre isolados de R. solani AG-1 IA. Com a segunda amostra procurou-se determinar a ocorrência de clones na população do patógeno, ou seja, isolados que compartilham o mesmo padrão fenotípico de RAPD e somaticamente compatíveis. No caso de R. solani AG 1 IA da soja, a gama de interações somáticas entre pareamentos de isolados e, principalmente, os desvios na associação estrita entre os GCS detectados neste trabalho, conjuntamente com os perfis de RAPD observados anteriormente por Fenille (11) e Meyer (20), são consistentes com recombinação. Entretanto, o patógeno ainda apresenta um componente clonal expressivo na população. De um total de 43 isolados, os exemplos de prováveis clones na população do patógeno totalizaram 16 isolados. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA (AG-1 IA) is considered one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil, causing the aerial or foliar blight. This disease is associated with the teleomorphase of R. solani AG-1 IA, the basidiomycete fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris. In this study, based on previous knowledge of the biology of R. solani AG-1 IA, two hypotheses were tested. In the first we postulated the occurrence of somatic incompatibility in popula (more) tions of R. solani AG-1 IA. The second was that the population of R. solani AG1 IA from soybean has a clonal structure. Two population samples of R. solani AG-1 IA from soybean, obtained in Maranhão and Mato Grosso were analyzed. In the first sample, isolates with distinct RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) profile were selected to maximize the genetic diversity of isolates and to avoid the introduction of clones in the assay. The isolates were paired in all possible combinations in PDA plus charcoal medium and examined according to the resulting somatic interactions. Six somatic compatibility groups (SCG) were detected among 24 isolates of AG-1 IA. However, microscopic analyzes of the pairings indicated higher frequency of somatic incompatibility, resulting in the impossibility of grouping any two isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA into SCG. In general, the methodology for evaluating the macroscopic somatic interactions in PDA plus charcoal medium seemed not totally appropriate for discriminating between categories of somatic compatibility amongst isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA. With the second sample of isolates we aimed to determine the occurrence o

Campos, Ana Paula da Silva de; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar

2006-09-01

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Variability in sclerotial morphology of Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. sasakii incitant of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize as revealed through Scanning Electron Microscope  

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Full Text Available Ten isolates of Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. sasakii collected from major maize growing areas showed morphological variability. With respect to colour of the colony two groups were observed, one having isolates from Bhuvaneshwar, Jorhat, Pusa, Delhi, Ludhiana, and Dhaulakuan and other group having isolates from Murorissa, Almora, Pantnagar and Karnal. Based on the pattern of sclerotial production, the isolates were also divided into two groups; one bearing peripheral sclerotia and other group having isolates bearing scattered sclerotia. SclerotiaI aggregation was observed in all the isolates, although more in Karnal isolate. Pantnagar isolate produced significantly higher weight sclerotia (1.71mg) than all isolates. SEM of sclerotia showed pits in isolates from Bhubaneshwar, Jorhat, Delhi, Ludhiana and Karnal. Surface texture as seen by SEM varied from compact to loose.

P. SRINIVAS, RASHMI AGGARWAL* and R.C. SHARMA

2011-01-01

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CONTROLE QUÍMICO DE Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EM BATATA SEMENTE CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn IN SEED POTATO  

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Full Text Available Os fungicidas benomyl (200 g.i.a./100 kg sementes), iprodione (200 g.i.a./100 kg sementes) e pencycuron (62,5 g.i.a./100 kg de sementes) foram testados, em condições de telado, no controle de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., em batata semente da cultivar Desirée. A avaliação da percentagem de emergência damping-off aos 25 dias após o plantio, demonstrou que os fungicidas pencycuron e iprodione foram os melhores, com vantagens para o primeiro, porém sem diferirem entre si significativamente. The fungicides benomyl (200 g.a.i./100 kg seeds), iprodione (200 g.a.i./l00kg seeds) and pencycuron (62.5 g.a.i./100 kg seeds) were evaluated, under greenhouse conditions on controlling Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, in seed potato, with variety Desirée. The evaluation of the germination percentage and damping-off, at 25 days of age, showed that the best treatment was presented through the use of penycuron, but this fungicide had no significant difference in relation to iprodione treatment.

Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Cláudio Aparecido da Silveira

2007-01-01

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CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn IN SEED POTATO CONTROLE QUÍMICO DE Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EM BATATA SEMENTE  

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Full Text Available The fungicides benomyl (200 g.a.i./100 kg seeds), iprodione (200 g.a.i./l00kg seeds) and pencycuron (62.5 g.a.i./100 kg seeds) were evaluated, under greenhouse conditions on controlling Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, in seed potato, with variety Desirée. The evaluation of the germination percentage and damping-off, at 25 days of age, showed that the best treatment was presented through the use of penycuron, but this fungicide had no significant difference in relation to iprodione treatment. Os fungicidas benomyl (200 g.i.a./100 kg sementes), iprodione (200 g.i.a./100 kg sementes) e pencycuron (62,5 g.i.a./100 kg de sementes) foram testados, em condições de telado, no controle de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., em batata semente da cultivar Desirée. A avaliação da percentagem de emergência damping-off aos 25 dias após o plantio, demonstrou que os fungicidas pencycuron e iprodione foram os melhores, com vantagens para o primeiro, porém sem diferirem entre si significativamente.

Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Cláudio Aparecido da Silveira

2007-01-01

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Quantification of rice sheath blight progression caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani has a wide host range, including almost all cultivated crops and its subgroup anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes sheath blight in rice. An accurate measurement of pathogen's biomass is a convincing tool for enumeration of this disease. Mycological characteristics and molecular diagnosis simultaneously supported that all six strains in this study were R. solani AG-1 IA. Heterokaryons between strains Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were stable and viable, whereas Rs40103 and Rs40106 did not form viable fused cells, except for the combination of Rs40106 and Rs40104. A primer pair was highly specific to RsAROM gene of R. solani strains and the amplified fragment exists as double copies within fungal genome. The relationship between crossing point (CP) values and the amount of fungal DNA was reliable (R (2) >0.99). Based on these results, we determined R. solani's proliferation within infected stems through real time PCR using a primer pair and a Taqman probe specific to the RsAROM gene. The amount of fungal DNA within the 250 ng of tissue DNA from rice cv. Dongjin infected with Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were 7.436, 5.830, and 5.085 ng, respectively. In contrast, the fungal DNAs within the stems inoculated with Rs40103 and Rs40106 were 0.091 and 0.842 ng. The sheath blight symptom progression approximately coincided with the amount of fungal DNA within the symptoms. In summary, our quantitative evaluation method provided reliable and objective results reflecting the amount of fungal biomass within the infected tissues and would be useful for evaluation of resistance germplasm or fungicides and estimation of inoculum potential.

Su'udi M; Park JM; Kang WR; Hwang DJ; Kim S; Ahn IP

2013-06-01

29

Quantification of rice sheath blight progression caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani has a wide host range, including almost all cultivated crops and its subgroup anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes sheath blight in rice. An accurate measurement of pathogen's biomass is a convincing tool for enumeration of this disease. Mycological characteristics and molecular diagnosis simultaneously supported that all six strains in this study were R. solani AG-1 IA. Heterokaryons between strains Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were stable and viable, whereas Rs40103 and Rs40106 did not form viable fused cells, except for the combination of Rs40106 and Rs40104. A primer pair was highly specific to RsAROM gene of R. solani strains and the amplified fragment exists as double copies within fungal genome. The relationship between crossing point (CP) values and the amount of fungal DNA was reliable (R (2) >0.99). Based on these results, we determined R. solani's proliferation within infected stems through real time PCR using a primer pair and a Taqman probe specific to the RsAROM gene. The amount of fungal DNA within the 250 ng of tissue DNA from rice cv. Dongjin infected with Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were 7.436, 5.830, and 5.085 ng, respectively. In contrast, the fungal DNAs within the stems inoculated with Rs40103 and Rs40106 were 0.091 and 0.842 ng. The sheath blight symptom progression approximately coincided with the amount of fungal DNA within the symptoms. In summary, our quantitative evaluation method provided reliable and objective results reflecting the amount of fungal biomass within the infected tissues and would be useful for evaluation of resistance germplasm or fungicides and estimation of inoculum potential. PMID:23812819

Su'udi, Mukhamad; Park, Jong-Mi; Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-06-28

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Transgenic expression of Lactoferrin imparts resistance to a soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) plants expressing an antimicrobial bovine lactoferrin (BLF) gene were developed and evaluated for resistance against an economically important fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping off diseases....

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Biological Control of Potato Isolate of Rhizoctonia solani by Streptomyces olivaceus Strain 115  

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This is the first report of antifungal activity of Iranian actinomycete isolates against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-3 (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris [(Frank) Donk]). Biological control offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of antimicrobials for contro...

S. Shahrokhi; G.H. Shahidi Bonjar; I. Saadoun

32

Metodologias de inoculação de Rhizoctonia solani na cultura da cenoura Inoculation methodology of Rhizoctonia solani in carrot  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani pode causar diferentes tipos de doenças em cenoura (Daucus carota L.). Para a avaliação de métodos de controle geralmente se utiliza inoculação artificial. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, ajustar uma concentração de inóculo de R. solani (AG-4) no cultivo de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições sendo a unidade experimental um vaso de 3L com 40 sementes. Como substrato, utilizou-se solo/areia (3:1). Os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 sendo, 4 densidades de inóculo (9; 18; 36; 72; mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo) e 3 métodos de infestação artificial (incorporados a todo o solo; incorporados na superfície; contato direto com as sementes) e uma testemunha adicional. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de crescimento a 20(0)C, com fotoperíodo de 12 h. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente do 8º ao 30º dia após a semeadura, registrando-se o estande e o número de plântulas com tombamento. Analisou-se o índice de velocidade de emergência, porcentagem média de tombamento pré e pós emergência. A densidade de 72 mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo incorporado na superfície foi o método mais eficiente.Rhizoctonia solani may cause different diseases in carrot (Daucus carota L.). To test control methods, artificial inoculation is generally employed. This work aimed to adjust a methodology to inoculate R. solani (AG-4) in carrot. A randomized block outline with five replicates was used, with an experimental unit of a 3L-pot with 40 seeds and a substact composed by a mixture of soil/sand (3:1 v/v). Treatments were those in a factorial experiment 4 x 3, with 4 inoculum densities (9; 18; 36; 72 mg of inoculum.kg-1 of soil) and three forms of artificial infestation (incorporated to the substract as a whole; incorporated on the surface; with direct contact with seeds) and an additional control. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber at 20(0)C and a 12h photoperiod. The evaluations were daily performed from the 8th to the 30th day after sowing, recording plant stand and number of seedlings with damping-off. The emergence index, averge percentage of pre and post emergence. Were analyzed the density of 72 mg of inoculum·kg-1 of soil, incorporated on the surface of the susbtract was the most efficient inoculation method.

Amanda Cabral Corrêa de Oliveira; Paulo Estevão de Souza; Edson Ampélio Pozza; Felipe de Carvalho Manerba; Maurício Ferreira Lopes

2008-01-01

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Metodologias de inoculação de Rhizoctonia solani na cultura da cenoura/ Inoculation methodology of Rhizoctonia solani in carrot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Rhizoctonia solani pode causar diferentes tipos de doenças em cenoura (Daucus carota L.). Para a avaliação de métodos de controle geralmente se utiliza inoculação artificial. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, ajustar uma concentração de inóculo de R. solani (AG-4) no cultivo de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições sendo a unidade experimental um vaso de 3L com 40 sementes. Como substrato, utilizou-se solo/areia (3:1). O (more) s tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 sendo, 4 densidades de inóculo (9; 18; 36; 72; mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo) e 3 métodos de infestação artificial (incorporados a todo o solo; incorporados na superfície; contato direto com as sementes) e uma testemunha adicional. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de crescimento a 20(0)C, com fotoperíodo de 12 h. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente do 8º ao 30º dia após a semeadura, registrando-se o estande e o número de plântulas com tombamento. Analisou-se o índice de velocidade de emergência, porcentagem média de tombamento pré e pós emergência. A densidade de 72 mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo incorporado na superfície foi o método mais eficiente. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani may cause different diseases in carrot (Daucus carota L.). To test control methods, artificial inoculation is generally employed. This work aimed to adjust a methodology to inoculate R. solani (AG-4) in carrot. A randomized block outline with five replicates was used, with an experimental unit of a 3L-pot with 40 seeds and a substact composed by a mixture of soil/sand (3:1 v/v). Treatments were those in a factorial experiment 4 x 3, with 4 inoculum dens (more) ities (9; 18; 36; 72 mg of inoculum.kg-1 of soil) and three forms of artificial infestation (incorporated to the substract as a whole; incorporated on the surface; with direct contact with seeds) and an additional control. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber at 20(0)C and a 12h photoperiod. The evaluations were daily performed from the 8th to the 30th day after sowing, recording plant stand and number of seedlings with damping-off. The emergence index, averge percentage of pre and post emergence. Were analyzed the density of 72 mg of inoculum·kg-1 of soil, incorporated on the surface of the susbtract was the most efficient inoculation method.

Oliveira, Amanda Cabral Corrêa de; Souza, Paulo Estevão de; Pozza, Edson Ampélio; Manerba, Felipe de Carvalho; Lopes, Maurício Ferreira

2008-06-01

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Influence of Rhizoctonia solani on Egg Hatching and Infectivity ofRotylenchulus reniformis  

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The effects of culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia solani and root exudates of R. solani-infected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings on hatching of eggs and infectivity of females of Rotylenchulus reniformis were evaluated in an attempt to account for the enhanced nematode reproduction observed in t...

Sankaralingam, A.; McGawley, E. C.

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Genetic Variability in Rhizoctonia solani Isolated from Vitis vinifera Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism  

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Problem statement: Rhizoctonia solani is a potential grapevine pathogen. In order to develop effective methods of control, it is necessary to document its genetic diversity. Approach: The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of R. solani isolated...

Amparo Meza-Moller; Martin Esqueda; Felipe Sanchez-Teyer; Georgina Vargas-Rosales; Alfonso A. Gardea; Martin Tiznado-Hernandez

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Soil physics, fungal epidemiology and the spread of Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of soil structure on colonization efficiency of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is analysed by linking experimental techniques that control and quantify soil structure with epidemiological concepts that deal with the fungal dynamics of colonization. The dynamics of colonization efficiency are quantified for the fungal colony spreading through replicated samples of a nonsterile sandy loam with different physical properties. The effect of bulk-density and aggregate-size on the air-filled pore volume is assessed by examination of thin soil sections and by quantification of pore-size distributions estimated from water-retention characteristics. An increase in bulk-density and a reduction in aggregate size increased the fraction of micropores in the air-filled pore volume at the expense of larger pores. These changes resulted in smaller, more slowly expanding fungal colonies and significantly reduced the volume of soil from which a nutrient source can become colonized. It is concluded that colonization efficiency is a convenient way to summarize the complicated dynamics of mycelial growth through soil. We use the results to discuss the effect of soil structure on the saprotrophic and parasitic invasion of soil by fungi.

Otten W; Hall D; Harris K; Ritz K; Young IM; Gilligan CA

2001-08-01

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Characterization of field isolates of Trichoderma antagonistic against Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to characterize sixteen isolates of Trichoderma originating from a field of sugar beet where disease patches caused by Rhizoctonia solani were observed. Use of both molecular and morphological characteristics gave consistent identification of the isolates. Production of water-soluble and volatile inhibitors, mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plant host were investigated using in vitro and in vivo tests in both sterilized and natural soils. This functional approach revealed the intra-specific diversity as well as biocontrol potential of the different isolates. Different antagonistic mechanisms were evident for different strains. The most antagonistic strain, T30 was identified as Trichoderma gamsii. This is the first report of an efficient antagonistic strain of T. gamsii being able to reduce the disease in different conditions. The ability to produce water-soluble inhibitors or coil around the hyphae of the pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Additionally, the strains collected from the high disease areas in the field were better antagonists. The antagonistic activity was not characteristic of a species but that of a population. PMID:20943179

Anees, Muhammad; Tronsmo, Arne; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Hjeljord, Linda Gordon; Héraud, Cécile; Steinberg, Christian

2010-06-09

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Changes in Fungi with Age II. Respiration and Respiratory Enzymes of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium bataticola1  

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Van Etten, James L. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Peter Molitoris, and David Gottlieb. Changes in fungi with age. II. Respiration and respiratory enzymes of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium bataticola. J. Bacteriol. 91:169–175. 1966.—The rate of respiration of Rhizoctonia solani and Scleroti...

Van Etten, James L.; Molitoris, H. Peter; Gottlieb, David

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Identification of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from sugar beet roots by analyzing the ITS region of ribosomal DNA  

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Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 are proven to be the most common pathogenic strains on sugar beet. AG 2-2 (intraspecific groups IIIB and IV) can cause root and crown rot while damping-off of seedlings i...

Stojšin Vera B.; Budakov Dragana; Jacobsen Barry; Grimme Eva; Bagi Ferenc F.; Jasni? Stevan

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Susceptibility of leguminous green manure species to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii Suscetibilidade de espécies de leguminosas usadas como adubo verde a Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii  

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Full Text Available We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii). Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. "Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.Estudou-se a suscetibilidade de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em campos cultivados com feijão à podridão-radicular (Rhizoctonia solani) e à podridão-do-colo (Sclerotium rolfsii). Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, e as cultivares de feijão Pérola, Valente e Carnaval foram semeadas em solo infestado por R. solani AG-4 ou S. rolfsii em casa de vegetação. A emergência de D. lablab em solo infestado por R. solani foi reduzida a 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis e Valente apresentaram a menor severidade de podridão-radicular. O fungo S. rolfsii reduziu drasticamente a emergência de todas as espécies; nenhuma plântula de C. cajan e S. cinereum emergiu. Todas as espécies apresentaram alta severidade de podridão-do-colo. As espécies de leguminosas testadas não são apropriadas para serem utilizadas como adubo verde em áreas de cultivo de feijão com alta população de R. solani e S. rolfsii.

Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior; Hudson Teixeira; Rogério Faria Vieira; Miller da Silva Lehner; Renan Cardoso de Lima; Telma Fallieri Nascimento Queiroz

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Susceptibility of leguminous green manure species to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii/ Suscetibilidade de espécies de leguminosas usadas como adubo verde a Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a suscetibilidade de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em campos cultivados com feijão à podridão-radicular (Rhizoctonia solani) e à podridão-do-colo (Sclerotium rolfsii). Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, e as cultivares de feijão Pérola, Valente e Carnaval foram semeadas em solo infestado por R. solani AG-4 ou S. rolfsii em casa de vegetação. A emergência de D. la (more) blab em solo infestado por R. solani foi reduzida a 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis e Valente apresentaram a menor severidade de podridão-radicular. O fungo S. rolfsii reduziu drasticamente a emergência de todas as espécies; nenhuma plântula de C. cajan e S. cinereum emergiu. Todas as espécies apresentaram alta severidade de podridão-do-colo. As espécies de leguminosas testadas não são apropriadas para serem utilizadas como adubo verde em áreas de cultivo de feijão com alta população de R. solani e S. rolfsii. Abstract in english We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii). Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. "Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. (more) solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.

Paula Júnior, Trazilbo José de; Teixeira, Hudson; Vieira, Rogério Faria; Lehner, Miller da Silva; Lima, Renan Cardoso de; Queiroz, Telma Fallieri Nascimento

2011-12-01

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Genetic and Genomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Interactions with Arabidopsis; Evidence of Resistance Mediated through NADPH Oxidases  

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Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, cam...

Foley, Rhonda C.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B.

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Role of Biological Control on Some Physiological Aspects of Zea mays Infected by Rhizoctonia solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results revealed that treatment with either Trichoderma harzianum or Bacillus subtilis by soil inoculation or grain coating significantly increased the percentage of healthy seedlings as well as the length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. Photosynthetic pigments content of the leaves significantly increased in absence of Rhizoctonia solani alone. The same almost applied to soluble sugar content, amino acid content or total nitrogen of the seedlings, though less apparent or insignificant when the grains were treated with B. subtilis before growing in soil treated with 3% R. solani. R. solani lowered the test elemental content of Zea mays seedlings, while the reverse was most prominent by sowing the grains in soil amended with R. solani and T. harzianum. The results also revealed that infestation by Rhizoctonia solani significantly lowered the length of the ears and weight of 100 grains. In the mean time the weight of 100 grains significantly dropped; a response that was hardly, if at all affected by implying R. solani with Bacillus subtilis or T. harzianum. The presence of the three microorganisms increased the fresh weight of the ears but the total count or weight of the grains was lowered. The presence of R. solani in soil lowered the lipid, total carbohydrates and protein content of corn flour. Meanwhile using the biological control agents T. harzianum or B. subtilis or both initiated the increase of these components.

Faten A. El-Daly; Nahed Haikal

2006-01-01

44

Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita ...

Walker, G. E.

45

DNA Microsatellite Analysis of Kenyan Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district, Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which w...

A.W. Mwang`Ombe; G. Thiong`O; F.M. Olubayo; E.K. Kiprop

46

Regulation of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhizoctonia solani.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximal levels of L-henylalanine ammonia-lyase activity were observed when the mycelial felts of Rhizoctonia solani were grown for 4.5 days on Byrde synthetic medium containing 3.5% glucose and 0.3% L-phenylalanine, Differential centrifugation studies have indicated that the enzyme is localized in t...

Kalghatgi, K K; Subba Rao, P V

47

Determination of Optimum Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Inulinase from Rhizoctonia solani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizoctonia solani isolated from Tekirdag-Turkey soil, was found to produce a very active inulinase enzyme. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined. Maximum growth was observed at 45°C while the highest inulinase production was determined at 40°C. The best inulinase producti...

Figen Ertan; Tulin Aktac; Aysegul C.Kabogul; Filiz Ekinci; Elvan Bakar

48

Production of Chitinases and ?-1,3-Glucanases by Stachybotrys elegans, a Mycoparasite of Rhizoctonia solani  

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The in vitro production of chitinases and ?-1,3-glucanases by Stachybotrys elegans, a mycoparasite of Rhizoctonia solani, was examined under various culture conditions, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, and incubation period. Production of both enzymes was influenced by the carbon source inco...

Tweddell, Russell J.; Jabaji-Hare, Suha H.; Charest, Pierre M.

49

Endophytic Bacillus Species Confer Increased Resistance in Cotton Against Damping off Disease Caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endophytic bacterial strains were evaluated for their efficacy against the damping off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton. Among hundred and three endophytic bacterial strains isolated, two strains (Bacillus sp. strains EPCO102 and EPCO16) significantly increased plant grow...

L. Rajendran; R. Samiyappan

50

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUCED GENES BY THE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious disease in rice growing areas worldwide. No complete genetic source of resistance is known among rice cultivars. A rice cultivar, Jasmine 85 has shown considerable resistance to sheath blight that appears to be controlled by several mino...

51

Degradation of Chlorbromuron and Related Compounds by the Fungus Rhizoctonia solani1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isola...

Weinberger, Martin; Bollag, Jean-Marc

52

Age-Dependent Metabolic Differences in Peripheral Hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peripheral hyphae were separated from the remaining thallus of Rhizoctonia solani in exponential and stationary phases of growth. The QO2 in whole cells of peripheral hyphae from young fungal colonies was on the average 2.6 times and the protein content 1.6 times greater than in peripheral hyphae fr...

Skowronski, Boleslaw S.; Gottlieb, David

53

Ultrastructural analysis of anastomosis group 9 of Rhizoctonia solani  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultrastructure of R. solani AG-9 (S-21, ATCC 62804) was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The most important characteristics were those related with cell wall thickness, cytoplasmic matrix composition, number of nuclei and nucleoli and secretory material production. The majority of examined hyphae showed lateral cell walls thinner than those recorded before. The cytoplasmic matrix consistently appeared differentiated into two classes, one formed by a highly electron dense granular fine material and the other one showing a coloidal substance of very low density which give these cells a 'tiger-like' aspect. The granular dense matrix always had abundant free ribosomes and usually surrounded the cytoplasmic organelles and the septal pore apparatus. The somatic cells showed up to 5 nuclei, some of which with three nucleoli. Masses of secretory material surrounded by membrane were regularly seen in the cytoplasm, with sizes similar to those of nuclei

1996-01-01

54

Reaction of faba bean genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani and resistance stability Reação de genótipos de fava a Rhizoctonia solani e estabilidade da resistência  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of faba bean (Phaseolus lunatus) is limited due to the occurrence of Rhizoctonia canker, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In order to select materials with potential for use in faba beans breeding programs and/or disease integrated management, 72 genotypes were evaluated and also stability of the disease resistance in relation to different pathogen isolates, inoculum densities and soil type. The seeds were sown in soil infested with the pathogen by the addition of colonized substrate (rice grains). The evaluation of genotypes was done after 15 days, using a note scale to discriminate the genotypes into five reaction classes. None of the 72 genotypes showed immunity to R. solani and only four genotypes (F-42, F-49, F-53 and F-58) behaved as highly resistant. The reactions presented by these genotypes varied according to the R. solani isolate, inoculum density and soil used. The genotype F-58 showed more stable resistance to pathogen isolates and inoculum densities. The genotype F-53 showed resistance stability in soils collected in different locations, remaining highly resistant in all situations. The genotype F-58 did not show high resistance to only one tested soil. Therefore, the genotypes F-58 and F-53 are promising sources of resistance to R. solani and should be indicated in areas infested by the pathogen.A produção de fava (Phaseolus lunatus) é limitada pela ocorrência da rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar materiais com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 72 genótipos de fava e verificada a estabilidade da resistência em relação a diferentes isolados do patógeno, densidades de inóculo e tipos de solo. As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o patógeno pela incorporação de substrato (grãos de arroz) colonizado. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de escala de notas, discriminando-os em cinco classes de reação. Nenhum dos 72 genótipos apresentou reação de imunidade a R. solani e apenas quatro genótipos (F-42, F-49, F-53 e F-58) comportaram-se como altamente resistentes. As reações apresentadas por esses genótipos variaram conforme o isolado de R. solani, a densidade de inóculo e o solo utilizado. O genótipo F-58 evidenciou maior estabilidade na resistência aos isolados do patógeno e densidades de inóculo. O genótipo F-53 demonstrou estabilidade da resistência em solos coletados em diferentes locais, mantendo alta resistência em todas as situações. O genótipo F-58 não demonstrou alta resistência em somente um solo. Portanto, os genótipos F-58 e F-53 constituem fontes promissoras de resistência a R. solani e devem ser preferidas em campos infestados pelo patógeno.

Iraildes P Assunção; Liliane D Nascimento; Mércia F Ferreira; Francisco J Oliveira; Sami J Michereff; Gaus SA Lima

2011-01-01

55

Growth Activities of the Sugarbeet Pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Rhizoctonia solani Khun. and Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. under Cyanobacterial Filtrates Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of cyanobacterial filtrates against three sugarbeet pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Based on this study, it was concluded that Phormidium fragile and Nostoc muscorum

Mohamed A. Rizk

56

Reação de resistência de genótipos de tomateiro (Lycopersicum spp.) à infecção por Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn Resistance reaction of tomato genotypes (Lycopersicum spp.) to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dada a importância da tomaticultura no Brasil e das enfermidades que atacam esta cultura, da mesma forma que visando futuros estados em programas de melhoramento vegetal para resistência à patógenos, este trabalho teve por objetivos: avaliar o grau de patogenicidade de quatro isolados de Rhizoctonia solani obtidos de plantas doentes de tomateiro (RT), berinjelas (RB1 e RB2) e pimentão (RP), em viveiros, frente a 9 genótipos de tomateiros e avaliar a reação de resistência de 73 genótipos de tomateiros ao R. solani. Nos experimentos utilizou-se solo esterilizado, em condições de casa de vegetação. Para o experimento I, os isolados de R. solani, oriundos das plantas de tomateiro (RT) e berinjela (RB,) foram igualmente mais patogênicos que os isolados de berinjela (RB,) e pimentão (RP), com relação aos 9 genótipos de tomateiro testados. Pode-se dizer que os isolados variaram em graus de agressividade. Quanto às reações de resistência a R. solani, observou-se que os diferentes genótipos não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Com relação ao experimento II, entre os 73 genótipos de tomateiro (incluindo espécies selvagens, variedades nacionais e introduções), pode-se observar que houve grande variabilidade quanto a reação de resistência a R. solani (isolado do tomateiro - RT), com percentuais de sobrevivência de plantas variando de 91%, para a cultivar Quinck Pick, até 0% de sobrevivência para o genótipo LA-462. Não foi verificada imunidade em nenhum material avaliado e sim níveis de resistência, onde esta, expressa em percentagem de sobrevivência, ocorreu de uma maneira contínua, desde uma reação de suscetibilidade até altos níveis de resistência.The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: 1) to evaluate the level of pathogenicity of four Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from diseased tomato plants (RT), from eggplant (RB1 and RB2), and pepper (RP) and tested on 9 tomato genotypes grown in experimental plots; and 2) evaluate the resistance reaction of 73 tomato genotypes to the pathogen. Experiments were performed in greenhouse using sterilized soil. In experiment I, R. solani isolates from RT and RB2 plants were identically more pathogenic RB1 and RP. In experiment II, wide variability in the resistance reaction to R. solani (isolated from a tomato plant - RT) was observed among the 73 tomato genotypes (which included wild species, Brazilian varieties and introduced material), with percentage of plant survival ranging from 91% for the cultivar Quick Pick to 0% for the genotype LA-462. None of the materials tested showed immunity, but different levels of resistance were observed, ranging from susceptibility to high resistance, as expressed by the survival percentages.

A.M. Rodrigues Cassiolato; I.S. de Melo

1994-01-01

57

Bioactive saponin from tea seed pomace with inhibitory effects against Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was aimed to characterize the antifungal principles in methanol extract of tea ( Camellia oleifera ) seed pomace. Totally, two flavonoids, camelliasides A (1) and B (2), and one saponin mixture composed of camelliasaponin B(1) (3) were identified from the methanol extract. These constituents were tested for their ability to reduce the infection of cabbage seedlings by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-4 and to inhibit growth of the pathogen on potato dextrose agar plates. The saponin mixture is a potential candidate as a new plant-derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off of vegetable seedlings.

Kuo PC; Lin TC; Yang CW; Lin CL; Chen GF; Huang JW

2010-08-01

58

Meloidogyne javanica-Rhizoctonia solani disease complex of peanut Fundamental and applied nematology : issue dedicated to Jan Willem Seinhorst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'interaction entre #Meloidogyne javanica$ et #Rhizoctonia solani$ a été étudiée sur arachide en serre et en microparcelles au champ. L'action de #R. solani$ sur la reproduction de #M. javanica$ est variable, la Pi du nématode ayant une plus grande influence sur sa reproduction que la présence de #R...

Abdel-Momen, S.M.; Starr, J.L.

59

Biological Control Potential of Two Streptomyces Isolates on Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Damping-off of Sugar Beet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological control of sugar beet damping-off of Rhizoctonia solani by two Streptomyces isolates (S2 and C) was evaluated in this study. The in vitro antagonism assays showed that active isolates had inhibitory effects on mycelium growth of the three R. solani AG-4 isolate...

Sadeghi, A.; A.R. Hessan; H. Askari; S. Aghighi; G.H. Shahidi Bonjar

60

A simple and rapid nuclear staining method for Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed a modified staining technique using acridine orange to stain the nuclei of Rhizoctonia solani. Acridine orange solution was prepared in acetic acid buffer, pH 7.2. Staining for 15 min was critical for observing the nuclei. All of the isolates were found to be multinucleated. The nuclei appeared bright green with light orange background. This method is simple, rapid and reproducible.

Seema M; Punith BD; Devaki NS

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Tobacco leaf spot and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of plants worldwide. Strains of the fungus are traditionally grouped into genetically isolated anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal anastomosis reactions. This article summarizes aspects related to the infection process, colonization of the host and molecular mechanisms employed by tobacco plants in resistance against R. solani diseases. TAXONOMY: Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk; anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Cantharellales; Family Ceratobasidiaceae; genus Thanatephorus. IDENTIFICATION: Somatic hyphae in culture and hyphae colonizing a substrate or host are first hyaline, then buff to dark brown in colour when aging. Hyphae tend to form at right angles at branching points that are usually constricted. Cells lack clamp connections, but possess a complex dolipore septum with continuous parenthesomes and are multinucleate. Hyphae are variable in size, ranging from 3 to 17 µm in diameter. Although the fungus does not produce any conidial structure, ellipsoid to globose, barrel-shaped cells, named monilioid cells, 10-20 µm wide, can be produced in chains and can give rise to sclerotia. Sclerotia are irregularly shaped, up to 8-10 mm in diameter and light to dark brown in colour. DISEASE SYMPTOMS: Symptoms in tobacco depend on AG as well as on the tissue being colonized. Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 and AG-3 infect tobacco seedlings and cause damping off and stem rot. Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 causes 'sore shin' and 'target spot' in mature tobacco plants. In general, water-soaked lesions start on leaves and extend up the stem. Stem lesions vary in colour from brown to black. During late stages, diseased leaves are easily separated from the plant because of severe wilting. In seed beds, disease areas are typically in the form of circular to irregular patches of poorly growing, yellowish and/or stunted seedlings. RESISTANCE: Knowledge is scarce regarding the mechanisms associated with resistance to R. solani in tobacco. However, recent evidence suggests a complex response that involves several constitutive factors, as well as induced barriers controlled by multiple defence pathways. MANAGEMENT: This fungus can survive for many years in soil as mycelium, and also by producing sclerotia, which makes the management of the disease using conventional means very difficult. Integrated pest management has been most successful; it includes timely fungicide applications, crop rotation and attention to soil moisture levels. Recent developments in biocontrol may provide other tools to control R. solani in tobacco.

Gonzalez M; Pujol M; Metraux JP; Gonzalez-Garcia V; Bolton MD; Borrás-Hidalgo O

2011-04-01

62

Studies on Biological Control of Sugarbeet Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was carried out to investigate the biological control of R. solani by different organisms including bacteria and fungi. Three methods of application were used during the study. Control results differed with the method of application used. The present study indicated that al...

Tarek A.A. Moussa

63

Reaction of faba bean genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani and resistance stability/ Reação de genótipos de fava a Rhizoctonia solani e estabilidade da resistência  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A produção de fava (Phaseolus lunatus) é limitada pela ocorrência da rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar materiais com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 72 genótipos de fava e verificada a estabilidade da resistência em relação a diferentes isolados do patógeno, densidades de inóculo e tipos de solo. As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o p (more) atógeno pela incorporação de substrato (grãos de arroz) colonizado. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de escala de notas, discriminando-os em cinco classes de reação. Nenhum dos 72 genótipos apresentou reação de imunidade a R. solani e apenas quatro genótipos (F-42, F-49, F-53 e F-58) comportaram-se como altamente resistentes. As reações apresentadas por esses genótipos variaram conforme o isolado de R. solani, a densidade de inóculo e o solo utilizado. O genótipo F-58 evidenciou maior estabilidade na resistência aos isolados do patógeno e densidades de inóculo. O genótipo F-53 demonstrou estabilidade da resistência em solos coletados em diferentes locais, mantendo alta resistência em todas as situações. O genótipo F-58 não demonstrou alta resistência em somente um solo. Portanto, os genótipos F-58 e F-53 constituem fontes promissoras de resistência a R. solani e devem ser preferidas em campos infestados pelo patógeno. Abstract in english The production of faba bean (Phaseolus lunatus) is limited due to the occurrence of Rhizoctonia canker, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In order to select materials with potential for use in faba beans breeding programs and/or disease integrated management, 72 genotypes were evaluated and also stability of the disease resistance in relation to different pathogen isolates, inoculum densities and soil type. The seeds were sown in soil infested with the pathogen by (more) the addition of colonized substrate (rice grains). The evaluation of genotypes was done after 15 days, using a note scale to discriminate the genotypes into five reaction classes. None of the 72 genotypes showed immunity to R. solani and only four genotypes (F-42, F-49, F-53 and F-58) behaved as highly resistant. The reactions presented by these genotypes varied according to the R. solani isolate, inoculum density and soil used. The genotype F-58 showed more stable resistance to pathogen isolates and inoculum densities. The genotype F-53 showed resistance stability in soils collected in different locations, remaining highly resistant in all situations. The genotype F-58 did not show high resistance to only one tested soil. Therefore, the genotypes F-58 and F-53 are promising sources of resistance to R. solani and should be indicated in areas infested by the pathogen.

Assunção, Iraildes P; Nascimento, Liliane D; Ferreira, Mércia F; Oliveira, Francisco J; Michereff, Sami J; Lima, Gaus SA

2011-12-01

64

Comparative analysis of putative pathogenesis-related gene expression in two Rhizoctonia solani pathosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani, teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris, is a polyphagous necrotrophic plant pathogen of the Basidiomycete order that is split into 14 different anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal interactions and host range. In this investigation, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques were used to determine potential pathogenicity factors of R. solani in the AG1-IA/rice and AG3/potato pathosystems. These factors were identified by mining for sequences of pathogen origin in a library of rice tissue infected with R. solani AG1-IA and comparing these sequences against the recently released R. solani AG3 genome. Ten genes common to both AGs and two specific to AG1-IA were selected for expression analysis by qRT-PCR. Results indicate that a number of genes are similarly expressed by AG1 and AG3 during the early stages of pathogenesis. Grouping of these pathogenicity factors based on relatedness of expression profiles suggests three key events are involved in R. solani pathogenesis: early host contact and infiltration, adjustment to the host environment, and pathogen proliferation through necrotic tissue. Further studies of the pathogenesis-associated genes identified in this project will enable more precise elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that allow for the widespread success of R. solani as a phytopathogen and allow for more targeted, effective methods of management. PMID:21909999

Rioux, Renee; Manmathan, Harish; Singh, Pratibha; de los Reyes, Benildo; Jia, Yulin; Tavantzis, Stellos

2011-09-11

65

Comparative analysis of putative pathogenesis-related gene expression in two Rhizoctonia solani pathosystems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani, teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris, is a polyphagous necrotrophic plant pathogen of the Basidiomycete order that is split into 14 different anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal interactions and host range. In this investigation, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques were used to determine potential pathogenicity factors of R. solani in the AG1-IA/rice and AG3/potato pathosystems. These factors were identified by mining for sequences of pathogen origin in a library of rice tissue infected with R. solani AG1-IA and comparing these sequences against the recently released R. solani AG3 genome. Ten genes common to both AGs and two specific to AG1-IA were selected for expression analysis by qRT-PCR. Results indicate that a number of genes are similarly expressed by AG1 and AG3 during the early stages of pathogenesis. Grouping of these pathogenicity factors based on relatedness of expression profiles suggests three key events are involved in R. solani pathogenesis: early host contact and infiltration, adjustment to the host environment, and pathogen proliferation through necrotic tissue. Further studies of the pathogenesis-associated genes identified in this project will enable more precise elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that allow for the widespread success of R. solani as a phytopathogen and allow for more targeted, effective methods of management.

Rioux R; Manmathan H; Singh P; de los Reyes B; Jia Y; Tavantzis S

2011-12-01

66

Soil bacteria selected for suppression of Rhizoctonia solani, and growth promotion, in bedding plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over 5000 bacterial isolates were obtained by dilution plating of potting media that were suppressive to damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 in seedlings of Celosia argentea. These isolates were screened for inhibition of AG 8 in vitro, then 91 selected isolates we for their ability to suppress the effects of R. solani AG 8 in seedlings of Capsicum annuum and Celosia argentea grown in pasteurized potting medium in a glasshouse. Fourteen isolates selected from the above screenings then were screened similarly for suppression of damping-off caused by R. solani AG 4 in seedlings of Capsicum, Celosia, Petunia and Viola. Three isolates reduced disease mom consistently than the others. B. subtilis A13, an isolate previously reported to control R. solani in bedding plants, did not reduce damping-off in any host plant species. These three isolates were compared in two experiments over a range of doses for growth promotion, and suppression of AG 4, in Capsicum. Although there were few dose responses, when data for all dose rates were combined, an isolates increased dry weights of Capsicum shoots in the absence of R. solani. In one of the experiments, all but one isolate also increased seedling survival in the absence of R. solani. Two bacterial isolates and the fungicide quintozene reduced damping-off caused by AG 4. The selected bacterial isolates exhibit potential for biological suppression of damping-off in bedding plants in nursery potting media.

Harris AR; Schisler DA; Correll RL; Ryder MH

1994-09-01

67

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

Gilmar P. Henz; Carlos A. Lopes; Ailton Reis

2007-01-01

68

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil/ Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marr (more) ons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal (more) cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

Henz, Gilmar P.; Lopes, Carlos A.; Reis, Ailton

2007-06-01

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The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet  

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Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

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NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a highly destructive world wide soil fungus, with a large host-range, that causes important diseases in a great number of the crops. It is a complex specie whichpossesses many biotypes, differing in their pathogenicity, hosts,distribution in the nature and cultural appearance in solid media.Dry beans are susceptible to this pathogen and the susceptibility is inversely proportional to the host development. The microbial activity of some soils can prevent the establishment of phytopathogenic fungi. Soils with this property are named antagonistic, long life, resistant or supressive. The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of natural supressiveness to R. solani of some soils previously submitted to different managements from West Central Brazil. Soil samples were collected in Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara and Santa Helena de Goiás counties of Goiás State, and classified as: Purple Latosol, Dark-Red Latosol, Sandy Soil and Purple Latosol, respectively. Each soil sample was collected in the layer of 0-20 cm, in contiguous areas with the following characteristics: a) soil cultivated with beans irrigated with central pivot, for more than four consecutive years; b) soil under native vegetation, and c) soil under Brachiaria decubens pasture. Sorghum grains colonized by Rhizoctonia solani, were ground and mixed to the soil samples. Six inoculum densities were used: 0, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 propagules per gram of soil. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using a randomized complete block design, in a factorial scheme 6 x 4 x 3, with four replications. The experimental unit was a plastic tray with 4 kg of soil and 40 plants. Fifteen days after the emergence symptoms severity were evaluated and the McKinney index estimated. The analysis of variance revealed significance of triple interaction and the degrees of freedom were unfolded in regression analyses among the inoculum doses and the disease index in percentage, in the following exponential equation: ID = A x e (-B/dose do inóculo + 1). In the soil samples from Itumbiara and Silvânia the disease index increased with the increment of the number of propagules for gram of soil, reaching values larger than 70%. However, for both soils, there were no significant differences among the natural vegetation, pasture and bean cultivated soils. On the other hand, in soils from Jussara and Santa Helena, in spite of the disease index increment with the increase of the inoculum doses, the natural and pasture soils showed similar disease indexes for all the inoculum doses used. In soil from irrigated beans, the increment in the diseases index was smaller, not surpassing 60%. KEY-WORDS: Rhizoctonia root rot; biological control; soil microbial population. Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógeno e a sua suscetibilidade é inversamente proporcional ao desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade microbiana de alguns solos pode prevenir o estabelecimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Solos com esta propriedade são denominados antagônicos, de longa vida, resistentes ou supressivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de supressividade natural a R. solani de alguns solos classificados como latossolo roxo, latossolo vermelho-escuro, areia quartzoza e latossolo roxo, respectivamente, coletados nos municípios de Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara e Santa Helena de Goiás, no Estado de Goiás, em três áreas contíguas com os seguintes históricos de uso: a) solo cultivado com feijão irrigado via pivô central por mais de quatro anos consecutivos; b) solo sob vegetação nativa; e c) solo sob pastagem de Brachiaria decubens. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0-20

Sheila Andrade Botelho; Carlos Agustin Rava; Wilson Mozena Leandro; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

2007-01-01

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SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógeno e a sua suscetibilidade é inversamente proporcional ao desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade microbiana de alguns solos pode prevenir o estabelecimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Solos com esta propriedade são denominados antagônicos, de longa vida, resistentes ou supressivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de supressividade natural a R. solani de alguns solos classificados como latossolo roxo, latossolo vermelho-escuro, areia quartzoza e latossolo roxo, respectivamente, coletados nos municípios de Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara e Santa Helena de Goiás, no Estado de Goiás, em três áreas contíguas com os seguintes históricos de uso: a) solo cultivado com feijão irrigado via pivô central por mais de quatro anos consecutivos; b) solo sob vegetação nativa; e c) solo sob pastagem de Brachiaria decubens. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0-20 cm e armazenados em casa de vegetação. Para a inoculação dos solos foram utilizados grãos de sorgo, inoculados com Rhizoctonia solani, em seis densidades – 0, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 e 10.000 propágulos/g de solo – e triturados. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, em um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados e esquema fatorial 6 x 4 x 3. A unidade experimental foi constituída de bandejas plásticas com 4 kg de solo e 40 plantas. Quinze dias após a emergência, as plantas foram arrancadas e avaliadas. Posteriormente, foi calculado o índice de McKinney. A análise de variância apresentou interação tripla significativa, e os graus de liberdade foram desdobrados em análises de regressão entre as doses de inóculo e o índice de doença em porcentagem, numa equação exponencial do tipo: ID = A x e (-B/dose do inóculo + 1). Nas regiões de Itumbiara e Silvânia, o índice de doença progrediu como aumento do número de propágulos por grama de solo, atingindo valores superiores a 70%. Porém, para ambas as regiões, não houve diferenças significativas entre os solos de mata, pastagem e feijão com relação ao índice de doença. Por outro lado, nos solos de Jussara e Santa Helena, foi observado um incremento do índice da doença com o aumento da dose de inóculo para todos os históricos, e os solos de mata e de pastagem apresentaram índice de doença semelhante em todas as doses de inóculo utilizadas. Em solos provenientes de área de feijão irrigado, da região de Santa Helena, os incrementos no índice de doença foram menores, não ultrapassando a 60%. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Podridão radicular de Rhizoctonia; controle biológico; população microbiana do solo. Rhizoctonia solani is a highly destructive world wide soil fungus, with a large host-range, that causes important diseases in a great number of the crops. It is a complex specie whichpossesses many biotypes, differing in their pathogenicity, hosts,distribution in the nature and cultural appearance in solid media.Dry beans are susceptible to this pathogen and the susceptibility is inversely proportional to the host development. The microbial activity of some soils can prevent the establishment of phytopathogenic fungi. Soils with this property are named antagonistic, long life, resistant or supressive. The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of natural supressiveness to R. solani of some soils previously submitted to different managements from West Central Brazil. Soil samples were collected in Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara and Santa Helena de Goiás counties of Goiás State, and classified as: Purple Latosol, Dark-Red Latosol, Sandy Soil and Purple Latosol, respectively. Each soil sample was collected in the layer of 0-2

Sheila Andrade Botelho; Carlos Agustin Rava; Wilson Mozena Leandro; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

2007-01-01

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GalNAc/Gal-Binding Rhizoctonia solani Agglutinin Has Antiproliferative Activity in Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells via MAPK and JAK/STAT Signaling  

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Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin, further referred to as RSA, is a lectin isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Previously, we reported a high entomotoxic activity of RSA towards the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. To better understand the mechanism of action of RSA, Dros...

Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquière, Bart; Trooskens, Geert; Gevaert, Kris

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Subacute exogenous Rhizoctonia solani endophthalmitis following cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Seven weeks after uneventful cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, a 64-year-old man presented to his cataract surgeon with decreased vision and photophobia. The subacute presentation with anterior uveitis prompted initial therapy with topical and periocular glucocorticoids. One month later, the patient presented to the vitreoretinal service with counting fingers visual acuity, prominent anterior chamber reaction, a 2.5 mm hypopyon, and inflammatory deposits over the IOL. Cultures grew Rhizoctonia solani. The inflammation was successfully treated with pars plana vitrectomy, IOL explantation, and intravitreal voriconazole. Rhizoctonia should be included in the differential diagnosis of subacute exogenous endophthalmitis, especially in the context of fibrillar white IOL plaques. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Diaz RI; Sigler EJ; Randolph JC; Calzada JI

2013-10-01

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Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n) of sugar beet in province Vojvodina  

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Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Ba?ka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

Stojšin Vera B.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Jasni? Stevan M.; Balaž Ferenc F.; Budakov Dragana B.

2006-01-01

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First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 on potato in Catalonia (NE Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last 3 years, potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) with symptoms typical of Rhizoctonia canker and black scurf have been found in Catalonia; from 21,546 samples submitted to the official diagnostic laboratory (Laboratori de Sanitat Vegetal, DARP, Generalitat de Catalunya), 20% were infected with R. solani. Also, basidia and basidiospores of Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk, the teleomorph of R. solani, have been observed frequently on stems near the soil surface. Previous work (1) has reported R. solani in the same geographic area, but anastomosis groups (AG) were not identified. Isolates (103) were collected from damaged roots, mature or progeny tubers, soil, debris, and weeds (roots and stem of Oxalis latifolia, Diplotaxis eurocoides, Solanum nigrum, Sorghum halepense, and Chenopodium album) in fields where potatoes were cultivated. All isolates were multinucleate, variable in number of nuclei (mean = 12, range = 7 to 19), and with morphological features typical of R. solani (3). Following the procedure of Parmeter et al. (2), all isolates (84) were identified as R. solani AG-3. Thirty-two isolates were evaluated for pathogenicity on potato plants at 20 to 25°C in the greenhouse. Germinated tubers (sprout length 3 cm) free of Rhizoctonia were placed in pea-sand mix (3:1, vol/vol; Compo Sana Universal, Barcelona, Spain) at 5-cm depth and inoculated by placing a 5-mm-diameter plug cut from 1-week-old cultures of each isolate adjacent to the sprouts. Potatoes were harvested 20 days after planting, and both emerged and nonemerged sprouts were examined for lesions and rated using a 0 to 4 scale. The AG-3 isolates caused major damage to roots and shoots (average disease rating 3.4). R. solani isolates were recovered from diseased plants and identified as AG-3. Preliminary field studies in Catalonia (Baix Llobregat and Maresme, unpublished) indicate that disease severity is not dependent on cultivar or related to yield reduction (10 to 65%), but is related to soil and seed contamination with sclerotia and mycelium. This is the first reported occurrence of R. solani AG-3 on potato in Catalonia.

El Bakaki MA

2000-07-01

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Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid derivatives: design, synthesis and biological evaluation against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is the pathogen that causes sheath blight and results in significant yield reduction in rice and in nearly 50 other crops. In order to develop a new fungicide effective against this pathogen, a series of structurally diverse phenazine-1-carboxylic acid derivatives, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g, 2h, 2i, 2j, and 2k, were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activity. The two most active compounds 2i and 2j were selected as lead compounds for further antifungal research.

Ye L; Zhang H; Xu H; Zou Q; Cheng C; Dong D; Xu Y; Li R

2010-12-01

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Activity of alkanediol alkanoates against pathogenic plant fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii.  

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Thirty known dialkanoates of ethylene, propylene and diethylene glycols were synthesized by reacting the glycols with acyl chlorides and their structures confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectral analyses. They exhibited significant antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc in a dose dependent manner. Propylene glycol dipentanoate was the most active against R. solani. followed by diethylene glycol dibutanoate and ethylene glycol dibutanoate. Against S. rolfsii ethylene glycol diheptanoate was found to be most active followed by diethylene glycol diisobutanoate As compared to the standard reference benomyl (EC50 5.16 microg/mL), the potential alkanediol dialkanoates showed EC50 in the range of 33 - 60 microg/mL.

Shukla P; Walia S; Ahluwalia V; Parmar BS; Nair MG

2012-09-01

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Activity of alkanediol alkanoates against pathogenic plant fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty known dialkanoates of ethylene, propylene and diethylene glycols were synthesized by reacting the glycols with acyl chlorides and their structures confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectral analyses. They exhibited significant antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc in a dose dependent manner. Propylene glycol dipentanoate was the most active against R. solani. followed by diethylene glycol dibutanoate and ethylene glycol dibutanoate. Against S. rolfsii ethylene glycol diheptanoate was found to be most active followed by diethylene glycol diisobutanoate As compared to the standard reference benomyl (EC50 5.16 microg/mL), the potential alkanediol dialkanoates showed EC50 in the range of 33 - 60 microg/mL. PMID:23074913

Shukla, Paraj; Walia, Suresh; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Parmar, Balraj S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2012-09-01

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Screening of bioantagonistic bacteria for biocontrol agent of Rhizoctonia solani and surfactin producer  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to screen 31 of bacteria isolates that have potency to control Rhizoctonia solani growth and isolates capability to produce surfactin. R. solani growth inhibition was performed uses paper discs containing a 5 days cultivation of isolates culture. Surfactin activity assay was performed on LB agar medium. Results of the screening showed that the highest growth inhibition was obtained for isolates code 54 (96.43%), KC4 (93.45%), and 163 (93.19%). All of the isolates were cooproducer of surfactin and iturin, and the highest biosurfactan index was obtained for isolate KB2 (3.91).The four potential isolates were identified, as Bacillus pantotheinticus (isolate 54 and isolate 163), Bacillus brevis (isolateKC4), and Bacillus sp(isolate KB2).

YULIAR

2008-01-01

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Determination of Optimum Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Inulinase from Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani isolated from Tekirdag-Turkey soil, was found to produce a very active inulinase enzyme. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined. Maximum growth was observed at 45°C while the highest inulinase production was determined at 40°C. The best inulinase production was observed at an initial medium pH 6.0 and on the first day of cultivation time. Inulin and Jerusalem artichoke powder as carbon source were the most effective on production of inulinase from R. solani. The highest productivity was recorded in the presence of 10 mM NH4H2PO4+10 mM NH4NO3 as nitrogen source.

Figen Ertan; Tulin Aktac; Aysegul C.Kabogul; Filiz Ekinci; Elvan Bakar

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Trichoderma isolates and antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) procedure was used to examine the genetic variability among fourteen isolates of Trichoderma and their ability to antagonize Rhizoctonia solani using a dual-culture assay for correlation among RAPD products and their hardness to R. solani. Seven oligodeoxynucleotide primers were selected for the RAPD assays which resulted in 197 bands for 14 isolates of Trichoderma. The data were entered into a binary matrix and a similarity matrix was constructed using DICE similarity (SD) index. A UPGMA cluster based on SD values was generated using NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy System, Applied Biostatistics) computer program. A mean coefficient of similarity obtained for pairwise comparisons among the most antagonics isolates was around 40%. The results presented here showed that the variability among the isolates of Trichoderma was very high. No relationship was found between the polymorphism showed by the isolates and their hardness, origin and substrata.A técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) foi utilizada para examinar a variabilidade genética em quatorze isolados de Trichoderma além de sua capacidade de antagonizar o fungo fitopatogênico Rhizoctonia solani usando pareamento in vitro, e a possível relação entre perfís de RAPD e agressividade dos isolados de Trichoderma a R. solani. Foram selecionados sete primers para os ensaios de RAPD, os quais produziram 197 bandas. Os dados foram introduzidos no programa de computador NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy System, Applied Biostatistics)na forma de uma matrix binária, sendo construída uma matriz de similaridade utilizando-se o coeficiente de similaridade de DICE (SD) e baseado nos valores SD, pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA um dendrograma. Observou-se que o grau de similaridade das amostras que apresentaram melhor desempenho antagônico foi bastante baixo, em torno de 40%. Os resultados demonstraram que a variabilidade entre os isolados de Trichoderma é muito alta. Aparentemente não foi demonstrada nenhuma relação entre o perfil de RAPD obtido e o nível de antagonismo dos isolados de Trichoderma nem agrupamento em função da origem dos isolados ou substrato.

Larissa Brandão Góes; Ana Bolena Lima da Costa; Laurineide Lopes de Carvalho Freire; Neiva Tinti de Oliveira

2002-01-01

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The supernatant of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 has antifungal activity towards Rhizoctonia solani.  

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For clarification of the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 (N43) against Rhizoctonia solani Q1, production of antibiotics by N43 was determined, and the effect of the antibiotics on the pathogen mycelium was microscopically observed. Further more, the control efficiencies of the antifungal compounds on damping-off disease were investigated. The results obtained are listed as follows: N43 produced antibiotic substances towards R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. The antibiotics caused hyphal deformation and enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles in R. solani Q1 mycelia. 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate made a complete precipitation of the antibiotics in culture broth. When treated with protease K and trypsase, the activities of antibiotics were decreased by 79% and 53%, respectively, compared with control. The antibiotics were sensitive to high temperature and were alkaline stable. The molecular weights of the substances were about 500-1000 Da. The bio-control efficiencies of the antibiotics had no significant difference with that of N43 cell suspension. It is a first report that B. pumilus strain produced oligopeptides which had inhibitory effect on R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. PMID:23417338

Huang, Xinqi; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

2013-02-18

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The supernatant of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 has antifungal activity towards Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For clarification of the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 (N43) against Rhizoctonia solani Q1, production of antibiotics by N43 was determined, and the effect of the antibiotics on the pathogen mycelium was microscopically observed. Further more, the control efficiencies of the antifungal compounds on damping-off disease were investigated. The results obtained are listed as follows: N43 produced antibiotic substances towards R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. The antibiotics caused hyphal deformation and enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles in R. solani Q1 mycelia. 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate made a complete precipitation of the antibiotics in culture broth. When treated with protease K and trypsase, the activities of antibiotics were decreased by 79% and 53%, respectively, compared with control. The antibiotics were sensitive to high temperature and were alkaline stable. The molecular weights of the substances were about 500-1000 Da. The bio-control efficiencies of the antibiotics had no significant difference with that of N43 cell suspension. It is a first report that B. pumilus strain produced oligopeptides which had inhibitory effect on R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase.

Huang X; Yong X; Zhang R; Shen Q; Yang X

2013-08-01

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Biological Control of Potato Isolate of Rhizoctonia solani by Streptomyces olivaceus Strain 115  

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Full Text Available This is the first report of antifungal activity of Iranian actinomycete isolates against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-3 (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris [(Frank) Donk]). Biological control offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of antimicrobials for controlling plant diseases. A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to produce metabolites that inhibit R. solani growth in vitro. The Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115 showed strong in vitro antagonistic activity against R. solani in agar disc and Well-diffusion methods by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. The strain No. 115 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which some biological characterization performed. The active metabolite(s) is polar, soluble in H2O and methanol but insoluble in chloroform, dichloromethane or hexane. Thermal inactivation point of active phase of S. olivaceus strain 115 was 80?C. Antifungal active phase of S. olivaceus strain 115 tolerate range of pH (6-9). Antifungal gene from strain 115 may be a useful candidate for genetic engineering of agriculturally important crop for increased tolerance against R. solani.

S. Shahrokhi; G.H. Shahidi Bonjar; I. Saadoun

2005-01-01

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Characterization of AG-13, a Newly Reported Anastomosis Group of Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-13 was collected from diseased roots of field grown cotton plants in Georgia in the United States. Isolates of AG-13 did not anastomose with tester isolates of AG-1 through AG-12. Mycelium of all isolates of AG-13 were light brown but darkened as cultures aged. All isolates produced aerial mycelium. Concentric rings were visible after 3 to 4 days of growth but disappeared as cultures aged and darkened. Individual sclerotia were up to 1.5 mm in diameter, similar in color to the mycelium, and generally embedded in the agar. Clumps of sclerotia up to 5 mm in diameter were produced on the agar surface. All attempts to induce basidiospore production were unsuccessful. The 5.8S region of the rDNA from isolates of AG-13 was identical in length and sequence to isolates of all other AGs of R. solani. Length and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA from isolates of AG-13 were unique among AGs of R. solani. Similarity between AG-13 and other AGs of R. solani ranged from 68 to 85% for ITS region 1 and 85 to 95% for ITS region 2. Selected isolates of AG-13 caused minor or no damage to barley, cauliflower, cotton, lettuce, potato, and radish in laboratory or greenhouse studies. PMID:18942969

Carling, D E; Baird, R E; Gitaitis, R D; Brainard, K A; Kuninaga, S

2002-08-01

86

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio Sartorato; Kátia L. Nechet; Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

2006-01-01

87

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima/ Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre (more) as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to (more) evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Sartorato, Aloísio; Nechet, Kátia L.; Halfeld-Vieira, Bernardo A.

2006-06-01

88

DNA Microsatellite Analysis of Kenyan Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

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Full Text Available Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district, Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis. Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries (divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75% isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2 sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in Kenya.

A.W. Mwang`Ombe; G. Thiong`O; F.M. Olubayo; E.K. Kiprop

2007-01-01

89

Divergence between sympatric rice- and maize-infecting populations of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA from Latin America  

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ABSTRACT The basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA is a major pathogen in Latin America causing sheath blight (SB) of rice. Particularly in Venezuela, the fungus also causes banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) on maize, which is considered an emerging disease problem...

González-Vera, A D; Bernardes-de-Assis, J; Zala, M; McDonald, B A; Correa-Victoria, F; Graterol-Matute, E J; Ceresini, P C

90

Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight by Antagonistics Bacteria in Greenhouse and Field Conditions  

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Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates that inhibited growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, the rice sheath blight pathogen were collected the rhizosplane and surrounding soil of healthy and rice sheath blight disease in farming of the Guilan province, Iran. Two hundred eighty eight isolates te...

Mostapha Niknejad Kazempour

91

The Nature and Role of Metabolic Leakage from Root-knot Nematode Galls andInfection by Rhizoctonia solani  

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A severe root rot of tomato caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with nutrient mobilization into gall tissue and root exudation. Root decay did not develop when root exudates were continuously removed by leaching. When leachates were collected from M. incognita-infec...

Van Gundy, S. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Golden, Jimmy

92

Effects of Soil Temperatures and Inoculum Levels of Meloidogyne incognita andRhizoctonia solani on Seedling Disease of Cotton  

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Soreshin of cotton was more severe from combined infections of Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita than from either organism alone, when both critical soil temperature and inoculum concentrations were present. Optimum soil temperatures for disease development from combined infections were 1...

Carter, W. W.

93

Damping-off of Swiss chard, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In California, various leafy vegetables are planted at extremely high seeding rates (up to three million seed per acre), grown to the four- to eight-leaf stage, then mechanically clipped and bagged for market as “spring mix” or “baby leaf” salad products. The crops are planted in separate strips, usually four to 16 beds of each, and include Japanese mustard (Brassica campestris subsp. nipposinica), red mustard (Brassica juncea subsp. rugosa), tah tsai (Brassica campestris subsp. narinosa), multiple lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars, spinach (Spinacia oleracea), arugula (Eruca sativa), and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla). In 1997 and 1998, severe damping-off disease of Swiss chard was observed in the Salinas Valley (Monterey County). Symptoms on emergent plants consisted of wilting, brown necrosis of crown tissue, and eventual death of seedlings. Because of the high plant density, disease incidence increased rapidly, affecting large numbers of plants. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated consistently from symptomatic plants. Pathogenicity was tested by placing agar plugs of representative isolates adjacent to crowns of potted Swiss chard at the two- to four-leaf stage. Brown stem necrosis and plant collapse occurred within 5 days after inoculation, and R. solani was reisolated. Control plants, inoculated with sterile agar plugs, did not develop disease. Tests were repeated and results were similar. Anastomosis group testing revealed that all five isolates belonged to AG3 (1). For California, this appears to be the first documentation of damping-off of Swiss chard caused by R. solani.

Koike ST; Subbarao KV

1999-07-01

94

Leaf blight of endive and escarole, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endive (Cichorium endivia) and escarole (broad-leaf type of C. endivia) are two of the many leafy vegetables produced commercially in coastal California. For several years, both crops have been affected by a disease that causes soft, watery, brown leaf decay. In the tightly appressed heads of endive and escarole plants, decay generally spreads in a concentric circle, resulting in circular whorls of brown, rotted leaves within diseased heads. Such symptoms make the heads unmarketable. In the Salinas Valley (Monterey County), the disease was much more prevalent during 1998, when weather was affected by “El Niño.” Rhizoctonia solani was isolated consistently from symptomatic leaves of both endive and escarole. Pathogenicity was tested by placing two agar plugs of representative isolates inside the leaf whorls of 15 potted plants each of endive (cv. Tres Fine Maraicchere) and escarole (cv. Full Heart). Watery, brown leaf decay, similar to symptoms observed in the field, occurred on all plants within 7 days after inoculation, and R. solani was reisolated. Control plants, treated with sterile agar plugs, did not develop disease. Tests were repeated, and results were similar. Anastomosis-group testing revealed that four endive isolates belonged to AG2-2 (1). This appears to be the first report of leaf blight of endive and escarole caused by R. solani in California.

Koike ST; Subbarao KV

1999-11-01

95

The population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT from potato in the Colombian Andes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3PT) is a globally important potato pathogen. However, little is known about the population genetic processes affecting field populations of R. solani AG-3PT, especially in the South American Colombian Andes, which is near the center of diversity of the two most common groups of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum and S. phureja. We analyzed the genetic structure of 15 populations of R. solani AG-3PT infecting potato in Colombia using 11 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 288 different multilocus genotypes were identified among 349 fungal isolates. Clonal fractions within field populations were 7 to 33%. RST statistics indicated a very low level of population differentiation overall, consistent with high contemporary gene flow, though moderate differentiation was found for the most distant southern populations. Genotype flow was also detected, with the most common genotype found widely distributed among field populations. All populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode, including both asexual and sexual reproduction, but two populations displayed evidence of inbreeding. PMID:23464900

Ferrucho, Rosa L; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramirez-Escobar, Ursula M; McDonald, Bruce A; Cubeta, Marc A; García-Domínguez, Celsa

2013-08-01

96

Genetic Variability in Rhizoctonia solani Isolated from Vitis vinifera Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rhizoctonia solani is a potential grapevine pathogen. In order to develop effective methods of control, it is necessary to document its genetic diversity. Approach: The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of R. solani isolated from the rhizosphere of ungrafted V. vinifera var. perlette seedless planted in Sonora, Mexico using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results: In the selective amplification using eight primer combinations we obtained a total of 446 AFLP markers with a 100% polymorphism. Out of 41 isolates, 36 different AFLP patterns were observed and five were replicates of the same pattern. The dendrogram shows inter- and intrapopulation similarity indexes of 0.26, 0.98 and 0.31, 0.98, respectively. Six groups emerged from the principal components analysis, five of which were clearly defined, while the other one was spread out. Conclusion: We conclude that R. solani growing in Sonoran vineyards shows a high degree of genetic variability, even under similar environmental conditions.

Amparo Meza-Moller; Martin Esqueda; Felipe Sanchez-Teyer; Georgina Vargas-Rosales; Alfonso A. Gardea; Martin Tiznado-Hernandez

2011-01-01

97

Triallelic SNP-mediated genotyping of regenerated protoplasts of the heterokaryotic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aneuploid and heterokaryotic nuclear condition of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani have provided challenges in obtaining a complete genome sequence. To better aid in the assembly and annotation process, a protoplast and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method was developed to identify regenerated protoplasts with a reduced nuclear genome. Protocol optimization experiments showed that enzymatic digestion of mycelium from a 24 h culture of R. solani increased the proportion of protoplasts with a diameter of ?7.5 ?m and 1-4 nuclei. To determine whether strains regenerated from protoplasts with a reduced number of nuclei were genetically different from the parental strain, triallelic SNPs identified from variance records of the genomic DNA sequence reads of R. solani were used in PCR-based genotyping assays. Results from 16 of the 24 SNP-based PCR assays provided evidence that one of the three alleles was missing in the 11 regenerated protoplast strains, suggesting that these strains represent a reduced genomic complement of the parental strain. The protoplast and triallelic SNP-based method used in this study may be useful in strain development and analysis of other basidiomycete fungi with complex nuclear genomes.

Thomas E; Pakala S; Fedorova ND; Nierman WC; Cubeta MA

2012-04-01

98

The population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT from potato in the Colombian Andes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3PT) is a globally important potato pathogen. However, little is known about the population genetic processes affecting field populations of R. solani AG-3PT, especially in the South American Colombian Andes, which is near the center of diversity of the two most common groups of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum and S. phureja. We analyzed the genetic structure of 15 populations of R. solani AG-3PT infecting potato in Colombia using 11 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 288 different multilocus genotypes were identified among 349 fungal isolates. Clonal fractions within field populations were 7 to 33%. RST statistics indicated a very low level of population differentiation overall, consistent with high contemporary gene flow, though moderate differentiation was found for the most distant southern populations. Genotype flow was also detected, with the most common genotype found widely distributed among field populations. All populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode, including both asexual and sexual reproduction, but two populations displayed evidence of inbreeding.

Ferrucho RL; Ceresini PC; Ramirez-Escobar UM; McDonald BA; Cubeta MA; García-Domínguez C

2013-08-01

99

In vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts obtained with alternative organic solvents against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a lack of knowledge about the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts obtained with organic solvents different to ethanol, methanol or acetone. In this study, plant extracts from Larrea tridentata, Flourensia cernua, Agave lechuguilla, Opuntia sp. and Yucca sp., obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter) and water were tested against the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the IC?? concentration of each plant extract was determined. Extractions using the alternative organic solvents permitted the extraction of tannins in higher amount than those obtained using water as solvent. Tannin extraction was strongly dependent on plant specie as well as on the solvent used. Results showed that extracts from L. tridentata and F. cernua using lanolin and cocoa butter to dozes 2000 and 1000ppm of total tannins inhibited 100% the R. solani growth. The IC?? for each extract was highly variable; the lowest IC?? value was obtained with L. tridentata extract using lanolin to 1.85×10² ppm. The lanolin and cocoa butter solvents allowed high recovery of polyphenolic molecules with strong antifungal activity against R. solani, and offer an alternative in production of antimicrobial agents for organic agriculture.

Castillo Francisco; Hernández Daniel; Gallegos Gabriel; Mendez Martha; Rodríguez Raúl; Reyes Alfonso; Aguilar CristóbalN

2010-11-01

100

Encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum para o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Testou-se um novo sistema para o encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum em grânulos de alginato de sódio, visando o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani, agente etiológico da mela de estacas/miniestacas de Eucalyptus spp. para enraizamento. No novo sistema idealizado, foi utilizado um aparato simples capaz de substituir eficientemente o equipamento (Bomba Peristáltica) anteriormente utilizado, sendo possível aumentar a produção de 594 grânulos/min para aproximadamente 6.734 grânulos/min. Com este novo sistema, um isolado de T. inhamatum (UFV - 03) foi encapsulado em grânulos contendo as fontes alimentares: farelo de trigo, palha de arroz, farelo de aveia, folhas de eucalipto ou farelo de milho na concentração de 50 g/l. Na segunda etapa, a melhor fonte alimentar foi testada nas concentrações de 0 a 60 g/l. Os grânulos foram veiculados em substrato de enraizamento de eucalipto na concentração de 2% (p/p) inoculado com micélio triturado de R. solani (2 mg/g de substrato) e a atividade saprofítica do patógeno foi quantificada por meio do método de iscas. Posteriormente, os grânulos produzidos com a fonte alimentar e concentração que promoveram maior inibição do desenvolvimento de R. solani foram utilizados para determinar o tempo mínimo de pré-incubação e competição para supressão do patógeno, com a mesma metodologia. Observou-se aumento da supressão da atividade saprofítica de R. solani ao acréscimo de uma fonte alimentar. Daquelas testadas, farelo de trigo foi a melhor. Além disso, houve interação significativa e positiva ao aumento de sua concentração na formulação.

Mafia Reginaldo G.; Alfenas Acelino C.; Maffia Luiz A.; Ventura Gizella M.; Sanfuentes Eugênio A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Identifikasi dan Kuantifikasi Metabolit Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Aktivitas Rhizoctonia solani pada Tanaman Kedelai  

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Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) metabolites are organic acids, phosphomonoesterase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and antibiotic, which is able to dissolve insoluble phosphate. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study was expected to suppress Rhizoctonia solani attacks. This experiment was aimed at (1) identifiying and quantifying PSB metabolites, and (2) examining their capability as biocontrol agent for Rhizoctonia solani in vitro and hydroponics soybean. This study was conducted in three stages. The first stage of this study was culturing two PSB isolates (Pseudomonas putida 27.4B and Pseudomonas diminuta) in the Pikovskaya medium to analyze their metabolites. The second and third stage of this study was testing the antagonist of two bacteria to suppressed R. solani activity, which was conducted in vitro, and in hydroponics medium soybean as indicator plant. The results showed that P. putida 27.4B and P. diminuta produced organic acids i.e.: citrate, formic, succinic, acetic, propionate, butyrate, and oxalate. The totals of organic acids from each bacterium were 70,3 mg.kg-1 and 61,9 mg.kg-1. Production of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in Pikovskaya medium of P. Putida 27.4B was 11,71 ìg pNP .mL-1.h-1 and P. diminuta was 24,04 ìg pNP.mL-1.h-1. Concentration of this enzyme in soil medium was higher than that in Pikovskaya medium with 26,27 ìg pNP.g-1.h-1 and 39,03 ìg pNP.g-1.h-1 respectively. This study also showed that total concentration of antibiotics (tetracycline, oxitetracycline and penicillin) produced by the PSB, were 3,2 ìg.mL-1 (P. putida 27.4B) and 10,96 ìg.m1-1 (P. diminuta), respectively. The results from second stage of this study showed that by using in vitro, the reduced growth of R. solani was observed 58,35% with P. putida 27.4B and 41,96% with P. diminuta. In addition, inoculations of PSB in hydroponics medium reduced the fungal pathogenesis from 10,71% to 21,42% of pre and post emergence damping-off. Visually, the symptom of pathogen attack appeared within the period of 2 untill 14 days after infection.

Tri Candra Setiawati; Paniman Asna Mihardja

2008-01-01

102

Vesicle trafficking via the Spitzenkorper during hyphal tip growth in Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growing hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani were stained with the endocytic marker dye FM4-64 and imaged by confocal microscopy. Staining of the plasma membrane was followed by labeling of organelles in the cytoplasm (after ~1 min) and of the Spitzenkörper (Spk; after ~2 min). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of the stained Spk demonstrated the vectorial flow of secretory vesicles from the apical cytoplasm to the Spk. This flux was modelled in a two-compartment model. The turnover time of the vesicles of the Spk was estimated to be 1.3-2.5 min. These results are roughly consistent with the expected flux of vesicles through the Spk based on the number of secretory vesicles within the Spk and the number of secretory vesicles that would be necessary to fuse with the apical plasma membrane to maintain hyphal extension rates. These results suggest that membrane retrieval via endocytosis is not as significant as previously suggested.

Dijksterhuis J; Molenaar D

2013-04-01

103

Vesicle trafficking via the Spitzenkörper during hyphal tip growth in Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani were stained with the endocytic marker dye FM4-64 and imaged by confocal microscopy. Staining of the plasma membrane was followed by labeling of organelles in the cytoplasm (after ~1 min) and of the Spitzenkörper (Spk; after ~2 min). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of the stained Spk demonstrated the vectorial flow of secretory vesicles from the apical cytoplasm to the Spk. This flux was modelled in a two-compartment model. The turnover time of the vesicles of the Spk was estimated to be 1.3-2.5 min. These results are roughly consistent with the expected flux of vesicles through the Spk based on the number of secretory vesicles within the Spk and the number of secretory vesicles that would be necessary to fuse with the apical plasma membrane to maintain hyphal extension rates. These results suggest that membrane retrieval via endocytosis is not as significant as previously suggested. PMID:23334442

Dijksterhuis, Jan; Molenaar, Douwe

2013-01-20

104

First Report of Rhizoctonia solani AG-7 on Cotton in Egypt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighty-two isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were recorded from roots of naturally-infected seedlings of the Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates were determined by using 13 different AGs testers. Three (3.7%) of the isolates were identified as R. solani AG7, while the remaining isolates were belonging to the AG 2-1, AG4 and AG5. The identification of the three isolates was based on the frequency of the C2 reaction with the AG7 tester isolate. No fusion was observed between AG7 and isolates representing the other 13 AGs. Colonies of AG7 isolates grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA), malt yeast agar (MYA) and melt peptone agar (MPA) were brown to dark brown with aerial mycelium and sclerotia. The isolates had pitted sclerotial clusters and brownish exudates after 21 days of culturing on PDA, but without clear zonation. Pathogenicity test under greenhouse conditions revealed that AG7 caused the common symptoms of damping-off, which included seed rot, lesions on the hypocotyls and root rot.

Abd-Elsalam KamelA; Omar MoawadR; Aly AlyA

2010-04-01

105

Structural analysis of the Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin reveals a domain-swapping dimeric assembly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin (RSA) is a 15.5-kDa lectin accumulated in the mycelium and sclerotia of the soil born plant pathogenic fungus R. solani. Although it is considered to serve as a storage protein and is implicated in fungal insecticidal activity, its physiological role remains unclear as a result of a lack of any structure/function relationship information. Glycan arrays showed that RSA displays high selectivity towards terminal nonreducing N-acetylgalactosamine residues. We determined the amino acid sequence of RSA and also determined the crystal structures of the free form and the RSA-N-acetylgalactosamine complex at 1.6 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. RSA is a homodimer comprised of two monomers adopting the ?-trefoil fold. Each monomer accommodates two different carbohydrate-binding sites in an asymmetric way. Despite RSA topology similarities with R-type lectins, the two-monomer assembly involves an N-terminal swap, thus creating a dimer association novel to R-type lectins. Structural characterization of the two carbohydrate-binding sites offers insights on the structural determinants of the RSA carbohydrate specificity. DATABASE: Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank database under accession numbers 4G9M and 4G9N. STRUCTURED DIGITAL ABSTRACT: RSA and RSA bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction).

Skamnaki VT; Peumans WJ; Kantsadi AL; Cubeta MA; Plas K; Pakala S; Zographos SE; Smagghe G; Nierman WC; Van Damme EJ; Leonidas DD

2013-04-01

106

Role of seed-borne inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani in sheath blight of rice  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice is reported to survive through soil and collateral hosts. Although it infects seed in field, role of seed-borne inoculum in disease development is not properly understood. During the present investigation seed samples were collected from sheath blight infected field (>90 %) and were stored at room temperature. Symptoms induced by the pathogen on seeds were recorded. No correlation was observed in degree of seed discolouration and isolation frequency of the pathogen. Survival of pathogen and its transmission from seed to emerging seedlings was observed at monthly intervals using paper towel, agar plate and sterilized soil medium methods separately treated with biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungicide (Carbendazim) treatment. The results showed that (i) paper towel method was most efficient method followed by sterilized soil medium method to assess the transmission of pathogen from seed to seedlings and (ii) the inoculum survived well in seeds from one season to another at room temperature. Biocontrol agents and carbendazim treatments proved that R. solani was internally seed-borne in nature. Inspite of good survival of the pathogen, its transmission to rice plants under field conditions was very poor.

P.N. SIVALINGAM, S.N. VISHWAKARMA and U.S. SINGH*

2012-01-01

107

Isolation and characterization of siderophore producing antagonistic rhizobacteria against Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant protection through siderophore producing rhizobacteria (SPR) has emerged as a sustainable approach for crop health management. In present study, 220 bacteria isolated from tomato rhizosphere were screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Nine potent antagonistic strains viz., Alcaligenes sp. (MUN1, MB21, and MPF37), Enterobacter sp. (MPM1), Pseudomonas sp. (M10A and MB65), P. aeruginosa (MPF14 and MB123) and P. fluorescens (MPF47) were identified on the basis of physiological characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains were able to produce hydrolytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide, indole acetic acid, although, only few strains were able to solubilize phosphate. Two strains (MB123 and MPF47) showed significant disease reduction in glasshouse conditions were further evaluated under field conditions using three different application methods. Application of P. fluorescens (MPF47) in nursery as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments prior to transplantation resulted in significant disease reduction compared to control. Total chlorophyll and available iron were significantly higher in the MPF47 treated plants in contrast to infected control. In conclusion, siderophore producing bacteria MPF47 have strong biocontrol abilities and its application as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments provided strong shield to plant roots against R. solani and could be used for effective bio-management of pathogen.

Solanki MK; Singh RK; Srivastava S; Kumar S; Kashyap PL; Srivastava AK; Arora DK

2013-05-01

108

Isolation and characterization of siderophore producing antagonistic rhizobacteria against Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant protection through siderophore producing rhizobacteria (SPR) has emerged as a sustainable approach for crop health management. In present study, 220 bacteria isolated from tomato rhizosphere were screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Nine potent antagonistic strains viz., Alcaligenes sp. (MUN1, MB21, and MPF37), Enterobacter sp. (MPM1), Pseudomonas sp. (M10A and MB65), P. aeruginosa (MPF14 and MB123) and P. fluorescens (MPF47) were identified on the basis of physiological characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains were able to produce hydrolytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide, indole acetic acid, although, only few strains were able to solubilize phosphate. Two strains (MB123 and MPF47) showed significant disease reduction in glasshouse conditions were further evaluated under field conditions using three different application methods. Application of P. fluorescens (MPF47) in nursery as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments prior to transplantation resulted in significant disease reduction compared to control. Total chlorophyll and available iron were significantly higher in the MPF47 treated plants in contrast to infected control. In conclusion, siderophore producing bacteria MPF47 have strong biocontrol abilities and its application as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments provided strong shield to plant roots against R. solani and could be used for effective bio-management of pathogen. PMID:23686438

Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

2013-05-20

109

Application of Fluorescent Pseudomonads in Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani , Causal Agent of Colza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Two hundred fifty seven bacterial isolates were collected from colza root and rhizosphere in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Tehran provinces. Antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates on Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of colza damping off, was studied using dual culture method. The results showed that, 60 isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of R. solani on PDA medium. On the basis of the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates P1, P2 and P3 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biocontrol mechanism studies showed that isolates produced antibiotics and volatile metabolites prevented the mycelial growth of the fungus. The isolates produced some of antimicrobial metabolites including hydrogen cyanide, protease and siderophore. Isolate P3 was more effective to inhibit the growth of the fungus in-vitro. The effect of isolates on disease reduction in comparison with control was significantly different. None of the isolates were able to prevent disease occurrence completely. Isolates applied as soil treatment had a significantly higher disease control as compared to seed treatment method. Isolate P3 had considerable effect on reduction disease in the greenhouse conditions. All isolates were capable of colonizing canola roots and so increased canola growth in free-causal agent conditions.

SH.A. Sarani; A. Sharifi Tehrani; M. Ahmadzadeh; M. Javan Nikkhah

2008-01-01

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Population Dynamics of Sugar Beets, Rhizoctonia solani, and Laetisaria arvalis: Responses of a Host, Plant Pathogen, and Hyperparasite to Perturbation in the Field †  

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Rhizoctonia solani causes crown rot of sugar beets, a severe disease that has destroyed up to 60% of the plants in a test field in western Nebraska. Laetisaria arvalis, a natural hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia spp., was isolated from fields in western Nebraska. To test for the potential for biological...

Allen, Michael F.; Boosalis, Michael G.; Kerr, Eric D.; Muldoon, Anne E.; Larsen, Harold J.

111

Occurrence of Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize in Jharkhand with Reference to Diversity in Rhizoctonia solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Survey during kharif, 2005 and 2006 were carried out to record occurrence of disease and diversity in R. solani among the naturally occurring populations and revealed that banded leaf and sheathblight incited by Rhizoctonia solani, is show ing wide spread w ith the disease severity ranging from 30.30 to80.46 per cent and gaining the economic importance in the state of Jharkhand. Five isolates from five differentlocations showed variation in their morphological characters such as abundance of mycelium, colour andlocation, distribution, size and density of sclerotia etc. Pathogenicity revealed isolate Hc most aggressive whileisolate Jr least aggressive.

J. Akhtar

2009-01-01

112

First Report of Rhizoctonia solani Causing a Disease of Sunflower in India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the spring of 2009, symptoms including leaf yellowing and wilting, root rot, and death of plants were noted in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops in Dharmapuri District, Tamilnadu, India. In some fields, approximately 30% of the plants were affected. The disease began when plants were approximately 10 weeks old and occurred on scattered or adjacent plants. The presence of white mycelium was observed on necrotic crowns. Symptomatic tissue was surface disinfested in 70% alcohol for 30 s and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 1 min and plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) (1). One isolate (coded SV001) had near right-angle branching with basal constriction and adjacent septa and sclerotia typical of Rhizoctonia spp. (2). Cream-colored colonies produced irregular, light brown sclerotia that were 3.0 to 7.3 mm (average 3.8 mm) in diameter. Hyphae were 6.8 to 7.0 ?m (average 6.9 ?m) wide and multinucleate (8 to 15 nuclei per cell). On the basis of hyphal anastomosis with several known AG testers, the fungus was characterized as Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-IV (3). One culture was deposited at the Madras University Botany Laboratory, Center for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai, India. In a pathogenicity test, R. solani SV001 was grown on PDA for 5 days at 24°C in the dark. Five-millimeter-diameter disks were placed at the base of sunflower plants (cv. Mordan). Four sunflower plants in each of three pots were inoculated; noninoculated plants served as controls. Plants were placed in a glasshouse maintained at 25 to 27°C. Inoculated plants developed yellow foliage and crown rot and root rot symptoms after 7 to 12 days and died in 17 to 20 days. No symptoms were observed on noninoculated plants. The pathogen was reisolated from fragments of necrotic crown tissue of inoculated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. solani AG-IV causing a disease of sunflower plants in India.

Srinivasan K; Visalakchi S

2010-04-01

113

Dried powders of velvetbean and pine bark added to soil reduce Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease on soybean/ Pós secos de mucuna e casca de pinus adicionados ao solo reduzem a doença causada por Rhizoctonia solani em soja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As doenças em soja (Glycine max) causadas por Rhizoctonia solani são um sério problema ao redor do mundo. A incorporação ao solo de resíduos orgânicos é uma alternativa para o controle destas doenças. Neste estudo, benzaldeido e pós-secos de kudzu (Pueraria lobata), mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana) e casca de pinus (Pinus spp.) foram usados com o objetivo de melhorar o crescimento de plantas de soja e de diminuir a doença causada por R. solani (AG-4). Benzaldehyde ( (more) 0,1-0,4 mL/kg de solo) e mucuna (25-100 g/kg) reduziram significativamente (P Abstract in english Diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani, like damping-off and root and stem rot on soybean (Glycine max), are a serious problem around the world. The addition of some organic material to soil is an alternative control for these diseases. In this study, benzaldehyde and dried powders of kudzu (Pueraria lobata), velvetbean or mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), and pine bark (Pinus spp.) were used in an attempt to improve soybean plant growth and to reduce the disease R. solani (AG (more) -4) causes on soybean. Benzaldehyde (0.1-0.4 mL/kg of soil) and velvetbean (25-100 g/kg) significantly (P

Blum, Luiz E. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, Rodrígo

2006-06-01

114

Resistência física de bainhas de plantas de arroz supridas com silício e infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani/ Physical resistance of leaf sheaths of rice plants supplied with silicon and infected by Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou associar a deposição de silício (Si) nas bainhas de plantas de arroz ao aumento da resistência física à infecção por Rhizoctonia solani. Plantas das cultivares suscetíveis BR-Irga 409 e Labelle foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva contendo (+Si) ou não (-Si) Si. A concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas supridas com Si e inoculadas com R. solani aumentou significativamente em relação às plantas não supridas com Si reduzindo o (more) comprimento relativo da lesão às 96 horas após inoculação (hai). Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos -Si e +Si quanto à força necessária para uma agulha metálica atravessar as bainhas às 48 e 72 hai. A maior resistência física às 24 hai deve-se ao fato de que R. solani estava crescendo sobre o tecido sem destruí-lo, o que pôde ser comprovado pela ausência de sintomas. Após esse período, a resistência diminuiu devido ao rápido crescimento de R. solani. Entretanto, nas bainhas de plantas supridas com Si, a força necessária para a agulha penetrar foi maior às 48 e 72 hai. A resistência das bainhas de plantas supridas com Si à infecção por R. solani pode ser explicada, em parte, pela maior resistência física decorrente da deposição desse elemento. Abstract in english This study aimed to associate the silicon (Si) deposition on sheaths of rice plants with an increase in physical resistance against infection by Rhizoctonia solani. Plants from the susceptible cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle were grown in nutrient solution containing (+Si) or not (-Si) Si. Si concentration on sheaths of plants supplied with Si and inoculated with R. solani significantly increased compared to plants non-supplied with Si, reducing the relative lesion leng (more) th at 96 hours after inoculation (hai). There were significant differences between -Si and +Si treatments for the force required of a metal needle to pass through the sheaths at 48 and 72 hai. The greater physical resistance at 24 hai was due to the fact that R. solani was growing on sheath tissue without destroying it, which could be proved by the absence of symptoms. After this period, the resistance decreased due to the rapid R. solani growth. However, on sheaths of plants supplied with Si, the force required for the needle to penetrate was higher at 48 and 72 hai. The sheath resistance of plants supplied with Si to infection by R. solani can be explained partly by the greater physical resistance due to Si deposition.

Schurt, Daniel Augusto; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Reis, Ricardo Dutra; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; Souza, Naiara Fernandes Abreu; Silva, Washington Azevedo

2012-08-01

115

First report of web blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani on Catharanthus roseus in Louisiana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Web (aerial) blight was observed in field plots of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Madagascar periwinkle) during three consecutive summers at the Burden Research Center in Baton Rouge. Leaf spots formed first, followed by a general blighting of leaves and stems that resulted in circular areas of dead plants in the plots. Dead leaves were matted together but remained attached to plants. Mycelia, and occasionally small, brown sclerotia (1 to 3 mm) were observed on blighted foliage. During the first year, only prostrate-growing cultivars belonging to the Mediterranean series of C. roseus were infected, but in 2001 and 2002 upright-growing cultivars as well as those with prostrate growth habit became infected. The disease occurred in July and August during periods of hot, humid, and rainy weather. Among 52 cultivars in the 2001 trial, only ‘Tropicana Pink’, ‘Tropicana Rose’ and ‘Stardust Orchid’ were disease free. A Rhizoctonia sp. was consistently isolated from diseased plants and further characterized as R. solani Kühn AG-1 based on its multinucleate cells and hyphal anastomosis with several AG-1 tester isolates. On potato dextrose agar, colonies displayed morphologies with characteristics of AG-1 IA and AG-1 IB, therefore, identification to AG subgroup was not made. Mature colonies ranged from light tan to brown and produced sclerotia, individually or in clumps, at the edge of the culture dish. Pathogenicity tests were performed by placing agar blocks, taken from the margins of 7-day-old cultures, on stems of eight healthy Madagascar periwinkle plants (15 to 20 cm tall). Inoculated and noninoculated control plants were held in a dew chamber at 26°C for 3 days and then moved to a greenhouse. Leaves on all inoculated plants developed water-soaked spots that turned dark brown or black prior to death, whereas noninoculated plants remained healthy. R. solani was reisolated from inoculated plants and its cultural characteristics were similar to those of the original isolate. Web blight occurs in Louisiana on Madagascar periwinkle used as landscape bedding plants, but has not been observed on container-grown plants. Web blight caused by R. solani AG-1 was previously reported on Madagascar periwinkle from Alabama (1). R. solani AG-1 has been reported previously as causing web blight in Louisiana on rosemary (2), dianthus (4), and verbena (3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of web blight on Madagascar periwinkle (C. roseus) in Louisiana.

Holcomb GE; Carling DE

2002-11-01

116

Effects of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 on defense responses in soybean plants infected by Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 to induce plant defense systems, including defense-related enzyme levels and expression of defense-related isoenzymes, and isoflavone production, leading to improved resistance to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Seven-dayold soybean seedlings were inoculated with P. aureofaciens 63-28, R. solani AG-4, or P. aureofaciens 63-28 plus R. solani AG-4 (P+R), or not inoculated (control). After 7 days of incubation, roots treated with R. solani AG-4 had obvious damping-off symptoms, but P+R-treated soybean plants had less disease development, indicating suppression of R. solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots increased by 24.6% and 54.0%, respectively, compared with control roots. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots were increased by 75.1% and 23.6%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in soybean roots challenged with P. aureofaciens 63-28 and P+R increased by 25.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Mn-SOD (S1 band on gel) and Fe-SOD (S2) were strongly induced in P+R-treated roots, whereas one CAT (C1) and one APX (A3) were strongly induced in R. solani AG-4- treated roots. The total isoflavone concentration in P+Rtreated shoots was 27.2% greater than the control treatment. The isoflavone yield of R. solani AG-4-treated shoots was 60.9% less than the control.

Jung WJ; Park RD; Mabood F; Souleimanov A; L Smith D

2011-04-01

117

A One-Step, Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Specific to Rhizoctonia solani and Certain Related Species, and Its Use to Detect and Quantify R. solani in Soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT A murine hybridoma cell line GD2 secreting an immunoglobulin (Ig)M monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced against surface antigens from an anastomosis group (AG) 4 isolate of Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Ascites were produced in mice using GD2 hybridoma cells and used to develop a rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of antigens from R. solani and certain related Rhizoctonia spp. The LFD was tested for specificity against surface antigens from related and unrelated soil fungi. Antigens from representative isolates of R. solani AGs 1, 2-1, 2-3, 2-t, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and BI gave a positive response in LFD tests, as did antigens from Thanatephorus orchidicola, T. praticola, R. fragariae (teleomorph: Ceratorhiza fragariae), Ceratorhiza goodyerae-repentis, Ceratobasidium cornigerum, and binucleate AGE. Antigens from R. solani AGs 2-2, 2-2IIIB, and 2-2IV and from the related fungi R. carotae, R. cerealis (teleomorph: Ceratobasium cereale), R. crocorum (teleomorph: Helicobasidium brebissonii), R. oryzae (teleomorph Waitea circinata), and R. zeae gave negative responses, as did antigens from a range of unrelated fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Pythium, and Phytophthora spp. The usefulness of the LFD to detect R. solani was demonstrated in soils naturally infested with R. solani AG3. There was close agreement between results of LFD tests and conventional plate enrichment tests employing selective medium. The specificity of the technique was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction PCR using R. solani AG3-specific primers and by analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of unrelated fungi recovered from soil samples. The LFD was used to quantify R. solani AG4 in artificially infested soil samples (chopped potato soil inoculum). Estimates of CFU per gram of soil were derived using a most-probable number technique, which was based on the presence or absence of a detectable signal in the LFD. Estimates of CFU obtained in LFD tests and those obtained in a plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay incorporating MAb GD2 were identical (449 CFU g(-1) of soil).

Thornton CR; Groenhof AC; Forrest R; Lamotte R

2004-03-01

118

Identification of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from sugar beet roots by analyzing the ITS region of ribosomal DNA  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 are proven to be the most common pathogenic strains on sugar beet. AG 2-2 (intraspecific groups IIIB and IV) can cause root and crown rot while damping-off of seedlings is most frequently attributed to AG 4. Four isolates of R. solani from sugar beet roots showing characteristic crown and root rot symptoms, collected from different localities in Vojvodina Province, were chosen and compared to the well-characterized R. solani isolate R9, AG 2-2 IV, from the USA. All Vojvodinian isolates showed medium level of pathogenicity and were able to cause crown and root rot symptoms on inoculated sugar beet roots. Based on anastomosis reaction, isolates from Vojvodina did not belong to the AG 2-2 group. Sequencing of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region of ribosomal DNA was performed on the Vojvodinian isolates from R9 in order to determine their relatedness. Sequence analysis showed that these isolates were different than R9 and were closely related (99-100% sequence homology) to anastomosis group 4, subgroup HG II.

Stojšin Vera B.; Budakov Dragana; Jacobsen Barry; Grimme Eva; Bagi Ferenc F.; Jasni? Stevan

2007-01-01

119

Sobrevivência de micélio e escleródios de Rhizoctonia solani tratados com Trichoderma spp., em restos de cultura de Eucalyptus sp./ Survival of Rhizoctonia solani mycelia and sclerotia treated with Trichoderma spp., in Eucalyp]tus sp. litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou estudar a sobrevivência de micélio e escleródios de Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1C, em restos de cultura de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) e avaliar a eficiência dos isolados Trichoderma longibrachiatum (UFV-1) e T. inhamatum (UFV-2 e UFV-3), comprovadamente antagônicos a R. solani, em reduzir a sobrevivência do patógeno, em condições de campo. Ao longo de 12 meses de avaliação, a sobrevivência de R. solani em folhas de eucalipto infetadas não (more) foi afetada por fatores ambientes e tampouco por possíveis antagonistas de ocorrência natural. Por outro lado, a sobrevivência dos escleródios decresceu progressivamente, atingindo cerca de 26%. Não se constatou influência dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. na sobrevivência de R. solani em folhas infetadas de eucalipto. Entretanto, redução significativa e contínua na viabilidade de escleródios, foi observada, equiparando-se ao tratamento com fungicida, aos 25 dias após inoculação dos antagonistas, sendo os três isolados igualmente efetivos. Já, a sobrevivência no tratamento com fungicida, atingiu níveis significativamente baixos na primeira avaliação, mas sua eficiência foi reduzida ao longo do período experimental. Redução progressiva e contínua na sobrevivência de escleródios da testemunha foi também constatada, mas inferior a quaisquer dos tratamentos. Abstract in english The survival of mycelium and sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1C was studied in Eucalyptus sp. litter treated with the antagonists Trichoderma longibrachiatum (UFV-1) and T. inhamatum (UFV-2 and UFV-3) isolates. For 12 months, R. solani survival in Rhizoctonia infected eucalypt leaves, was apparently not affected by environmental factors, nor by possible naturally occurring antagonists. On the other hand, the sclerotial rate survival decreased progressively reaching 26 (more) %. The influence of Trichoderma spp. isolates did not affect R. solani survival in eucalypt-infected leaves, but significant and continuous reduction of sclerotia viability was observed when compared to captan treatment, 25 days after treatment with the antagonists. The survival in the fungicide treatment reached significantly low levels in the first evaluation, but its efficiency decreased with time. Progressive reduction and continuous survival of sclerotia was detected in the control as well, but significantly less than any other treatment.

Kunieda-Alonso, Sandra; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Maffia, Luiz A.

2005-04-01

120

Mechanism of the Generation of New Somatic Compatibility Groups within Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani).  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) were obtained from field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC and AG-2-2 IV. Formation of distinctive tufts, a recognized feature of heterokaryon synthesis, was observed, and isolates derived from hyphal-tipped tuft hyphae were obtained following pairings between various strains. Three distinctive types of tufts were formed: the fibrous type of mating-compatible homokaryon-homokaryon (Hom-Hom) pairings, the sparse type between heterokaryon-homokaryon (Het-Hom) pairings originating from one parent, and the compact type between Het-Hom pairings originating from different parents. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profile of fingerprints of these tuft isolates verified that they were all heterokaryotic. Because of heterokaryotic vigor, the growth and pathogenicity of the majority of tuft isolates increased compared with their contributing SBIs. New somatic compatibility groups (SCGs) that were different from parental field isolates occurred following heterokaryon formation within T. cucumeris. Tuft isolates produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates of different parents yielded no somatic compatibility with the original parent isolates and a high frequency of new SCGs (62-100%). This was in contrast to those produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates with a common parent that yielded only 12-37% new SCGs. The SCG diversity of R. solani in the field may be attributed to new fitter heterokaryons formed between a heterokaryon of one pair of parents and a homokaryon of another parent pair. This mechanism greatly contributes to genetic diversity in the field and accounts for the failure to recover the expected distribution of SCGs from a field population. PMID:23995511

Qu, Ping; Saldajeno, Mary Grace B; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-08-31

 
 
 
 
121

Mechanism of the Generation of New Somatic Compatibility Groups within Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) were obtained from field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC and AG-2-2 IV. Formation of distinctive tufts, a recognized feature of heterokaryon synthesis, was observed, and isolates derived from hyphal-tipped tuft hyphae were obtained following pairings between various strains. Three distinctive types of tufts were formed: the fibrous type of mating-compatible homokaryon-homokaryon (Hom-Hom) pairings, the sparse type between heterokaryon-homokaryon (Het-Hom) pairings originating from one parent, and the compact type between Het-Hom pairings originating from different parents. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profile of fingerprints of these tuft isolates verified that they were all heterokaryotic. Because of heterokaryotic vigor, the growth and pathogenicity of the majority of tuft isolates increased compared with their contributing SBIs. New somatic compatibility groups (SCGs) that were different from parental field isolates occurred following heterokaryon formation within T. cucumeris. Tuft isolates produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates of different parents yielded no somatic compatibility with the original parent isolates and a high frequency of new SCGs (62-100%). This was in contrast to those produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates with a common parent that yielded only 12-37% new SCGs. The SCG diversity of R. solani in the field may be attributed to new fitter heterokaryons formed between a heterokaryon of one pair of parents and a homokaryon of another parent pair. This mechanism greatly contributes to genetic diversity in the field and accounts for the failure to recover the expected distribution of SCGs from a field population.

Qu P; Saldajeno MG; Hyakumachi M

2013-09-01

122

Preparation and characterization of nano-sized calcium carbonate as controlled release pesticide carrier for validamycin against Rhizoctonia solani  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nano-sized calcium carbonate (nano-CC) was studied in terms of acting as a carrier for a pesticide. Nano-CC was prepared by reaction of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate by the reversed-phase microemulsion method and then loaded with the pesticide validamycin. The resulting material was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The loading efficiency, sustained-release performance, germicidal efficacy, and stability also were investigated. The size of the loaded nano-CC can be adjusted to between 50 to 200 nm by varying the water/surfactant molar ratio from 30/1 to 10/1, and the loading efficiency can be increased to about 20% by increasing the size of the nano-CC. The material displayed better germicidal efficacy against Rhizoctonia solani compared to conventional technical validamycin after about 7 days, and the time of the release of validamycin was extended to 2 weeks. Given the loading efficiency, stability, sustained-release performance and good environmental compatibility of the material, the method for its preparation may be extended to other hydrophilic pesticide. (author)

2011-01-01

123

Development of a difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to its physical and chemical properties, the composition of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was as follows: xylene as solvent, emulsifier HSH as surfactant and methanol as cosurfactant. The optimal formulation of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was oil/SAA/water = 1/2/5 (w/w), in which the SAA consisted of emulsifier HSH and methanol with ratio of 3/2 (w/w). The cloud point of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 70 degrees C and its effective ingredient content was 2.5% measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Its heat storage stability was studied according to the standards. The decomposition rates of the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion were merely 2.45%, 2.63% respectively and met the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards of pesticide microemulsion. Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) the particle size of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 90-140 nm and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA were tested and compared with that of Meiyu. We found that the inhibition rates in the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion treatment group were significantly higher than that of the emulsion group with the same content of effective ingredients and the study also revealed that its inhibiting ability on the formation and germination of sclerotia was significant.

Leng P; Zhang Z; Li Q; Zhang Y; Zhao M; Pan G

2012-06-01

124

Development of a difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to its physical and chemical properties, the composition of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was as follows: xylene as solvent, emulsifier HSH as surfactant and methanol as cosurfactant. The optimal formulation of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was oil/SAA/water = 1/2/5 (w/w), in which the SAA consisted of emulsifier HSH and methanol with ratio of 3/2 (w/w). The cloud point of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 70 degrees C and its effective ingredient content was 2.5% measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Its heat storage stability was studied according to the standards. The decomposition rates of the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion were merely 2.45%, 2.63% respectively and met the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards of pesticide microemulsion. Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) the particle size of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 90-140 nm and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA were tested and compared with that of Meiyu. We found that the inhibition rates in the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion treatment group were significantly higher than that of the emulsion group with the same content of effective ingredients and the study also revealed that its inhibiting ability on the formation and germination of sclerotia was significant. PMID:22822543

Leng, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Maojun; Pan, Guangtang

2012-06-01

125

Influence of soil type and indigenous pathogenic fungi on bean hypocotyl rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HGI in Cuba  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calcisol, ferralsol and vertisol soils, representative of different bean production areas of Villa Clara province in Cuba, were selected to determine the impact of soil type on bean hypocotyl rot severity caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HGI (isolate CuVC-Rs7). In inoculated autoclaved soil, hypocotyl rot was most severe in calcisol soil, followed by ferralsol soils and then vertisol soils. In inoculated natural soils, disease severity was lower in vertisol and calcisol soils and higher in ferralsol soil, indicating that biological factors are suppressing or stimulating the pathogenic efficiency of R. solani. Native binucleate Rhizoctonia AGF, Sclerotium rolfsii and R. solani AG 4 HGI were isolated from bean plants grown in natural calcisol, vertisol and ferralsol soils, respectively. Subsequent studies about the interaction between these fungi and R. solani indicated that they were involved in the variability of disease severity caused by R. solani. The addition of R. solani AG4 HGI (isolate CuVC-Rs7) into each autoclaved soil inoculated with binucleate Rhizoctonia or S. rolfsii resulted in a reduction of disease severity caused by this pathogen while in soils inoculated with native R. solani AG4 HGI, disease severity increased. Irrespective of fungal interactions, calcisol was always the most disease conducive soil and vertisol the most disease repressive soil. The mechanisms by which native pathogenic fungi could influence disease severity caused by R. solani are discussed.

Nerey Yaquelin; Beneden SarahVan; Franc?a SorayaC; Jimenez Alexander; Cupull Rene; Herrera Lidcay; Ho?fte Monica

2010-05-01

126

Identificationof resistance sources to banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakil) in maize  

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Full Text Available The Banded leaf and sheath blight (BlSB) disease, incited by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii, causes considerable damage to maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, particularly in the tropical Asia. Evaluation of a set of 29 tropical maize inbred lines in replicated trials under artificial inoculation in field conditions at Udaipur (Rajasthan,Western India), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand, North-Eastern India), and New Delhi (North India) during three consecutive years (2002-2004).While many of the Indian and CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico) inbred lines displayed susceptibility to BlSB, CA00106 was the only inbred that revealed moderate resistance to the three BlSB isolates. CM104 was moderately resistant at Udaipur and Pantnagar, but was susceptible at Delhi. CM10Swas moderately resistant at Pantnagar and susceptible at both Udaipur and Delhi. Among the CIMMYT inbred lines, CA00310 revealed moderate resistance at Udaipur and Delhi, while CA00344 and CA00370 were moderately resistant at Pantnagar and Delhi.The study highlights differential responses of the same set of maize genotypes to BlSB isolates at the three 'hot spots' in India, with significant genotype x environment interactions.

ANSHU GARG, B.M. PRASANNA*, R.C. SHARMA, R.S. RATHORE, S.C. SAXENA and S.V.S. CHAUHAN

2011-01-01

127

Genetic Analysis of Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight Resistance (Rhizoctonia Solani) In Maize  

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Full Text Available Line × tester analysis involving 12 inbred lines and 5 inbred testers were carried to study the genetics of resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight in maize incited by Rhizoctonia solani in Kharif2010at B.A.U. research farm. Out of seventeen inbreds including five testers, three lines were resistant, twelve lines were moderately resistant and two lines were moderately susceptible. Both additive and dominance components were important in the inheritance of this disease with the predominant role of additive gene action. The inbreds, BAUIM-3, BQPM-2 and BQPM-4 were good general combiners for disease resistance as well as yield. Among the testers, BAUIM-2 was found to be the best general combiner for disease resistance as well as yield. The estimate of specific combining ability effect revealed that the cross combinations, BAU1M-3× CM-150, BAU1M-1×BAU1M-2, BAU1M-4×HKI 193-1, BAU1M-4×HKI163, V341× CM150, BQPM-2× BAU1M-2 and CML161× HKI 193-1 were identified as best cross combinations in respect of disease resistance as well as yield.

Tajwar Izhar; M. Chakraborty

2013-01-01

128

Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani associated with root/collar rots and blights  

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Full Text Available One hundred-twelve isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were collected from soil, root and collar rot or foliage blight infected plants from several locations in Haryana. Of these, 43% belonged to anastomosis group-1 (AG-1 lA, AG-1 IC), 37% to AG-4, 9% to AG-3 and 11% to AG-7. Studies on 20 selected isolates of different AGs revealed considerable variability in their cultural and morphological characters, growth and virulence. Sclerotia were large (1-4 mm) and produced in abundance in AG-1 IA but these were generally few and small in other AGs. Isolates of AG-7 had the narrowest (7.2 JJm)while those of AG-3 had the widest (9.0 JJm)hyphae. Wide variations were recorded in virulence among different AGs. Isolates of AG-1, AG-4 and AG7 were moderate to highly virulent on hypocotyls of mungbean and chickpea. Leaves of rice were severely infected by AG-1 lA, while AG-1 IC and AG-4 caused mild infection. Isolates of AG-3 failed to infect either group of hosts. It is the first report on occurrence of AG-7 in India.

S. SUNDER, H.R. KATARIA, SATYAVIR and O.P. SHEORAN

2012-01-01

129

Control biológico de Rhizoctonia solani en plantas de papa criollaSolanum phureja usando cepas nativas de Pseudomonas fluorescens BIOCONTROL OF Rhizoctonia solani IN NATIVE POTATO (Solanum phureja) PLANTS USING NATIVE Pseudomonas fluorescens  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani es un hongo fitopatógeno del suelo, el cual produce una reducción significativa del vigor de las plantas y de la producción de tubérculos en cultivos de papa. Es de gran interés la búsqueda de alternativas de manejo de esta enfermedad, especialmente desde la perspectiva de control biológico ya que los cultivos de papa son los mayores consumidores de plaguicidas de origen químicos en Colombia. Con el objeto de obtener una cepa del grupo de las Pseudomonas fluorescentes con la capacidad para reducir los síntomas de la enfermedad producidos por R. solani, se realizó en un estudio previo el aislamiento y caracterización de una colección de aislamientos de Pseudomonas fluorescentes provenientes de diferentes cultivos de la región papera más productiva del país. Seis cepas nativas de P. fluorescens con buena, moderada o ninguna capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento fúngico in vitro fueron seleccionadas. A pesar de las diferencias encontradas en términos de la dinámica y capacidad de colonización, todas las cepas evaluadas indujeron el crecimiento en las plantas de S. phureja y redujeron los síntomas de la enfermedad producidos por R. solani a nivel de invernadero. Nuestros resultados sustentan la conclusión que la asociación de cepas de P. fluorescens con la rizosfera de S. phureja es una alternativa para el manejo de R. solani en papa.Rhizoctonia solani is a soil borne phytopathogen associated with reduced plant vigor and tuber production in potato crops. There is a huge interest to search alternatives of biological control management of this disease, because the potato crops in Colombia are the highest consumers of chemical pesticides in Colombia. In order to obtain a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain with the capacity to reduce the disease symptoms produced by R. solani, determination and isolation of the predominant fluorescent Pseudomonas in several potato crops of the main Colombian producing region was done in a previous study. Six different P. fluorescens strains with none, moderate and high fungal growth inhibition capacity in vitro, were used in this study. Despite of the differences found in the dynamics of colonization and colonization capacity, all evaluated strains induced S. phureja growth and reduced disease symptoms produced by R. solani. Our results support the conclusion that association of P. fluorescens strains with S. phureja rhizosphere is a feasible alternative for the management of R. solani symptoms.

GLORIA BAUTISTA; HENRY MENDOZA; DANIEL URIBE

2007-01-01

130

Estudio de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn aislado de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo y Lara: II. virulencia y caracterización molecular Rhizoctonia solani Kühn isolated from potato in various Venezuelan states: II. Virulence and molecular characterization  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como rizoctoniosis en el cultivo de la papa y constituye un serio problema en Venezuela. En el país se han identificado los grupos anastomósicos presentes y se ha realizado la caracterización cultural del hongo pero no la molecular ni la de virulencia, por lo que estos objetivos fueron planteados en el presente trabajo. Se utilizaron cuarenta aislamientos obtenidos de los estados Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo y Lara. Se utilizaron las técnicas de RAPD, UPR e ITS para la caracterización molecular, y pruebas de patogenicidad en papa ‘Kennebec’ para determinar la virulencia. Con las tres técnicas moleculares se observaron variaciones genéticas entre las cepas del hongo y se confirmó la presencia de AG-3 y AG-2.1 de R. solani. Las cepas mostraron diferencias significativas en la virulencia, la cual estuvo influenciada por la temperatura.Rhizoctonia solani causes the disease known as rizoctoniosis in potato and it is a serious problem in Venezuela. Anastomosis groups and cultural characterization have been determined in the country, but neither molecular nor virulence characterization. Therefore, the research focused on those two objectives. Forty isolates from Táchira, Merida, Trujillo and Lara States were used on which RAPD, UPR and ITS techniques were performed; also, pathogenicity tests were run on ‘Kennebec’ potato plants. Genetic variability among isolates was observed with all three molecular techniques and presence of AG-3 and AG-2.1 was confirmed. Isolates showed significant difference with regard to virulence, which was influenced by temperature.

Yoleidy Escalona; Dorian Rodríguez; Alexander Hernández

2012-01-01

131

Modifications in the potato rhizosphere during infestations of Globodera rostochiensis and subsequent effects on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two controlled environment experiments were conducted to explore the hypothesis that invasion and damage caused to potato roots by the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis might result in quantitative or qualitative changes in the release of root exudates to subsequently affect the growth of Rhizoctonia solani (AG3) in the potato rhizosphere. The growth of five R. solani isolates was compared on media amended either with root exudates from G. rostochiensis-infested or uninfested potato (cv. Désirée) plants at different time intervals after the introduction of the nematodes. In Experiment 1, the growth of R. solani was higher on medium amended with potato root exudates from G. rostochiensis-infested compared to uninfested plants, collected 4, 6, 8 and 12 days after the G. rostochiensis treatments were administered. Similarly, in Experiment 2, R. solani isolates grew faster on medium amended with potato root exudates from G. rostochiensis-infested than uninfested plants. This trend was particularly pronounced at the 12-day collection. At this time, 49% of the G. rostochiensis juveniles in roots were found to belong to the juvenile moults J2 and J3, indicating that root exudates were modified during the earlier stages of juvenile invasion. Carbohydrate analysis of root exudates indicated significantly higher levels of sucrose in root exudates from G. rostochiensis-infested than uninfested plants, whereas no significant differences were found in total nitrogen content. The results are discussed to help elucidate the mechanism behind the disease complex found between G. rostochiensis and R. solani in previous field research.

Back Matthew; Jenkinson Peter; Deliopoulos Thomas; Haydock Patrick

2010-12-01

132

Genetic and Genomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Interactions with Arabidopsis; Evidence of Resistance Mediated through NADPH Oxidases  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

Foley, Rhonda C.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B.

2013-01-01

133

Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani. PMID:23451091

Foley, Rhonda C; Gleason, Cynthia A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B

2013-02-25

134

Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

Foley RC; Gleason CA; Anderson JP; Hamann T; Singh KB

2013-01-01

135

Remote sensing to detect plant stress induced by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet fields  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The characteristically clustered occurrence and low level of mobility of Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani in the soil and the induction of stress symptoms in the sugar beet canopy make them ideal targets for site-specific arrangements with precision agriculture tools. A field site infested with H. schachtii and R. solani was investigated in 2009 with near-range and aerial hyperspectral sensors during the growing season. At 31 sample points ground truth data for incidence and severity of the two organisms were collected and geo-referenced. Spectral vegetation indices computed from reflectance measurements obtained from two flight campaigns (AISA, 17th of June; HyMap, 28th of August) and the near-range spectroradiometers were significantly correlated (P <0.01) with symptoms caused by the nematode or Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. A supervised classification with Spectral Angle Mapper of leaf symptoms induced by the organisms resulted in a classification accuracy of 72 and 64% for the AISA and HyMap data, respectively. The results demonstrated that remote sensing in combination with geographic information system technologies can be used effectively for the detection and mapping of symptoms caused by beet cyst nematode and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot.

Hillnhütter C; Mahlein AK; Sikora RA; Oerke EC

2011-04-01

136

Interactions between the root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting herbicides in barley.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The widespread acceptance of reduced-tillage farming in cereal cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States has resulted in increased use of herbicides for weed control. However, soil residual concentrations of widely used imidazalone herbicides limit the cultivation of barley, which is more sensitive than wheat. In addition, increased severity of the root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is associated with reduction in tillage. Many crops exhibit altered disease responses after application of registered herbicides. In this study, the injury symptoms in barley caused by sublethal rates of two acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, imazamox and propoxycarbazone-sodium, were assessed in factorial combinations with a range of inoculum concentrations of the root rot pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. RESULTS: Both herbicides and pathogen had negative impacts on plant growth parameters such as root and shoot dry weight, shoot height and first leaf length, and interactions between pathogen and herbicide were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that sublethal rates of herbicides and R. solani could alter severity of injury symptoms, possibly owing to the herbicide predisposing the plant to the pathogen.

Lee H; Ullrich SE; Burke IC; Yenish J; Paulitz TC

2012-06-01

137

Mungbean plants expressing BjNPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance against the seedling rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek is an important pulse crop that is widely cultivated in semi- arid tropics. The crop is attacked by various soil-borne pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani, which causes dry rot disease and seriously affects its productivity. Earlier we characterized the non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene-1(BjNPR1) of mustard, Brassica juncea, the counterpart of AtNPR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we transformed mungbean with BjNPR1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Because of the recalcitrant nature of mungbean, the effect of some factors like Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (GV2260 and LBA4404), pH, L: -cysteine and tobacco leaf extract was tested in transformation. The transgenic status of 15 plants was confirmed by PCR using primers for nptII. The independent integration of T-DNA in transgenic plants was analyzed by Southern hybridization with an nptII probe and the expression of BjNPR1 was confirmed by RT-PCR. Some of the T(0) plants were selected for detached leaf anti-fungal bioassay using the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, which showed moderate to high level of resistance depending on the level of expression of BjNPR1. The seedling bioassay of transgenic T(2) plants indicated resistance against dry rot disease caused by R. solani.

Vijayan S; Kirti PB

2012-02-01

138

Queima foliar e tombamento de mudas em plantas medicinais causadas por Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B Leaf blight and seedling damping-off of medicinal plants caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B  

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Full Text Available Recentemente, em plantas medicinais da família Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis e Thymus vulgaris), constatou-se tombamento de mudas em pós-emergência e queima foliar ascendente. Em isolamentos efetuados a partir de tecidos doentes, observou-se o desenvolvimento de um fungo com hifas ramificadas em ângulo de aproximadamente 90º, constrição na base da ramificação, septo próximo à inserção da hifa lateral e outras características típicas do gênero Rhizoctonia. Inoculou-se o fungo em plantas sadias cultivadas em vasos plásticos. Naquelas inoculadas por pincelamento de inóculo, ocorreu queima foliar de forma generalizada aos quatro dias da inoculação, enquanto nas inoculadas pela deposição de inóculo na superfície dos vasos, houve queima foliar ascendente, como observado em condições naturais, aos dez dias da inoculação. Com base na morfologia da colônia, crescimento micelial, número de núcleos, identificação do grupo e subgrupo de anastomose e da fase teleomórfica, o patógeno foi caracterizado como Rhizoctonia solani (fase anamórfica de Thanatephorus cucumeris). Com a reprodução dos sintomas da doença por inoculação artificial nas mudas e o reisolamento, em meio de batata dextrose ágar (BDA), do mesmo fungo a partir de tecidos doentes confirmou-se R. solani como o agente etiológico da doença.Recently, seedling damping off and blight progressing from old to young leaves were found on medicinal plants of the family Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris). A fungus was isolated from diseased tissues, in which the hyphae had diameter, ramification angle of about 90º, basal constriction, a septum next to the lateral hyphae, and other typical characteristics of the genus Rhizoctonia. The fungus was inoculated on healthy plants cultivated in plastic pots by brushing inoculum suspension on leaves (brushing) or by pouring the inoculum suspension on the surface of pots (soil infestation). On plants inoculated by brushing, disease symptoms occurred on all leaves four days after inoculation. On plants inoculated by soil infestation, leaf blight continued to ascent for ten days after inoculation under natural conditions. Based on colony morphology, mycelial growth, number of nuclei, identification of anastomosys group and subgroup, and on the teleomorph, the pathogen was considered to be Rhizoctonia solani (anamorph of Thanatephorus cucumeris). As disease symptoms were reproduced by artificial inoculation on plants and the fungus was reisolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) from diseased tissues, R. solani was confirmed to be the causal agent of the disease.

Reginaldo G. Mafia; Acelino C. Alfenas; Luiz A. Maffia; Gizella M. Ventura; Eraclides M. Ferreira; Irislei F. Neves; Cláudia A. Vanetti; Clarice Silva

2005-01-01

139

Queima foliar e tombamento de mudas em plantas medicinais causadas por Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B/ Leaf blight and seedling damping-off of medicinal plants caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1 - 1B  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Recentemente, em plantas medicinais da família Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis e Thymus vulgaris), constatou-se tombamento de mudas em pós-emergência e queima foliar ascendente. Em isolamentos efetuados a partir de tecidos doentes, observou-se o desenvolvimento de um fungo com hifas ramificadas em ângulo de aproximadamente 90º, constrição na base da ramificação, septo próximo à inserção da hifa lateral e outras característ (more) icas típicas do gênero Rhizoctonia. Inoculou-se o fungo em plantas sadias cultivadas em vasos plásticos. Naquelas inoculadas por pincelamento de inóculo, ocorreu queima foliar de forma generalizada aos quatro dias da inoculação, enquanto nas inoculadas pela deposição de inóculo na superfície dos vasos, houve queima foliar ascendente, como observado em condições naturais, aos dez dias da inoculação. Com base na morfologia da colônia, crescimento micelial, número de núcleos, identificação do grupo e subgrupo de anastomose e da fase teleomórfica, o patógeno foi caracterizado como Rhizoctonia solani (fase anamórfica de Thanatephorus cucumeris). Com a reprodução dos sintomas da doença por inoculação artificial nas mudas e o reisolamento, em meio de batata dextrose ágar (BDA), do mesmo fungo a partir de tecidos doentes confirmou-se R. solani como o agente etiológico da doença. Abstract in english Recently, seedling damping off and blight progressing from old to young leaves were found on medicinal plants of the family Labiatae (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula sp., Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris). A fungus was isolated from diseased tissues, in which the hyphae had diameter, ramification angle of about 90º, basal constriction, a septum next to the lateral hyphae, and other typical characteristics of the genus Rhizoctonia. The fungus was inoculated on hea (more) lthy plants cultivated in plastic pots by brushing inoculum suspension on leaves (brushing) or by pouring the inoculum suspension on the surface of pots (soil infestation). On plants inoculated by brushing, disease symptoms occurred on all leaves four days after inoculation. On plants inoculated by soil infestation, leaf blight continued to ascent for ten days after inoculation under natural conditions. Based on colony morphology, mycelial growth, number of nuclei, identification of anastomosys group and subgroup, and on the teleomorph, the pathogen was considered to be Rhizoctonia solani (anamorph of Thanatephorus cucumeris). As disease symptoms were reproduced by artificial inoculation on plants and the fungus was reisolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) from diseased tissues, R. solani was confirmed to be the causal agent of the disease.

Mafia, Reginaldo G.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Maffia, Luiz A.; Ventura, Gizella M.; Ferreira, Eraclides M.; Neves, Irislei F.; Vanetti, Cláudia A.; Silva, Clarice

2005-06-01

140

First report of the pathogenicity of rhizoctonia solani on Salvinia molesta and S. minima in Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salvinia molesta Mitchell (giant salvinia) and S. minima Baker (common salvinia) are exotic aquatic ferns that have invaded drainage basins in Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Oklahoma (2). These ferns rapidly colonize bodies of water and form thick mats, displace native species, disrupt recreational activities like boating and fishing, block drainage and irrigation intakes, interfere with electricity generation, and degrade water quality (1). Patches of water-soaked lesions were observed on the pinnules and rachises of screenhouse-grown S. molesta plants in Florida. Mycelia spread centrifugally from these patches and caused diseased plants to disintegrate and sink. Brown-to-black sclerotia were formed on and around the disintegrated plants. A fungus was consistently isolated from symptomatic tissues of S. molesta plants. Seven-day-old cultures turned buff-colored and produced sclerotia on potato dextrose agar, while cultures on water agar were hyaline and produced black sclerotia. Both types of sclerotia were not differentiated into rind and medulla. The mycelia branched at right angles from the main hyphae, were constricted at the base of the angle, and had a septum after the constriction. Vegetative cells were multinucleate. The fungus was identified as Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (3,4). Koch's postulates were performed to confirm pathogenicity on S. molesta and S. minima. Seven-day-old cultures of R. solani that were grown in potato dextrose broth were filtered through four layers of cheesecloth and washed with distilled water. Fourteen grams of the mycelial residue was suspended in 28 ml of distilled water and macerated in a small blender for 30 s to obtain a mycelial suspension. Healthy S. molesta and S. minima plants grown in screenhouse-tanks were immersed in tap water supplemented with 1 drop per 4 liters of surfactant (Tween 80), rinsed thoroughly, and approximately 40 g of the plants was floated in plastic jars (18.5 cm diameter × 7.5 cm high) filled to a depth of 5 cm with tap water. Three jars each of S. molesta and S. minima were misted with 1.5 ml of the mycelial suspension. Individual jars were covered with a clear plastic lid with a 2.5-cm-diameter hole in the center for ventilation. These jars were placed in a growth chamber maintained at 28 (+1)°C and 12-h fluorescent light cycles. Typical water-soaked lesions appeared on pinnules within 3 to 7 days, spread rapidly, and resulted in disintegration of pinnules and rachises. R. solani was consistently reisolated from symptomatic tissues of both Salvinia species. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming pathogenicity of R. solani on S. molesta and S. minima. This fungus should be further evaluated as a potential mycoherbicide for control of Salvinia species.

Rayachhetry MB; Center TR; Center TD; Tipping P; Pratt PD; Van TK

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil/ Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A diversidade genética de 18 isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivado na Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil foi avaliada através da análise do espaçadores transcritos internos (ITS), microssatélites e iniciadores ("primers") específicos para sequências teloméricas. A análise de restrição da região ribossomal ITS1/5,8S/ITS2 produziu um padrão de bandas específico para o grupo de anastomose 4 (GA 4) e seus subgrupos. O padr (more) ão obtido com ITS/RFLP, microsatélites e os iniciadores teloméricos permitiram identificar cinco a 11 genótipos entre os isolados de R. solani. Enquanto todos os isolados foram patogênicos em feijoeiro, não houve correlação entre patogenicidade e diferenças genotípicas. Os diferentes iniciadores para PCR revelaram que muitos isolados são geneticamente similares, análise esta que pode ser confirmada por mais de um conjunto de iniciadores, fortalecendo a relação deste agrupamento. Abstract in english Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (more) (ITS/RFLP), telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.

MEINHARDT, LYNDEL W.; WULFF, NELSON A.; BELLATO, CLÁUDIA M.; TSAI, SIU M.

2002-06-01

142

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP), telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.A diversidade genética de 18 isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivado na Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil foi avaliada através da análise do espaçadores transcritos internos (ITS), microssatélites e iniciadores ("primers") específicos para sequências teloméricas. A análise de restrição da região ribossomal ITS1/5,8S/ITS2 produziu um padrão de bandas específico para o grupo de anastomose 4 (GA 4) e seus subgrupos. O padrão obtido com ITS/RFLP, microsatélites e os iniciadores teloméricos permitiram identificar cinco a 11 genótipos entre os isolados de R. solani. Enquanto todos os isolados foram patogênicos em feijoeiro, não houve correlação entre patogenicidade e diferenças genotípicas. Os diferentes iniciadores para PCR revelaram que muitos isolados são geneticamente similares, análise esta que pode ser confirmada por mais de um conjunto de iniciadores, fortalecendo a relação deste agrupamento.

LYNDEL W. MEINHARDT; NELSON A. WULFF; CLÁUDIA M. BELLATO; SIU M. TSAI

2002-01-01

143

N-nitrourea derivatives as novel potential fungicides against Rhizoctonia solani: synthesis, antifungal activities, and 3D-QSAR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of N-nitrourea derivatives bearing various aryl substituents were conveniently obtained via three steps including nitration, carbamic chlorination, and aminolysis reactions. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR, ¹H-NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassays indicate that five compounds possess sufficient fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) is also discussed based on the experimental data, and the further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was analyzed using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA).

Cao X; Xu S; Li X; Shen X; Zhang Q; Li J; Chen C

2012-07-01

144

Purification and N-terminal sequencing of a 42 kDa Trichoderma viride chitinase isoform effective against Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Trichoderma viride extracellular chitinase of molecular weight 42 kDa was purified and its N-terminal sequence was determined. An N-terminal sequence comparison revealed 70-100% similarity to those of already characterised chitinases of similar molecular weight from other fungi. A chitin affinity column fraction that contained the enriched 42 kDa chitinase showed a higher chitinase specific activity. The 42 kDa chitinase purified to homogeneity by electroelution inhibited in vitro the growth of a rice sheath blight isolate of Rhizoctonia solani.

R. STEPHEN JEBAKUMAR*, GILU LIZY GEORGE, S. BABU*, T. RAGHUCHANDER, G. GOPALASWAY P. VIDHYASEKARAN, R. SAMIYAPPAN, J.A.J. RAJA and P. BALASUBRAMANIAN

2012-01-01

145

Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP), telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.

MEINHARDT LYNDEL W.; WULFF NELSON A.; BELLATO CLÁUDIA M.; TSAI SIU M.

2002-01-01

146

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes  

Science.gov (United States)

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance.

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

2012-01-01

147

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

2012-12-05

148

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance.

Borras-Hidalgo O; Caprari C; Hernandez-Estevez I; Lorenzo GD; Cervone F

2012-01-01

149

Evidence from mycelial studies for differences in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cinnamomi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytophthora cinnamomi, a member of the Pythiacease, does not synthesize sterols. Small amounts of squalene, but no squalene epoxide or sterol, were isolated from the dried mycelium of this fungus after growth in sterol-free medium. The dried mycelium of Rhizoctonia solani, a sterol-synthesizing fungus grown under the same conditions, contained small amounts of squalene and squalene epoxide and large amounts of ergosterol. When the two organisms were grown in the presence of [14C]acetate, only labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene were recovered from the P. cinnamomi mycelium, whereas labelled geraniol, farnesol, squalene, squalene epoxide and ergosterol were recovered from the R. solani mycelium. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were incubated in the presence of [2(-14)C]mevalonate; in this case, labelled lanosterol was also detected in the R. solani mycelium. Both organisms, when incubated in the presence of unlabelled squalene, squalene epoxide or lanosterol, incorporated these compounds into their mycelia; however, only the R. solani mycelium was able to convert these substrates into products further along the sterol pathway. It appears that squalene is the terminal compound in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of P. cinnamomi.

Wood SG; Gottlieb D

1978-02-01

150

The double life of Ceratobasidium: orchid mycorrhizal fungi and their potential for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani sheath blight of rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceratobasidium includes orchid mycorrhizal symbionts, plant pathogens and biocontrol agents of soilborne plant pathogens. It is not known to what extent members of the first guild also can participate in the others. Ceratobasidium spp. were isolated from roots of Colombian orchids and identified by phylogeny based on nrITS sequences. Phylogenetic grouping of Ceratobasidium spp. isolates corresponded to orchid host substrate (epiphytic vs. terrestrial). Isolates were tested for virulence on rice and for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani, causal agent of sheath blight of rice. All Ceratobasidium spp. isolates caused some signs of sheath blight but significantly less than a pathogenic R. solani used as a positive control. When Ceratobasidium spp. isolates were inoculated on rice seedlings 3 d before R. solani, they significantly reduced disease expression compared to controls inoculated with R. solani alone. The use of Ceratobasidium spp. from orchids for biological control is novel, and biodiverse countries such as Colombia are promising places to look for new biocontrol agents. PMID:22962357

Mosquera-Espinosa, Ana Teresa; Bayman, Paul; Prado, Gustavo A; Gómez-Carabalí, Arnulfo; Otero, J Tupac

2012-09-06

151

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2, the causal agent of damping-off by Muscodor cinnamomi CMU-Cib 461.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is a damping-off pathogen that causes significant crop loss worldwide. In this study, the potential of Muscodor cinnamomi, a new species of endophytic fungus for controlling R. solani AG-2 damping-off disease of plant seedlings by biological fumigation was investigated. In vitro tests showed that M. cinnamomi volatile compounds inhibited mycelial growth of pathogens. Among nine solid media tested, rye grain was the best grain for inoculum production. An in vivo experiment of four seedlings, bird pepper, bush bean, garden pea and tomato were conducted. The results indicated that treatment with 30 g of M. cinnamomi inoculum was the minimum dose that caused complete control of damping-off symptoms of all seedlings after one month of planting. The R. solani-infested soil showed the lowest percentage of seed germination. In addition, M. cinnamomi did not cause any disease symptoms. From the results it is clear that M. cinnamomi is effective in controlling R. solani AG-2 both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22806753

Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kumla, Jaturong; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2012-07-12

152

Técnica de inoculación rápida y eficiente para la evaluación de materiales de maíz (zea mays l.) ante rhizoctonia solani kuhn/ Efficient and fast inoculation technique for evaluation of maize germplasms (Zea mays L.) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Para la búsqueda de germoplasmas de maíz resistentes a Rhizoctonia solani es necesario realizar pruebas de inoculación para determinar su comportamiento. Para ello se requiere de una técnica de inoculación que proporcione una respuesta rápida, efectiva y confiable en la manifestación de la enfermedad, y que sea de fácil y práctica aplicación a una gran población de plantas y materiales genéticos. Con este fin se realizaron pruebas en el Posgrado de Agronomía (more) de la Universidad Centroccidental "Lisandro Alvarado", en Tarabana, estado Lara, Venezuela, y en las instalaciones de la Fundación DANAC, San Javier, estado Yaracuy, con plantas de maíz de 15 días de edad, desarrolladas en vivero. Se utilizaron las siguientes ocho técnicas: inoculación a la semilla, siembra en suelo inoculado con una de las siguientes tres formas: hojas de maíz infectadas, esclerocios o granos de arroz infectados y aplicación sobre plantas de maíz de una de las siguientes cuatro formas: esclerocios, granos de arroz infectados, trocitos de hojas de maíz infectados o micelio sobre el ápice de plantas de 15 días de edad La cepa de R. solani fue aislada de la localidad El Playón, estado Portuguesa. La técnica más adecuada resultó ser la utilización de granos de arroz infectados aplicados al momento de la siembra (incidencia 100%), aunque la utilización de esclerocios de R. solani también resultó eficiente, pero menos práctica su aplicación; la inoculación a la semilla de maíz fue eficiente, pero presentó el menor tamaño de mancha. Para inoculaciones al follaje, el tratamiento con mayor incidencia en plantas (100%) fue el de granos de arroz; la aplicación de micelio produjo una respuesta más rápida y mayor tamaño de mancha (9,43 cm). La técnica más segura y factible para la inoculación de Rhizoctonia solani en plantas de maíz de 15 días de edad la constituyó la de granos de arroz infectados con el patógeno por su facilidad de aplicación y de multiplicación del inóculo. Abstract in english In search of resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in maize germplasms, it is necessary to make inoculation tests to determine its behavior. Inoculation techniques that provide fast, effective, and reliable responses in the manifestation of the disease and also of easy and practical application to a wide population of plants and genetic materials are required. Tests were conducted at UCLA, Posgrado de Agronomia in Tarabana, Lara state, Venezuela and in the facilities of DANAC (more) Foundation in San Javier, Yaracuy state, utilizing 15 days old maize plants, developed under nursery conditions. Eight techniques were tested, among them seed inoculation, sowing in soil inoculated with infected mayze leaves or infected rice grains or esclerotia, application of esclerotia, micelia, infected mayze leaves or infected rice grains on the apex of 15 days old plants. R. solani stock was isolated from the locality of El Playón- Portuguesa state. The most practical and reliable technique was the use of infected rice grains at the time of sowing (incidence 100 %), although the use of R. solani esclerotia also was efficient, but less practical its application; the inoculation to the maize seed was efficient, but it showed to be of minor size the lesions. In foliage inoculation, the treatment with more incidences in plants (100 %) also was the one of rice kernels. The application of micelia alone, gave a fast response and large size of lesions (9.43 cm). The more surely and feasible technique for R. solani inoculation in 15 days old maize plants, by its facility of application and inocula multiplication, it constituted the rice grains infected with the pathogen.

Pineda, Juan; Hernández, Alexander; González, Alex; Barrientos, Venancio; Nass, Herman; Gil, Elizabeth

2005-04-01

153

Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) in glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous greenhouse studies with a non-commercial glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet variety indicated that susceptibility to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot could increase after glyphosate was applied. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine if glyphosate influenced...

154

Solarização do solo em casa-de-vegetação e campo para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 Soil solarization under greenhouse and field conditions to the control of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os cultivos em ambientes protegidos apresentaram uma grande expansão na década de 1990 no Brasil. O solo desses locais pode, por ser intensa e sucessivamente cultivado, se tornar infestado por patógenos como Rhizoctonia solani, responsável por tombamento e podridão de raízes em muitas espécies de plantas. O presente trabalho avaliou o emprego da solarização, dentro e fora de uma casa-de-vegetação vedada com plástico transparente, para o controle de R. solani. Quatro experimentos foram realizados, dois no verão de 1997/1998 e outros dois no verão seguinte, 1998/1999, em Piracicaba, SP (latitude 22º 42' e longitude 47º 38'). Bolsas de náilon contendo solo autoclavado misturado a grãos de trigo colonizados com R. solani AG-4 foram enterradas a 10 e a 20 cm de profundidade em parcelas solarizadas e não solarizadas, dentro e fora da casa-de-vegetação, sendo coletadas após 20, 30 e 40 dias para os dois primeiros experimentos e 15, 30 e 45 dias para o terceiro e quarto. Avaliou-se a viabilidade do patógeno após a recuperação dos grãos dos solos, por meio do plaqueamento destes em ágar-água, contando-se, dois dias depois, sob microscópio estereoscópio, os que apresentaram crescimento micelial característico de R. solani. Foi obtida a erradicação do patógeno após 20 e 30 dias de solarização na casa de vegetação e após 30 a 45 dias no campo, provavelmente porque houve menor perda de calor durante a noite no ambiente protegido, pois as temperaturas médias (40 a 45 º C, dependendo do experimento) e máxima (49º C) dos solos solarizados às 15:00 horas, a 10 cm de profundidade, foram semelhantes nos dois ambientes. Nas parcelas não solarizadas da casa-de-vegetação o patógeno também perdeu a viabilidade, porém mais lentamente (40 dias de tratamento para sua erradicação) que nas parcelas solarizadas.Crops grown under protected environment have had a great expansion in Brazil in the decade of 1990. In such environments soil is intensively and successively used and it may become infested with soilborne plant pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia solani, responsible for seedling damping-off and root rots of several plant species. In the present work soil solarization was used to the control of R. solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Four experiments were carried out, two in the summer of 1997/1998 and the other two in 1998/1999 in Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (latitude 22º 42' and longitude 47º 38'). Nylon bags containing disinfested soil with propagules of R. solani AG4 (wheat grains previously colonized with the pathogen) were buried at 10 and 20 cm soil depth in solarized and non-solarized plots. After 20, 30, and 40 days in the two first experiments and 15, 30, and 45 days in the third and fourth experiments, the bags were removed from the soil. The grains were collected from the soil of each bag and placed in water-agar Petri dishes. After two days of incubation, grains showing typical growth of R. solani mycelium were assessed. Eradication of R. solani was accomplished after 20 to 30 days of soil solarization inside the greenhouse and after 30 to 45 days in the field, probably because in the protected environment the heat loss was smaller at night, since at 15:00 h the soil temperatures were similar in the solarized soils of both environments; with maximum of 49º C and medium temperatures between 40 and 45 º C, at 10 cm soil depth. In the non-solarized soil of the greenhouse the pathogen also lost its viability, although more slowly (40 days of treatment) than in the solarized plots.

Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Hiroshi Kimati; João Tessarioli Neto; Ademir Petenatti; Benedito Camargo Barros

2007-01-01

155

Solarização do solo em casa-de-vegetação e campo para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4/ Soil solarization under greenhouse and field conditions to the control of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os cultivos em ambientes protegidos apresentaram uma grande expansão na década de 1990 no Brasil. O solo desses locais pode, por ser intensa e sucessivamente cultivado, se tornar infestado por patógenos como Rhizoctonia solani, responsável por tombamento e podridão de raízes em muitas espécies de plantas. O presente trabalho avaliou o emprego da solarização, dentro e fora de uma casa-de-vegetação vedada com plástico transparente, para o controle de R. solani. (more) Quatro experimentos foram realizados, dois no verão de 1997/1998 e outros dois no verão seguinte, 1998/1999, em Piracicaba, SP (latitude 22º 42' e longitude 47º 38'). Bolsas de náilon contendo solo autoclavado misturado a grãos de trigo colonizados com R. solani AG-4 foram enterradas a 10 e a 20 cm de profundidade em parcelas solarizadas e não solarizadas, dentro e fora da casa-de-vegetação, sendo coletadas após 20, 30 e 40 dias para os dois primeiros experimentos e 15, 30 e 45 dias para o terceiro e quarto. Avaliou-se a viabilidade do patógeno após a recuperação dos grãos dos solos, por meio do plaqueamento destes em ágar-água, contando-se, dois dias depois, sob microscópio estereoscópio, os que apresentaram crescimento micelial característico de R. solani. Foi obtida a erradicação do patógeno após 20 e 30 dias de solarização na casa de vegetação e após 30 a 45 dias no campo, provavelmente porque houve menor perda de calor durante a noite no ambiente protegido, pois as temperaturas médias (40 a 45 º C, dependendo do experimento) e máxima (49º C) dos solos solarizados às 15:00 horas, a 10 cm de profundidade, foram semelhantes nos dois ambientes. Nas parcelas não solarizadas da casa-de-vegetação o patógeno também perdeu a viabilidade, porém mais lentamente (40 dias de tratamento para sua erradicação) que nas parcelas solarizadas. Abstract in english Crops grown under protected environment have had a great expansion in Brazil in the decade of 1990. In such environments soil is intensively and successively used and it may become infested with soilborne plant pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia solani, responsible for seedling damping-off and root rots of several plant species. In the present work soil solarization was used to the control of R. solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Four experiments were carried out, (more) two in the summer of 1997/1998 and the other two in 1998/1999 in Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (latitude 22º 42' and longitude 47º 38'). Nylon bags containing disinfested soil with propagules of R. solani AG4 (wheat grains previously colonized with the pathogen) were buried at 10 and 20 cm soil depth in solarized and non-solarized plots. After 20, 30, and 40 days in the two first experiments and 15, 30, and 45 days in the third and fourth experiments, the bags were removed from the soil. The grains were collected from the soil of each bag and placed in water-agar Petri dishes. After two days of incubation, grains showing typical growth of R. solani mycelium were assessed. Eradication of R. solani was accomplished after 20 to 30 days of soil solarization inside the greenhouse and after 30 to 45 days in the field, probably because in the protected environment the heat loss was smaller at night, since at 15:00 h the soil temperatures were similar in the solarized soils of both environments; with maximum of 49º C and medium temperatures between 40 and 45 º C, at 10 cm soil depth. In the non-solarized soil of the greenhouse the pathogen also lost its viability, although more slowly (40 days of treatment) than in the solarized plots.

Patrício, Flávia Rodrigues Alves; Kimati, Hiroshi; Tessarioli Neto, João; Petenatti, Ademir; Barros, Benedito Camargo

2007-09-01

156

Efeito do silicato de cálcio e da autoclavagem na supressividade e na conducividade de dois solos à Rhizoctonia solani/ Influence of calcium silicate and sterilization on the natural suppressiveness and on the conduciveness of two soils to Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da aplicação de silicato de cálcio e da esterilização na supressividade natural de um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro (LEa) álico textura muito argilosa e na conducividade natural de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (TRe) ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani, em condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 2. Os fatores foram: duas classes de solo (LEa e TRe - 0-20 cm); trê (more) s tratamentos (esterilização ou não por autoclavagem, aplicação de silicato e testemunha) e infestação ou não com R. solani, com três repetições e 16 plântulas de feijoeiro por parcela. A aplicação de silicato foi feita incorporando 0,63 g do produto em 1 kg de cada material de solo, seguido de incubação por 30 dias. Para promover a infestação artificial, foram colocados 800 mg de inóculo em 1 kg de cada material de solo. O silicato de cálcio aumentou os teores de Ca trocável e a soma de bases nos dois solos. Um decréscimo na saturação por Al de 70 para 19% e um aumento na saturação por bases de 9 para 21% alteraram significativamente a supressividade natural do LEa à R. solani. Com relação à TRe, a aplicação de silicato não teve nenhum efeito na sua conducividade, dado ao seu natural caráter eutrófico, o qual já é favorável ao desenvolvimento deste fungo. A esterilização não influiu no desenvolvimento de R. solani, o que sugere que os fatores abióticos foram os responsáveis pela supressividade ou conducividade desses solos. Abstract in english The effect of calcium silicate slag and soil sterilization on the natural suppressiveness of a Typic Acrustox (clay Dark Red Latosol -- LEa) and the natural conduciveness of an Oxic Haplustoll (TRe) to Rhizoctonia solani were studied under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a three-replicate completely randomized one, with 2 x 3 x 2 factorial combination of the following treatments: two soil kinds (LEa and TRe, collected at 0-20 cm layer); three treatments (more) with and without soil sterilization, calcium silicate slag and nontreated control; and uninfested and infested with R. solani. Each soil material was infested previously with 800 mg of the inoculum per kg soil. Application of silicate was done mixing 0,63 g of this product with 1 kg each soil material and incubated for 30 days. The application ofsilicate increased the exchangeable Ca2+ and bases amount in both soils. The decrease in the aluminum saturation level from 70 to 19% and the increase in base saturation from 9 to 21% altered significantly the natural suppressiveness of LEa to R. solani. Application of silicate to the TRe had no effect on its conduciveness, for its natural eutrophic character, which is benefic to R. solani development. Sterilization by autoclavation did not influence disease development on bean by R. solani. This suggests that possibly other abiotic factors were responsible for either suppressiveness or conduciveness of these soils.

Rodrigues, Fabrício de Ávila; Corrêa, Gilberto Fernandes; Korndörfer, Gaspar Henrique; Santos, Maria Amelia dos; Datnoff, Lawrence Elliot

1999-08-01

157

Essential oil of mustard to control Rhizoctonia solani causing seedling damping off and seedling blight in nursery Utilização de óleo essencial de mostarda no controle de tombamento e requeima causadas por Rhizoctonia solani em viveiro  

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Full Text Available The essential oil extracted from mustard (Brassica rapa) seeds was evaluated for its effect on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro, and in field soils, for reducing saprophytic substrate colonization and seedling damping off and blight using snap beans as indicator plant, the in vitro growth was completely inhibited at a concentration of 50 mul/l. The saprophytic substrate colonization in soils 24 h after treatment was drastically reduced to 45% at 150 mul/kg soil concentration, in contrast to 100% colonization at concentrations of 0, 50, or 75 mul/kg. This recovery rate gradually declined to 6% and 60%, respectively, in nine days. A control of pre and post-emergence seedling damping off and blight in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), without any apparent phytotoxic effect was achieved by irrigating R. solani infested soils with water containing the emulsified essential oil to provide 150 mul/l soil volume ten days prior to planting, gave over 95%. The effect of the mustard essential oil was not influenced by the physical soil texture, and it appears to be a good substitute for methyl bromide fumigation in nurseries for seedling production.Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial extraído de sementes de mostarda (Brassica rapa) na supressão do crescimento in vitro de Rhizoctonia solani, na redução da colonização saprofítica no solo, e no tombamento e requeima de plântulas, utilizando feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris) como planta indicadora. O crescimento in vitro de R. solani foi completamente inibido na concentração de 50 mil/l. A colonização saprofítica do substrato foi drasticamente reduzida para 45% na concentração de 150 mil/kg, 24 h após o tratamento. Nas concentrações de 0, 50 e 75 mil/kg de solo houve 100% de colonização do substrato. Esta taxa de recuperação diminuiu gradualmente para 6% e 60%, respectivamente, em nove dias. A irrigação de solos infestados por R. solani com água contendo o óleo essencial emulsificado para fornecer 150 mil/l de solo, dez dias antes do plantio, resultou em 95% de controle do tombamento e requeima em mudas de feijão-vagem, sem qualquer efeito aparente de fitotoxidez. O efeito do óleo essencial não foi influenciado pela textura do solo e parece ser um bom substituto para o fumigante brometo de metila em viveiros.

Onkar D. Dhingra; Maria L. N. Costa; Geraldo J. Silva, Jr.; Eduardo S. G. Mizubuti

2004-01-01

158

Essential oil of mustard to control Rhizoctonia solani causing seedling damping off and seedling blight in nursery/ Utilização de óleo essencial de mostarda no controle de tombamento e requeima causadas por Rhizoctonia solani em viveiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial extraído de sementes de mostarda (Brassica rapa) na supressão do crescimento in vitro de Rhizoctonia solani, na redução da colonização saprofítica no solo, e no tombamento e requeima de plântulas, utilizando feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris) como planta indicadora. O crescimento in vitro de R. solani foi completamente inibido na concentração de 50 mil/l. A colonização saprofítica do substrato foi drasticamente reduzid (more) a para 45% na concentração de 150 mil/kg, 24 h após o tratamento. Nas concentrações de 0, 50 e 75 mil/kg de solo houve 100% de colonização do substrato. Esta taxa de recuperação diminuiu gradualmente para 6% e 60%, respectivamente, em nove dias. A irrigação de solos infestados por R. solani com água contendo o óleo essencial emulsificado para fornecer 150 mil/l de solo, dez dias antes do plantio, resultou em 95% de controle do tombamento e requeima em mudas de feijão-vagem, sem qualquer efeito aparente de fitotoxidez. O efeito do óleo essencial não foi influenciado pela textura do solo e parece ser um bom substituto para o fumigante brometo de metila em viveiros. Abstract in english The essential oil extracted from mustard (Brassica rapa) seeds was evaluated for its effect on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro, and in field soils, for reducing saprophytic substrate colonization and seedling damping off and blight using snap beans as indicator plant, the in vitro growth was completely inhibited at a concentration of 50 mul/l. The saprophytic substrate colonization in soils 24 h after treatment was drastically reduced to 45% at 150 mul/k (more) g soil concentration, in contrast to 100% colonization at concentrations of 0, 50, or 75 mul/kg. This recovery rate gradually declined to 6% and 60%, respectively, in nine days. A control of pre and post-emergence seedling damping off and blight in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), without any apparent phytotoxic effect was achieved by irrigating R. solani infested soils with water containing the emulsified essential oil to provide 150 mul/l soil volume ten days prior to planting, gave over 95%. The effect of the mustard essential oil was not influenced by the physical soil texture, and it appears to be a good substitute for methyl bromide fumigation in nurseries for seedling production.

Dhingra, Onkar D.; Costa, Maria L. N.; Silva, Jr., Geraldo J.; Mizubuti, Eduardo S. G.

2004-12-01

159

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of B. pumilus SQR-N43 and its bio-organic fertilizer. Results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 induced hyphal deformation, enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles and cytoplasmic leakage in R. solani Q1 mycelia. A biofilm on the root surface was formed when the roots were inoculated with 10(7)-10(8)cells g(-1) of soil of GFP-tagged B. pumilus SQR-N43. In the pot experiment, the biocontrol reduced the concentration of R. solani. In contrast to applications of only B. pumilus SQR-N43 (N treatment), which produced control efficiencies of 23%, control efficiencies of 68% were obtained with applications of a fermented organic fertilizer inoculated with B. pumilus SQR-N43 (BIO treatment). After twenty days of incubation, significant differences in the number of CFUs and the percentage of spores of B. pumilus SQR-N43 were recorded between the N treatment (2.20×10(7)CFU g(-1) of soil and 79%, respectively) and the BIO treatment (1.67×10(8)CFU g(-1) of soil and 52%, respectively). The results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 is a potent antagonist against R. solani Q1. The BIO treatment was more effective than the N treatment because it stabilized the population and increased the active form of the antagonist. PMID:21775112

Huang, Xinqi; Zhang, Nan; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xingming; Shen, Qirong

2011-07-19

160

Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight by Antagonistics Bacteria in Greenhouse and Field Conditions  

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Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates that inhibited growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, the rice sheath blight pathogen were collected the rhizosplane and surrounding soil of healthy and rice sheath blight disease in farming of the Guilan province, Iran. Two hundred eighty eight isolates tested and among them only antagonistic ability of 8 isolates were demonstrated by using the dual culture method. According to the results of biochemical and morphological trials all isolates were identified as P. fluorescens biovar 3. By determining the effects of volatile metabolites, secretion of extracellular and antibiotics of these isolates inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. All P. fluorescens isolates produced siderophore on King`s medium B, inhibited the mycelial growth of the R. solani. Antagonistics isolates reduced the germination and cause the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani. In greenhouse conditions antagonistic isolates were used by seed coating, soil drenching and foliar spray. Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed significant differences between seed, soil and plant treatments. All of the isolates in seed coating are more effective. In the field conditions foliar spray of isolate B41 mixed with benlate were applied. The disease intensity in B41 isolate for seed coating, soil drenching and seed coating + foliar spray were 10.5, 11.75 and 18.75%, respectively, while the control plants showed 52% disease intensity. These results suggest that the P. fluorescens isolates studied have an excellent potential to be used as biocontrol agents of R. solani in rice at the field conditions.

Mostapha Niknejad Kazempour

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, a Soil Isolate Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogens Dickeya spp. and Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacillus subilis MB73/2 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated in Poland from a meadow soil sample. When tested in vitro, the strain shows strong antagonism toward plant pathogens-the soft rot-causing bacteria Dickeya spp. and the crown rot fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the genome sequence of MB73/2.

Krzyzanowska DM; Iwanicki A; Ossowicki A; Obuchowski M; Jafra S

2013-01-01

162

SUPPRESSION OF SEEDLING DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM, PYTHIUM IRREGULARE, AND RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI IN CONTAINER MEDIA AMENDED WITH A DIVERSE RANGE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST COMPOST SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Suppression of seedling damping-off disease caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani is a potential benefit of formulating soilless container media with compost. Thirty six compost samples from Pacific Northwest commercial composting facilities were analyzed for a number of physical, chemical,...

163

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used...

Ciampi, Maisa B.; Gale, Liane Rosewich; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana G.; Ceresini, Paulo C.

164

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes  

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We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditio...

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

165

Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, a Soil Isolate Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogens Dickeya spp. and Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus subilis MB73/2 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated in Poland from a meadow soil sample. When tested in vitro, the strain shows strong antagonism toward plant pathogens-the soft rot-causing bacteria Dickeya spp. and the crown rot fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the genome sequence of MB73/2. PMID:23682145

Krzyzanowska, Dorota M; Iwanicki, Adam; Ossowicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Michal; Jafra, Sylwia

2013-05-16

166

SUPRESSIVIDADE INDUZIDA A Rhizoctonia solani Kühn PELA ADIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS AO SOLO INDUCED SUPPRESSIVENESS TO Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN BY THE ADDITION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE AMENDMENTS TO THE SOIL  

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Full Text Available A matéria orgânica de diversas origens é utilizada na agricultura visando, entre outras finalidades, a estimular a atividade microbiana para limitar a atividade dos patógenos do solo. Sua decomposição induz a atividade de alguns organismos, que se tornam úteis a outros tipos de vida, e estabelece relações sintróficas e antagônicas que mantêm o equilíbrio da comunidade biológica como um todo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da incorporação de diferentes restos vegetais na incidência de podridão radicular do feijoeiro, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram utilizadas bandejas plásticas contendo 4 kg de solo cultivado, inoculado com 104 propágulos de Rhizoctonia solani g-1, ao qual foi incorporado o equivalente a 10 t/ha de matéria seca das seguintes origens: Panicum miliaceum, Sorghum maximum, Dolichos lab-lab, Canavaria ensiformis, Braquiaria brizanta, Panicum maximum e Crotalaria juncea. A incorporação do inóculo e dos resíduos vegetais no solo foi realizada simultaneamente. O solo, nas bandejas, foi mantido próximo da capacidade de campo por 60, 30 e 0 dias, antes de ser realizada a semeadura da cultivar Pérola. A avaliação da intensidade de sintomas foi realizada 15 dias após a emergência, utilizando-se uma escala descritiva de 0 a 8. A população microbiana foi avaliada a partir das amostras de solo coletadas das bandejas realizando-se uma diluição em série e o plaqueamento em meios de culturas seletivos. A contagem das colônias de bactérias e fungos foi realizada após sete dias e a de actinomicetos após dez dias de incubação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que apenas o solo com material vegetal incubado durante 60 dias reduziu o índice de doença, não mostrando, contudo, diferenças significativas entre as espécies vegetais estudadas. Relacionando-se o número de propágulos de fungos, actinomicetos e bactérias com o índice de doença, verificou-se que os resíduos vegetais que apresentaram maiores populações de microrganismos no solo foram os que apresentaram os menores índices de doença. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Podridão radicular de Rhizoctonia; controle biológico; população microbiana do solo. Organic matter of several origins is used in the agriculture to stimulate microbial activity and to limit the activity of plant pathogens. Its decomposition induces the activity of some microorganisms that are useful to other species establishing synergistic and antagonistic relationships that maintain the biological balance. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different vegetable amendments incorporated in the soil on the incidence of root-rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani. In greenhouse, plastic trays containing 4 kg of cultivated soil were inoculated with 104 propagules of Rhizoctonia solani g-1 of soil and in each tray it was incorporated the equivalent of 10 t/ha plant of debris mater of the following species: Panicum miliaceum, Sorghum maximum, Dolichos lab-lab, Canavaria ensiformis, Braquiaria brizanta, Panicum maximum and Crotalaria juncea. The incorporation of the vegetable amendments were realized simultaneous by and the soil was maintained near field capacity for 60, 30 and 0 days, before the bean cultivar Pérola was sown. Symptom intensity was evaluated 15 days after the emergence, using a descriptive scale, varying from 0 to 8. After the completion of the experimental microbial population was estimated in the soil samples collectedfrom each plastic tray serial dilution test using selective culture media. Bacteria and fungi colonies were counted after a seven days incubation period and those of actinomycetes after ten days. Results showed that only vegetable materials incubated for 60 days were able to reduce disease index. No significant differences were observed among the studied plant species. The relationship among number of propagules of fungi, actinomycetes, and bacteria with the disease index revealed that the amendments with a larger induced microbial population

Sheila Andrade Botelho; Carlos Agustin Rava; Wilson Mozena Leandro; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

2007-01-01

167

INDUCED SUPPRESSIVENESS TO Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN BY THE ADDITION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE AMENDMENTS TO THE SOIL SUPRESSIVIDADE INDUZIDA A Rhizoctonia solani Kühn PELA ADIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS AO SOLO  

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Full Text Available Organic matter of several origins is used in the agriculture to stimulate microbial activity and to limit the activity of plant pathogens. Its decomposition induces the activity of some microorganisms that are useful to other species establishing synergistic and antagonistic relationships that maintain the biological balance. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different vegetable amendments incorporated in the soil on the incidence of root-rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani. In greenhouse, plastic trays containing 4 kg of cultivated soil were inoculated with 104 propagules of Rhizoctonia solani g-1 of soil and in each tray it was incorporated the equivalent of 10 t/ha plant of debris mater of the following species: Panicum miliaceum, Sorghum maximum, Dolichos lab-lab, Canavaria ensiformis, Braquiaria brizanta, Panicum maximum and Crotalaria juncea. The incorporation of the vegetable amendments were realized simultaneous by and the soil was maintained near field capacity for 60, 30 and 0 days, before the bean cultivar Pérola was sown. Symptom intensity was evaluated 15 days after the emergence, using a descriptive scale, varying from 0 to 8. After the completion of the experimental microbial population was estimated in the soil samples collectedfrom each plastic tray serial dilution test using selective culture media. Bacteria and fungi colonies were counted after a seven days incubation period and those of actinomycetes after ten days. Results showed that only vegetable materials incubated for 60 days were able to reduce disease index. No significant differences were observed among the studied plant species. The relationship among number of propagules of fungi, actinomycetes, and bacteria with the disease index revealed that the amendments with a larger induced microbial population in the soil were those that presented smaller disease index. KEY-WORDS: Rhizoctonia root rot; biological control; soil microbial population. A matéria orgânica de diversas origens é utilizada na agricultura visando, entre outras finalidades, a estimular a atividade microbiana para limitar a atividade dos patógenos do solo. Sua decomposição induz a atividade de alguns organismos, que se tornam úteis a outros tipos de vida, e estabelece relações sintróficas e antagônicas que mantêm o equilíbrio da comunidade biológica como um todo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da incorporação de diferentes restos vegetais na incidência de podridão radicular do feijoeiro, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram utilizadas bandejas plásticas contendo 4 kg de solo cultivado, inoculado com 104 propágulos de Rhizoctonia solani g-1, ao qual foi incorporado o equivalente a 10 t/ha de matéria seca das seguintes origens: Panicum miliaceum, Sorghum maximum, Dolichos lab-lab, Canavaria ensiformis, Braquiaria brizanta, Panicum maximum e Crotalaria juncea. A incorporação do inóculo e dos resíduos vegetais no solo foi realizada simultaneamente. O solo, nas bandejas, foi mantido próximo da capacidade de campo por 60, 30 e 0 dias, antes de ser realizada a semeadura da cultivar Pérola. A avaliação da intensidade de sintomas foi realizada 15 dias após a emergência, utilizando-se uma escala descritiva de 0 a 8. A população microbiana foi avaliada a partir das amostras de solo coletadas das bandejas realizando-se uma diluição em série e o plaqueamento em meios de culturas seletivos. A contagem das colônias de bactérias e fungos foi realizada após sete dias e a de actinomicetos após dez dias de incubação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que apenas o solo com material vegetal incubado durante 60 dias reduziu o índice de doença, não mostrando, contudo, diferenças significativas entre as espécies vegetais estudadas. Relacionando-se o número de propágulos de fungos, actinomicetos e bactérias com o índice de doença, verificou-se que os resíduos vegetais que apresentaram maiores populações de microrganismos no solo foram os que apresenta

Sheila Andrade Botelho; Carlos Agustin Rava; Wilson Mozena Leandro; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

2007-01-01

168

Identificación y virulencia de grupos de anastomosis de rhizoctonia solani kühn asociados con papa en mérida, venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na Venezuela a batata (Solanum tuberosum) tem importância econômica particularmente nos estados andinos (Mérida, Táchira e Trujillo), cuja contribuição à produção nacional aproxima-se ao 80%. Há cinco anos, a enfermidade de rhizoctoniose, causada por Rhizoctonia solani, se transformou em um importante fator limitante do cultivo. A presente investigação foi realizada para determinar a identidade e virulência dos grupos de anastomose (AGs) associados com batata (more) em doze localidades de Mérida e uma de Trujillo. Cento e setenta e seis isolamentos, cujas hifas e septos apresentaram a morfologia típica dos fungos do Complexo Rhizoctonia, foram obtidos de raízes, estolões, talhos, pecíolos e, principalmente, esclerócios sobre tubérculos. Cento e setenta e três isolamentos foram multinucleados e três binucleados. Os multinucleados foram reconhecidos como cepas de R. solani. Das 173 cepas de R. solani, 163 pertenceram ao AG-3 e 10 ao AG-2-1. Os AG-3 e AG-2-1 mediaram 9,5 e 8,3 núcleos / célula vegetativa, respectivamente. Os AG-3 foram encontrados em 12 das 13 localidades avaliadas e os AG-2-1 em três. Em uma localidade (El Valle) unicamente foram obtidas as cepas AG-2-1. Em Bailadores e Mucuchíes, cepas AG-3 e AG-2-1 foram isoladas de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo campo. Em geral, os AG-3 foram mais virulentos que os AG-2-1. A ampla disseminação e alta virulência dos AG-3 indicam que as cepas deste grupo são a principal causa de rhizoctoniosis na batata cultivada no estado Mérida e em Tuñame (Estado Trujillo). Abstract in spanish En Venezuela la papa (Solanum tuberosum) tiene importancia económica particularmente en los estados andinos (Mérida, Táchira y Trujillo), cuya contribución a la producción nacional se aproxima al 80%. Desde hace cinco años, la enfermedad de rhizoctoniosis, causada por Rhizoctonia solani, se ha convertido en un importante factor limitante del cultivo. La presente investigación fue realizada para determinar la identidad y virulencia de los grupos de anastomosis (AGs) (more) asociados con papa en doce localidades de Mérida y una de Trujillo. Ciento setenta y seis aislamientos, cuyas hifas y septos presentaron la morfología típica de los hongos del Complejo Rhizoctonia, fueron obtenidos de raíces, estolones, tallos, pecíolos y, principalmente, esclerocios sobre tubérculos. Ciento setenta y tres aislamientos fueron multinucleados y tres binucleados. Los multinucleados fueron reconocidos como cepas de R. solani. De las 173 cepas de R. solani, 163 pertenecieron al AG-3 y 10 al AG-2-1. Los AG-3 y AG-2-1 promediaron 9,5 y 8,3 núcleos / célula vegetativa, respectivamente. Los AG-3 fueron encontrados en 12 de las 13 localidades evaluadas y los AG-2-1 en tres. En una localidad (El Valle) únicamente se obtuvieron cepas AG-2-1. En Bailadores y Mucuchíes, cepas AG-3 y AG-2-1 fueron aisladas de plantas cultivadas en un mismo campo. En general, los AG-3 fueron más virulentos que los AG-2-1. La amplia diseminación y alta virulencia de los AG-3, indican que las cepas de este grupo son la principal causa de rhizoctoniosis en la papa cultivada en el estado Mérida y en Tuñame (Estado Trujillo). Abstract in english In Venezuela potato (Solanum tuberosum) has economic relevance particularly in the Andean states (Mérida, Tachira and Trujillo), whose contribution to the national production is approximately 80%. In the last five years the Rhizoctonia disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, has become an important production limiting factor of potato production. The present study was carried out to determine the identity and virulence of R. solani anastomosis groups associated with potat (more) o in 12 localities of Mérida State and 1 locality in Trujillo State. One hundred and seventy six isolates whose hyphae and septa showed typical morphology of the fungi included in the Rhizoctonia Complex, were obtained from roots, stolons, petioles, and mainly from sclerotia on tubers. Of these isolates, 173 were multinucleate and 3 were

Cedeño, Luis; Carrero, Chrystian; Quintero, Kleyra; Araujo, Yoneise; Pino, Henry; García, Rosaima

2001-06-01

169

Caracterización y evaluacion de virulencia en aislamientos de rhizoctonia solani kühn, causante de la mancha bandeada en maíz/ Characterization and evaluation of virulence in rhizoctonia solani kühn isolates, causal agent of leaf banded spot on maize/ Caracterização e avaliação de virulência em isolamentos de rhizoctonia solani kühn, causante da mancha bandeada no milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na Venezuela a mancha bandeada do milho, causada por Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, tem uma alta incidência e distribuição nas principais áreas de plantio de milho, causando diminuição do rendimento. Em 2004 foram conduzidos ensaios com o objetivo de caracterizar e avaliar a virulência de 25 isolamentos de R. solani. Para a caracterização se realizaram avaliações culturais, microscópicas e moleculares, estas últimas utilizando uma seqüência de amplificação esp (more) ecífica da região espaçadora transcrita interna do DNA ribossomal (rDNA-ITS). Para a avaliação da virulência se realizaram provas de inoculação nas línhas de milho CML-254 e L-82201-22-1-1, tanto em laboratório, usando uma solução de cinetina (6- furfuril-amino-purina), como em estufa, inoculando plântulas. As provas de caracterização demonstraram que os isolamentos efetivamente correspondiam a R. solani, ainda quando houve diferenças na cor das colônias, crescimento micelial e tamanho de esclerócios, entre outras. A análise molecular demonstrou que os isolamentos pertencem ao grupo de anastomosis AG1-IA. Na prova de inoculação em laboratório os isolamentos G1SOM1 e P2TUR3 tiveram maior índice de virulência. Em estufa, os isolamentos mais virulentos foram B1TOR1, P2TUR6 e B2SAB1. A linha CML-254 mostrou o maior nível de resistência à enfermidade em ambas provas de virulência. Os resultados permitiram identificar e caracterizar isolamentos que podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético para a identificação de possíveis fontes de resistência e na avaliação do germoplasma melhorado. Abstract in spanish En Venezuela la mancha bandeada del maíz, causada por Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, tiene una alta incidencia y distribución en las principales zonas maiceras, causando disminución de los rendimientos. En 2004 se condujeron ensayos con el objetivo de caracterizar y evaluar la virulencia de 25 aislamientos de R. solani. Para la caracterización se realizaron evaluaciones culturales, microscópicas y moleculares, estas últimas utilizando una secuencia de amplificación espe (more) cífica de la transcrita región espaciadora interna del ADN ribosomal (rADN-ITS). Para la evaluación de la virulencia se realizaron pruebas de inoculación en las líneas de maíz CML-254 y L-82201-22-1-1, tanto en laboratorio, usando una solución de cinetina (6- furfuril-amino-purina), como en invernadero, inoculando plántulas. Las pruebas de caracterización demostraron que los aislamientos efectivamente correspondían a R. solani, aun cuando hubo diferencias en el color de las colonias, crecimiento micelial y tamaño de esclerocios, entre otras. El análisis molecular demostró que los aislamientos pertenecen al grupo de anastomosis AG1-IA. En la prueba de inoculación en laboratorio los aislamientos G1SOM1 y P2TUR3 tuvieron mayor índice de virulencia. En invernadero los aislamientos más virulentos fueron B1TOR1, P2TUR6 y B2SAB1. La línea CML-254 mostró el mayor nivel de resistencia a la enfermedad en ambas pruebas de virulencia. Los resultados permitieron identificar y caracterizar aislamientos que pueden ser utilizados en programas de mejoramiento genético para la identificación de posibles fuentes de resistencia y en la evaluación del germoplasma mejorado. Abstract in english In Venezuela, banded leaf spot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a widely distributed disease in the most important maize growing areas, causing important yield losses. In 2004, experiments were conducted with the purpose of characterizing and evaluating the virulence of 25 isolates of R. solani. Characterization tests were performed throughout cultural, microscopic, and molecular evaluations, the latter using a specific ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (r (more) ADN-ITS). Virulence tests were performed on the maize inbred lines CML-254 y L-82201-22-1-1, both in the laboratory using KIN solution (6-furfurilaminopurine), and in a greenhouse inoculating seedlings. Characterization t

Perdomo, Rosaura; Hernández, Alexander; González, Alex; Pineda, Juan; Alezones, Jesús

2007-01-01

170

Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

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Encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum para o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus Encapsulation of Trichoderma inhamatum for the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Testou-se um novo sistema para o encapsulamento de Trichoderma inhamatum em grânulos de alginato de sódio, visando o controle biológico de Rhizoctonia solani, agente etiológico da mela de estacas/miniestacas de Eucalyptus spp. para enraizamento. No novo sistema idealizado, foi utilizado um aparato simples capaz de substituir eficientemente o equipamento (Bomba Peristáltica) anteriormente utilizado, sendo possível aumentar a produção de 594 grânulos/min para aproximadamente 6.734 grânulos/min. Com este novo sistema, um isolado de T. inhamatum (UFV – 03) foi encapsulado em grânulos contendo as fontes alimentares: farelo de trigo, palha de arroz, farelo de aveia, folhas de eucalipto ou farelo de milho na concentração de 50 g/l. Na segunda etapa, a melhor fonte alimentar foi testada nas concentrações de 0 a 60 g/l. Os grânulos foram veiculados em substrato de enraizamento de eucalipto na concentração de 2% (p/p) inoculado com micélio triturado de R. solani (2 mg/g de substrato) e a atividade saprofítica do patógeno foi quantificada por meio do método de iscas. Posteriormente, os grânulos produzidos com a fonte alimentar e concentração que promoveram maior inibição do desenvolvimento de R. solani foram utilizados para determinar o tempo mínimo de pré-incubação e competição para supressão do patógeno, com a mesma metodologia. Observou-se aumento da supressão da atividade saprofítica de R. solani ao acréscimo de uma fonte alimentar. Daquelas testadas, farelo de trigo foi a melhor. Além disso, houve interação significativa e positiva ao aumento de sua concentração na formulação.A new system of encapsulating Trichoderma inhamatum in sodium alginate was developed for controlling Rhizoctonia solani blight of Eucalyptus spp. cuttings/mini-cuttings used for rooting. In this system, simpler materials and apparatus efficiently replaced the peristaltic pump, increasing pellet production from 594 pellets/min to approximately 6,734 pellet/min. An isolate of T. inhamatum (UFV-3) was encapsulated in pellets containing wheat bran, rice husk, oat bran, eucalyptus leaf or maize meal as food base at a concentration of 50g/l. In the second step, the best food base was evaluated at the concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 g/l. The pellets were added to R. solani infested (2 mg-macerated mycelium/g) eucalyptus rooting substrate at the rate of 2% (w/w) and the saprophytic activity of the pathogen was quantified with a baiting technique. The pellets containing wheat bran, which maximally inhibited R. solani, were used to determine the minimum pre-incubation and competition period for pathogen suppression. Increasing food base concentration in the pellets increased suppression of R. solani. Additionally, there was a significant positive interaction between food base concentration in the formulation and pathogen suppression.

Reginaldo G. Mafia; Acelino C. Alfenas; Luiz A. Maffia; Gizella M. Ventura; Eugênio A. Sanfuentes

2003-01-01

172

Evidence from cell-free systems for differences in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cinnamomi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell-free preparations of both Rhizoctonia solani, a sterol-synthesizing fungus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi, a non-sterol-synthesizing fungus, incubated in the presence of [2(-14)C]mevalonate and iodacetamide, converted the mevalonate into labelled mevalonate 5-phosphate, mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. In the absence of iodoacetamide, but under anaerobic conditions, the same preparations converted the mevalonate into labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene, the first two compounds presumably as their pyrophosphates. When cell-free preparations of both organisms were incubated aerobically in the presence of [1(-14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate, only labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene were recovered from the P. cinnamomi reaction mixture, whereas labelled geraniol, farnesol, squalene, squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were present in the R. solani reaction mixture. When these same preparations were incubated in the presence of 14C-labelled squalene, labelled squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were recovered from the R. solani reaction mixture. In contrast, the P. cinnamomi preparation was unable to convert the squalene into products further along the sterol pathway; instead, a portion of the labelled squalene was converted into water-soluble products, indicating the possible existence of a squalene-degradation process in this organism. It appears that the block in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of P. cinnamomi occurs at the level of squalene epoxidation.

Wood SG; Gottlieb D

1978-02-01

173

Screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against Rhizoctonia solani AG3 on potato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soilborne pathogen of potato plants whose control typically depends on chemicals. Here, we screened six fungal endophytes for the suppression of R. solani growth both in vitro and in a greenhouse. These isolates were identified using morphology and internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA as Alternaria longipes, Epicoccum nigrum, Phomopsis sp., and Trichoderma atroviride. Both T. atroviride and E. nigrum showed significant in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of R. solani, with the greatest inhibition zone observed for E. nigrum species in dual cultures. The highest inhibition was observed for T. atroviride. The inhibition rate was also significantly correlated with the culture filtrates of these isolates. Confocal microscopy showed that T. atroviride acts as a mycoparasite and competitor. However, E. nigrum and A. longipes produce secondary metabolites, while Phomospsis sp. competes for nutrients and space. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that T. atroviride and E. nigrum improved potato yield significantly and decreased the stem disease severity index of sensitive potato. PMID:20738401

Lahlali, Rachid; Hijri, Mohamed

2010-08-25

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Characterization of mycolytic enzymes of Bacillus strains and their bio-protection role against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four antagonists bacteria namely, Bacillus megaterium MB3, B. subtilis MB14, B. subtilis MB99 and B. amyloliquefaciens MB101 were able to produce chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase and protease in different range with the presence of Rhizoctonia solani cell wall as a carbon source. Amplification of chitinase (chiA) gene of 270 bp and ?-1, 3-glucanase gene of 415 bp was given supportive evidence at molecular level of antibiosis. After in vitro screening, all antagonists were tested against R. solani under greenhouse conditions. Root treatment of Bacillus strains showed superior defense during pathogen suppression in terms of chitinase, glucanase, peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total phenolic content in leaves of tomato. All these enzymes accumulated high in tomato leaves as compared to roots. Pathogenesis-related proteins and defense-related enzymes accumulation was directly correlated with plant protection and greenhouse results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens MB101- and B. subtilis MB14-treated plants offered 69.76 and 61.51 % disease reductions, respectively, over the infected control. These results established that these organisms have the potential to act as biocontrol agents. This study could be highlighted a mutual importance of liquid formulation of antagonistic Bacillus spp. against root associated sclerotia former pathogen R. solani. PMID:22684745

Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Robert, Amrita Shalini; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

2012-06-10

175

Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani/ Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As atividades agrícolas podem modificar as características do solo e, como conseqüência, alterar a incidência de patógenos veiculados pelo solo. Este trabalho avaliou a supressividade a R. solani em 59 amostras de solos de uma microbacia. As áreas amostradas foram selecionadas quanto à vegetação, incluindo mata, pasto/pousio, culturas anuais, culturas perenes e solo arado. As amostras de solo foram caracterizadas quanto às propriedades abióticas (pH, condutivi (more) dade elétrica, teor de matéria orgânica, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, capacidade de troca catiônica, soma de bases e saturação de bases) e bióticas (atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pelo desprendimento de CO2 e hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína; comunidades de bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, protozoários, Pseudomonas fluorescentes e Fusarium spp.). A contribuição e relação dessas variáveis para a supressividade a R. solani foram quantificadas por análise de coeficientes de trilha. Quando se avaliaram todas as amostras em conjunto, somente variáveis abióticas apresentaram correlação com a supressão a R. solani, mas o conjunto das variáveis explicou somente 51% da variação total. Entretanto, quando as amostras foram agrupadas e analisadas considerando o tipo de cobertura vegetal, o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 90% da variação da supressividade. Para as áreas de floresta e pasto/pousio, as quais foram classificadas como as mais supressivas, algumas variáveis abióticas e a hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína apresentaram correlação com a supressão de R. solani e o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 98% da supressividade nesses solos. Abstract in english Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground areas, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N (more) total; P; K; Ca; Mg; Al; H; S; Na; Fe; Mn; Cu; Zn; B; cation exchange capacity; sum of bases and base saturation) and biotic variables (total microbial activity evaluated by the CO2 evolution and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; culturable bacterial, fungal, actinomycetes, protozoa, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Fusarium spp. communities). The contribution and relationships of these variables to suppression to R. solani were assessed by path analysis. When all samples were analyzed together, only abiotic variables correlated with suppression of R. solani, but the entire set of variables explained only 51% of the total variation. However, when samples were grouped and analyzed by vegetation cover, the set of evaluated variables in all cases accounted for more than 90% of the variation in suppression of the pathogen. In highly suppressive soils of forest and pasture/fallow ground areas, several abiotic variables and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis correlated with suppression of R. solani and the set of variables explained more than 98% of suppressiveness.

Ghini, Raquel; Morandi, Marcelo Augusto Boechat

2006-04-01

176

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodão com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani Effect of cotton seed dressing with fungicides for the control of seedling damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, e teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas, aplicados no tratamento de sementes de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum), no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. Foi realizado teste em casa de vegetação, utilizando a cultivar DeltaOpal. Sementes tratadas e não tratadas com fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Foram utilizados 9 g de inóculo por bandeja de areia. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, com destaque para triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid e triadimenol + tolylfluanid, seguidos de carboxin + thiram, triadimenol e carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle do tombamento de pós-emergência do algodoeiro foi obtido com a mistura triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, seguida de triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid e carboxin+thiram. Nenhum dos fungicidas testados foi fitotóxico ao algodão.This work was carried out at Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS in order to evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides, applied as seed dressing, in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Greenhouse testing was performed, using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv. DeltaOpal. Treated and untreated seeds with the fungicides were sowed in sand contained in plastic flats, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3 cm deep. Inoculation with R. solani was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1 mm). Nine grams of the fungus inoculum were put into each plastic flat. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence was observed, with distinction to triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid and triadimenol + tolylfluanid, followed by carboxin + thiram, triadimenol and carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. The most efficient treatments in the control of cotton seedling pos-emergence damping-off were triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, followed by triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid and carboxin + thiram. No phytotoxic effects were observed on cotton.

AUGUSTO C. P. GOULART

2002-01-01

177

Gene expression profiling of the plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 reveals putative virulence factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is a ubiquitous basidiomycetous soilborne fungal pathogen causing damping-off of seedlings, aerial blights and postharvest diseases. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis a global approach based on analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was undertaken. To get broad gene-expression coverage, two normalized EST libraries were developed from mycelia grown under high nitrogen-induced virulent and low nitrogen/methylglucose-induced hypovirulent conditions. A pilot-scale assessment of gene diversity was made from the sequence analyses of the two libraries. A total of 2280 cDNA clones was sequenced that corresponded to 220 unique sequence sets or clusters (contigs) and 805 singlets, making up a total of 1025 unique genes identified from the two virulence-differentiated cDNA libraries. From the total sequences, 295 genes (38.7%) exhibited strong similarities with genes in public databases and were categorized into 11 functional groups. Approximately 61.3% of the R. solani ESTs have no apparent homologs in publicly available fungal genome databases and are considered unique genes. We have identified several cDNAs with potential roles in fungal pathogenicity, virulence, signal transduction, vegetative incompatibility and mating, drug resistance, lignin degradation, bioremediation and morphological differentiation. A codon-usage table has been formulated based on 14694 R. solani EST codons. Further analysis of ESTs might provide insights into virulence mechanisms of R. solani AG 4 as well as roles of these genes in development, saprophytic colonization and ecological adaptation of this important fungal plant pathogen. PMID:22778167

Lakshman, Dilip K; Alkharouf, Nadim; Roberts, Daniel P; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Mitra, Amitava

2012-07-09

178

Evaluación de métodos de inoculación de Rhizoctonia solani sobre germoplasma de arroz en campo Assessment of Rhizoctonia solani inoculation techniques on rice germplasm on the field  

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Full Text Available El éxito de la selección de individuos resistentes a las enfermedades, se basa en la utilización de métodos de inoculación que induzcan un nivel de incidencia de la enfermedad cercana al 100%. Con el objeto de determinar un método eficiente de inoculación de arroz con R. solani, se llevó a cabo un ensayo durante los años 2001 y 2002 en Araure, estado Portuguesa. El ensayo se realizó en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones, utilizando dos fuentes de inóculo, esclerocios (Es) y granos de arroz infectados con R. solani (GAI). Los métodos de inoculación con GAI difirieron en la dosis, forma y época de aplicación del inóculo. Los resultados indican que la inoculación con Es fue más confiable, con una incidencia superior al 98%, en ambos años. Los resultados obtenidos con GAI fueron variables, al ser afectados por las precipitaciones ocurridas en el período post-inoculación, en el año 2002. Durante el año 2001, sin embargo, se alcanzó una incidencia cercana al 100%, en las parcelas donde se aplicaron 25 g de arroz infectado, al voleo, 70 días después de la siembra. Este método es más práctico y puede ser recomendado, en el caso donde la cantidad de individuos a ser evaluados es elevada, si la inoculación coincide con el período de salidas deAbstract Resistance breeding success depends on the use of efficient inoculation techniques, which guarantee levels of disease incidence close to 100 %. In order to select an efficient rice inoculation technique with R. solani, an experiment was carried out during 2001 and 2002 in Araure, Portuguesa. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block with four repetitions, where sclerotia (Sc) and rice grains infected by R. solani (IRG) were used as sources of inocula. Techniques based on IRG differed in the amount, form and time of inocula application. Results indicate that Sc inoculation was the most reliable technique, since incidence levels were close to 100%, in both years. Results attained with IRG were variable, being affected by rains that occurred on the post-inoculation period, in 2002. During the 2001 experiment, however, an incidence level close to 100% was reached when 25 g of IRG were broadcasted on the plots, 70 days after sowing. This technique is easier and may be recommended in cases where the amount of individuals to be evaluated is high. The IRG technique should not be used during the peak of the rainy season to reduce the odds of having rains on the post-inoculation period

N. J. Delgado¹; H. A Rodríguez¹; M. C Ramón¹

2004-01-01

179

Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4HG-III causing stem canker and wirestem on green amaranth and Chinese amaranth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During December 2003, stem canker and wirestem were observed on the stems of green amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) and Chinese amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) in greenhouses at Ximao district in Yunnnan Province, China. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani obtained from the two amaranths with stem canker and wirestem, were identical to anastomosis group (AG)-4. The isolates from diseased plant showed high virulence on young seedlings of two amaranths. Results of sequence analysis of 5.8s rDNA-ITS of Chinese isolates showed 99-100% sequence similarity with AG-4HG-III tester isolates. When compared with other subgroups of AG-4, Chinese isolates showed similarity levels of 94%. This is the first report of stem canker and wirestem of Green amaranth and Chinese amaranth caused by AG-4HG-III and AG-4HG-III in China.

Yang GH; Chen HR; Naito S; Ogoshi A

2005-03-01

180

Non-target effect of some insecticides on Rhizoctonia solani, the incitant of aerial blight of soybean  

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Full Text Available Eight insecticides were screened in vitro (25, 50, 100 and 500 ppm concentrations) for their effects on the radial growth of Rhizoctonia solani cultured on PDA. The tested insecticides were Milate 10 CG (phorate), Milfen 20 EC (fenvalerate), Milphos36 SL (monocrotophos), Cypermil 25 EC (cypermethrin), Thiodon 35 EC (endosulfan), Metasystox 25 EC (demeton-O-methyl), Nuvan 76 EC (dichlorvos) and Kelthane 18.5 EC (dicofol). All insecticides at all concentrations, except Milphos and Kelthane at 25 ppm, significantly inhibited fungal growth. Only Nuvan at 500 ppm completely inhibited fungal growth, while it provided 85.9% growth inhibition at 100 ppm. At 500 ppm, Kelthane, Thiodon and Milfen provided over 90% growth inhibition.

JAI PRAKASH RAI, K.S. DUBEY and ASHA SINHA

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodão com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani/ Effect of cotton seed dressing with fungicides for the control of seedling damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, e teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas, aplicados no tratamento de sementes de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum), no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. Foi realizado teste em casa de vegetação, utilizando a cultivar DeltaOpal. Sementes tratadas e não tratadas com fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, disposta (more) s em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Foram utilizados 9 g de inóculo por bandeja de areia. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, com destaque para triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid e triadimenol + tolylfluanid, seguidos de carboxin + thiram, triadimenol e carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle do tombamento de pós-emergência do algodoeiro foi obtido com a mistura triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, seguida de triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid e carboxin+thiram. Nenhum dos fungicidas testados foi fitotóxico ao algodão. Abstract in english This work was carried out at Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS in order to evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides, applied as seed dressing, in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Greenhouse testing was performed, using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv. DeltaOpal. Treated and untreated seeds with the fungicides were sowed in sand contained in plastic flats, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3 cm deep. Inoculation with R. sola (more) ni was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1 mm). Nine grams of the fungus inoculum were put into each plastic flat. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence was observed, with distinction to triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid and triadimenol + tolylfluanid, followed by carboxin + thiram, triadimenol and carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. The most efficient treatments in the control of cotton seedling pos-emergence damping-off were triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, followed by triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid and carboxin + thiram. No phytotoxic effects were observed on cotton.

GOULART, AUGUSTO C. P.

2002-07-01

182

Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method.

Hillnhütter C; Sikora RA; Oerke EC; van Dusschoten D

2012-01-01

183

Evaluación de aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. contra Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii bajo condiciones in vitro y de invernadero  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de ocho aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. provenientes de suelos de Colombia para el control de los agentes causales de volcamiento, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani, bajo condiciones in vitro y de invernadero. Los análisis in vitro mostraron la capacidad antagónica de todos los aislamientos evaluados. En condiciones de invernadero, cuatro aislamientos fueron altamente eficaces contra S. rolfsii en plantas de fríjol en semillero (>90% de reducción de la enfermedad) y dos aislamientos fueron eficaces contra R. solani en plantas de algodón en semillero (58 y 61% de reducción de la enfermedad). El análisis UP-PCR y DS-PCR permitió determinar tres grupos de aislamientos; dentro de estas asociaciones formadas no se encontró ninguna relación evidente entre la posición en el dendrograma y la actividad antagónica, pero sí permitió separar las especies de Trichoderma por grupos, e incluso encontrar diferencias dentro de aislamientos de una misma especie. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento micoparasítico de los aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. varía según el hongo fitopatógeno, evidenciando una amplia especificidad del antagonista por su sustrato, es decir por el hongo atacado; por lo tanto es necesario realizar cuidadosas selecciones del aislamiento de Trichoderma que se utilice en programas de control de fitopatógenos.

Hoyos-Carvajal Liliana; Chaparro Paola; Abramsky Miriam; Chet Ilan; Orduz Sergio

2008-01-01

184

Primary study on mode of action for macrocyclic fungicide candidates (7B3, D1) against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel macrolactam fungicide candidate (7B3) and a novel aza-macrolactone fungicide candidate (D1) were designed and synthesized, and the bioassay showed that both displayed excellent fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. To elucidate the biochemical mode of action of the two compounds against R. solani and illustrate the similarities and differences of action mechanism resulting from subtle differences in structure of the two compounds, the effects of the two compounds on the ultrastructure of hyphae, electrolyte leakage, and respiration of mycelia cell suspension caused by 7B3 or D1 were studied. The results showed that the two compounds had very similar modes of action. Both induced irregular swelling of hyphae, vacuolation of cytoplasm, and thickening of cell wall. The conductivity of mycelia cell suspension increased in the presence of 7B3 or D1, which indicated that the two compounds had a similar effect on cell membrane permeability. In addition, both 7B3 and D1 were insufficient in inhibiting the respiration of mycelia.

Yan X; Liang X; Jin S; Lv J; Yu C; Qi W; Li B; Yuan H; Qi S; Shi Y; Wu J; Chen F; Wang D

2010-03-01

185

The complete genomic sequence of a novel mycovirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA strain B275.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complete genome of a novel mycovirus, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1 (RsRV1) was sequenced and analyzed. It is composed of two dsRNA genome segments, 2379 bp and 1811 bp in length, which were referred to as RsRV1-1 and RsRV1-2, respectively. RsRV1-1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1), which has a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, whereas RsRV1-2 contains a single ORF2, which might encode a multifunctional protein. The genome organization of RsRV1 is similar to that of members of the family Partitiviridae. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that RsRV1 formed a distinct clade together with three other unclassified viruses, suggesting that RsRV1 may belong to a new family of dsRNA mycoviruses. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, RsRV1, infecting R. solani AG-1 IA strain B275, the causal agent of rice sheath blight.

Zheng L; Liu H; Zhang M; Cao X; Zhou E

2013-07-01

186

The complete genomic sequence of a novel mycovirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA strain B275.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genome of a novel mycovirus, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1 (RsRV1) was sequenced and analyzed. It is composed of two dsRNA genome segments, 2379 bp and 1811 bp in length, which were referred to as RsRV1-1 and RsRV1-2, respectively. RsRV1-1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1), which has a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, whereas RsRV1-2 contains a single ORF2, which might encode a multifunctional protein. The genome organization of RsRV1 is similar to that of members of the family Partitiviridae. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that RsRV1 formed a distinct clade together with three other unclassified viruses, suggesting that RsRV1 may belong to a new family of dsRNA mycoviruses. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, RsRV1, infecting R. solani AG-1 IA strain B275, the causal agent of rice sheath blight. PMID:23443932

Zheng, Li; Liu, Huiquan; Zhang, Meiling; Cao, Xiong; Zhou, Erxun

2013-02-27

187

Overexpression of snakin-1 gene enhances resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Erwinia carotovora in transgenic potato plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Snakin-1 (SN1), a cysteine-rich peptide with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to pathogens in transgenic potatoes. Genetic variants of this gene were cloned from wild and cultivated Solanum species. Nucleotide sequences revealed highly evolutionary conservation with 91-98% identity values. Potato plants (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum cv. Kennebec) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a construct encoding the S. chacoense SN1 gene under the regulation of the ubiquitous CaMV 35S promoter. Transgenic lines were molecularly characterized and challenged with either Rhizoctonia solani or Erwinia carotovora to analyse whether constitutive in vivo overexpression of the SN1 gene may lead to disease resistance. Only transgenic lines that accumulated high levels of SN1 mRNA exhibited significant symptom reductions of R. solani infection such as stem cankers and damping-off. Furthermore, these overexpressing lines showed significantly higher survival rates throughout the fungal resistance bioassays. In addition, the same lines showed significant protection against E. carotovora measured as: a reduction of lesion areas (from 46.5 to 88.1% with respect to the wild-type), number of fallen leaves and thickened or necrotic stems. Enhanced resistance to these two important potato pathogens suggests in vivo antifungal and antibacterial activity of SN1 and thus its possible biotechnological application.

Almasia NI; Bazzini AA; Hopp HE; Vazquez-Rovere C

2008-05-01

188

Effect of Certain Fungicides and Isolates of Antagonistic Fungi on Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight  

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Full Text Available Antagonistic fungi Trichoderma harzianum (T1, from bean fields in Ahwaz, T2, from rice fields in Rasht), T. viride (T3 from bean fields in Shahriar, T4 from the collection in Plant Pest and Disease Institute, Tehran), Gliocladium virens (from bean fields in Kamal Abad, Karaj) and some fungicides (Benomyl, Carbendazim, Carboxin-Thiram, edifenphos and Zineb) were used to control sheath blight of rice incited by Rhizoctonia solani in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments and four replications on Khazar rice cultivar in a soil infected by R. solani under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the antagonistic fungi reduce sheath blight by 19.8 (T1), 21.5 (T2), 27.5 (T3), 19.6 (T4) and 18.5 (G1) percent. The antagonistic fungi in order of efficacy were T2>T3>T1>T4>G1. Benomyl, Carbendazim, Carboxin-thiram, Edifenphos and Zineb reduced disease by 32.5, 21.5, 12.8, 9.5 and 0 percent, respectively. Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed no significant differences between T1, T3, T4, and G1 and Carbendazim fungicide to control disease; however, the isolate T2 was as effective as Benomyl but Zineb had no effect on sheath blight.

M. Niknejad Kazempour; H. Pedramfar; S. A. Elahinia

2003-01-01

189

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodão com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, e teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas, aplicados no tratamento de sementes de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum), no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. Foi realizado teste em casa de vegetação, utilizando a cultivar DeltaOpal. Sementes tratadas e não tratadas com fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Foram utilizados 9 g de inóculo por bandeja de areia. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, com destaque para triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid e triadimenol + tolylfluanid, seguidos de carboxin + thiram, triadimenol e carboxin + thiram + carbendazim. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle do tombamento de pós-emergência do algodoeiro foi obtido com a mistura triadimenol + pencycuron + tolylfluanid, seguida de triadimenol, triadimenol + tolylfluanid e carboxin+thiram. Nenhum dos fungicidas testados foi fitotóxico ao algodão.

GOULART AUGUSTO C. P.

2002-01-01

190

Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar(®) and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest(®) and chemical fungicides including carbendazim(®), validamycin(®), propiconazole(®) and mancozeb(®) were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 ?g/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim(®) was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

2013-05-01

191

Ribosome Inactivating Protein of barley enhanced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic potato cultivar 'Desirée' in greenhouse conditions  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the potato cultivar 'Desirée' was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing the plasmid pBIN19 which harbors the Ribosome Inactivating Protein (rip30). The potato leaf discs were used as an explant for transformation. The in vitro regeneration parameters (percentage of callus regenerated, number of shoots per callus, percentage of regenerated roots and percentage of the transgenic plants) were evaluated. The PCR technique was used for identification of transformed plants. Southern and Western blot analyses were applied for molecular characterization of the transgenic clones. A greenhouse assay was carried out to evaluate the resistance to Rhizoctonia solani pathogen of transgenic clones expressing the rip30 gene. The results revealed that not all the plants developed in selective medium were positive for the corresponding gene using the PCR technique. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the tested transgenic plants integrated three copies of rip30 gene into their genome. The expression of the RIP30 protein was confirmed in the leaf extracts of the transgenic clones by Western blot analysis. Resistance evaluation of the transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions showed that disease incidence and severity were reduced for R. solani.

M'hamdi, M.; Chikh-Rouhou, H.; Boughalleb, N.; Ruiz de Galarreta, JI.

2013-01-01

192

Efecto de algunos fungicidas sobre la interacción Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn-Micorriza vesículo arbuscular en soya, Glycine max Merril  

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Full Text Available En el campo se dispuso de dos preparaciones de suelo: natural y desinfectado químicamente (Ditrapex-CE) y en el invernadero de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Se utilizaron los fungicidas Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax-300. Se contó con la flora micorrizógena natural y una cepa introducida, Glomus manihotis. R. solani disminuyó en un 50 % la emergencia de la soya, comportándose más agresivo en suelo desinfectado. En los primeros 15 días su ataque se incrementó y redujo el desarrollo de MVA en suelo natural. Al avanzar la edad de la planta decreció su infección. Con relación a la MVA la tendencia es contraria. La presencia de la MVA, incluyendo G. manihotis no incrementó significativamente la materia seca y el rendimiento de la soya. Al desinfectar el suelo los fungicidas afectaron negativamente la infección micorrizógena, mientras que en suelo natural no sucedió este fenómeno, al contrario SN-84364 incrementó su presencia. Este producto es el que menos afecta la simbiosis en el suelo desinfectado. Los fungicidas SN-84364 y PCNB mostraron gran especificidad contra R. solani y Vitavax-300 mayor espectro de acción.With the object to evaluate in the soybeans crop behavior in the interaction of Rhizoctonia solani, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and fungicides used to treatment of seed, two different soil preparations were used in the field trials: natural and chemically disinfected (Ditrapex-CE) and under greenhouse: using vapor- sterilized. Was utilized the fungicides Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax- 300. Be had into account the natural mycorrhizal flora and a source of Glomus manihotis introduced. R. solani reduced the emergence of soybean by 50%, the above-metioned pathogen was more agressive in disinfected soil. In the 15 days first the attack increased and reduced the VAM development in the natural soil. With the age of the plant the pathogen infection decreased. With relation by VAM is contrary the tendency. The presence of VAM, G. manihotis including, not increased significantly the dry mass and yield of the soybean. The fungicides diminished the VAM infection in both chemically and physically disinfected soil, whereas this does not ocurr in natural soil,SN-84364, on the other hand, increased the VAM infection. This product affected least the simbiosis in the disinfected soil. SN-84364 and PCNB exhibitited their great especifity against R. solani and Vitavax-300 a greater spectrum of action.

Mendoza C. Iván A.; Sánchez de Prager Marina; Sieverding Ewald

1987-01-01

193

Caracterización de aislamientos de Rhizoctonia Solani Kühn que inducen pudriciones radicales en cultivares de caraota (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)  

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Full Text Available Plántulas sintomáticas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fueron analizadas con objetivo de estudiar las pudriciones radicales inducidas por Rhizoctonia solani. Tres aislamientos identificados con las siglas CRH-V, CRH-F y CRH-558, que presentaban diferencias morfológicas entre sí, fueron utilizados. Se evaluaron 18 cultivares de caraota. Se caracterizaron los grupos de anastomosis de R. solani asociados al cultivo y se determinó su patogenicidad. Los tres aislamientos sobre presentaron diferencias significativas con relación al crecimiento. Los aislamientos CRH-F y CRH-558 mostraron zonación. El aislamiento CRH-F formó esclerocios bajo luz artificial. Todos los aislamientos produjeron esclerocios bajo luz natural. En las reacciones hifales, los aislamientos CRH-F y CRH-558 produjeron solo contacto hifal con el patrón AG-1-1 y AG-4, respectivamente, y en el CRH-V no hubo interacción. Se detectaron diferencias significativas para el peso seco de las raíces y parte aérea entre cultivares, aislamientos e interacciones cultivar x aislamiento. Todos los aislamientos afectaron tanto el desarrollo radical como el aéreo en los cultivares evaluados. El aislamiento CRH-558 causó mayor disminución al peso seco en raíces y parte aérea. En las interacciones entre aislamientos y cultivares: MEX-E-62, Tacarigua y Victoria presentaron mayor peso seco de las raíces.Symptomatic black bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were analized in order to determine the root rot induced by R. solani. Three isolates of R. solani, which showed morphological differences were labeled with the acronyms CRH-V, CRH-F and CRH-558 and utilized. Eighteen beans cultivars were evaluated. Anastomosis groups of R. solani associated to the crop were characterized and their pathogenicity was determined. Significant differences in growth rate were found among the three isolates on PDA. The isolates CRH-F and CRH-558 showed zonation. The isolate CRH-F produced sclerotia under artificial light. Under natural light, all the isolates produced sclerotia. In hyphal reactions, the isolates CRH-F and CRH-558 showed only hyphal contact with AG-1-1 and AG-4, respectively. The isolate CRH-V showed no reaction. There were significant differences for the root and aerial part dry weight among cultivars, isolates and the interactions cultivars by isolates. The isolate CRH-558 caused higher reduction on dry weight and aerial part. In the interaction among isolates and cultivars, MEX -62, Tacarigua and Victoria showed higher root dry weight.

Bárbara Gutiérrez; Maria Suleima González; Alberto Salih L

2006-01-01

194

Molecular diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates infecting various pulse crops in different agro-ecological regions of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic diversity of 89 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from different pulse crops representing 21 states from 16 agro-ecological regions of India, 49 morphological, and 7 anastomosis groups (AGs) was analyzed using 12 universal rice primers (URPs), 22 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 23 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Both URPs and RAPD markers provided 100 % polymorphism with the bands ranging from 0.1 to 5 kb in size, whereas ISSR markers gave 99.7 % polymorphism with the bands sizes ranging from 0.1 to 3 kb. The marker URP 38F followed by URP13R, URP25F, and URP30F, RAPD marker R1 followed by OPM6, A3 and OPA12 and ISSR3 followed by ISSR1, ISSR4, and ISSR20 produced the highest number of amplicons. R. solani isolates showed a high level of genetic diversity. Unweighted pair group method with an arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis grouped the isolates into 7 major clusters at 35 % genetic similarity using the three sets of markers evaluated. In spite of using three different types of markers, about 95 % isolates shared common grouping patterns. The majority of the isolates representing various AGs were grouped together into different sub-clusters using all three types of markers. Molecular groups of the isolates did not correspond to agro-ecological regions or states and crops of the origin. An attempt was made for the first time in the present study to determine the genetic diversity of R. solani populations isolated from different pulse crops representing various AGs and agro-ecological regions. PMID:22653790

Dubey, Sunil C; Tripathi, Aradhika; Upadhyay, B K

2012-06-01

195

Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported with higher levels of disease than expected. In examining beets with Rhizoctonia root rot in Michigan, over 50% of sampled roots had a second potential root rot pathogen, Rhizopus stolonifer. Growing conditions generally were not conducive to disease production by this pathogen alone, so we investigated the potential for interaction between these two pathogens. In greenhouse tests, four of five sugar beet varieties had more severe root rot symptoms when inoculated with both pathogens than when inoculated with either pathogen alone. This synergism occurred under conditions that were not conducive to disease production by R. stolonifer. Host resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot reduced diseases severity, but was insufficient to control the disease when both pathogens were present. This raises concerns about correct disease diagnosis and management practices and indicates that a root rot complex may be important on sugar beet in Michigan.

Hanson LE

2010-05-01

196

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii on tomato by delivering antagonistic bacteria through a drip irrigation system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a 2-year assessment carried out on tomato crops of Central and Southern Italy, a high incidence of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii was found. These fungal pathogens attack horticultural crops and are responsible for severe crown and stem rot. Because of technical, economical and environmental issues their chemical control is an arduous task. To find alternative and eco-compatible control methods, the effectiveness of two new antagonistic bacterial isolates (Burkholderia cepacia, T1A-2B, and Pseudomonas sp., T4B-2A), previously selected from suppressive organic amendments, were tested on tomato plants grown under both growth chamber and field conditions. The potential antagonists were compared with two commercial biofungicides, based on Bacillus subtilis (BSF4) and Trichoderma asperellum (TV1), and four synthetic fungicides (tolclofos-methyl, azoxystrobin, fosetyl-Al and fosetyl-Al + propamocarb). In 2-year field experiments carried out on tomato plants, the biocontrol bacteria as well as the other treatments were applied to the soil, proximal to the plant crowns and main roots, by means of an effective and specific system of drip irrigation. In all the experiments the novel selected biocontrol bacteria significantly reduced both incidence and severity of the diseases caused by S. rolfsii or R. solani, with results demonstrating effectiveness equal to TV1, better than BSF4 and comparable with the synthetic fungicides, except for tolclofos-methyl which was the most effective treatment. In field experiments, carried out for two consecutive years, isolate T1A-2B reduced up to 58.33% and up to 63.8% the severity of the diseases caused by S. rolfsii and R. solani respectively; whereas isolate T4B-2A gave reduction of S. rolfsii and R. solani diseases severity up to 73.2% and up to 62.7%, respectively. This investigation provided insight for the development of novel antagonistic bacterial isolates and, particularly, a suitable method for a more efficient antagonist's distribution in the field in order to better control fungal crown and root rot of horticultural crops.

De Curtis F; Lima G; Vitullo D; De Cicco V

2010-07-01

197

Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium  

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Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA) é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle antes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queima foliar (Cercospora kikuchii), a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção.The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA) is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of the disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii), pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The hypothesis tested went that the foliar blight could be controlled by potassium amendments. In general, under controlled conditions, the increments of potassium in soil did not result in disease control. Therefore, to corroborate this observation it is necessary to conduct follow-up field experiments and to evaluate the effects of the soybean foliar blight and its impact on yield.

Marco Antonio Basseto; Paulo Cezar Ceresini; Walter Veriano Valério Filho

2007-01-01

198

Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio/ Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA) é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle antes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queim (more) a foliar (Cercospora kikuchii), a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção. Abstract in english The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA) is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of the disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii), (more) pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae) and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis). Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The hypothesis tested went that the foliar blight could be controlled by potassium amendments. In general, under controlled conditions, the increments of potassium in soil did not result in disease control. Therefore, to corroborate this observation it is necessary to conduct follow-up field experiments and to evaluate the effects of the soybean foliar blight and its impact on yield.

Basseto, Marco Antonio; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar; Valério Filho, Walter Veriano

2007-03-01

199

Silício alterando compostos derivados da pirólise de bainhas foliares de plantas de arroz infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani/ Silicon altering compounds derived from the pyrolyses of leaf sheaths of rice plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar, por meio da pirólise analítica acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa, alterações na composição química da lignina nas bainhas de plantas de arroz das cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle supridas ou não com silício (Si) e infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani. A concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas supridas com esse elemento foi significativamente maior (2,7 dag kg-1) em comparação com as plantas n (more) ão supridas (0,45 dag kg-1). Na presença de Si, a área abaixo da curva do progresso da queima das bainhas foi significativamente reduzida em 19 e 25%, respectivamente, para as plantas das cultivares BR-Irga-409 e Labelle em relação à ausência desse elemento na solução nutritiva. Com base nos espectros de massas obtidos, foram identificados 33 compostos, dos quais 10 foram produtos da degradação de carboidratos e 23 derivados da lignina. Dentre os derivados da lignina, oito compostos eram do tipo p-hidroxifenila, 11 compostos do tipo guaiacila e quatro compostos do tipo siringila. Nas bainhas das plantas das duas cultivares de arroz, supridas ou não com Si, a concentração de lignina (p-hidroxifenila, siringila (S) e guaiacila (G)) foi de, aproximadamente, 15%. Houve aumento na relação S/G apenas nas bainhas das plantas da cultivar BR-Irga 409 supridas com Si e infectadas por R. solani. A maior concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas de arroz das duas cultivares, que por sua vez resultou em aumento na relação S/G, contribuiu para reduzir os sintomas da queima das bainhas. Abstract in english This study elucidated, through analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, changes in the chemical composition of lignin on leaf sheaths of rice plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle supplied or non-supplied with silicon (Si) and infected with Rhizoctonia solani. The Si concentration on leaf sheaths of plants supplied with this element was significatively higher (2.7 dag kg-1) as compared to non-supplied plants (0.45 dag kg-1). In the p (more) resence of Si, the area under leaf sheath blight progress curve was significantly reduced by 19 and 25% for plants from cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle, respectively, in comparison to the absence of Si. Based on the mass spectra obtained, 33 compounds were identified, 10 of which were products from the degradation of carbohydrates and 23 derivate from lignin. From lignin derivatives, eight compounds were p-hydroxiphenil type, eleven compounds were guaiacyl type and four compounds were syringyl type. On leaf sheaths of both cultivars, the concentration of lignin (p-hydroxiphenil, syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G)) was around 15%, regardless of Si. There was no increase in the S/G ratio only for the leaf sheaths of BR-Irga 409 supplied with Si and infected with R. solani. High Si concentration on leaf sheaths of both cultivars, which in turn resulted in an increase in the S/G ratio, contributed to reduce leaf sheath blight symptoms.

Schurt, Daniel Augusto; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Carré-Missio, Vivian; Soares, Nilda Fátima Ferreira

2013-03-01

200

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of a New Polyene Macrolide Antibiotic Antifungalmycin 702 from Streptomyces padanus JAU4234 on the Rice Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungalmycin 702, a new polyene macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomycespadanus JAU4234, has a broad antifungal activity and may have potential future agricultural and/or clinical applications. However, the mechanism of antifungal action of antifungalmycin 702 remains unknown. Antifungalmycin 702 strongly inhibited mycelial growth and sclerotia formation/germination of Rhizoctonia solani. When treated with antifungalmycin 702, the hyphae morphology of R. solani became more irregular. The membrane and the cellular organelles were disrupted and there were many vacuoles in the cellular space. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through the increase of membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and leakage of cell constituents. In summary, antifungalmycin 702 may exert its antifungal activity against R. solani by changing the structure of cell membranes and the cytoskeleton and interacting with the organelles. PMID:23951364

Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Tu, Xiao-Rong; Wei, Sai-Jin; Huang, Lin; Li, Xun-Hang; Lu, Hui; Tu, Guo-Quan

2013-08-12

 
 
 
 
201

Divergence Between Sympatric Rice- and Maize-Infecting Populations of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA from Latin America  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA is a major pathogen in Latin America causing sheath blight (SB) of rice. Particularly in Venezuela, the fungus also causes banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) on maize, which is considered an emerging disease problem where maize replaced traditional rice-cropping areas or is now planted in adjacent fields. Our goals in this study were to elucidate (i) the effects of host specialization on gene flow between sympatric and allopatric rice and maize-infecting fungal populations and (ii) the reproductive mode of the fungus, looking for evidence of recombination. In total, 375 isolates of R. solani AG1 IA sampled from three sympatric rice and maize fields in Venezuela (Portuguesa State) and two allopatric rice fields from Colombia (Meta State) and Panama (Chiriquí State) were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. Allopatric populations from Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama were significantly differentiated (?(ST) of 0.16 to 0.34). Partitioning of the genetic diversity indicated differentiation between sympatric populations from different host species, with 17% of the total genetic variation distributed between hosts while only 3 to 6% was distributed geographically among the sympatric Venezuelan fields. We detected symmetrical historical migration between the rice- and the maize-infecting populations from Venezuela. Rice- and maize-derived isolates were able to infect both rice and maize but were more aggressive on their original hosts, consistent with host specialization. Because the maize- and rice-infecting populations are still cross-pathogenic, we postulate that the genetic differentiation was relatively recent and mediated via a host shift. An isolation with migration analysis indicated that the maize-infecting population diverged from the rice-infecting population between 40 and 240 years ago. Our findings also suggest that maize-infecting populations have a mainly recombining reproductive system whereas the rice-infecting populations have a mixed reproductive system in Latin America.

González-Vera AD; Bernardes-de-Assis J; Zala M; McDonald BA; Correa-Victoria F; Graterol-Matute EJ; Ceresini PC

2010-02-01

202

Suscetibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro a Rhizoctonia solani e benefícios do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas/ Susceptibility of cotton cultivars to Rhizoctonia solani and benefits of fungicide seed treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento de seis cultivares de algodoeiro (BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, BRS-Cedro, Fibermax 966, DeltaOpal e CNPA Ita 90-II) ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 e os benefícios do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas para cada cultivar em estudo, em relação à densidade de inóculo deste fungo. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS. Foram definidas quatro densid (more) ades populacionais do fungo (0; 1; 2 e 3g de inóculo do fungo/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10cm) para a realização do ensaio. As avaliações foram realizadas com base no desenvolvimento de sintomas e sobrevivência das plântulas, utilizando os dados de emergência inicial e final e de tombamento de pós-emergência. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com a mistura fungicida tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g do i.a./100kg de sementes) foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm). Houve efeito significativo das interações cultivares x níveis de inóculo, cultivares x fungicidas e níveis de inóculo x fungicidas. O comportamento das cultivares foi significativamente influenciado pelas diferentes populações de R. solani, sendo que, a medida que se aumentou a densidade de inóculo do patógeno, menores índices de emergência e maiores índices de doença foram observados. Ficou claramente demonstrada também a importância do tratamento das sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, sendo que as melhores emergências e os menores índices de doença (tombamento e plântulas lesionadas), independente da cultivar testada, foram obtidos quando as sementes foram tratadas com a mistura tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol. Observou-se ainda que as populações do patógeno influenciaram significativamente nos benefícios do tratamento de sementes, demonstrando que a performance da mistura fungicida testada (tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol) foi melhor na presença dos níveis mais baixos de inóculo do fungo. Com relação as cultivares avaliadas e na ausência do tratamento da sementes com fungicidas, observou-se comportamento diferenciado de alguns materiais com relação ao ataque do fungo R. solani, merecendo destaque os genótipos CNPA ITA 90 II E BRS Aroeira, seguidas de BRS Cedro e BRS Ipê, demonstrando uma maior tolerância destas cultivares ao ataque de R. solani em comparação às demais. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of six cotton cultivars (BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, BRS-Cedro, Fibermax 966, DeltaOpal and CNPA Ita 90-II) in relation to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 and the benefits of cotton seed treatment with fungicides, for each tested cultivar, for the control of damping-off in relation to inoculum densities of this fungus. This experiment was carried out at greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, in Dourados, MS. Four i (more) noculum densities were tested (0; 1; 2 and 3g of fungus inoculum/plastic tray with dimensions of 56x35x10cm) in the trial. The evaluations were done based on symptoms development and seedling survival, using initial and final emergence and pre and pos damping-off data. Treated and untreated seeds with fungicides mixture tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g a.i./100kg of seeds) were sowed in sand contained in plastic trays, by placing in equidistant 3-cm-deep wells. The inoculation with R. solani AG-4 was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1mm). Significant effect of the interactions cultivars x inoculum densities, cultivars x fungicid

Goulart, Augusto César Pereira

2007-09-01

203

Is it necessary to soak rice grains to prepare Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 inoculum? É necessário embeber os grãos de arroz para o preparo de inóculo de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects on the development of root rot on common bean, cv. 'Dufrix' after treatment with four volumes of water (0, 30%, 60%, and 90%, v/w) added to rice grains previously immersed in water for 24 hours before autoclaving and colonization of grains by Rhizoctoniasolani AG-4. Colonized rice grains and non-infested rice grains were mixed in pots with sterilized soil and sand (2:1), where beans were sown. Based on results of area under plant emergence curve, plant height, plant dry weight, and disease severity, we conclude that inoculum is more effective in causing disease when no water is added to the rice grains before autoclaving.Foi conduzido um estudo com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de quatro volumes de água (0, 30%, 60% e 90%, v/p) adicionados a grãos de arroz previamente embebidos em água por 24 horas antes de eles serem autoclavados e colonizados por Rhizoctonia solani sobre o desenvolvimento da podridão-radicular de feijão, cv. 'Dufrix'. Grãos de arroz colonizados e não colonizados foram misturados em vasos contendo substrato de solo e areia (2:1), com posterior semeadura de feijão. Baseados nos resultados de área abaixo da curva de emergência das plantas, altura das plantas, massa de plantas secas e severidade da doença, conclui-se que o inóculo é mais eficiente em causar doença quando não se adiciona água aos grãos de arroz antes de eles serem autoclavados.

Trazilbo J. Paula Júnior; Rogério F. Vieira; Waldir C. Jesus Junior; Bernhard Hau; Hudson Teixeira

2007-01-01

204

Caracterização citomorfológica, cultural, molecular e patogênica de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn associado ao arroz em Tocantins, Brasil/ Citomorphological, cultural, molecular and pathogenical characterization of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn associated with rice in Tocantins, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No Estado do Tocantins, no Norte do Brasil, a incidência de rizoctoniose no arroz é importante, causando danos significativos em lavouras de arroz irrigado. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o grupo de anastomose (AG) de isolados de R. solani associados ao arroz naquela região, testando a hipótese de que esses isolados pertencem ao grupo padrão de anastomose AG-1 IA, que também é o agente causal da mela em soja em áreas úmidas do Norte do Brasil. (more) Todos os quatro isolados de arroz foram caracterizados, através de fusão de hifas, como AG-1 IA. A caracterização cultural, em função das temperaturas basais (mínimas, máximas e ótimas), evidenciou que os isolados de R. solani de arroz apresentaram perfis semelhantes aos padrões AG-1 IA, AG-1 IB e AG-1 IC. Os isolados de arroz foram caracterizados como autotróficos para tiamina assim como os isolados padrões AG-1 IA, IB, IC, AG-4 HGI e o isolado da mela da soja. O teste de patogenicidade em plantas de arroz cultivar IRGA-409 e de patogenicidade cruzada à cultivar IAC-18 de soja (suscetível à mela), indicou que além de causar a queima da bainha em arroz, esses isolados causam mela em soja. Da mesma forma, o isolado SJ-047 foi patogênico ao arroz. As seqüências de bases de DNA da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA dos isolados do arroz foram similares às seqüências do AG-1 IA, depositadas no GenBank® - NCBI. A filogenia do ITS-rDNA indicou um grupo filogenético comum formado pelos isolados do arroz, o isolado da soja e o isolado teste do AG-1 IA. Assim, com base em características citomorfológicas, culturais, filogenéticas e patogênicas, foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados de R. solani patógenos de arroz do Estado do Tocantins pertencem ao grupo de anastomose AG-1 IA, além da indicação de que esses isolados podem também causar a mela em soja. Abstract in english In Tocantins State, Northern Brazil, the incidence of Rhizoctonia sheath blight on rice is important, causing significant yield losses on rice crops under irrigation. The main objective of this research was to determine the anastomosis group (AG) of R. solani associated with rice in that area, testing the hypothesis that these isolates are from the AG-1 IA, which is also associated with the soybean leaf blight occurring in wet areas of Northern Brazil. All the four rice i (more) solates were characterized, by hyphal fusion, as AG-1 IA. By cultural characterization, based on basal temperatures for mycelial growth (minimum, optimum and maximum), the rice isolates had growth profile similar to the tester isolates AG-1 IA, AG-1 IB and AG-1 IC. The rice isolates were characterized as autotrophic for thiamine, as well as the AG testers AG-1 IA, IB, IC, AG-4 HGI and the soybean leaf blight isolate SJ-047. The pathogenicity test on rice IRGA-409 and the cross pathogenicity on soybean IAC-18 (susceptible to the leaf blight disease) indicated that, besides causing sheath blight, these rice isolates also cause leaf blight on soybean. Similarly, the soybean isolates SJ-047 was pathogenic to rice. The sequences from the ITS-5.8S region of rDNA from the rice isolates were similar to sequences of AG-1 IA deposited at GenBank® - NCBI. The ITS-rDNA phylogeny indicated a common phylogenetic group formed by these rice isolates, the isolate SJ-047 and the tester AG-1 IA. Thus, based on cytomorphological, cultural, phylogenetics and pathogenic attributes, the hypothesis that the rice isolates of R. solani from Tocantins all belong to the AG-1 IA was confirmed, besides the indication that these isolates can also cause soybean foliar blight.

Souza, Elaine Costa; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Nakatani, Andreia Kazumi; Basseto, Marco Antonio; Prabhu, Anne Sitarana; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar

2007-06-01

205

Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter), water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively) inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101) and C. illinoensis (4.33×102) extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo; Francisco Castillo-Reyes; Gabriel Gallegos-Morales; Raul Rodriguez-Herrera; Cristobal N. Aguilar-Gonzalez

2010-01-01

206

First Report of Crown Rot and Stem Rot Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 on Marmalade Bush in Italy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marmalade bush (Streptosolen jamesonii (Benth.) Miers), also known as fire bush, is an evergreen, perennial shrub in the family Solanaceae, which is native to South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru). In Italy, this species is cultivated as an ornamental creeper or bush. During September 2009, a new disease was observed in a stock of approximately 10,000 pot-grown, 2-month-old plants of marmalade bush in a nursery in eastern Sicily, Italy. More than 50% of the plants exhibited symptoms of disease. Disease symptoms consisted of extensive water-soaked, dark brown lesions at the crown level that girdled entire stems and an internal brown discoloration of cortical tissue. Infected plants died within a few days. Diseased tissue was disinfested for 10 s in 1% NaOCl, rinsed with sterile water, and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with streptomycin sulfate at 100 mg/liter. Fungal colonies were initially white, turned brown after 2 to 3 days, and produced irregularly shaped, brown sclerotia. Microscopic examination showed mycelium consistent with Rhizoctonia solani Kühn that branched at right angles, constricted at the base of the branch originating from primary hyphae, and septate near the constriction. The number of nuclei per hyphal cell was determined on cultures grown at 25°C on 2% water agar in petri plates by staining with 1% safranin O and 3% KOH solution (1) and examined at ×400. The hyphal cells were all multinucleate. Anastomosis group was determined by pairing isolates on 2% water agar in petri plates (2). Pairings were made with tester strains AG-1 IA, AG-2-2-1, AG-2-2IIIB, AG-2-2IV, AG-3, AG-4, AG-5, AG-6, and AG-11. Anastomosis was observed only with tester isolates of AG-4. Pathogenicity tests were performed by placing 1-cm2 plugs of PDA from 5-day-old mycelial cultures near the base of the stem on 25 potted, healthy, 2-month-old rooted cuttings of marmalade bush. The same number of plants treated with 1-cm2 PDA plugs served as controls. Following inoculation, all plants were maintained for 20 days at 25°C and 95% relative humidity under a 12-h fluorescent light/dark regimen. Crown and stem symptoms, identical to those observed in the nursery, developed 5 days after inoculation on all inoculated plants. Control plants remained symptomless. R. solani was consistently reisolated from symptomatic tissues and identified as previously described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. solani causing disease on marmalade bush.

Polizzi G; Aiello D; Castello I; Guarnaccia V; Vitale A

2010-04-01

207

Wheat Genotype-Specific Induction of Soil Microbial Communities Suppressive to Disease Incited by Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG)-5 and AG-8.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT The induction of disease-suppressive soils in response to specific cropping sequences has been demonstrated for numerous plant-pathogen systems. The role of host genotype in elicitation of the essential transformations in soil microbial community structure that lead to disease suppression has not been fully recognized. Apple orchard soils were planted with three successive 28-day cycles of specific wheat cultivars in the greenhouse prior to infestation with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-5 or AG-8. Suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia root rot of apple caused by the introduced isolate of R. solani AG-5 was induced in a wheat cultivar-specific manner. Pasteurization of soils after wheat cultivation and prior to pathogen introduction eliminated the disease suppressive potential of the soil. Wheat cultivars that induced disease suppression enhanced populations of specific fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes with antagonistic activity toward R. solani AG-5 and AG-8, but cultivars that did not elicit a disease suppressive soil did not modify the antagonistic capacity of this bacterial community. When soils were infested prior to the initial wheat planting, all cultivars were uniformly susceptible to R. solani AG-8. However, when pathogen inoculum was added after three growth-cycles, wheat root infection during the fourth growth-cycle varied in a cultivar specific manner. The same wheat cultivar-specific response in terms of transformation of the fluorescent pseudomonad community and subsequent suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot of apple was observed in three different orchard soils. These results demonstrate the importance of host genotype in modification of indigenous saprophytic microbial communities and suggest an important role for host genotype in the success of biological control.

Mazzola M; Gu YH

2002-12-01

208

Characterization by conventional techniques and PCR of Rhizoctonia solani isolates causing banded leaf sheath blight in maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia-diseased specimens were collected from various host species growing in or near maize fields in different geographic regions of the Philippines. A greater range of host species, with varying types of disease symptoms, was found in Mindanao than in Luzon. Fifty-two isolates belonged to anastomosis group AG1-IA and caused banded leaf and sheath blight in maize (Zea mays), but they showed considerable variation in virulence. The most and least virulent isolates recovered from maize were both collected from Mindanao. Isolates from necrotic spots/foliar blight of durian and coffee, which were collected from the same region, showed the lowest lesion heights. UPGMA-SAHN clustering analysis from RAPD fingerprint data of 30 haplotypes of R. solani AG1-IA isolates from the Philippines and Japan resolved seven groups of AG1-IA at the 75% similarity level. Variation among isolates from upland crops seemed to be partially correlated with geographical origin and virulence. In the case of paddy rice isolates from Japan and the Philippines, some were closely related, with over 75% similarity, suggesting a common origin. In PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, no polymorphism was observed among the AG1-IA isolates but they were differentiated from subgroups AG1-IB and AG1-IC using the endonucleases EcoRI, MboI and HinfI.

Pascual CB; Toda T; Raymondo AD; Hyakumachi M

2000-01-01

209

Assessment of the diversity, and antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3, of Pseudomonas species in soil from different agricultural regimes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genus Pseudomonas is one of the best-studied bacterial groups in soil, and includes numerous species of environmental interest. Pseudomonas species play key roles in soil, for instance in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens and in bioremediation of pollutants. A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis system that specifically describes the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil was developed. On the basis of this molecular method as well as cultivation-based approaches, the diversity of Pseudomonas species in soil under different agricultural regimes (permanent grassland, arable land either under rotation or under monoculture of maize) was studied. Both types of approaches revealed differences in the composition of Pseudomonas populations between the treatments. Differences between the treatments were also found based on the frequency of isolation of Pseudomonas strains with antagonistic properties against the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG3. Higher relative numbers of isolates either with antagonistic activity toward this pathogen or with chitinolytic activity were obtained from permanent grassland or from the short-term arable land than from the arable land. The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that agricultural regimes influence the structure of Pseudomonas populations in soil, with specific antagonistic subpopulations being stimulated in grassland as compared to arable land.

Garbeva P; Veen JA; Elsas JD

2004-01-01

210

FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents.

Aliferis KA; Jabaji S

2012-01-01

211

Responses of 2 epiphytic yeasts to foliar infection by Rhizoctonia solani or mechanical wounding on the phylloplane of tall fescue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A growth-chamber experiment was conducted to determine how foliar disease or wounding affects the ability of 2 phylloplane yeasts (Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus laurentii) to colonize leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Yeasts were applied separately and together onto healthy leaves, leaves infected with Rhizoctonia solani (diseased), and mechanically bruised (wounded) leaves. In all 3 trials, the leaf disturbance treatment significantly affected the abundance of yeast on the phylloplane of tall fescue. Yeast abundance on the diseased or wounded leaves was significantly greater than on the nontreated, healthy leaves. In 2 of the 3 trials, the yeast species applied also had a significant affect on yeast abundance. Typically, R. glutinis was significantly more abundant than C. laurentii when applied individually, but not significantly greater than the total yeast colony-forming units of the co-inoculated treatment. When the 2 yeasts were co-inoculated onto the leaves, R. glutinis comprised 89.7%, 75.4%, and 67.6% of the recovered yeast colony-forming units on healthy, diseased, and wounded leaves, respectfully. Our data suggest that these 2 species of yeasts will differentially colonize compromised leaf tissue with disease or wounds favoring populations of R. glutinis over C. laurentii.

Nix S; Burpee LL; Buck JW

2009-10-01

212

Responses of 2 epiphytic yeasts to foliar infection by Rhizoctonia solani or mechanical wounding on the phylloplane of tall fescue.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growth-chamber experiment was conducted to determine how foliar disease or wounding affects the ability of 2 phylloplane yeasts (Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus laurentii) to colonize leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Yeasts were applied separately and together onto healthy leaves, leaves infected with Rhizoctonia solani (diseased), and mechanically bruised (wounded) leaves. In all 3 trials, the leaf disturbance treatment significantly affected the abundance of yeast on the phylloplane of tall fescue. Yeast abundance on the diseased or wounded leaves was significantly greater than on the nontreated, healthy leaves. In 2 of the 3 trials, the yeast species applied also had a significant affect on yeast abundance. Typically, R. glutinis was significantly more abundant than C. laurentii when applied individually, but not significantly greater than the total yeast colony-forming units of the co-inoculated treatment. When the 2 yeasts were co-inoculated onto the leaves, R. glutinis comprised 89.7%, 75.4%, and 67.6% of the recovered yeast colony-forming units on healthy, diseased, and wounded leaves, respectfully. Our data suggest that these 2 species of yeasts will differentially colonize compromised leaf tissue with disease or wounds favoring populations of R. glutinis over C. laurentii. PMID:19935888

Nix, Shannon; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

2009-10-01

213

Studies on the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani to rice adult-plant  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparative study of the pathogenicity of 3 isolates of R. solani belonged to 3 different pathogenic--type from Guizhou to rice adult--plant was conducted by artifical inoculation in pot--culture and the field in 1990---1992. The pathogenicity of No 147 isolate belonged to ThA is the best. It sho wed fast germination of the sclerotia, flourishing growth of the mycelia, and short latent period showed the lesion on rice plant. This paper discussed also the relationship between rece varities, isolates, planting denisty and manuring to disease development, and the dynamic of disease development in the field.

Zeng Lingxiang; Xie Haicheng; Zhou Weijia

1995-01-01

214

Modulation of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex by quinic acid alters the disease-causing activity of Rhizoctonia solani on tomato.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metabolic control of plant growth regulator production by the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph=Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk) and consequences associated with the parasitic and saprobic activity of the fungus were investigated. Fourteen genetically distinct isolates of the fungus belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) AG-3, AG-4, and AG-1-IA were grown on Vogel's minimal medium N with and without the addition of a 25 mM quinic acid (QA) source of carbon. The effect of QA on fungal biomass was determined by measuring the dry wt of mycelia produced under each growth condition. QA stimulated growth of 13 of 14 isolates of R. solani examined. The production of phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the chemically related derivatives 2-hydroxy-PAA, 3-hydroxy-PAA, 4-hydroxy-PAA, and 3-methoxy-PAA on the two different media was compared by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The presence of QA in the growth medium of R. solani altered the PAA production profile, limiting the conversion of PAA to derivative forms. The effect of QA on the ability of R. solani to cause disease was examined by inoculating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants with 11 isolates of R. solani AG-3 grown on media with and without the addition of 25 mM QA. Mean percent survival of tomato plants inoculated with R. solani was significantly higher when the fungal inoculum was generated on growth medium containing QA. The results of this study support the hypotheses that utilization of QA by R. solani leads to reduced production of the plant growth regulators belonging to the PAA metabolic complex which can suppress plant disease development.

Bartz FE; Glassbrook NJ; Danehower DA; Cubeta MA

2013-05-01

215

Modulation of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex by quinic acid alters the disease-causing activity of Rhizoctonia solani on tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic control of plant growth regulator production by the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph=Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk) and consequences associated with the parasitic and saprobic activity of the fungus were investigated. Fourteen genetically distinct isolates of the fungus belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) AG-3, AG-4, and AG-1-IA were grown on Vogel's minimal medium N with and without the addition of a 25 mM quinic acid (QA) source of carbon. The effect of QA on fungal biomass was determined by measuring the dry wt of mycelia produced under each growth condition. QA stimulated growth of 13 of 14 isolates of R. solani examined. The production of phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the chemically related derivatives 2-hydroxy-PAA, 3-hydroxy-PAA, 4-hydroxy-PAA, and 3-methoxy-PAA on the two different media was compared by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The presence of QA in the growth medium of R. solani altered the PAA production profile, limiting the conversion of PAA to derivative forms. The effect of QA on the ability of R. solani to cause disease was examined by inoculating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants with 11 isolates of R. solani AG-3 grown on media with and without the addition of 25 mM QA. Mean percent survival of tomato plants inoculated with R. solani was significantly higher when the fungal inoculum was generated on growth medium containing QA. The results of this study support the hypotheses that utilization of QA by R. solani leads to reduced production of the plant growth regulators belonging to the PAA metabolic complex which can suppress plant disease development. PMID:23380633

Bartz, Faith E; Glassbrook, Norman J; Danehower, David A; Cubeta, Marc A

2013-02-01

216

Bioprospecção de isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani na produção de mudas de pepino Bioprospection of Trichoderma spp. isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani on cucumber seedling production  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e identificar isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle do tombamento causado por Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4) em plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.), além de avaliar o efeito de concentrações crescentes e de combinações dos isolados mais eficientes no controle da doença. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, com 490 isolados. O tombamento das mudas foi avaliado uma semana após a aplicação à base das plântulas de substrato infestado com antagonista (1%) e patógeno (1%). Os doze isolados que proporcionaram mais de 85% de redução da doença foram testados em concentrações crescentes para o controle do patógeno (1%): 0,5, 1, 2, 3 e 4%. Também foi avaliado o efeito das combinações dos cinco isolados mais promissores. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados pelo sequenciamento da região espaçadores internos transcritos (ITS) do DNA ribossômico. Dos 490 isolados testados 44 (9%) reduziram o tombamento. As concentrações de antagonistas superiores a 2% foram as mais efetivas no controle da doença. Apenas duas combinações resultaram no aumento do controle da doença. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados como T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60), T. harzianum (IB34, IB35), T. atroviride (IB13), T. spirale (IB16, IB24) e T. asperellum (IB44). Não foi possível a identificação da espécie de três isolados.The objective of this work was to select and identify Trichoderma spp. isolates for the control of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4) damping-off on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings, as well as to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations and different combinations of the most efficient isolates in the disease control. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse with 490 isolates. The disease on cucumber seedlings was evaluated one week after the application of a commercial substrate infested with both antagonist (1%) and pathogen (1%) to the seedlings' root collar. The twelve isolates that conferred more than 85% of disease reduction were further evaluated in pathogen control (1%) at the concentrations 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%. The effect of combining five of the most promising isolates in disease control was also evaluated. The most effective isolates were identified through the sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region. Out of the 490 isolates tested 44 (9%) caused reduction of damping-off. Antagonist concentrations higher than 2% conferred the most effective disease control. Only two combinations of isolates resulted in increased disease control. The most effective isolates were identified as T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60), T. harzianum (IB34, IB35), T. atroviride (IB13), T. spirale (IB16, IB24) and T. asperellum (IB44). Three isolates could not be identified at species level.

Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon; Claudia Mitsue Koike; Alice Ishida Ishikawa; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Ricardo Harakava

2009-01-01

217

Is it necessary to soak rice grains to prepare Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 inoculum?/ É necessário embeber os grãos de arroz para o preparo de inóculo de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido um estudo com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de quatro volumes de água (0, 30%, 60% e 90%, v/p) adicionados a grãos de arroz previamente embebidos em água por 24 horas antes de eles serem autoclavados e colonizados por Rhizoctonia solani sobre o desenvolvimento da podridão-radicular de feijão, cv. 'Dufrix'. Grãos de arroz colonizados e não colonizados foram misturados em vasos contendo substrato de solo e areia (2:1), com posterior semeadura de feij (more) ão. Baseados nos resultados de área abaixo da curva de emergência das plantas, altura das plantas, massa de plantas secas e severidade da doença, conclui-se que o inóculo é mais eficiente em causar doença quando não se adiciona água aos grãos de arroz antes de eles serem autoclavados. Abstract in english A study was conducted to evaluate the effects on the development of root rot on common bean, cv. 'Dufrix' after treatment with four volumes of water (0, 30%, 60%, and 90%, v/w) added to rice grains previously immersed in water for 24 hours before autoclaving and colonization of grains by Rhizoctoniasolani AG-4. Colonized rice grains and non-infested rice grains were mixed in pots with sterilized soil and sand (2:1), where beans were sown. Based on results of area under pl (more) ant emergence curve, plant height, plant dry weight, and disease severity, we conclude that inoculum is more effective in causing disease when no water is added to the rice grains before autoclaving.

Paula Júnior, Trazilbo J.; Vieira, Rogério F.; Jesus Junior, Waldir C.; Hau, Bernhard; Teixeira, Hudson

2007-12-01

218

Effect of Foliar and Drench Applications of Acetyl Salicylic Acid on Control of Rhizoctonia solani and on Dry Matter Production and Partitioning of Potatoes  

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Full Text Available Different concentrations of acetyl salicylic acid 1, 5 and 10 mM were applied through soil drench and foliar application at weekly intervals starting from emergence of the plants to investigate the effect of ASA on the control or Rhizoctonia solani and on general growth responses. Application of ASA did not influence the development of stem canker. Increasing concentrations of ASA produced reductions in tuber fresh weight and in total and component part dry weights. A concentration of 10 mM increased main stem numbers significantly, although this concentration was some what phytotoxic.

Syed Karar Haider; Saifullah

2001-01-01

219

Field efficacy of Trichoderma viride, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus in consortium for control of Rhizoctonia solani causing black scurf disease of potato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Black scurf disease (Rhizoctonia solani) of potato could significantly be reduced by treating the seed tubers with Trichoderma viride, Bacillus cereus strain B4 and B. subtilis strain B5 alone or in different combinations. Disease incidence was reduced from 72 per cent in untreated control to 42 per cent (i.e. 42 per cent reduction) and severity index from 1.6 units to 0.6 units (i.e. 62.5 per cent reduction) in seed tubers treated combinedly with the above three bio-agents.

A.K. SOMANI* R.K. ARORA

2011-01-01

220

Monomeric L-amino acid oxidase-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Rhizoctonia solani Reveals a novel antagonistic mechanism of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The monomeric L-amino acid oxidase (mTh-LAAO) of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 has been suggested to antagonize Rhizoctonia solani by an unknown mechanism. Here, the mTh-LAAO-treated R. solani exhibited hyphal lysis and apoptotic characteristics such as DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. This hyphal lysis was suppressed by the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis inhibitor oligomycin while accompanied by reduction of ROS accumulation. This result suggested that mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in R. solani was involved in mTh-LAAO-induced growth inhibition, which was supported by the evidence of cytocheome c release and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Furthermore, the data indicated that the mTh-LAAO-induced fungal cell death was also closely interrelated with the interaction of mTh-LAAO with R. solani hyphal cell wall proteins. These results illuminate the biological function and mechanism underlying the antagonistic action of T. harzianum mTh-LAAO against fungal pathogens.

Yang CA; Cheng CH; Lee JW; Lo CT; Liu SY; Peng KC

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

GalNAc/Gal-binding Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin has antiproliferative activity in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells via MAPK and JAK/STAT signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin, further referred to as RSA, is a lectin isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Previously, we reported a high entomotoxic activity of RSA towards the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. To better understand the mechanism of action of RSA, Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of the lectin and FITC-labeled RSA binding was examined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. RSA has antiproliferative activity with a median effect concentration (EC(50)) of 0.35 µM. In addition, the lectin was typically bound to the cell surface but not internalized. In contrast, the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin WGA and the galactose-binding lectin PNA, which were both also inhibitory for S2 cell proliferation, were internalized whereas the mannose-binding lectin GNA did not show any activity on these cells, although it was internalized. Extracted DNA and nuclei from S2 cells treated with RSA were not different from untreated cells, confirming inhibition of proliferation without apoptosis. Pre-incubation of RSA with N-acetylgalactosamine clearly inhibited the antiproliferative activity by RSA in S2 cells, demonstrating the importance of carbohydrate binding. Similarly, the use of MEK and JAK inhibitors reduced the activity of RSA. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane proteins from S2 cells allowed the identification of several cell surface receptors involved in both signaling transduction pathways.

Hamshou M; Van Damme EJ; Vandenborre G; Ghesquière B; Trooskens G; Gevaert K; Smagghe G

2012-01-01

222

Correlation between specific double-stranded (ds) RNA elements and up- or down- regulation of virulence, laccase activity and mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (AG2) isolates  

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Full Text Available A search for double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was done in 18 isolates of the pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani (AG2) isolated from Iranian sugar beet fields. Nucleic acids were extracted from freeze-dried mycelia and dsRNA separated by cellulose CF-11 chromatography. The nature of dsRNA was confirmed by digestion with specific nuclease (RNase A). Electrophoretic bands of dsRNAs were detected on agarose gel in one to 10 Kb from eight isolates. The partial curing of dsRNA attempted to remove dsRNA by excising hyphal tips from PDA containing the cyclohexamide (75ppm) and dsRNA removed from 4 isolates. Both the isolates associated with dsRNA and without dsRNA were studied in more detail. The isolates showed pronounced morphological changes, including increased mycelial growth in isolates 156, reduced virulence toward sugar beet in isolate 156, increased virulence in isolate 144, and decreased laccase activity in isolates 151, 156 and 144. The results suggest that double–stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses of isolate 156 are associated with hypovirulence. This indicates the potential of using dsRNA mycoviruses as biological control against Rhizoctonia solani (AG2).

Shoaei Naeeni S.

2012-01-01

223

A double-stranded RNA element from a hypovirulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani occurs in DNA form and is genetically related to the pentafunctional AROM protein of the shikimate pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

M2 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) element occurring in the hypovirulent isolate Rhs 1A1 of the plant pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani. Rhs 1A1 originated as a sector of the virulent field isolate Rhs 1AP, which contains no detectable amount of the M2 dsRNA. The complete sequence (3,570 ...

Lakshman, Dilip K.; Jian, Jianhua; Tavantzis, Stellos M.

224

High entomotoxicity and mechanism of the fungal GalNAc/Gal-specific Rhizoctonia solani lectin in pest insects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole insect assays where Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin (RSA) was fed to larval stages of the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum demonstrated a high concentration-dependent entomotoxicity, suggesting that this GalNAc/Gal-specific fungal lectin might be a good control agent for different pest insects. RSA at 10 mg/g in the solid diet of 2nd-instar caterpillars caused 84% weight reduction after 8 days with none of the caterpillars reaching the 4th-instar stage. In sucking aphids, 50% mortality was achieved after 3 days with 9 ?M of RSA in the liquid diet. Feeding of FITC-labeled RSA to both insect pest species revealed strong lectin binding at the apical/luminal side of the midgut epithelium with the brush border zone, suggesting the insect midgut as a primary insecticide target tissue for RSA. This was also confirmed with cell cultures in vitro, where there was high fluorescence binding at the microvillar zone with primary cultures of larval midgut columnar cells of S. littoralis, and also at the surface with the insect midgut CF-203 cell line without lectin uptake in the midgut cells. In vitro assays using insect midgut CF-203 cells, revealed that RSA was highly toxic with an EC50 of 0.3 ?M. Preincubation with GalNAc and saponin indicated that this action of RSA was carbohydrate-binding dependent and happened at the surface of the cells. Intoxicated CF-203 cells showed symptoms of apoptosis as nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, and this concurred with an increase of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activities. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane extracts of CF-203 cells followed by LC-MS/MS allowed the identification of 5747 unique peptides, among which four putatively glycosylated membrane proteins that are associated with apoptosis induction, namely Fas-associated factor, Apoptosis-linked gene-2, Neuroglian and CG2076, as potential binding targets for RSA. These data are discussed in relation to the physiological effects of RSA.

Hamshou M; Van Damme EJ; Caccia S; Cappelle K; Vandenborre G; Ghesquière B; Gevaert K; Smagghe G

2013-03-01

225

Efectividad Biológica de TCMTB para el Control de la Costra Negra Rhizoctonia solani Kühn de la Papa Solanum Tuberosum L., en la Región de León, Guanajuato, México Efectividad Biológica de TCMTB para el Control de la Costra Negra Rhizoctonia solani Kühn de la Papa Solanum Tuberosum L., en la Región de León, Guanajuato, México  

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Full Text Available During the 1988 summer-fall growing cycle in the Mexican region of Leon, Guanajuato the fungicide 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) was evaluated applying it at the rate of 6, 8 and 10 liters per hectare for the control of soil borne Black Scurf R. solani. A randomized block design with four reps was used. An evaluation was made of the following: emerged stems, phytotoxical damage, percentage of damaged shoots and stems by R. solani, yield and tuber quality; finally, percentage of R. solani damaged tuber and percentage of tubers with over 5% of damage inflicted by R. solani. It was found that no phytotoxic effect of fungicide to the potato crop was observed; that any of the fungicides comprising treatments protected the plant shoots; that no statistic differences were found among treatments pertaining tuber yield; finally the rates 8.0 and 10.0 l/ha of TCMTB and 5.0 kg/ha of pencycuron produced 27, 20 y 25 percentage of tubers with over 5% of damage inflicted by R. solani, propitiated the highest potato quality when reducing R. solani damage to tubers. En la región de León, Guanajuato, México durante el ciclo verano-otoño 1998, se evaluó el fungicida 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) en dosis de 6, 8 y 10 litros por hectárea para el control del hongo del suelo Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Se usó un diseño de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Se evaluó el número de tallos emergidos, el efecto fitotóxico, los porcentajes de brotes y tallos dañados por R. solani, el rendimiento y calidad del tubérculo; finalmente, el porcentaje de daño de R. solani al tubérculo y el porcentaje de tubérculos con más del 5% de daño por R. solani. Se encontró que no hubo efecto fitotóxico del fungicida al cultivo de papa; que cualquiera de los tratamientos que contenían fungicidas protegieron los brotes de las plantas; que no hubo diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos con respecto al rendimiento de tubérculos; finalmente, las dosis de 8.0 y 10.0 l/ha de TCMTB y 5.0 kg/ha de pencycuron presentaron 27, 20 y 25 % de tubérculos con más del 5% de daño por el patógeno, respectivamente, propiciando la mayor calidad de papa, al reducir el daño de R. solani a los tubérculos.

Luis Pérez Moreno; José Orlando Castillo Villanueva; Fernando Javier Cantú Galindo

2012-01-01

226

Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323-mediated resistance in Brassica oleracea var. capitata to Rhizoctonia solani involves the novel expression of a glutathione S-transferase and a deoxycytidine deaminase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant interactions with microbial biocontrol agents are used as experimental models to understand resistance-related molecular adaptations of plants. In a hydroponic three-way interaction study, a novel Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 mediated mechanism was found to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in Brassica oleracea var. capitata plantlets. The R. solani challenge on leaves initiate an increase in lipoxygenase activity and associated hypersensitive tissue damage with characteristic "programmed cell death" that facilitate the infection. However, B. oleracea plantlets whose roots were briefly (6 h) colonized by T. harzianum ETS 323 developed resistance to R. solani infection through a significant reduction of the host hypersensitive tissue damage. The resistance developed in the distal leaf tissue was associated with the expression of a H(2)O(2)-inducible glutathione S-transferase (BoGST), which scavenges cytotoxic reactive electrophiles, and of a deoxycytidine deaminase (BoDCD), which modulates the host molecular expression and potentially neutralizes the DNA adducts and maintains DNA integrity. The cDNAs of BoGST and BoDCD were cloned and sequenced; their expressions were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and were found to be transcriptionally activated during the three-way interaction.

Shibu MA; Lin HS; Yang HH; Peng KC

2012-10-01

227

Rice oxalate oxidase gene driven by green tissue-specific promoter increases tolerance to sheath blight pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in transgenic rice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice sheath blight, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating and intractable diseases of rice, leading to a significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. In this article, in order to examine sheath blight resistance, we report the generation of transgenic rice lines overexpressing the rice oxalate oxidase 4 (Osoxo4) gene in a green tissue-specific manner which breaks down oxalic acid (OA), the pathogenesis factor secreted by R.?solani. Transgenic plants showed higher enzyme activity of oxalate oxidase (OxO) than nontransgenic control plants, which was visualized by histochemical assays and sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Transgenic rice leaves were more tolerant than control rice leaves to exogenous OA. Transgenic plants showed a higher level of expression of other defence-related genes in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced durable resistance to R.?solani. The overexpression of Osoxo4 in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. Our findings indicate that rice OxO can be utilized effectively in plant genetic manipulation for sheath blight resistance, and possibly for resistance to other diseases caused by necrotrophic fungi, especially those that secrete OA. This is the first report of the expression of defence genes in rice in a green tissue-specific manner for sheath blight resistance.

Molla KA; Karmakar S; Chanda PK; Ghosh S; Sarkar SN; Datta SK; Datta K

2013-07-01

228

Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323-mediated resistance in Brassica oleracea var. capitata to Rhizoctonia solani involves the novel expression of a glutathione S-transferase and a deoxycytidine deaminase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant interactions with microbial biocontrol agents are used as experimental models to understand resistance-related molecular adaptations of plants. In a hydroponic three-way interaction study, a novel Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 mediated mechanism was found to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in Brassica oleracea var. capitata plantlets. The R. solani challenge on leaves initiate an increase in lipoxygenase activity and associated hypersensitive tissue damage with characteristic "programmed cell death" that facilitate the infection. However, B. oleracea plantlets whose roots were briefly (6 h) colonized by T. harzianum ETS 323 developed resistance to R. solani infection through a significant reduction of the host hypersensitive tissue damage. The resistance developed in the distal leaf tissue was associated with the expression of a H(2)O(2)-inducible glutathione S-transferase (BoGST), which scavenges cytotoxic reactive electrophiles, and of a deoxycytidine deaminase (BoDCD), which modulates the host molecular expression and potentially neutralizes the DNA adducts and maintains DNA integrity. The cDNAs of BoGST and BoDCD were cloned and sequenced; their expressions were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and were found to be transcriptionally activated during the three-way interaction. PMID:23046447

Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lin, Hong-Shin; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Peng, Kou-Cheng

2012-10-19

229

Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from a pear orchard not having a cauliflower crop for at least 40 years. These two soils were subjected to five successive cropping cycles with cauliflower or remaining fallow in a greenhouse experiment. Soils were inoculated with R. solani AG 2-1 only once or before every crop. Disease decline occurred in all treatments cropped with cauliflower, either because of a decreased pathogen population or increased suppressiveness of the soil. Disease suppressiveness tests indicated that the conducive soil became suppressive after five subsequent cauliflower crops inoculated each cycle with R. solani AG 2-1. Suppressiveness of all treatments was measured in a seed germination test (pre-emergence damping-off) as well as by measuring the spread of R. solani symptoms in young plants (post-emergence damping-off). Results showed that suppressiveness was significantly stimulated by the successive R. solani inoculations; presence of the cauliflower crop had less effect. Suppressiveness was of biological origin, since it disappeared after sterilization of the soil. Moreover, suppressiveness could be translocated by adding 10% suppressive soil into sterilized soil. The suppressive soil contained higher numbers of culturable filamentous actinomycetes than the conducive soil, but treatments enhancing suppressiveness did not show an increased actinomycetes population. The suppressiveness of the soil samples did also not correlate with the number of pseudomonads. Moreover, no correlation was found with the presence of different mycoparasitic fungi, i.e. Volutella spp., Gliocladium roseum, Verticillium biguttatum and Trichoderma spp. The suppressive soil contained a high percentage of bacteria with a strong in vitro inhibition of R. solani. These bacteria were identified as Lysobacter (56%), Streptomyces (23%) and Pseudomonas (21%) spp. A potential role of Lysobacter in soil suppressiveness was confirmed by quantitative PCR detection (TaqMan), since a larger Lysobacter population was present in suppressive cauliflower soil than in conducive pear orchard soil. Our experiments showed that successive cauliflower plantings can cause a decline of the damage caused by R. solani AG 2-1, and that natural disease suppressiveness was most pronounced after subsequent inoculations with the pathogen. The mode of action of the decline is not yet understood, but antagonistic Lysobacter spp. are potential key organisms.

Postma J; Scheper RWA; Schilder MT

2010-05-01

230

Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII) à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII) associated with weed species from a potato cropping area  

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Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4) do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L.) Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae), e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae). Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill.), uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru) foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA). Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4) of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and tobacco. The AG-4 cause considerable losses in crops of economic importance, such as soybean, beans and peanuts and may also occur in vegetables such as spinach, pepper, broccoli, tomatoes, potatoes and fruit such as melons. The association of R. solani with invasive plants was recently established in potato production areas from Brasília, DF. However, there is no information about the etiology of the pathogen as well as the role of invasive species as alternative hosts in the life cycle of the pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of R. solani obtained from potatoes and three other invasive plant species associated with areas of potato production: Shoo-fly plant [Nicandra physaloides (L.) Pers., Solanaceae], pigweed (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae), and low-amaranth (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae). It was confirmed the hypothesis that the R. solani isolates obtained from pigweed, low-amaranth and Shoo-fly plant belong to the anastomosis group 4 and, except for the isolate from pigweed, are pathogenic to potatoes. These isolates were cross pathogencic to all the three weed species tested and also to American nightshade (Solanum americanum Mill.), another Solanaceae invasive of potato fields. The placement of the isolates in the group AG-4 HGI or in the group AG-4 HGIII (isolate from caruru) was confirmed by cultural and molecular characteristics (sequencing of the ITS-5.8S region of rDNA). The results of this study provide important implications for the management of the Rhizoctonia root rot in potatoes.

Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto; Wagner Vicente Pereira; Maisa Boff Ciampi; Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara; Paulo Cezar Ceresini

2010-01-01

231

Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII) à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata/ Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII) associated with weed species from a potato cropping area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4) do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em B (more) rasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L.) Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae), e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae). Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill.), uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru) foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA). Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata. Abstract in english The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4) of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and tobacco. The AG-4 cause considerable losses in crops of economic importance, such as soybean, beans and peanuts and may also occur in vegetables such as spinach, pepper, broccoli, tomatoes, potatoes and fruit such as melons. The association of R. solani with invasive plants wa (more) s recently established in potato production areas from Brasília, DF. However, there is no information about the etiology of the pathogen as well as the role of invasive species as alternative hosts in the life cycle of the pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of R. solani obtained from potatoes and three other invasive plant species associated with areas of potato production: Shoo-fly plant [Nicandra physaloides (L.) Pers., Solanaceae], pigweed (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae), and low-amaranth (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae). It was confirmed the hypothesis that the R. solani isolates obtained from pigweed, low-amaranth and Shoo-fly plant belong to the anastomosis group 4 and, except for the isolate from pigweed, are pathogenic to potatoes. These isolates were cross pathogencic to all the three weed species tested and also to American nightshade (Solanum americanum Mill.), another Solanaceae invasive of potato fields. The placement of the isolates in the group AG-4 HGI or in the group AG-4 HGIII (isolate from caruru) was confirmed by cultural and molecular characteristics (sequencing of the ITS-5.8S region of rDNA). The results of this study provide important implications for the management of the Rhizoctonia root rot in potatoes.

Silva-Barreto, Fátima Aparecida da; Pereira, Wagner Vicente; Ciampi, Maisa Boff; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar

2010-06-01

232

SENSIBILIDADE DE Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, A FUNGICIDAS “IN VITRO” E EM PLÂNTULAS DE ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L.), EM CONDIÇÕES DE CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO SENSIBILITY OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn TO FUNGICIDES “IN VITRO” AND IN COTTON PLANTULES (Gossypium hirsutum L) AT GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available Foram instalados nas dependências do Departamento Fitossanitário da Escola de Agronomia - UFG, ensaio “in vitro”, em BDA2 e a nível de Casa de Vegetação, objetivando testar a eficiência de diferentes dosagens de Iprodione + Thiran (Rovrin) em comparação com PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR), TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) e Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren) para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, na cultura do algodoeiro, através do tratamento de sementes. Os resultados obtidos, nas condições de realização dos ensaios, permitem concluir que os fungicidas Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes mostraram-se eficientes e não diferiram estatisticamente entre si no controle de R. solani, enquanto que o produto TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) na dosagem de 280 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes de algodoeiro não se mostrou eficiente no controle deste agente causal. Aiming to test the efficiency of different dosages of Iprodione + Thiram (Rovrin) in comparison with PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR), TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) and Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren) for controlling Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, in cotton plantation, through seeds treatment, was mounted essays “in vitro” at greenhouse level and BDA, in the Phytosanitary Department annexes of School of Agronomy-UFG. The results obtained, at essays conditions, permit to conclude that fungicides Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./l00 liters of water or 100kg of seeds, were efficient and statistically had no variation among them, in controlling R. solani, while chemical product TMTD (Rhodiauran 70), at dosage of 280 g.i.a./100 liters of water or 100 kg of cotton seeds, was not efficient in controlling this causal agent.

Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Fausto Luiz da Cunha; Luiz Carlos Corrêa Júnior

2007-01-01

233

SENSIBILITY OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn TO FUNGICIDES “IN VITRO” AND IN COTTON PLANTULES (Gossypium hirsutum L) AT GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS SENSIBILIDADE DE Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, A FUNGICIDAS “IN VITRO” E EM PLÂNTULAS DE ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L.), EM CONDIÇÕES DE CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO  

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Full Text Available Aiming to test the efficiency of different dosages of Iprodione + Thiram (Rovrin) in comparison with PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR), TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) and Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren) for controlling Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, in cotton plantation, through seeds treatment, was mounted essays “in vitro” at greenhouse level and BDA, in the Phytosanitary Department annexes of School of Agronomy-UFG. The results obtained, at essays conditions, permit to conclude that fungicides Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./l00 liters of water or 100kg of seeds, were efficient and statistically had no variation among them, in controlling R. solani, while chemical product TMTD (Rhodiauran 70), at dosage of 280 g.i.a./100 liters of water or 100 kg of cotton seeds, was not efficient in controlling this causal agent. Foram instalados nas dependências do Departamento Fitossanitário da Escola de Agronomia - UFG, ensaio “in vitro”, em BDA2 e a nível de Casa de Vegetação, objetivando testar a eficiência de diferentes dosagens de Iprodione + Thiran (Rovrin) em comparação com PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR), TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) e Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren) para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, na cultura do algodoeiro, através do tratamento de sementes. Os resultados obtidos, nas condições de realização dos ensaios, permitem concluir que os fungicidas Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes mostraram-se eficientes e não diferiram estatisticamente entre si no controle de R. solani, enquanto que o produto TMTD (Rhodiauran 70) na dosagem de 280 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes de algodoeiro não se mostrou eficiente no controle deste agente causal.

Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Fausto Luiz da Cunha; Luiz Carlos Corrêa Júnior

2007-01-01

234

Determination of the Anastomosis Grouping and Virulence of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn Isolates Associated with Bean Plants Grown in Samsun/Turkey  

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Full Text Available Anastomosis groupings and virulence of 229 Rhizoctonia solani isolates, obtained from bean plants and soils in Samsun province, were determined. About 59 % of the isolates belonged to anastomosis group AG 4, 31 % to AG 2-2 and the remaining 10 % to AG 5. All the isolates selected for the pathogenicity test were found to be virulent at varying degrees to eight plants from different families. Isolate HAF 1-3 belonging to AG 4 were found to be the most virulent isolate. Sugarbeet was the most susceptible plant species while corn and leek seemed to be rather resistant. The virulence of the isolates on different bean cultivars varied. AG 4 and AG 2-2 group isolates caused severe symptoms of root rot on all cultivars. AG 5 isolate was highly to moderately virulent regarding the susceptibility of the bean cultivars. Horoz was found to be the most susceptible bean cultivar.

G. H. Karaca; I. Ozkoc; I. Erper

2002-01-01

235

Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum  

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Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing bacterial culture to move readily over the surface of laboratory media. Amphisin is a new member of a group of dual-functioning compounds such as tensin, viscosin and viscosinamid that display both biosurfactant and antifungal properties. The ability of DSS73 to efficiently contain root-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi.

Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit

2003-01-01

236

Eficiência de diferentes moléculas na redução dos sintomas da queima das bainhas em arroz e no crescimento de Rhizoctonia solani in vitro/ Efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of sheath blight symptoms in rice and on Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo verificou a eficiência da aplicação de diferentes moléculas em reduzir o comprimento relativo da lesão (CRL) da queima das bainhas em arroz. Plantas dos cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva e inoculadas com Rhizoctonia solani, no estádio de máximo perfilhamento. Às 24 horas antes da inoculação, as bainhas das plantas foram pulverizadas com soluções de silicato de potássio (SP), silicato de potássio + fósforo ( (more) SP+F), Acibenzolar-S-Metil (ASM), fungicida Carbendazim, quitosana desacetilada (QD), etileno (ET) e fosfito de potássio (FP). Plantas cujas bainhas foram pulverizadas com água destilada serviram como testemunhas. O efeito das moléculas contidas nesses produtos no crescimento micelial de R. solani foi testado in vitro. Para BR-Irga 409, o CRL foi menor com a aplicação do FP, em relação aos demais tratamentos, exceto o Carbendazim. A aplicação do Carbendazim reduziu em 86,1% o CRL, em relação à testemunha. O CRL foi significativamente menor no cultivar BR-Irga 409 do que no 'Labelle', com aplicação do FP. O crescimento micelial de R. solani foi reduzido apenas pelo FP e Carbendazim, em comparação com os demais tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos testemunha, SP e SP+F para a concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas dos dois cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to test the efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of the relative lesion extension (RLE) of sheath blight in rice. Plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle were grown in nutrient solution and inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani at the maximum tillering stage. At 24 hours before inoculation, sheaths of plants were sprayed with solutions of potassium silicate (PS), potassium silicate + phosphorus (PS+P), Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM), Carbendazi (more) m fungicide, deacetylated chitosan (DC), ethylene (ET) and potassium phosphite (PP). Sheaths from plants sprayed with water served as the control treatment. The effect of these products on R. solani mycelia growth was also studied in vitro. For BR-Irga 409, the RLE was lower with the application of PP compared with the other treatments, except the Carbendazim. The application of Carbendazim reduced in 86.1% the RLE in comparison with the control. The RLE was lower for BR-Irga 409 than for Labell with the application of PP. Mycelia growth of R. solani was inhibited only by PP and Carbendazim in comparison with the other treatments. There was no significant difference among the treatments control, PS, and PS+P for silicon concentration on sheaths of plants of the two cultivars.

Schurt, Daniel Augusto; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Souza, Naiara Fernandes Abreu; Reis, Ricardo Dutra

2013-04-01

237

Eficiência de diferentes moléculas na redução dos sintomas da queima das bainhas em arroz e no crescimento de Rhizoctonia solani in vitro Efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of sheath blight symptoms in rice and on Rhizoctonia solani growth in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência da aplicação de diferentes moléculas em reduzir o comprimento relativo da lesão (CRL) da queima das bainhas em arroz. Plantas dos cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva e inoculadas com Rhizoctonia solani, no estádio de máximo perfilhamento. Às 24 horas antes da inoculação, as bainhas das plantas foram pulverizadas com soluções de silicato de potássio (SP), silicato de potássio + fósforo (SP+F), Acibenzolar-S-Metil (ASM), fungicida Carbendazim, quitosana desacetilada (QD), etileno (ET) e fosfito de potássio (FP). Plantas cujas bainhas foram pulverizadas com água destilada serviram como testemunhas. O efeito das moléculas contidas nesses produtos no crescimento micelial de R. solani foi testado in vitro. Para BR-Irga 409, o CRL foi menor com a aplicação do FP, em relação aos demais tratamentos, exceto o Carbendazim. A aplicação do Carbendazim reduziu em 86,1% o CRL, em relação à testemunha. O CRL foi significativamente menor no cultivar BR-Irga 409 do que no 'Labelle', com aplicação do FP. O crescimento micelial de R. solani foi reduzido apenas pelo FP e Carbendazim, em comparação com os demais tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos testemunha, SP e SP+F para a concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas dos dois cultivares.This study aimed to test the efficiency of different molecules on the reduction of the relative lesion extension (RLE) of sheath blight in rice. Plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle were grown in nutrient solution and inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani at the maximum tillering stage. At 24 hours before inoculation, sheaths of plants were sprayed with solutions of potassium silicate (PS), potassium silicate + phosphorus (PS+P), Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM), Carbendazim fungicide, deacetylated chitosan (DC), ethylene (ET) and potassium phosphite (PP). Sheaths from plants sprayed with water served as the control treatment. The effect of these products on R. solani mycelia growth was also studied in vitro. For BR-Irga 409, the RLE was lower with the application of PP compared with the other treatments, except the Carbendazim. The application of Carbendazim reduced in 86.1% the RLE in comparison with the control. The RLE was lower for BR-Irga 409 than for Labell with the application of PP. Mycelia growth of R. solani was inhibited only by PP and Carbendazim in comparison with the other treatments. There was no significant difference among the treatments control, PS, and PS+P for silicon concentration on sheaths of plants of the two cultivars.

Daniel Augusto Schurt; Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues; Naiara Fernandes Abreu Souza; Ricardo Dutra Reis

2013-01-01

238

Efeitos de materiais orgânicos e da umidade do solo na patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn GA-4 HGI ao feijoeiro The role of the organic material amended and the soil moisture on the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 HGI in snap bean  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados, em casa de vegetação, os efeitos das seguintes variáveis sobre a patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani GA-4 HGI a plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), em solo artificialmente infestado: presença de materiais orgânicos com diferentes relações C:N (torta de mamona e bagaço de cana); níveis de decomposição da matéria orgânica, e condições de umidade do solo incorporado. A umidade do solo até o momento da semeadura foi mantida sob duas condições: 20% ou acima de 80% da capacidade de campo. Foram realizadas semeaduras aos 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após inoculação e incorporação. As avaliações foram realizadas 14 dias após cada semeadura. O material com baixa relação C:N propiciou o aumento da incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, enquanto o material com alta relação C:N não interferiu na incidência do patógeno. A incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, em solo incorporado, foi independente da condição de umidade.The pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants was evaluated, in artificially infested soil under greenhouse conditions, when submitted to the following treatments: amendments with different C:N ratios (castor-oil cake and sugar-cane bagasse); different organic matter decomposition levels; different moisture contents of the amended soil. Until the moment of sowing the soil moisture was maintained at 20% of the moisture-holding capacity or above 80%. The sowings were made at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the inoculation and amendments incorporation. Evaluations were carried out 14 days after each sowing date. The amendment with low C:N ratio increased the incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in any decomposition level, whereas the amendment with high C:N ratio did not interfere on the incidence of the pathogen. The incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in a soil amended with both castor-oil cake or sugar-cane bagasse, was independent of the soil moisture condition.

Roseli Chela Fenille; Nilton Luiz de Souza

1999-01-01

239

Impact of Gamma Irradiation Stresses II. Control of Sugarbeet Pathogens Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.  

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To control the fungal pathogens attacked sugarbeet plant, we subjected R. solani and S. rolfsii to different gamma irradiation doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 kGy for R. solani and 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy for S. rolfsii). The growth activ...

Tarek A. A. Moussa; Mohamed A. Rizk

240

Impact of Gamma Irradiation Stresses II. Control of Sugarbeet Pathogens Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.  

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Full Text Available To control the fungal pathogens attacked sugarbeet plant, we subjected R. solani and S. rolfsii to different gamma irradiation doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 kGy for R. solani and 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy for S. rolfsii). The growth activities of R. solani were completely inhibited at dose 7.0 kGy, while S. rolfsii at 4.0 kGy. The infection percentage was inhibited with gamma irradiation doses increased for both R. solani and S. rolfsii. This was confirmed by the SDS-PAGE for cellular proteins of both R. solani and S. rolfsii, which showed a great variation in protein bands for the same fungus at different gamma irradiation doses. Finally, we can conclude that the gamma irradiation dose to control pathogenic fungi varies with different pathogenic fungi to control the pathogenicity of R. solani, we irradiate it at 7.0 kGy dose while at 4.0 kGy for S. rolfsii.

Tarek A. A. Moussa; Mohamed A. Rizk

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of above-ground plant species on soil microbial community structure and its impact on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent of soil microbial diversity is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality. Different agricultural practices are able to affect soil microbial diversity and thus the level of suppressiveness of plant diseases. In a 4-year field experiment, we investigated the microbial diversity of soil under different agricultural regimes. We studied permanent grassland, grassland turned into arable land, long-term arable land and arable land turned into grassland. The diversity of microbial communities was described by using cultivation-based and cultivation-independent methods. Both types of methods revealed differences in the diversities of soil microbial communities between different treatments. The treatments with higher above-ground biodiversity generally maintained higher levels of microbial diversity. Moreover, a positive correlation between suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and microbial diversity was observed. Permanent (species-rich) grassland and grassland turned into maize stimulated higher microbial diversities and higher levels of suppressiveness of R. solani AG3 compared with the long-term arable land. Effects of agricultural practices on Bacillus and Pseudomonas communities were also observed and clear correlations between the levels of suppressiveness and the diversities of these bacterial groups were found. This study highlighted the importance of agricultural management regime for soil microbial community structure and diversity as well as the level of soil suppressiveness. PMID:16423012

Garbeva, P; Postma, J; van Veen, J A; van Elsas, J D

2006-02-01

242

Effect of above-ground plant species on soil microbial community structure and its impact on suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extent of soil microbial diversity is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality. Different agricultural practices are able to affect soil microbial diversity and thus the level of suppressiveness of plant diseases. In a 4-year field experiment, we investigated the microbial diversity of soil under different agricultural regimes. We studied permanent grassland, grassland turned into arable land, long-term arable land and arable land turned into grassland. The diversity of microbial communities was described by using cultivation-based and cultivation-independent methods. Both types of methods revealed differences in the diversities of soil microbial communities between different treatments. The treatments with higher above-ground biodiversity generally maintained higher levels of microbial diversity. Moreover, a positive correlation between suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and microbial diversity was observed. Permanent (species-rich) grassland and grassland turned into maize stimulated higher microbial diversities and higher levels of suppressiveness of R. solani AG3 compared with the long-term arable land. Effects of agricultural practices on Bacillus and Pseudomonas communities were also observed and clear correlations between the levels of suppressiveness and the diversities of these bacterial groups were found. This study highlighted the importance of agricultural management regime for soil microbial community structure and diversity as well as the level of soil suppressiveness.

Garbeva P; Postma J; van Veen JA; van Elsas JD

2006-02-01

243

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

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Full Text Available A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA.

Maisa B. Ciampi; Liane Rosewich Gale; Eliana G. de Macedo Lemos; Paulo C. Ceresini

2009-01-01

244

Biocontrol capacity of wild and mutant Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) strains on Rhizoctonia solani 618: effect of temperature and soil type during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Wild (Th11, Th12 and Th650) and mutant (Th11A80.1, Th12A40.1, Th12C40.1 and Th650-NG7) Trichoderma harzianum strains were stored for 180 days at 5ºC or at 22ºC, in two types of soils. Strains recovered at 90, 120 and 180 days from the two types of soils, retained their full capacity to biocontrol Rhizoctonia solani 618, that produces crown and root rot of tomatoes. Recovery, estimated as colony forming units (cfu) of the wild and mutant strains, showed that all increase (more) d their cfu after storage independently of the type of soil and temperature, although kinetic behavior differed among strains. Ratios of recovery after storage in type B soil/ type A soil or at 22ºC/5ºC, higher or lower than one respectively, allowed to establish that Th11 and Th12 were the most appropriate strains for the biocontrol of R. solani in conditions where growth of the phytopathogen is optimal.

Montealegre, Jaime; Valderrama, Luis; Herrera, Rodrigo; Besoaín, Ximena; Pérez, Luz M

2009-10-01

245

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (P<0.05) the severity of damping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed. Furthermore, they resulted in a significant increase in the seedling fresh weight, the seedling length and the root length of the seed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively.

Goudjal Y; Toumatia O; Yekkour A; Sabaou N; Mathieu F; Zitouni A

2013-08-01

246

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which re (more) sulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA.

Ciampi, Maisa B.; Gale, Liane Rosewich; Lemos, Eliana G. de Macedo; Ceresini, Paulo C.

2009-01-01

247

Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

2012-10-03

248

Molecular characterization of the pathogenic plant fungus Rhizoctonia solani (Ceratobasidiaceae) isolated from Egypt based on protein and PCR-RAPD profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were categorized into three anastomosis groups consisting of AG-4-HG-I (eight isolates), AG-2-2 (nine isolates) and AG-5 (four isolates). Their pathogenic capacities were tested on cotton cultivar Giza 86. Pre-emergence damping-off varied in response to the different isolates; however, the differences were not significant. Soluble proteins of the fungal isolates were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE and gel electrophoreses. A dendrogram of the protein banding patterns by the UPGMA of arithmetic means placed the fungal isolates into distinct groups. There was no evidence of a relationship between protein dendrogram, anastomosis grouping or level of virulence or geographic origin. The dendrogram generated from these isolates based on PCR analysis with five RAPD-PCR primers showed high levels of genetic similarity among the isolates from the same geographical locations. There was partially relationship between the genetic similarity and AGs or level of virulence or geographic origin based on RAPD dendrogram. These results demonstrate that RAPD technique is a useful tool in determining the genetic characterization among isolates of R. solani. PMID:23096684

Mahmoud, M A; Al-Sohaibani, S A; Abdelbacki, A M M; Al-Othman, M R; Abd El-Aziz, A R M; Kasem, K K; Mikhail, M S; Sabet, K K; Omar, M R; Hussein, E M

2012-10-04

249

Molecular characterization of the pathogenic plant fungus Rhizoctonia solani (Ceratobasidiaceae) isolated from Egypt based on protein and PCR-RAPD profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-one isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were categorized into three anastomosis groups consisting of AG-4-HG-I (eight isolates), AG-2-2 (nine isolates) and AG-5 (four isolates). Their pathogenic capacities were tested on cotton cultivar Giza 86. Pre-emergence damping-off varied in response to the different isolates; however, the differences were not significant. Soluble proteins of the fungal isolates were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE and gel electrophoreses. A dendrogram of the protein banding patterns by the UPGMA of arithmetic means placed the fungal isolates into distinct groups. There was no evidence of a relationship between protein dendrogram, anastomosis grouping or level of virulence or geographic origin. The dendrogram generated from these isolates based on PCR analysis with five RAPD-PCR primers showed high levels of genetic similarity among the isolates from the same geographical locations. There was partially relationship between the genetic similarity and AGs or level of virulence or geographic origin based on RAPD dendrogram. These results demonstrate that RAPD technique is a useful tool in determining the genetic characterization among isolates of R. solani.

Mahmoud MA; Al-Sohaibani SA; Abdelbacki AM; Al-Othman MR; Abd El-Aziz AR; Kasem KK; Mikhail MS; Sabet KK; Omar MR; Hussein EM

2012-01-01

250

Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity.

Helliwell EE; Wang Q; Yang Y

2013-01-01

251

Identification of anastomosis group of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of seed rot and damping-off of bean in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bean is one of the major crops in Iran. Seed rot and damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important disease of bean. In this research, infected roots and seedlings of beans were collected from different fields of Tehran Province. The samples were sterilized with 10% sodium hypochloride (5% stock) and incubated on PDA surface in petri-dishes. The purified fungi kept on filter paper and identified, pathogenicity test of R. solani was carried out on 2 cultivars of bean (red bean cv. Naz and white bean cv. Dehghan) and it determined. For identification of the anastomosis groups, the discs of cultured media with 5 mm. diameter of standard AG placed on one side of microscopic slides covered with water agar (2%) of 1 mm. thick and the isolates of the fungus on another side of slide about 2 cm away from each other. Experiment carried out in 4 replications. The cultures were incubated in 25 +/- 1 degrees C incubator for 24 hours, then the mycelial contact stained with lactophenol, cotton blue and hyphal anastomosis looked for under the light microscope with 10 x 40 and 10 x 100 magnifications. As a result, anastomosis groups: AG4, AG4HGII, AG2-2-2B and AG6 determined, frequency of these groups were 64, 18, 2, 16%, respectively. The group AG6 and subgroups AG4HGII and AG2-2-2B are introduced as new anastomosis groups on bean in Iran. PMID:16637168

Bohlooli, A; Okhowat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

2005-01-01

252

Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT is the major pathogen associated with potato stem canker and black scurf in Colombia/ Rhizoctonia solani GA-3PT es el principal patógeno asociado con el chancro del tallo y la sarna negra de la papa en Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El chancro del tallo y la sarna negra de la papa son ocasionados por el hongo basidiomicete Thanatephorus cucumeris (especie anamórfica compleja Rhizoctonia solani). Estas dos enfermedades tienen una distribución global en los cultivos de papa, pero su etiología local es variable, dependiendo de la predominancia de diferentes grupos de anastomosis (GA s) en una localidad dada. Al interior de esta especie compleja se han encontrado varios GA s asociados con el chancro d (more) el tallo y la sarna negra, como GA -1, GA -2-1, GA -2-2, GA -3, GA -4, GA -5 y GA -9. Este artículo presenta el estudio más exhaustivo a nivel poblacional realizado en Colombia sobre la distribución de los GA s de R. solani en lotes comerciales de papa. Se examinaron 433 aislamientos colectados entre 2005 y 2009 en las regiones paperas más importantes del país. Los aislamientos fueron asignados a los GA s por PCR usando cebadores específicos para el GA -3 y secuenciamiento del ITS -ADNr e interacciones hifales. El GA -3PT cubrió la mayoría de los aislamientos (88.45%), el GA -2-1 tuvo el 2.54% y los aislamientos restantes correspondieron a cepas binucleadas de R. solani (GA -A, -E, y -I). Las pruebas de patogenicidad sobre diferentes especies de plantas, incluida la papa, evidenciaron que el GA -3PT afecta los tallos de las plantas de la familia Solanácea; en otros hospedantes evaluados el daño fue severo en las raíces pero no en los tallos; el GA -2-1 ocasionó chancros en tallos de plántulas de Solanum tuberosum cv. Capiro y R. raphanistrumi and B. campestris subsp. Rapa, y pudrición de raíces en otras plantas. Los resultados de nuestro estudio indican que el GA -3PT de R. solani es el principal patógeno asociado con las enfermedades del chancro del tallo y la sarna negra de la papa en Colombia Abstract in english Stem canker and black scurf diseases of potatoes are caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorphic species complex Rhizoctonia solani). These diseases have worldwide distribution wherever potato is grown but their etiology varies depending on the predominance of distinct R. solani anastomosis groups (AG s) in a particular area. Within the species complex, several AG s have been associated with stem canker or black scurf diseases, including AG -1 (more) , AG -2-1, AG -2-2, AG -3, AG -4, AG -5 and AG -9. This article reports on the most comprehensive population-based study, providing evidence on the distribution of R. solani AG s in Colombian potato fields. A total of 433 isolates were sampled from the main potato cropping areas in Colombia from 2005 to 2009. Isolates were assigned to AG s by conventional PCR assays using specific primers for AG -3, sequencing of the ITS -rDNA and hyphal interactions. Most of the isolates evaluated were assigned to AG -3PT (88.45%), and a few to AG -2-1 (2.54%). The remaining isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia (AG -A, E, and I). Pathogenicity tests on the stems and roots of different plant species, including the potato, showed that AG -3PT affects the stems of solanaceous plants. In other plant species, damage was severe in the roots, but not the stems. AG -2-1 caused stem canker of Solanum tuberosum cv. Capiro and in R. raphanistrumi and B.campestris subsp. Rapa plantlets and root rot in other plants. The results of our study indicated that R. solani AG -3PT was the principal pathogen associated with potato stem canker and black scurf diseases of potatoes in Colombia

Ferrucho, Rosa Lilia; Cifuentes, Johan Manuel; Ceresini, Paulo; García-Domínguez, Celsa

2012-08-01

253

Establishment and interpretation of the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anastomosis group AG1-IB isolates of the anamorphic basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn affect various agricultural and horticultural important crops including bean, rice, soybean, figs, hortensia, cabbage and lettuce. To gain insights into the genome structure and content, the first draft genome sequence of R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 was established. Four complete runs on the Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX platform (Roche Applied Science) yielding approx. a 25-fold coverage of the R. solani genome were accomplished. Assembly of the sequence reads by means of the gsAssembler software version 2.6 applying the heterozygotic mode resulted in numerous contigs and scaffolds and a predicted size of 87.1 Mb for the diploid status of the genome. 'Contig-length vs. read-count' analysis revealed that the assembled contigs can be classified into five different groups. Detailed BLAST-analysis revealed that most contigs of group II feature high-scoring matches to other contigs of the same group suggesting that distinguishable allelic variants exist for many genes. Due to the supposed diploid and heterokaryotic nature of R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14, this result has been anticipated. However, the heterokaryotic character of the isolate is not really supported by sequencing data obtained for the isolate R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14. Coverage of group III contigs is twice as high as for group II contigs which can also be explained by the diploid status of the genome and indistinguishable alleles on homologous chromosomes. Assembly of sequence data led to the identification of the rRNA unit (group V contigs) and the mitochondrial (mt) genome (group IV contigs) which is a circular molecule of 162,751 bp in size featuring a GC-content of 36.4%. The R. solani 7/3/14 mt-genome is one of the largest fungal mitochondrial genomes known to date. Its large size essentially is due to the presence of numerous non-conserved hypothetical ORFs and introns. Gene prediction for the R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genome was conducted by the Augustus Gene Prediction Software for Eukaryotes (version 2.6.) applying the parameter set for the fungus Coprinopsis cinerea okayama 7#130. Gene prediction and annotation provided first insights into the R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene structure and content. In total, 12,422 genes were predicted. The average number of exons per gene is five. Exons have a mean length of 214 bp, whereas introns on average are 66 bp in length. Annotation of the genome revealed that 4169 of 12,422 genes could be assigned to KOG functional categories.

Wibberg D; Jelonek L; Rupp O; Hennig M; Eikmeyer F; Goesmann A; Hartmann A; Borriss R; Grosch R; Pühler A; Schlüter A

2013-08-01

254

Establishment and interpretation of the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anastomosis group AG1-IB isolates of the anamorphic basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn affect various agricultural and horticultural important crops including bean, rice, soybean, figs, hortensia, cabbage and lettuce. To gain insights into the genome structure and content, the first draft genome sequence of R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 was established. Four complete runs on the Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX platform (Roche Applied Science) yielding approx. a 25-fold coverage of the R. solani genome were accomplished. Assembly of the sequence reads by means of the gsAssembler software version 2.6 applying the heterozygotic mode resulted in numerous contigs and scaffolds and a predicted size of 87.1 Mb for the diploid status of the genome. 'Contig-length vs. read-count' analysis revealed that the assembled contigs can be classified into five different groups. Detailed BLAST-analysis revealed that most contigs of group II feature high-scoring matches to other contigs of the same group suggesting that distinguishable allelic variants exist for many genes. Due to the supposed diploid and heterokaryotic nature of R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14, this result has been anticipated. However, the heterokaryotic character of the isolate is not really supported by sequencing data obtained for the isolate R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14. Coverage of group III contigs is twice as high as for group II contigs which can also be explained by the diploid status of the genome and indistinguishable alleles on homologous chromosomes. Assembly of sequence data led to the identification of the rRNA unit (group V contigs) and the mitochondrial (mt) genome (group IV contigs) which is a circular molecule of 162,751 bp in size featuring a GC-content of 36.4%. The R. solani 7/3/14 mt-genome is one of the largest fungal mitochondrial genomes known to date. Its large size essentially is due to the presence of numerous non-conserved hypothetical ORFs and introns. Gene prediction for the R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genome was conducted by the Augustus Gene Prediction Software for Eukaryotes (version 2.6.) applying the parameter set for the fungus Coprinopsis cinerea okayama 7#130. Gene prediction and annotation provided first insights into the R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene structure and content. In total, 12,422 genes were predicted. The average number of exons per gene is five. Exons have a mean length of 214 bp, whereas introns on average are 66 bp in length. Annotation of the genome revealed that 4169 of 12,422 genes could be assigned to KOG functional categories. PMID:23280342

Wibberg, Daniel; Jelonek, Lukas; Rupp, Oliver; Hennig, Magdalena; Eikmeyer, Felix; Goesmann, Alexander; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

2012-12-29

255

Efeito da solarização do solo, seguida pela aplicação de Trichoderma spp: ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 Effect of soil solarization, followed or not by the application of Trichoderma spp: or fungicides for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani AG-4  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar alternativas para a desinfestação de solos, especialmente considerando a retirada do brometo de metila do mercado. Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização do solo, seguida ou não pela aplicação de isolados de Trichoderma spp. ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, responsáveis por tombamento e podridão de raízes em várias culturas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Piracicaba, SP (latitude 22º 42' e longitude 47º38'), um em campo aberto e outro no interior de uma casa-de-vegetação vedada, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (2x3), tendo como fatores a solarização (com e sem) e os tratamentos (com fungicida, um isolado de Trichoderma sp. e uma testemunha). Bolsas de náilon contendo solo naturalmente infestado com P. aphanidermatum ou solo contendo propágulos de R. solani AG-4 foram enterradas a 10 cm de profundidade, em parcelas solarizadas ou não, nos dois ambientes. Após 30 dias de solarização, as bolsas foram coletadas e o solo infestado com P. aphanidermatum recebeu os tratamentos: o isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-26 ou o fungicida metalaxyl + mancozeb. O solo contendo propágulos de R. solani foi tratado com o isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-17 ou o fungicida pencycuron. As soluções dos fungicidas foram aplicadas na forma de rega. Também foram mantidas testemunhas para ambos os patógenos. Avaliou-se a viabilidade de P. aphanidermatum pelo tombamento de pós-emergência de plântulas de pepino e de R. solani pelo número de plântulas de rabanete sobreviventes ao tombamento de pré e pós-emergência. A solarização, o controle biológico e a solarização seguida pelo controle biológico não promoveram o controle de P. aphanidermatum, obtido apenas com metalaxyl + mancozeb, nos solos solarizados ou não. A solarização aplicada nos dois ambientes controlou R. solani, assim como o fungicida pencycuron, mas não houve efeito sinérgico na associação entre as técnicas. A aplicação do isolado de Trichoderma sp. IB-17 não proporcionou o controle desse patógeno nos solos solarizados ou não.The development of alternative strategies for soil desinfestation with methyl bromide is necessary since the use of this compound faces increasing restrictions worldwide. Therefore the effect of soil solarization, followed by the application of isolates of Trichoderma spp. or fungicides, was evaluated for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani, both can cause damping-off and root rots of several crops. Two experiments were carried out, one under greenhouse conditions and the other one under field conditions, both in a randomized block design, in factorial scheme (2x3), involving the combination of soil solarization (solarized and non-solarized soils) and the application of chemical or biological treatments, plus controls. Nylon bags containing soil naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum or soil with propagules of R. solani AG-4 were buried at 10 cm soil depth in plots solarized or non-solarized. After 30 days of solarization the bags were collected and the soil infested with P. aphanidermatum was treated with Trichoderma sp. (isolate IB-26) or with the fungicide metalaxyl + mancozeb, whereas the soil containing propagules of R. solani received an isolate of Trichoderma sp. (isolate IB-17) or the fungicide pencycuron. Fungicide suspensions were irrigated over the soil. A control was maintained for the soils infested with both pathogens. Viability of P. aphanidermatum and R. solani was evaluated by post-emergence damping-off of cucumber seedlings and by pre and post-emergence damping-off of radish seedling, respectively. Soil solarization, the biological treatment and the association of both treatments had no effect on the control of P. aphanidermatum, which was achieved only by the treatment with metalaxyl + mancozeb in the solarized and non-solarized soil. Soil solarization applied in both environments as well as the fungicide

Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Hiroshi Kimati; João Tessarioli Neto; Ademir Petenatti; Benedito Camargo Barros

2007-01-01

256

Reacción de genotipos de frijol a Fusarium spp. y Rhizoctonia solani bajo condiciones de campo e invernadero/ Reaction of common bean genotypes to Fusarium spp. y Rhizoctonia solani under field and greenhose conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las pudriciones de raíz inducidas por R. solani y Fusarium spp. afectan al cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en el altiplano de México. Para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a ambos hongos bajo condiciones de invernadero y campo, se realizaron dos experimentos en 2001. En campo, bajo condiciones de temporal, se sembraron 15 genotipos el 24 de julio, en suelo naturalmente infestado con hongos inductores de pudriciones de raíz, en Texcoco, Estado de M? (more) ?xico. Durante el ciclo del cultivo se determinó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad en las etapas fenológicas V3, R5, R7 y R8; además, se registraron temperatura ambiente y precipitación pluvial diaria. Los mismos genotipos se sembraron en invernadero el 27 de julio de 2001 en macetas con suelo del mismo sitio, las determinaciones realizadas en ambos ensayos fueron similares. Se tomaron muestras de tejido vegetal para el aislamiento e identificación de los hongos causantes de pudriciones de raíz; ambos, R. solani y Fusarium spp. se recuperaron. En campo, se observaron pudriciones de raíz durante todo el ciclo, con la mayor severidad en las etapas R5 y R7, sin que se observaran genotipos inmunes. Negro Tacaná mostró resistencia intermedia a Fusarium spp. y G 12729 (genotipo silvestre) fue resistente en las primeras etapas fenológicas. En invernadero, ningún genotipo mostró un patrón de resistencia durante el ciclo. En campo, el ataque de R. solani fue menos severo que el de Fusarium spp., mientras que en invernadero el ataque de R. solani fue más alto. En campo, los genotipos Pinto Villa, Wisc RRR, PI 203958 y BAT 477 mostraron resistencia intermedia y fueron consistentes en su respuesta a ambos hongos, pero en invernadero mostraron susceptibilidad. La incidencia y la severidad de los patógenos mostraron diferencias relacionadas con las condiciones climáticas registradas durante el ciclo del cultivo. Abstract in english The root rot induced damage caused by R. solani and Fusarium spp. affects common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production at the highlands of Mexico. To identify bean genotypes resistant to both fungi, two experiments were conductedunderfieldand greenhouse conditions. In the field, under rainfed conditions, 15 bean genotypes were planted on July 24 2001, at Texcoco, state of Mexico. Incidence and attack severity were determined at the phenological stages V3, R5, R7 and R8; (more) also, daily temperature and precipitation were recorded. The same genotypes were planted under greenhouse conditions on July 27th, 2001 in pots with soil from the same site. Plant samples were collected from all genotypes for isolation and identification of fungi causing root rots. Both,R. solani and Fusarium spp. were recovered. Under field conditions, root rots were observed throughout the cycle, with the greatest severity at the R5 and R7 stages, no immune genotypes were observed. Cultivar Negro Tacana showed intermediate resistance to Fusarium spp. and G 12729 (a wild genotype) was resistant during the early phenological stages. Under greenhouse conditions, any genotype showed a consistent resistance pattern during the cycle. Atthe field, the attack by R. solani was less severe than that of Fusarium spp., whereas in the greenhouse the attack R. solani was severe. Atthe field, cultivars Pinto Villa, Wisc RRR, PI 203,958 and BAT 477 were intermediate and consistent in its response to both fungi; however, were susceptible in the greenhouse. The disease incidence and severity on the genotypes showed differences related to climatic conditions registered during the growth cycle.

Navarrete-Maya, Rosa; Trejo-Albarrán, Evangelina; Navarrete-Maya, Jorge; Prudencio-Sains, José Manuel; Acosta Gallegos, Jorge Alberto

2009-12-01

257

Evaluación del método de conservación en papel de filtro en dos cepas de Bacillus subtilis Cohn mediante la actividad antagónica frente a Rhizoctonia solani Kühn/ Evaluation of Filter Paper Disks Preserving Method in Two Bacillus subtilis Cohn. Strains by Antagonistic Activity on Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la actividad antagónica de dos cepas de Bacillus subtilis conservadas en discos de papel de filtro a 4°C por un período de tres años. Se escogieron las cepas del género B. subtilis: Bs-21 y Bs-42, aisladas del suelo, autóctonas de Cuba, y antagónicas de la cepa Rs-10 de Rhizoctonia solani. Se determinó la viabilidad, pureza y actividad antagónica de cinco colonias de Bs-42 y una de Bs-21, escogidas al azar y cultivadas en agar nutriente. Las colonias s (more) eleccionadas se evaluaron por el método de enfrentamiento dual en papa dextrosa agar, después de 96 h de incubación a 30°C. Ambas cepas presentaron una viabilidad de 108 UFC/mL. Los cultivos mantuvieron la pureza, las características morfológicas y respuesta positiva a la tinción de Gram, comparadas con la cepa de B. subtilis ATCC 6633. Todas las colonias seleccionadas inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de la cepa Rs-10 de R. solani, no así la de referencia. El análisis de varianza realizado mostró diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de inhibición de las colonias ensayadas. La cepa Bs-21 resultó ser la de menor inhibición con el 78%, y Bs-421 y Bs-422 las de mayor porcentaje con el 98%. Abstract in english Antagonistic activity of two Bacillus subtilis strains preserved in filter paper disks at 4°C for a period of three years was evaluated. Strains Bs-21 and Bs-42, isolated from Cuban soil and antagonists to Rhizoctonia solani Rs-10 were choiced. Five colonies from Bs-42 and one from Bs-21, randomly selected were growth in nutrient agar. The antagonism was compared by dual culture method in PDA after 96 h at 30°C. Viability of both strains was 108 CFU/mL. Selected colonie (more) s kept purity, morphological characteristics and positive response to Gram stain compared with B. subtilis ATCC 6633. All selected colonies inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani Rs-10, but not the reference strain. Strain Bs-21 had the lower inhibition (78%) while Bs-421 and Bs-422 had the higher percent (98%). Variance analysis showed significant differences in the percentage of inhibition exhibited by tested colonies.

Sosa López, Acenet I; Pazos Álvarez-Rivera, Victoria; Borges Marín, Giovanni; González García, Marleny; Ponce Grijuela, Enrique

2011-03-01

258

Evaluation of chitinase activity in biological control process of rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomate, by using seed priming in the presence of trichoderma koningii Evaluación de la actividad quitinasa en procesos de control biológico de rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici en tomate, mediante fitoinvigorización de semillas en presencia de trichoderma koningii  

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Full Text Available The present work intended to establish in a control model, the possible role of chitinases by using seed priming in the presence of Trichoderma koningii. This method showed to be efficient to control Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in tomato. The analysis of seed extracts and exudates, and soil extracts from soil seeded with seeds primed in the presence of T. koningii showed high endochitinase activity in the samples. This activity was higher than that exhibited by samples from primed seeds without antagonist and unprimed seeds.   In vitro evaluation of the hydrolytic activity of the extracts and exudates were performed using F. oxysporum and R. solani cell walls. The results also showed that the samples from seeds primed in the presence of T. koningii exhibited higher endochitinase activity than the others. These data allowed us to conclude that seed priming in the presence of T. koningii promotes endochinolytic activity in seeds. It was also concluded that this chitinase activity is related with the protection previously observed.El propósito del presente trabajo fue el de establecer el posible papel de las quitinasas en un modelo de control, utilizando pregerminación controlada de semillas en presencia de Trichoderma koningii. Este método mostró ser eficiente para el control de Rhizoctonia solani y de Fusarium oxysporum en tomate. Al analizar los extractos y exudados de semillas y los extractos de suelo sembrado con semillas pregerminadas en presencia de T. koningii, se encontró que éstos presentaron niveles significativamente mayores de actividad endoquitinasa que los provenientes de semillas pregerminadas en ausencia del antagonista y que los provenientes de semillas no pregerminadas. Al evaluar in-vitro la actividad hidrolítica de dichos extractos y exudados, utilizando paredes celulares de R. solani y de Fusarium oxysporum, los provenientes de semillas pregerminadas en presencia de T. koningii también mostraron significativamente mayor actividad endoquitinasa que la presentada en los otros tratamientos. Se pudo concluir que la pregerminación controlada de semillas en presencia de T. koningii estimula la actividad endoquitinolítica de las semillas y que esta actividad quitinasa estuvo relacionada con la protección previamente obtenida. 

Clavijo A.; Cotes A. M.

1998-01-01

259

Evaluación de la actividad quitinasa en procesos de control biológico de rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici en tomate, mediante fitoinvigorización de semillas en presencia de trichoderma koningii Evaluation of chitinase activity in biological control process of rhizoctonia solani y fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomate, by using seed priming in the presence of trichoderma koningii  

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Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo fue el de establecer el posible papel de las quitinasas en un modelo de control, utilizando pregerminación controlada de semillas en presencia de Trichoderma koningii. Este método mostró ser eficiente para el control de Rhizoctonia solani y de Fusarium oxysporum en tomate. Al analizar los extractos y exudados de semillas y los extractos de suelo sembrado con semillas pregerminadas en presencia de T. koningii, se encontró que éstos presentaron niveles significativamente mayores de actividad endoquitinasa que los provenientes de semillas pregerminadas en ausencia del antagonista y que los provenientes de semillas no pregerminadas. Al evaluar in-vitro la actividad hidrolítica de dichos extractos y exudados, utilizando paredes celulares de R. solani y de Fusarium oxysporum, los provenientes de semillas pregerminadas en presencia de T. koningii también mostraron significativamente mayor actividad endoquitinasa que la presentada en los otros tratamientos. Se pudo concluir que la pregerminación controlada de semillas en presencia de T. koningii estimula la actividad endoquitinolítica de las semillas y que esta actividad quitinasa estuvo relacionada con la protección previamente obtenida. The present work intended to establish in a control model, the possible role of chitinases by using seed priming in the presence of Trichoderma koningii. This method showed to be efficient to control Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in tomato. The analysis of seed extracts and exudates, and soil extracts from soil seeded with seeds primed in the presence of T. koningii showed high endochitinase activity in the samples. This activity was higher than that exhibited by samples from primed seeds without antagonist and unprimed seeds.   In vitro evaluation of the hydrolytic activity of the extracts and exudates were performed using F. oxysporum and R. solani cell walls. The results also showed that the samples from seeds primed in the presence of T. koningii exhibited higher endochitinase activity than the others. These data allowed us to conclude that seed priming in the presence of T. koningii promotes endochinolytic activity in seeds. It was also concluded that this chitinase activity is related with the protection previously observed.

Clavijo A.; Cotes A. M.

1998-01-01

260

Changes in the contents of metabolites and enzyme activities in rice plants responding to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn infection: activation of glycolysis and connection to phenylpropanoid pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn causes sheath blight disease in rice, and genetic resistance against it is the most desirable characteristic. Current improvement efforts are based on analysis of polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but interpretation is limited by the lack of information on the changes in metabolic pathways. Our previous studies linked activation of the glycolytic pathway to enhanced generation of lignin in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The current studies investigated the regulation of glycolysis by examining the time course of changes in enzymatic activities and metabolite contents. The results showed that the activities of all glycolytic enzymes as well as fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)), dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP), 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate contents increased. These results combined with our previous findings that the expression of phosphoglucomutase (PGM), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), enolase and pyruvate kinase (PK) increased after infection suggested that the additional establishment of glycolysis in the cytosol compartment occurred after infection. Further evidence for this was our recent findings that the increase in expression of the 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) plastid isozyme Os06g05860 was accompanied by an increase in expression of three cytosolic PFK isozymes, i.e. Os01g09570, Os01g53680 and Os04g39420, as well as pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofrucokinase (PFP) isozymes Os08g25720 (?-subunit) and Os06g13810 (?-subunit) in infected rice plants of the resistant line. The results also showed that the reactions catalysed by PFK/PFP, aldolase, GAPDH + phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and PK in leaf sheaths of R. solani-infected rice plants were non-equilibrium reactions in vivo. This study showed that PGM, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), TPI and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGmu) + enolase could be regulated through coarse control whereas, PFK/PFP, aldolase, GAPDH + PGK and PK could be regulated through coarse and fine controls simultaneously.

Mutuku JM; Nose A

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

The first report of tomato foot rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 PT and AG-2-Nt and its host range and molecular characterization  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foot rot of mature tomato plants was found in four cities of Hokkaido, Japan, from 2004 to 2007. Six of eight isolates obtained from damaged tissues were identified as Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-3, and the remaining two isolates belonged to AG-2-1. We compared these isolates with nine reference isolates including the different subgroups in AG-3 (PT, TB and TM) and AG-2-Nt (pathogen of tobacco leaf spot) within AG-2-1 in terms of pathogenicity to tomato, tobacco and potato. All eight isolates caused foot rot on tomato. The six AG-3 isolates caused stem rot on young potato plants. While, all reference isolates of AG-3 PT causing stem rot of young potato plants incited foot rot on tomato. The two AG-2-1 isolates and an AG-2-Nt reference isolate caused severe leaf spot on tobacco leaves. The sequences of rDNA- ITS region and rDNA-IGS1 region of the AG-3 isolates showed high similarity to that of AG-3 PT isolates. Phylogenetic tree based on ITS and IGS1 regions of rDNA indicated that the AG-2-1 isolates from tomato formed a single clade with AG-2-Nt isolates and that they were separate from Japanese AG-2-1 isolates (culture type II). Pathogenicity tests and DNA sequence evaluation of the causal fungi revealed that the present isolates of AG-3 and AG-2-1 belonged to AG-3 PT and AG-2-Nt, respectively. This is the first report of tomato foot rot caused by R. solani in Japan.

Misawa Tomoo; Kuninaga Shiro

2010-10-01

262

Incidence of cotton seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Thielaviopsis basicola in relation to previous crop, residue management and nutrients availability in soils in SW Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cotton seedling damping-off is considered a disease complex, in which several pathogens can be involved. In SW Spain, postemergence damping-off seems to be mainly associated with Rhizoctonia solani and Thielaviopsis basicola, posing a serious limitation for crop, especially in cold springs. Ninety-seven commercial plots, where postemergence damping-off of cotton seedlings was observed during previous years, were selected in April 2001. In each plot, plants were randomly sampled between cotyledon to three true-leaf stage and soil samples besides the plants were taken. Symptomatic plants were separated according to the main observable seedling disease symptom: black necrosis (black root rot), brown necrosis and other symptoms. Thielaviopsis basicola inoculum was estimated in soil samples. Soil samples were also analysed for nutrient availability (N, P. K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu. Mn and Zn). All the sampled plants showed some seedling disease symptom. Macroscopic symptoms can provide a reasonable distinction between these two major pathogens involved in seedling disease symptoms in the studied area: the percentage of T. basicola isolates (18%) from black necrosis symptomatic plants was significantly higher than that of R. solani (4.1%), whereas in brown necrosis symptomatic plants, the situation was reversed (10.7 vs. 12.8%). The percentage of plants with black necrosis symptoms was inversely related to the portion of plants with brown necrosis in each plot. The mean incidence of black necrosis was significantly lower in plots with residue incorporation (sugar beet as the preceding crop) than in plots without residue incorporation. No significant effect of preceding crop or residue management on brown necrosis incidence was observed. Incidence of black necrosis was negatively correlated with available N measured as NO3-N when corn or sunflower were the preceding crop. The incidence of black necrosis was positively related to Fe availability in soil after cotton as preceding crop, whereas brown necrosis was negatively related to the availability of this micronutrient.

Delgado A; Franco GM; Paez JI; Vega JM; Carmona E; Aviles M

2005-12-01

263

Métodos de evaluación y reacción de cultivares para resistencia al añublo de la vaina del arroz causado por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA/ Evaluation methods and cultivars reaction for resistance to the rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El arroz (Oryza sativa L.) en Venezuela, es afectado por el añublo de la vaina causado por Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorfo = Thanatephorus cucumeris). No existe resistencia completa ante esta enfermedad. Por ello, los programas de mejoramiento genético deben evaluar un alto número de cultivares para seleccionar aquellos cuantitativamente mejores en resistencia. Los objetivos fueron comparar métodos de evaluación de resistencia y la reacción de cultivares para resiste (more) ncia al añublo de la vaina del arroz causado por R. solani AG-1 IA. Los métodos de evaluación usados fueron microcámaras y bola de micelio en umbráculo, la prueba de cinetina en laboratorio y la infestación con arroz colonizado bajo condiciones de campo. Se evaluaron 23 genotipos de arroz, incluyendo variedades testigo. Tres haplotipos de R. solani, previamente caracterizados, fueron utilizados para las inoculaciones. Los ensayos fueron de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. La efectividad de los ensayos se determinó con base a la discriminación de los testigos de reacción conocida y a la mejor correlación de los métodos de laboratorio y umbráculo con los resultados de campo. El método de microcámaras, combinado con el aislado de R. solani A5B4 (64), presentó la mejor correlación con los resultados de campo (r = 0,50 en promedio), seguido por el método de bola de micelio (r = 0,49, promedio). Los cultivares testigo ?Tetep? (resistente) y ?Lemont? (susceptible) fueron consistentes en los ensayos. El análisis de componentes principales identificó los genotipos CT15150-M-11-4-3-2-M (derivado de un cruce con O. glaberrima), ?SD20A? y ?D-Sativa? con los mejores niveles de resistencia. Estos resultados indican la existencia de métodos confiables para evaluar el añublo de la vaina y de cultivares adaptados con resistencia a la enfermedad. Abstract in english The rice (Oryza sativa L.), in Venezuela, is affected by sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph = Thanatephorus cucumeris). No complete resistance has been found in the world. In consequence, breeding programs should evaluate many cultivars for selecting those with the best quantitative level of resistance. The objectives were to compare methods of evaluation and cultivars reaction for resistance to the sheath blight caused by R. solani AG-1 IA. The evalua (more) tion methods were microchamber and mycelium ball in greenhouse conditions, kinetin test in laboratory and colonized rice infestation under field conditions. The cultivars were 23 genotypes of rice, including control varieties. Three haplotypes of R. solani, previously characterized, were used for the inoculations. The experimental designs were randomized complete block with three replications. The effectiveness of the trials was determined based on the discrimination of controls with well-known reaction and the best correlation of the laboratory and greenhouse methods with the field results. The method of microchamber using the isolate A5B4 (64) had the best correlation with field results (r = 0.50 on average), followed by the method of ball mycelium (r = 0.49, on average). The control cultivars 'Tetep' (resistant) and 'Lemont' (susceptible) were consistent across the experiments. The principal component analysis identified the genotypes CT15150-M-11-4-3-2-M (derived from a cross with O. glaberrima), 'SD20A' and 'D-Sativa' with the best levels of resistance. These results indicate the existence of reliable methods to evaluate this disease and adapted cultivars with resistance to rice sheath blight.

González-Vera, Alex; Graterol, Eduardo; Borges, Brígida; Hernández, Francis

2011-04-01

264

Métodos de evaluación y reacción de cultivares para resistencia al añublo de la vaina del arroz causado por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Evaluation methods and cultivars reaction for resistance to the rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

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Full Text Available El arroz (Oryza sativa L.) en Venezuela, es afectado por el añublo de la vaina causado por Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorfo = Thanatephorus cucumeris). No existe resistencia completa ante esta enfermedad. Por ello, los programas de mejoramiento genético deben evaluar un alto número de cultivares para seleccionar aquellos cuantitativamente mejores en resistencia. Los objetivos fueron comparar métodos de evaluación de resistencia y la reacción de cultivares para resistencia al añublo de la vaina del arroz causado por R. solani AG-1 IA. Los métodos de evaluación usados fueron microcámaras y bola de micelio en umbráculo, la prueba de cinetina en laboratorio y la infestación con arroz colonizado bajo condiciones de campo. Se evaluaron 23 genotipos de arroz, incluyendo variedades testigo. Tres haplotipos de R. solani, previamente caracterizados, fueron utilizados para las inoculaciones. Los ensayos fueron de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. La efectividad de los ensayos se determinó con base a la discriminación de los testigos de reacción conocida y a la mejor correlación de los métodos de laboratorio y umbráculo con los resultados de campo. El método de microcámaras, combinado con el aislado de R. solani A5B4 (64), presentó la mejor correlación con los resultados de campo (r = 0,50 en promedio), seguido por el método de bola de micelio (r = 0,49, promedio). Los cultivares testigo ‘Tetep’ (resistente) y ‘Lemont’ (susceptible) fueron consistentes en los ensayos. El análisis de componentes principales identificó los genotipos CT15150-M-11-4-3-2-M (derivado de un cruce con O. glaberrima), ‘SD20A’ y ‘D-Sativa’ con los mejores niveles de resistencia. Estos resultados indican la existencia de métodos confiables para evaluar el añublo de la vaina y de cultivares adaptados con resistencia a la enfermedad.The rice (Oryza sativa L.), in Venezuela, is affected by sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph = Thanatephorus cucumeris). No complete resistance has been found in the world. In consequence, breeding programs should evaluate many cultivars for selecting those with the best quantitative level of resistance. The objectives were to compare methods of evaluation and cultivars reaction for resistance to the sheath blight caused by R. solani AG-1 IA. The evaluation methods were microchamber and mycelium ball in greenhouse conditions, kinetin test in laboratory and colonized rice infestation under field conditions. The cultivars were 23 genotypes of rice, including control varieties. Three haplotypes of R. solani, previously characterized, were used for the inoculations. The experimental designs were randomized complete block with three replications. The effectiveness of the trials was determined based on the discrimination of controls with well-known reaction and the best correlation of the laboratory and greenhouse methods with the field results. The method of microchamber using the isolate A5B4 (64) had the best correlation with field results (r = 0.50 on average), followed by the method of ball mycelium (r = 0.49, on average). The control cultivars 'Tetep' (resistant) and 'Lemont' (susceptible) were consistent across the experiments. The principal component analysis identified the genotypes CT15150-M-11-4-3-2-M (derived from a cross with O. glaberrima), 'SD20A' and 'D-Sativa' with the best levels of resistance. These results indicate the existence of reliable methods to evaluate this disease and adapted cultivars with resistance to rice sheath blight.

Alex González-Vera; Eduardo Graterol; Brígida Borges; Francis Hernández

2011-01-01

265

Detection of trypsin inhibitor in seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla and its influence on the in vitro growth of the fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizoctonia solani Descoberta de inibidor de tripsina em sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla e sua influência sobre o crescimento in vitro dos fungos Pisolithus tinctorius e Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Inhibitors of plant proteases can regulate the hydrolysis of proteins inside the cells and also participate in the mechanisms of plant defense against herbivore insects and pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla exhibit activities of trypsin and papain inhibitors, two proteases commonly found in living cells. Low amounts of proteins of the crude protein extract of seeds and fractions partially purified by gel filtration, with inhibitory activity against trypsin, inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of a compatible isolate of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and allowed an unsatisfactory growth of another isolate from Pinus taeda, considered incompatible for this eucalyptus species. The same amounts of inhibitory proteins, when tested in vitro on the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, did not exhibit any effect on the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the existence of proteases inhibitors in seeds of E. urophylla which could influence the complex biochemical system that differentiates mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenicity between plants and microorganisms.Os inibidores de proteases de plantas podem regular a hidrólise de proteínas no interior celular e também participar de seus mecanismos de defesa contra insetos herbívoros e patógenos. No presente trabalho, nós demonstramos que sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentam atividades de inibidores de tripsina e papaína, duas proteases comumente encontradas em seres vivos. Pequenas quantidades de proteínas do extrato protéico bruto de sementes e de frações parcialmente purificadas por filtração em gel, com atividade inibitória de tripsina, inibiram o crescimento micelial in vitro de um isolado compatível do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus tinctorius e permitiram um crescimento insatisfatório de outro isolado de Pinus taeda, considerado compatível para esta espécie de eucalipto. As mesmas concentrações de proteínas, quando testadas in vitro sobre o patógeno Rhizoctonia solani, não demonstraram qualquer efeito sobre seu crescimento. Estes resultados indicam a existência de inibidores de proteases em sementes de E. urophylla, os quais poderiam influenciar o complexo sistema bioquímico que diferencia mecanismos de simbiose e patogenicidade entre plantas e microrganismos.

Célia Regina Tremacoldi; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2002-01-01

266

Características de aislamientos de Rhizoctonia solani Huhn y su importancia como patógenos de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw.  

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Full Text Available Se encontró considerable variación en el crecimiento, color, zonificación, esclerocios, textura del micelio y en la virulencia de siete aislamientos de R. solani. Como seis aislamientos fueron multinucleados y uno binucleado, se demostró que es indispensable determinar ésta característica en ensayos con R. solani. Los aislamientos se ubicaron en los grupos de anastomosis AG -1, AG-2, AG-4; pero en los ensayos con electroforesis de isoenzirnas los modelos de bandas para los a islamientos probadores de los AG y los probados en éste estudio fueron diferentes, lo que llevó a cuestionar la importancia de los AG. Los ecotípos de Centrosema spp y P. phaseoloides fueron más afectados que los de S. guianensis, D. ovalifolium y S. capitata. La reacción al daño de R. solani fue diferencial en los ecotipos CIAT 1283 (tardío) y 184 (común) y tuvo mucha relación con la edad; en general, la enfermedad se incrementó con la edad en el eco tipo tardío y disminuyó con ésta o fue independiente en el ecotipo común; el ecotipo más fectado fue el tardío; las pérdidas de forraje no fueron considerables, pero el efecto en la digestibilidad fue notorio; la capacidad de rebrote fue buena en 184. Se observó un estímulo en el crecimiento de las plantas de S.guianensis y D. ovalifolium.Considerable variation was found in the growth, color, zonation, sclerotia, mycelial texture and virulence of seven isolates of R. solani. Six multinuclease and one binuclease isolates were determined, demonstrating that it is indispensable to determine this characteristic in trials with this pathogen. The isolates were placed in three anastomosis group AG -1, AG -2 and AG -4; but with electrophoresis of isoenzymes it was found that the band models were different for the known rest AG iso lates and those isolates proven in this study which questions the importance of anastomosis qroups. Ecotypes of Centrosema spp. and P. phaseoloides were more affected than those of S. guianensis, D. ovalifolium and S. capitata. The reaction on damage by R. solani was differencial for ecotypes C IAT 1283 (tardío) and 184 (comrno n) and was related to age. In general, the disease increased with age in the tardio and decreased or was independent of age in the cornrnon: the tardio was more affected; forage losses were not cosiderable but the effect on the digestibility was noted; the regrowth capacity was good in the cornrnon. A stimulus in the growth of plants of S. guianensis and D. ovalifolium was observed.

Lenne Jilliam M.; Olaya H. Gilberto

1986-01-01

267

Importancia del método estadístico para el cálculo de la CE50 y CE95 de algunos isotiocianatos evaluados contra Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available En el marco de la evaluación del efecto de algunos isotiocianatos(IT C) sobre el crecimiento de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, la presenteinvestigación establece también si el método estadísticoutilizado determina diferencias considerables en los valoresde la concentración efectiva media (CE50) y la concentraciónefectiva 95 (CE95) de estos compuestos. Para ello se realizó unexperimento in vitro, y se estimaron dichos valores medianteregresiones lineales y no lineales. Los compuestos evaluadoscontra R. solani AG-3 fueron: alil isotiocianato (AIT C), bencilisotiocianato (BIT C), fenil isotiocianato (PIT C), fenetil isotiocianato(PEIT C) y metil isotiocianato (MIT C). El ensayo sellevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología de la Facultadde Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sedeBogotá. Manteniendo agitación constante, se prepararon dilucionesde los IT C utilizando metanol como solvente, paraobtener las concentraciones 0,0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0 y 10,0%, que correspondierona los distintos tratamientos evaluados. En cadauno de ellos se agregaron 50 mL de una de estas soluciones a lasunidades experimentales, consistentes en cajas de petri con medioPDA y micelio de R. solani AG -3, selladas herméticamentey almacenadas a temperatura ambiente. Pasadas 72 y 144 horasdespués de la aplicación de los tratamientos (hdt), se tomaronfotografías digitales para calcular el área de crecimiento micelialcon el software MapMaker® 3.5. Esto permitió obtenerla Concentración Efectiva Media (CE50) y la ConcentraciónEfectiva 95 (CE95) mediante regresiones lineales, no lineales(modelos Gompertz, logístico y polinómico) y análisis Probit.Los valores obtenidos a partir de este último distan bastante delo observado, que a su vez coincide con los valores encontradospor regresión lineal. A la concentración del 10%, todos los IT C,excepto PEIT C, mostraron un efecto inhibitorio total. Por suparte, BIT C mantuvo su efecto fungistático hasta 21 días despuésde aplicados los tratamientos, mientras que PIT C, AIT Cy MIT C mantuvieron un efecto fungistático más prolongado,inclusive hasta un año después de iniciados los tratamientos.

Molina Vargas Luis Federico; Melo Martinez Sandra Esperanza

2010-01-01

268

RHIZOCTONIA SEEDLING DAMPING OFF IN SUGAR BEETS  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani n sugar beets include post-emergence damping off of seedlings, and crown and root rot of mature plants. Sugar beet varieties show varying degree of susceptibility to R. solani. Project goals include development of a reliable method to screen for Rhizoctonia se...

269

Detection of trypsin inhibitor in seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla and its influence on the in vitro growth of the fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Inhibitors of plant proteases can regulate the hydrolysis of proteins inside the cells and also participate in the mechanisms of plant defense against herbivore insects and pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla exhibit activities of trypsin and papain inhibitors, two proteases commonly found in living cells. Low amounts of proteins of the crude protein extract of seeds and fractions partially purified by gel filtration, with inhibitory activity against trypsin, inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of a compatible isolate of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and allowed an unsatisfactory growth of another isolate from Pinus taeda, considered incompatible for this eucalyptus species. The same amounts of inhibitory proteins, when tested in vitro on the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, did not exhibit any effect on the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the existence of proteases inhibitors in seeds of E. urophylla which could influence the complex biochemical system that differentiates mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenicity between plants and microorganisms.

Tremacoldi Célia Regina; Pascholati Sérgio Florentino

2002-01-01

270

Soil type, management history, and soil amendments influence the development of soil-borne (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum) and air-borne (Phytophthora infestans, Hyaloperonospora parasitica) diseases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of soil type, long-term soil management, and short-term fertility input strategies on the suppressiveness of soils against soil-borne (Ocimum basilicum - Rhizoctonia solani, Lepidium sativum - Pythium ultimum) as well as air-borne (Lycopersicon esculentum - Phytophthora infestans, Arabidopsis thaliana - Hyaloperonospora parasitica) diseases was studied. Soils from field trials established in five European sites with contrasting pedo-climatic conditions were examined. Sites included (i) a long-term management field trial comparing organic and conventional farming systems (DOK-trial, Therwil, Switzerland) (ii) a short-term fertility input field trial comparing mineral and organic matter fertilisation regimes (Bonn (BON), Germany) (iii) two short-term fertility input field trials (Stockbridge (STC) and Tadcaster (TAD), UK) comparing the impact of farmyard manure, composted farmyard manure, and chicken manure pellet amendements and (iv) soil from a site used as a reference (Reckenholz (REC), Switzerland). Soil type affected disease suppressiveness of the four pathosystems signficantly, indicating that soils can not only affect the development of soil-borne, but also the resistance of plants to air-borne diseases at relevant levels. Suppressiveness to soil- and air-borne diseases was shown to be affected by soil type, but also by long-term management as well as short-term fertility inputs.

Tamm Lucius; Thürig Barbara; Bruns Christian; Fuchs JacquesG; Köpke Ulrich; Laustela Matias; Leifert Carlo; Mahlberg Nicole; Nietlispach Bruno; Schmidt Christoph; Weber Felix; Fließbach Andreas

2010-08-01

271

Combined expression of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase genes in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) enhances resistance against Rhizoctonia solani  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice was done using the binary vector pNSP3, harbouring the rice chitinase (chi11) gene under maize ubiquitin promoter and the tobacco ?-1,3-glucanase gene under CaMV 35S promoter in the same T-DNA. Four of the six T? plants had single copies of complete T-DNAs, while the other two had complex integration patterns. Three of the four single-copy lines showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in the T? generation. Northern and western blot analyses of T? plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase genes. Homozygous T? plants of the single-copy lines CG20, CG27 and CG53 showed 62-, 9.6- and 11-fold higher chitinase activity over the control plants. ?-1,3-Glucanase activity was 1.1- to 2.5-fold higher in the transgenic plants. Bioassay of homozygous T? plants of the three single-copy transgenic lines against Rhizoctonia solani revealed a 60% reduction in sheath blight Disease Index in the first week. The Disease Index increased from 61.8 in the first week to 90.6 in the third week in control plants, while it remained low (26.8-34.2) in the transgenic T? plants in the corresponding period, reflecting the persistence of sheath blight resistance for a longer period.

Sridevi Ganapathi; Parameswari Chidambaram; Sabapathi Natarajan; Raghupathy Vengoji; Veluthambi Karuppannan

2008-09-01

272

Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.  

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The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50?µL on Petri dish of 8.5?cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5?µL/20?mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses. PMID:22840199

Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

2012-07-30

273

Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50?µL on Petri dish of 8.5?cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5?µL/20?mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

Bouzenna H; Krichen L

2013-01-01

274

Importancia del método estadístico para el cálculo de la CE50 y CE95 de algunos isotiocianatos evaluados contra Rhizoctonia solani Kühn/ Importance of the statistical method applied to calculate the EC50 and EC95 of some isothiocyanates evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el marco de la evaluación del efecto de algunos isotiocianatos (ITC) sobre el crecimiento de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, la presente investigación establece también si el método estadístico utilizado determina diferencias considerables en los valores de la concentración efectiva media (CE50) y la concentración efectiva 95 (CE95) de estos compuestos. Para ello se realizó un experimento in vitro, y se estimaron dichos valores mediante regresiones lineales y no line (more) ales. Los compuestos evaluados contra R. solani AG-3 fueron: alil isotiocianato (AITC), bencil isotiocianato (BITC), fenil isotiocianato (PITC), fenetil isotiocianato (PEITC) y metil isotiocianato (MITC). El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá. Manteniendo agitación constante, se prepararon diluciones de los ITC utilizando metanol como solvente, para obtener las concentraciones 0,0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0 y 10,0%, que correspondieron a los distintos tratamientos evaluados. En cada uno de ellos se agregaron 50 mL de una de estas soluciones a las unidades experimentales, consistentes en cajas de petri con medio PDA y micelio de R. solani AG-3, selladas herméticamente y almacenadas a temperatura ambiente. Pasadas 72 y 144 horas después de la aplicación de los tratamientos (hdt), se tomaron fotografías digitales para calcular el área de crecimiento micelial con el software MapMaker® 3.5. Esto permitió obtener la Concentración Efectiva Media (CE50) y la Concentración Efectiva 95 (CE95) mediante regresiones lineales, no lineales (modelos Gompertz, logístico y polinómico) y análisis Probit. Los valores obtenidos a partir de este último distan bastante de lo observado, que a su vez coincide con los valores encontrados por regresión lineal. A la concentración del 10%, todos los ITC, excepto PEITC, mostraron un efecto inhibitorio total. Por su parte, BITC mantuvo su efecto fungistático hasta 21 días después de aplicados los tratamientos, mientras que PITC, AITC y MITC mantuvieron un efecto fungistático más prolongado, inclusive hasta un año después de iniciados los tratamientos. Abstract in english Framed in the evaluation of the effect of some isothiocyanates (ITC) on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, the present research also studied whether the applied statistical method determines significant differences in the values of the Median (EC50) and 95 (EC95) effective concentrations of these compounds. For this purpose, we conducted an in vitro experiment in which said values were calculated by different statistical methods. In vitro efficacy against R. solani A (more) G-3 was tested of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC). Under constant shaking we prepared stock solutions by mixing ITC with methanol as solvent, to get concentrations of 0.0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10%, corresponding to the different studied treatments; each of which consisted in the addition of 50 mL of one of these solutions to the experimental units. The latter were Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar medium (PDA) and mycelium of R. solani AG-3. These containers were then sealed with two layers of parafilm and incubated at room temperature. Digital pictures were taken to obtain the colony areas using MapMaker 3.5® software, 72 and 144 hours after the treatments were applied. The Median (EC50) and 95 (EC95) effective concentrations were calculated through linear and non-linear (Gompertz, logistic, and polynomial models) regressions, as well as probit analysis. The values obtained through the latter were found to be considerably different from the actual ones, which in turn coincided with those found by means of linear regressions. All of ITC at 10% concentration were completely inhibitory, with the exception of PEITC. Whereas BITC was fungistatic up to twenty one days after the treatments were applied,

Molina-Vargas, Luis Federico; Melo-Martínez, Sandra Esperanza

2010-08-01

275

Integration of soil application and seed treatment formulations of Trichoderma species for management of wet root rot of mungbean caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of seed dressing and soil application formulations from the isolates of Trichoderma viride (IARI P1; MTCC 5369), T. virens (IARI P3; MTCC 5370) and T. harzianum (IARI P4; MTCC 5371) were evaluated individually and in combination in pot and field experiments during the rainy seasons of 2005, 2006 and 2007 for the management of wet root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and improvement in the yield of mungbean. RESULTS: A seed dressing formulation, Pusa 5SD, and soil application formulations, Pusa Biogranule 6 (PBG 6) and Pusa Biopellet 16G (PBP 16G), based on Trichoderma virens, were found to be superior to other formulations in reducing disease incidence and increasing seed germination and shoot and root lengths in mungbean. In field experiments, a combination of soil application with PBP 16G (T. virens) and seed treatment with Pusa 5SD (T. virens) + carboxin was superior to any of these formulations individually in increasing seed germination, shoot and root lengths and grain yield and reducing wet root rot incidence in mungbean. Seed treatment was more effective than soil application for all the evaluated parameters. The combined application of Pusa 5SD and carboxin was also superior to individual treatment. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the evaluated formulations against wet root rot of mungbean proved that the integration of soil application of PBP 16G and seed treatment with Pusa 5SD + carboxin is highly effective for the management of wet root rot, increasing plant growth and grain yield of mungbean Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Dubey SC; Bhavani R; Singh B

2011-09-01

276

Diversity of Fluorescent Pseudomonas in Potato Crops of the Cundiboyacense Region and its in vitro Antagonic Activity against Rhizoctonia solani Diversidad de pseudomonas fluorescentes en cultivos de papa de la region Cundiboyacense y su actividad antagonista in vitro sobre Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Fluorescent Pseudomonas are one of the most important benefic bacteria of the rizhosphere. It is because they can control some soil borne phytopatogen agents as a result of their antagonistic capacity. There are few works about the composition and diversity of fluorescent Pseudomonas in tropical countries. In this work we studied the composition of fluorescent Pseudomonas form different potato crops located at the Cundiboyacense región between 2100 and 3200 mosl, which is the most important area of potato production in Colombia. This study also assesses the effect of some crop practices variables on rizosphere bacteria richness and diversity. Finally, it was determined the antagonistic capacity of some Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates against Rhizoctonia solani. A total of 45 rhizosphere samples were taken from 15 potato fields. To isolate the Pseudomonas it was used king B medium modified by us. Our results showed that this modified medium consistently allowed a more efficient recovery of the fluorescent Pseudomonas than the media reported in the literature. 80.7% and 82.7% of the fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from the rizosphere and rizoplane respectively were Pseudomonas fluorescens. It suggest a low fluorescent pseudomonas diversity. Our work also denotes an effect of the maize-potato crop rotation strategy on the amount of the fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from the rizosphere. These results may have importance in designing appropriate strategies for bio-controlling soil borne phytopathogens. In tropical countries like Colombia, this knowledge might help to improve crop yields. Finally it was found native isolates with antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in the bioassays in vitro, such results if not assure an efficient control of the pathogen in field conditions, may give an idea of the potentiality of P.fluorescens to be applied as bacterial community, strains or derived products of them.Las pseudomonas fluorescentes son unas de las bacterias benéficas más importantes a nivel de la rizosfera gracias a que pueden controlar algunos fitopatógenos habituales del suelo como resultado de su capacidad antagonista. Hay muy pocos trabajos realizados para conocer la composición y diversidad de pseudomonas fluorescentes en países tropicales. En este trabajo se determinó la composición de pseudomonas fluorescentes provenientes de dife-rentes cultivos de papa ubicados en la región Cundiboyacense, entre 2.100 y 3.200 msnm, la cual es considerada la zona de mayor producción de papa de Colombia. Así mismo se evaluó el efecto de algunas prácticas de cultivo sobre dicha composición. Finalmente se determinó la capacidad de antagonismo de algunos aislamientos de pseudomonas fluorescentes contra Rhizoctonia solani. Fueron evaluadas 45 muestras de rizosfera y rizoplano de cultivos de papa provenientes de 15 campos de papa diferentes. Las muestras se procesaron usando una modificación del medio King B, la cual resultó ser más eficiente para aislar pseudomonas fluorescentes, que otras reportadas en la literatura. El 80,7% y 82,7% de las pseudomonas fluorescentes aisladas en rizosfera y rizoplano, respectivamente, fueron Pseudomonas fluorescens, mostrando poca diversidad en las muestras evaluadas. Por otra parte se observó un efecto de la estrategia de rotación de cultivo maíz-papa, sobre el número de pseudomonas fluorescentes aisladas de la rizosfera. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones para el diseño de estrategias de manejo integrado de plagas en los cultivos de los países tropicales. Finalmente se encontraron aisla-mientos nativos con actividad antagonista sobre anteriores, si bien no aseguran un control eficaz del pató-geno en condiciones de campo, sí dan una idea del poten-cial biocontrolador de la especie aplicados como comuni-dades bacterianas, cepas o subproductos de éstas.

Uribe D.; Ortiz E.; Portillo M.; Bautista G.; Cerón J.

1999-01-01

277

Efecto inhibitorio in vitro de cinco monoterpenos de aceites esenciales sobre un aislado de Rhizoctonia solani en papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)/ Inhibitory Effect in vitro of Five Monoterpens from Essentials Oils on a Rhizoctonia solani Isolate in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los últimos años la sociedad mundial ha priorizado los aspectos ambientales, y ha conducido un grupo de investigaciones hacia el descubrimiento de nuevas alternativas para el manejo integrado de plagas y enfermedades, con menos efectos negativos al ambiente. Los aceites esenciales, que hasta hace poco eran empleados solamente en la industria farmacéutica y cosmética, en la actualidad tienen gran importancia por su efecto en el control de plagas y enfermedades de la (more) s plantas. Basado en este criterio, se evaluó la actividad fungicida de cinco monoterpenos (mentol, timol, alcanfor, citronelal y 1,8 cineol) comúnmente encontrados en aceites esenciales. Se empleó el método de envenenamiento del medio de cultivo a concentraciones de 0,5; 0,1 y el 0,05% p/v para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de cada uno sobre un aislado de Rhizoctonia solani, causante de la rizoctoniasis en papa. Se calculó el porcentaje de inhibición y los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente. Se obtuvo que timol, mentol y citronelal tuvieron el 100% de inhibición al 0,1 y el 0,5%; Por otra parte, alcanfor y 1,8 cineol mostraron resultados por debajo del 100%; pero se valorarán para posteriores estudios, donde el rango de concentración sea mayor. Abstract in english The looking for new alternative to chemical control for integrated pest management to reduce the environmental impact has received attention internationally in last decades. Essentials oils have been using in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, recently they have become in an interesting possibility for pest and disease control. The fungicide activity of five monoterpens (menthol, thymol, camphor, citronellal and 1,8 cineol), commonly found in essentials oils was evalua (more) ted. The method of culture media poisoning was used with concentration of 0,5; 0,1 y 0,05% w/v. The inhibitory effect was evaluated on a Rhizoctonia solani isolate, pathogen which causes rizoctoniasis in potato crops. The inhibition percentage was calculated and the results were statistically analyzed. Thymol, menthol and citronellal showed 100% of inhibition at 0,5 and 0,1%. The monoterpens camphor and 1, 8 cineol showed lower values of inhibition percentage, but they will taking into account for future studies with a wider range of concentration.

Vaillant Flores, Daymara; Romeu Carballo, Carlos; Ramos Ramos, Elda; González García, Marleny; Ramírez Ochoa, Rebeca; González Pentón, Johan

2009-09-01

278

Detection of trypsin inhibitor in seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla and its influence on the in vitro growth of the fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizoctonia solani/ Descoberta de inibidor de tripsina em sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla e sua influência sobre o crescimento in vitro dos fungos Pisolithus tinctorius e Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os inibidores de proteases de plantas podem regular a hidrólise de proteínas no interior celular e também participar de seus mecanismos de defesa contra insetos herbívoros e patógenos. No presente trabalho, nós demonstramos que sementes de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentam atividades de inibidores de tripsina e papaína, duas proteases comumente encontradas em seres vivos. Pequenas quantidades de proteínas do extrato protéico bruto de sementes e de frações parcial (more) mente purificadas por filtração em gel, com atividade inibitória de tripsina, inibiram o crescimento micelial in vitro de um isolado compatível do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus tinctorius e permitiram um crescimento insatisfatório de outro isolado de Pinus taeda, considerado compatível para esta espécie de eucalipto. As mesmas concentrações de proteínas, quando testadas in vitro sobre o patógeno Rhizoctonia solani, não demonstraram qualquer efeito sobre seu crescimento. Estes resultados indicam a existência de inibidores de proteases em sementes de E. urophylla, os quais poderiam influenciar o complexo sistema bioquímico que diferencia mecanismos de simbiose e patogenicidade entre plantas e microrganismos. Abstract in english Inhibitors of plant proteases can regulate the hydrolysis of proteins inside the cells and also participate in the mechanisms of plant defense against herbivore insects and pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that seeds of Eucalyptus urophylla exhibit activities of trypsin and papain inhibitors, two proteases commonly found in living cells. Low amounts of proteins of the crude protein extract of seeds and fractions partially purified by gel filtration, with inhibitory activi (more) ty against trypsin, inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of a compatible isolate of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and allowed an unsatisfactory growth of another isolate from Pinus taeda, considered incompatible for this eucalyptus species. The same amounts of inhibitory proteins, when tested in vitro on the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, did not exhibit any effect on the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the existence of proteases inhibitors in seeds of E. urophylla which could influence the complex biochemical system that differentiates mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenicity between plants and microorganisms.

Tremacoldi, Célia Regina; Pascholati, Sérgio Florentino

2002-12-01

279

Identificación y caracterización de seis aislados pertenecientes al género Bacillus promisorios para el control de Rhizoctonia solani Künh y Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc./ Identification and Characterization of Six Isolates from Genera Bacillus with Antagonistic Capacity against Rhizoctonia solani Künh and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la actualidad la identificación de los microorganismos se realiza por varios métodos. Existen métodos clásicos que utilizan como criterios de diferenciación los caracteres fenotípicos morfológicos y fisiológicos. Los kits miniaturizados, como los API 50CHB para Bacillusayudan a caracterizar la fisiología de las bacterias pertenecientes a este grupo, de manera fácil y rápida; además, resultan muy útiles para la identificación hasta el nivel de especie por (more) su elevada precisión. La observación de la morfología y esporulación, la respuesta a la tinción de Gram y algunas pruebas bioquímicas permiten, en el caso de Bacillus spp., ubicarlos dentro de su género. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar morfológica, bioquímica y fisiológicamente seis aislados de suelo y rizosfera pertenecientes al género Bacillus con capacidad antagónica frente a Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii (Sr.), con la utilización del API 50 CHB.Tres de los aislados resultaron pertenecer a la especie de Bacillus subtilisy otro a B. megateriumcon más del 95% de confiabilidad, además un aislado de B. licheniformis y otro de B. circulans, ambos con el 82,7%. Abstract in english Microorganism identification is realized by several methods, currently. Classical methods utilize phenotypic, morphologic and physiological characters as differentiation criteria. Commercial miniaturized kits as API 50CHB for Bacillus, helps to characterize physiology of this kind of bacteria in an easy and fast way; furthermore they are useful for identification until species level due to their high precision. Observation of morphology and sporulation, the answer to Gram (more) tinction and some biochemical tests permit, in the case of Bacillus spp., put them within they genera. The objective of this investigation was to characterize morphologic, biochemical and physiologically six isolated of genera Bacillusfrom soil and rhizosphere with antagonistic capability in front of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii(Sr.), with the utilization of the API 50 CHB. Three of the isolated proved to belong to species Bacillus subtilis and another one to B. megaterium with over than 95% of reliability, also one isolated of B. licheniformis and another one of B. circulans, both with 82.7%.

Sosa López, Acenet I.; Pazos Álvarez-Rivera, Victoria; Torres Campos, Dania; Casadesús Romero, Luis

2011-03-01

280

Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith)Sacc.  

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Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3) and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%). F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %), weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%). The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

Zbigniew J. Burgie?

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani, sob condições de casa de vegetação/ of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of Rhizoctonia solani seedling damping-off under greenhouse conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controle do tombamento de plântulas causado por Rhizoctonia solani. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com os fungicidas foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3 cm de profundidade. A (more) inoculação com R. solani AG-4 foi feita utilizando-se 5g do inóculo do fungo/bandeja, distribuídos de forma homogênea na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm). Foi observado efeito significativo do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência do algodoeiro, com os melhores resultados sendo obtidos pelos tratamentos tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol e azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, seguidos de carboxin+thiram, PCNB e pencycuron. O fungicida menos eficiente foi o carbendazim+thiram. Melhores resultados com relação às variáveis estudadas foram obtidos com a utilização de misturas de fungicidas em comparação ao uso isolado de um determinado produto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação ao índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e peso fresco das plântulas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of cotton seed treatment with fungicides in the control of R. solani seedling damping-off. This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, in Dourados city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Treated and untreated seeds of the cultivar DeltaOpal were sowed in sand contained in plastic trays, placed in individual and equidistant wells, 3cm deep. Into each plastic tray were pu (more) t 5g of the pathogen inoculum. The inoculation of R. solani AG-4 was done by the homogeneous distribution of the fungus inoculum onto the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill (1mm). The evaluations were done based on symptoms development and seedling survival. The significant effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as in the control of pre and post-emergence damping-off was observed. The best results were obtained with tolylfluanid+pencycuron+triadimenol and azoxystrobin+fludioxonil+mefenoxan, followed by carboxin+thiram, PCNB and pencycuron. The least efficient fungicide was carbendazim+thiram. Seed treatment with fungicide combinations provided better results than the use of the single ones. No significant effect was observed in relation to speed of emergence index, seedling height and seedling fresh weight.

Goulart, Augusto César Pereira

2008-10-01

282

Efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas no controledo tombamento em relação à densidade de inóculo de Rhizoctonia solani/ Effect of cotton seed treatments with fungicides to control damping-off in relation to inoculum densities of Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn é considerado o principal agente causal do tombamento de plântulas do algodoeiro no Brasil. A maneira mais eficiente e econômica de controlar essa doença é através do tratamento das sementes com fungicidas. A performance dos fungicidas depende, dentre outros fatores, da população desse fungo no solo. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS, com o objetivo (more) de determinar o efeito do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, no controle do tombamento, em relação a diferentes densidades de inóculo de R. solani no solo. Sementes da cultivar DeltaOpal, tratadas e não tratadas com diferentes fungicidas, foram semeadas a 3 cm de profundidade em areia contida em bandejas plásticas. As sementes foram dispostas em orifícios individuais e eqüidistantes. A inoculação com o fungo foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1 mm). Quatro densidades de inóculo foram testadas: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10 cm. Foi observado efeito do tratamento fungicida na emergência inicial e final de plântulas, bem como no controle do tombamento de pré e pós-emergência. O tratamento das sementes com a mistura de fungicidas proporcionou os melhores resultados no controle do tombamento em comparação ao seu uso isolado. A interação fungicidas x densidade de inóculo foi significativa, indicando que a eficiência dos fungicidas foi influenciada pela densidade de inóculo do fungo. A performance dos fungicidas testados foi melhor na presença dos níveis mais baixos de inóculo do fungo (1,0 g e 2,0 g/bandeja). A eficiência dos fungicidas testados foi menor para as populações de 3,0g e 4,0g do patógeno, sendo que a maioria dos tratamentos fungicidas apresentou perda significativa de eficiência na presença desses níveis de R. solani. Os fungicidas usados neste estudo não apresentaram efeitos fitotóxicos às plântulas de algodoeiro. Abstract in english The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is considered the most important cause of cotton damping-off in Brazil. Treatment of seeds with fungicides is the most efficient and economical procedure to control this disease. The performance of fungicides depends, among many other factors, of the pathogen population in the soil. This work was carried out, under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, MS, with the goal to determine the effect of treatment of co (more) tton seeds with fungicides to control damping-off at different inoculum densities of R. solani in the soil. Seeds of cultivar DeltaOpal treated or not with different fungicides were sowed 3 cm deep in sand contained in plastic flats. Seeds were placed in individual and equidistant wells. Inoculum of the fungus was homogeneously distributed in the substrate. The fungus was grown for 35 days on autoclaved oat seeds and then ground to powder using a mill until reach the size of 1mm. Four inoculum densities were tested: 1 g; 2 g; 3 g e 4 g/plastic flat with dimensions of 56x35x10 cm. The effect of the fungicide treatment on initial and final seedling emergence, as well as, in the control of post and pre-emergence damping-off was observed. Treatment of seed with a combinations of fungicides gave the best results in controlling damping-off as compared to the use of each fungicide alone. The interaction fungicides x inoculum densities, was significant indicating that the efficiency of the fungicides was somehow affected by the fungus densities. Fungicides had the best performance at low inoculum densities (1g and 2g/flat). As for fungi populations of 3g and 4g/flat, the efficiency of all fungicides tested decreased sharply, with a reduced control of the disease. The fungicides used in this study did not have any phytotoxic effect on cotton seedlings.

Goulart, Augusto César Pereira

2006-09-01

283

Determination of Culture Condition for Polygalacturonase Production by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, Causal Agent of Root Rot in Sugar Beet  

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The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the production of PG in a submerged culture of R. solani AG2-2 to study PGIP-PG interaction. Taguchi method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for PG production. The process variables were pH ...

F. Karimzadeh; M. Motallebi; M.R. Zamani; Sh. Hamze

284

Manejo de Pythium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L. Management of Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonía solaní kuhn in rooting benches of Gypsophíla paniculata L.  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto que sobre los patógenos Pythium sp. Y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., tienen los aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum (T 17 y T 13) y Trichoderma sp. (T18), lo mismo que tratamientos químicos aplicados en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L., con altos índices de contaminación. Para evaluar el control de la pudrición del cuello de la raíz de Gypsophila paniculata L., se realizaron observaciones semanales en las cuales se tuvieron en cuenta los porcentajes de esquejes sanos, de esquejes muertos y de esquejes en los cuales se desarrollaban raíces. Los resultados muestran que es más efectivo el control de la pudrición con la aplicación semanal de fungicidas. Sin embargo, se recomienda el empleo de cepas de Trichoderma sp., pero aplicadas con una frecuencia, por lo menos igual, a la empleada con los fungicidas, ya que se observa su efecto inmediato, pero no permanente y, además, porque parecen influir sobre el desarrollo de las plantas.

Garcés de Granada Emira; Orozco de Amézquita Martha; Sara Pablo; Carvajal Luz Marina; Sarmiento Clara Inés

1994-01-01

285

The Use of Antioxidants and Microelements for Controlling Damping-Off Caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Charcoal Rot Caused by Macrophomina phasoliana on Sunflower  

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Full Text Available Seed soaking method or foliar spray of antioxidants (citric acid and salicylic acid at 10 mM) and microelements (manganese and zinc at 2 g L-1) were tested to control of the damping-off and charcoal rot diseases of sunflower (varieties Sakha 53 and Giza 102). Field treatments in two different localities i.e., Tag El-Ezz, Dakahlia province and El-Serow, Damietta province were carried out. The high frequency isolated fungi (M. phaseolina and R. solani) presented in Tag El-Ezz location. On the other hand, M. phaseolina was isolated at a high frequency compared with R. solani in both locations. Sakha 53 was highly susceptible compered with Giza 102 when artificially infected with both M. phaseolina and R. solani. Laboratory results showed that salicylic acid alone or in combination with citric acid completely inhibited the linear growth of both pathogens i.e., M. phasoliana and R. solani in vitro. A positive correlation between the concentrations of Rizolex-T 50 and its effect on the fungal growth were recorded. The dose of 3 g L-1 prevented the growth of R. solani linear growth in vitro. The greenhouse results revealed that Giza 102 variety was highly susceptible to the infection by R. solani. M. phasoliana showed severe symptoms in both sunflower varieties. On contrary, Giza 102 variety was tolerant to damping-off and charcoal rot diseases than Sakha 53 under field conditions. The application of Rizolex-T 50 followed by citric acid showed a highest percentage of healthy plants followed by the combination of citric acid and salicylic acid. The application of manganese combined with zinc was more effective than the microelements alone. All treatments of antioxidants and microelements significantly reduced the incidence of charcoal rot disease. On the other hand, no significant differences between Rizolex-T 50 and salicylic acid treatments was shown. Sakha 53 variety gave the highest values of plant height and number of leaves plant-1 while Giza 102 recorded the highest values of stem diameter and flower head diameter. The application of citric acid combined with salicylic acid maximized the plant height followed by the mixture of manganese and zinc. Manganese treatment followed by the mixture of citric acid and salicylic acid then zinc were the most effective in increasing the number of leaves plant-1. While, Rizolex-T 50 had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves plant-1. Microelements were more effective than antioxidants on enhancing the stem and flower head diameters. The combination between manganese and zinc followed by Rizolex-T 50 recorded the maximum values of the stem and flower head diameters. Giza 102 variety recorded the highest values of 100 seeds weight, total phenols, photosynthetic pigments and the percentage of seed oil when the above applications were carried out. Sakha 53 variety showed the highest plant yield under the above treatment. The mixtures of citric and salicylic acids were highly effective in increasing plant yield. The highest values of photosynthetic pigments were shown in salicylic acid treatment followed by Rizolex-T 50. Total phenols content was highest due to Rizolex-T 50 application followed by salicylic acid. Except zinc, seed oil concentration increased significantly in both antioxidants and microelements treatments on oil concentration.

K.M. Abd El-Hai; M.A. El-Metwally; S.M. El-Baz; A.M. Zeid

2009-01-01

286

Determination of Culture Condition for Polygalacturonase Production by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, Causal Agent of Root Rot in Sugar Beet  

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Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the production of PG in a submerged culture of R. solani AG2-2 to study PGIP-PG interaction. Taguchi method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for PG production. The process variables were pH (4, 4.5, 5 and 5.5), pectin as carbon source and inducer (7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 g L-1) and incubation time (2, 4, 6 and 8 days). The liquid medium also included mineral salts as in Pectic Zymogram (PZ) medium. Polygalacturonase activity was determined spectrophotometrically at 500 nm and productivity was calculated at the time of maximal extracellular enzyme activity. Pectin concentration was the most important factor in the enzyme production (34.8% contribution), whereas pH had a minimal contribution (16.9%). The optimal levels of the different factors for PG production were 12.5 g L-1 pectin, pH 4.5 and 6 days of incubation time at 26°C. A maximal productivity of 115.5 U mL-1 was reached in these conditions.

F. Karimzadeh; M. Motallebi; M.R. Zamani; Sh. Hamze

2007-01-01

287

Differentiation of Rhizoctonia spp. Based on their antigenic properties  

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Full Text Available Antigenic properties and serological relationship was investigated in binucleate and multinucleate Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from strawberries soybean, alfalfa and potato plants from Serbia, from Spain, anastomosis group testers and in strawberry roots inoculated with binucleate Rhizoctonia AG A and AG I. Two polyclonal antisera, unabsorbed and cross absorbed, were used in dot-immunobinding assay for these investigations. Antisera were produced against mycelial antigens of two isolates, which belong to different anastomosis groups (AG) of binucleate Rhizoctonia - AG A and AG I. Both unabsorbed antisera reacted positively with all tested Rhizoctonia spp. isolates, and the reaction was absent with control isolates (Pythium sp. Agaricus sp. and Fusarium sp). The results prove a close serological relationship among Rhizoctonia spp. isolates, and diversity between Rhizoctonia spp. and isolates from different taxonomic groups. Also, both unabsorbed antisera reacted with higher intensity with closely related antigens (belonging to the same AG) than with ones from another AG of binucleate Rhizoctonia or R. solani (multinucleate Rhizoctonia). After cross absorption specificity of the antisera was enhanced, especially with the antiserum raised against mycelial proteins of binucleate Rhizoctonia AG I. This antiserum reacted positively only with antigens from the same AG, after cross absorption with antigens from AG A of binucleate Rhizoctonia and from R. solani AG 2-2. It proved to be specific to AG I of binucleate Rhizoctonia, and able to differentiate isolates of this AG from others. In this way the serological homology among isolates of one AG was proven, and also the diversity among isolates which belong to different AGs of binucleate Rhizoctonia as well as isolates of R. solani.

Vico Ivana M.; Krsti? Branka B.; Duki? Nataša

2002-01-01

288

A New Disease of Gladiolus Caused by Binucleate Rhizoctonia sp.  

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Full Text Available Fungi with Rhizoctonia-like mycelia were isolated from root and stem of Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybrida L.) grown in commercial glasshouse in Mahallat, Iran, during the summer and fall of 2003. Isolated fungi were identified as either binucleate or multi nucleate Rhizoctonia sp. On the basis of hyphal characteristics and nuclear number, twenty three isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. were obtained from infected corms and stems. Of the 23 isolate, 9 had binucleate and 14 had multinucleate vegetative hyphal cells. Representative isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. were characterized for anastomosis, optimum temperature in vitro and virulence on Gladiolus. Isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia failed to anastomose with tester isolates of Anastomosis Groups (AG)-A throug-S (not including AG-J and AG-M). The optimum temperature range for growth rate of binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. was 24-28?C. Growth rate of binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. was more rapid than R. solani. Five isolates from each group caused severe corm rot and mortality of plant during rooting. Isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia caused corm and stem rot and mortality only on 35-day-old plants. This is the first detailed report of corm and stem rot disease of Gladiolus caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia. Further field studies are needed on the ecology and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia sp. to formulate steps for controlling corm and stem rot of Gladiolus.

Mohammad Javad Soleimani; Leila Kashi

2005-01-01

289

Postharvest respiration rate and sucrose concentration of Rhizoctonia-infected sugar beet roots  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is a common root disease on sugar beet that reduces yield and sucrose during the growing season and causes further losses by increasing respiration and reducing sucrose content during storage. The industry needs to identify...

290

Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. causing disease of leafy spurge in the Northern Plains.  

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Diseases of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) occurred widely in Montana and were also found in Colorado and North Dakota during the spring and summer of 1991. Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 was isolated from mature leafy spurge plants showing crown rot and necrotic root buds, whereas binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from stem cankers and blights. Pathogenicity of the Rhizoctonia strain to leafy spurge was tested by inoculating cut stems or by planting mature crowns or seed in a greenhouse soil mix artificially infested with the fungi. Five of six R. solani AG-4 strains, but only two of eight binucleate strains, were pathogenic on stems. All strains of R. solani AG-4 caused root and crown rot and preemergence damping-off of spurge, and four of eight binucleate strains induced damping-off. All R. solani AG-4 strains were from Montana.

Caesar AJ; Rees NE; Spencer NR; Quimby PCJr

1993-07-01

291

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of sugar beet by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and Laetisaria arvalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two isolates of Laetisaria arvalis and 10 of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR) from the Ohio sugar beet production area, were tested in the greenhouse and field for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of sugar beet, caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2, type 2. L. arvalis was ineffective in standard greenhouse tests, and the single isolate used in the field was generally ineffective. Seven of 10 BNR isolates effectively controlled crown and root rot in greenhouse tests. Delayed application of biocontrol agents to plants 5 – 10 wk old was generally more effective than applications made at planting. A BNR isolate significantly reduced % plant loss and disease ratings and increased yield in a 1985 field test as compared with the control infested with R. solani alone. Two BNR isolates were effective in a 1986 field test and increased yields c. 22% in comparison to a L. arvalis treatment, which did not differ from the R. solani-infested control. The Ohio binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates appear to have considerable potential as applied biocontrol agents and may play a role in the natural ecology of R. solani in the sugar beet production area of Ohio.

Herr LJ

1988-08-01

292

Análise de proteínas e isoenzimas de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. patogênicos a Eucalyptus Protein and isozyme analysis of isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. pathogenic to Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar isolados de Rhizoctonia solani AG1 e AG4 e isolados binucleados de Rhizoctonia spp. patogênicos a Eucalyptus, por meio de eletroforese de proteínas, em gel de poliacrilamida, e de isoenzimas (ACP, 6-PGDH, LAP, SOD, MDH e IDH), em gel de amido. Para comparação, incluíram-se alguns isolados brasileiros de outros hospedeiros e isolados-padrões de R. solani AG1, procedentes do Japão. Observaram-se diferenças nos padrões gerais de proteínas e nos fenótipos isoenzimáticos entre isolados binucleados e multinucleados e entre isolados de diferentes grupos e subgrupos de anastomose. Isolados de R. solani AG1, procedentes do Brasil e Japão, apresentaram baixa similaridade nos padrões de proteínas e de isoenzimas. Isolados brasileiros morfologicamente semelhantes a R. solani AG1-IB (microesclerodiais) apresentaram padrões de proteínas similares e um maior número de fenótipos isoenzimáticos idênticos entre si. Esta tendência foi independente do hospedeiro e da origem geográfica. Variações nos padrões de proteínas e de isoenzimas foram também observadas dentre isolados brasileiros de R. solani AG4. Discute-se o uso da eletroforese de proteínas e isoenzimas na caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. e em estudos genéticos e filogenéticos de fungos deste gênero.Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis groups AG1 and AG4) and binucleate isolates of other unidentified species, all pathogenic to Eucalyptus in Brazil, were characterized by protein and isozyme (ACP, 6-PGDH, LAP, SOD, MDH e IDH) analysis. Japanese strains of R. solani AG1 and other Brazilian isolates from others hosts were also included for comparison. Differences in protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes were observed between binucleate and multinucleate isolates, and among isolates of different anastomosis groups and subgroups. The protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes of Japanese isolates of R. solani AG1 differed from those of Brazilian isolates of the same anastomosis groups and the same morphological subgroups. Some Brazilian isolates morphologically similar to R. solani AG1-IB presented high similarity in protein patterns and isozyme phenotypes. This similarity was independent of the host plant and geographical origin. Polymorphisms in protein and isozyme patterns were also observed within the Brazilian R. solani AG4 group. We discuss the usefulness of protein and isozyme analyses for characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. isolates and for genetic and phylogenetic studies of fungi of this genus.

SILVALDO F. SILVEIRA; ACELINO C. ALFENAS

2002-01-01

293

Release of SR98 Sugarbeet Germplasm with High Levels of Resistance to Rhizoctonia Damping-Off, Crown and Root Rot, and Fusarium  

Science.gov (United States)

SR98 (PI 655951) is a sugarbeet germplasm with smooth, low soil tare root and high levels of resistance to damping-off and crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG2-2). Previous smooth–root releases have been highly susceptible to diseases caused by R. solani, and the SR98 has incorporate...

294

Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta PI's from the USDA-ARS NPGS, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta vulgaris plant introductions (PI) were screened for Rhizoctonia root and crown rot, at the USDA-ARS Fort Collins, CO Research Farm. Inoculum of R. solani isolate R-9 (AG-2-2), colonized to dry barley and course ground, was applied to the crown of plants at a rate of 4.8 g/m. Beets were lifted...

295

Postharvest respiration rate and sucrose content of Rhizoctonia-infected sugarbeet roots  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizotonia crown and root rot of sugarbeet, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is increasing in Minnesota and North Dakota. As the disease increases in prevalence and severity, more diseased roots are being stored in piles where they affect storability and postharvest quality. The objective of th...

296

Rhizoctonia damping off and root rot in: compendium of azalea and rhododendron diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

297

Infection cushion formation by Rhizoctonia spp. on peanut and wheat root systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of infection cushions by Rhizoctonia solani (isolate G-24) and R. cerealis (isolate Fellers) was examined on cellophane membranes in response to stimulation by roots of peanut (Okrun, Tamspan 90, Southwest runner and Line 209) and hard red winter wheat (Jagger, 2137, and 2174). Root s...

298

DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia, Waitea and Ceratobasidium isolates to their infra-species level. PMID:23709576

Amaradasa, B S; Horvath, B J; Lakshman, D K; Warnke, S E

2013-05-26

299

DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia, Waitea and Ceratobasidium isolates to their infra-species level.

Amaradasa BS; Horvath BJ; Lakshman DK; Warnke SE

2013-09-01

300

Heterokaryon formation in Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Approximately 50 single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) obtained from each of 16 field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-1 IC were examined for heterokaryon formation. All SBIs obtained from each field isolate were divided into two mating groups (SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2), and tufts of mycelia were formed in the contact zone between colonies of paired SBIs-M1 and -M2 based on 0.5 % charcoal agar medium. Tufts were produced from all possible pairing between SBIs from non-parental field isolates. Hyphal anastomosis reactions indicated no cell death and random cell death at the contact cell, and was not related to tuft formation. AFLP phenotypes of SBIs from each field isolate were not identical to each other and were different from their parental field isolate. AFLP phenotypes of the tuft isolates formed from SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2 from each field isolate were heterokaryotic. Moreover, several SBIs also formed tufts with their parental and non-parental field isolates. AFLP phenotypes of these tuft isolates suggested that they were all heterokaryotic. Results of these experiments suggest that T. cucumeris AG-1 IC is heterothallic and bipolar, and that genetic exchange can occur between homokaryotic and heterokaryotic isolates (Buller phenomenon).

Qu P; Yamashita K; Toda T; Priyatmojo A; Kubota M; Hyakumachi M

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Heterokaryon formation in Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 50 single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) obtained from each of 16 field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-1 IC were examined for heterokaryon formation. All SBIs obtained from each field isolate were divided into two mating groups (SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2), and tufts of mycelia were formed in the contact zone between colonies of paired SBIs-M1 and -M2 based on 0.5 % charcoal agar medium. Tufts were produced from all possible pairing between SBIs from non-parental field isolates. Hyphal anastomosis reactions indicated no cell death and random cell death at the contact cell, and was not related to tuft formation. AFLP phenotypes of SBIs from each field isolate were not identical to each other and were different from their parental field isolate. AFLP phenotypes of the tuft isolates formed from SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2 from each field isolate were heterokaryotic. Moreover, several SBIs also formed tufts with their parental and non-parental field isolates. AFLP phenotypes of these tuft isolates suggested that they were all heterokaryotic. Results of these experiments suggest that T. cucumeris AG-1 IC is heterothallic and bipolar, and that genetic exchange can occur between homokaryotic and heterokaryotic isolates (Buller phenomenon). PMID:18692371

Qu, Ping; Yamashita, Koji; Toda, Takeshi; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Kubota, Mayumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2008-04-10

302

O papel de Rhizoctonia spp. binucleadas na indução de resistência a mela da soja = The role of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. inducing resistance to the soybean foliar blight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O papel de Rhizoctonia spp. binucleadas (RBN), no biocontrole de doenças causadas por R. solani Kühn em várias culturas, tem sido relatado na literatura. No entanto, não há informação, no Brasil, sobre o potencial de RBN como agentes de biocontrole contradoenças causadas por Rhizoctonia na soja. A hipótese testada foi de que isolados de RBN podem induzir resistência na soja contra a mela, causada por R. solani do grupo de anastomose (AG) 1 IA. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar isolados de RBN, obtidos de amendoim, feijão e soja quanto à capacidade de induzir resistência na soja contra a mela, em condições de casa de vegetação. Esta pesquisa evidencia a ação de RBN na indução de resistência em plantas de soja contra a mela. Entretanto, a manifestação e a efetividade do fenômeno de indução de resistência são dependentes da época de cultivo da soja.The role of non-pathogenic binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR) onthe biocontrol of diseases caused by R. solani on many crops has been reported in the literature. However, in Brazil, there is no information about the potential of BNR as biocontrol agents against Rhizoctonia diseases on soybean. On this research we tested thehypothesis that BNR can induce resistance on soybean against the foliar blight caused by R. solani anastomosis group (AG) 1 IA. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate BNR isolates isolated from peanuts, snapbeans and soybean according to their ability forinducing resistance on soybean against the foliar blight disease, under greenhouse conditions. This research evidenced the role of BNR inducing resistance on soybeans against the foliar blight. However, both the occurrence and effectiveness of the phenomenon of induced resistance are dependent on the soybean cultivation season.

Marco Antonio Basseto; Walter Veriano Valério Filho; Elaine Costa Souza; Paulo Cezar Ceresini

2008-01-01

303

Abiotic soil properties and the occurrence of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1993, Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB) has represented an increasing problem for sugar beet production in Germany. Up to now, the outbreak of the infection and the spread of the disease within a field cannot be predicted and effective countermeasures are not available. Although little is known about the living conditions of R. solani in soils, abiotic soil properties are likely to influence the disease occurrence. Investigations were carried out based on 60 pairwise comparisons, each consisting of a disease-affected and an adjacent nonaffected patch on farmers' fields in 2002 and 2003. Soil samples from the top soil layer (0-30 cm) were collected before harvest, and eight of the most frequently mentioned soil properties potentially influencing Rhizoctonia crown and root rot infection were examined: bulk density, texture, carbonate carbon, potassium, phosphorus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and pH. The occurrence of the disease was significantly related to the soil C : N ratio, indicating the influence of soil organic matter on the disease occurrence. Examinations of soil thin sections showed that organic-matter particles in the soil serve as a substrate for R. solani. All other soil physical and chemical properties examined did not differ between the disease-affected and nonaffected patches and seem to be of minor importance.

Kühn Jürgen; Rippel Rudolf; Schmidhalter Urs

2009-10-01

304

The role of bacterial communities in the natural suppression of Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants, and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest USA. At a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside of patches, outside of patches, and recovered patches, were analyzed by pyrosequencing with primers designed to 16S rRNA. Taxa in the genera of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonas were in higher frequency in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside of patches, compared to diseased plants from inside of patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria Gp7 had higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia) and Chyseobacterium were higher in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside of patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and shifts of frequency in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated with cycling experiments in the greenhouse, with successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside of patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa which respond to conditions affecting bare patch symptoms and may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch.

Yin C; Hulbert SH; Schroeder KL; Mavrodi O; Mavrodi D; Dhingra A; Schillinger WF; Paulitz TC

2013-09-01

305

Método fácil y confiable para teñir núcleos en hongos del complejo Rhizoctonia/ Easy and reliable method for nuclei staining of Rhizoctonia complex fungi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el complejo Rhizoctonia la morfología hifal y configuración del septo permiten diferenciar los géneros, mientras que las especies pueden ser distinguidas por la condición nuclear y el grosor de hifas ?guías? ó la morfometría del teleomorfo. Para caracterizar las especies en uni, bi y multinucleadas se han desarrollado varios métodos de tinción nuclear con acridina naranja, azules de anilina y tripano, diamina fenil indol (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxilina, orceina (more) y safranina O. Algunos de esos procedimientos son rápidos, pero otros requieren técnicas especiales (fluorescencia) o consumen mucho tiempo y limitan la cantidad de muestras a procesar. Un nuevo método fue desarrollado durante análisis de anastomosis (AGs) en aislamientos de R. solani que atacan la papa cultivada en Mérida, Venezuela. El procedimiento es rápido, fácil, confiable y permite la manipulación simultánea de un número considerable de especimenes, y tanto el núcleo como el nucléolo conservan su integridad. El método fue probado exitosamente en 10 patrones de AGs de R. solani, y permitió separar 173 cepas multinucleadas y 3 binucleadas, todas del género Rhizoctonia. El método fue efectivo utilizando sustrato de agua-agar 2,4 % más PDA 0,39 %, en cultivos de 18 a 48 h fijado con formaldehído 4 % y coloreado con fucsina ácida 0,025 en ácido láctico 50 %. Abstract in english Hyphal morphology and septal structure configuration of the fungi included in Rhizoctonia complex allows for differentiation of genus, while species may be distinguished by nuclear condition and thickness of the runner hyphae, or teleomorph morphometry. For characterization of species in uni, bi, and multinucleate diverse methods of staining have been developed using acridine orange, aniline and trypan blue, diamine phenyl indole (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxiline, orcein and s (more) aphranin O. Some of these procedures are quick to perform, while others require special techniques (fluorescence) or are time consuming, which impose a limit on the number of samples that can be processed at a time. A new method of nuclei staining was developed during the analysis of anastomosis groups (AGs) of R. solani strains isolated from potato plants cultivated in Mérida, Venezuela. The procedure is quick, easy, and reliable, and allows for simultaneous manipulation of a significant number of samples, and both nucleus and nucleolus maintain their integrity. The method was successfully assayed in 10 different AGs testers of R. solani, and allowed separation of 173 multinucleate and 3 binucleate Rhizoctonia strains. Method effectiveness depends upon growth medium (water agar 2.4 % plus PDA 0.39 %), culture age (18-48 h), fixing agent (formaldehyde 4 %), and stain (fuchsin acid 0.025 % in lactic acid 50 %).

Cedeño, Luis

2008-12-01

306

Método fácil y confiable para teñir núcleos en hongos del complejo Rhizoctonia Easy and reliable method for nuclei staining of Rhizoctonia complex fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el complejo Rhizoctonia la morfología hifal y configuración del septo permiten diferenciar los géneros, mientras que las especies pueden ser distinguidas por la condición nuclear y el grosor de hifas “guías” ó la morfometría del teleomorfo. Para caracterizar las especies en uni, bi y multinucleadas se han desarrollado varios métodos de tinción nuclear con acridina naranja, azules de anilina y tripano, diamina fenil indol (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxilina, orceina y safranina O. Algunos de esos procedimientos son rápidos, pero otros requieren técnicas especiales (fluorescencia) o consumen mucho tiempo y limitan la cantidad de muestras a procesar. Un nuevo método fue desarrollado durante análisis de anastomosis (AGs) en aislamientos de R. solani que atacan la papa cultivada en Mérida, Venezuela. El procedimiento es rápido, fácil, confiable y permite la manipulación simultánea de un número considerable de especimenes, y tanto el núcleo como el nucléolo conservan su integridad. El método fue probado exitosamente en 10 patrones de AGs de R. solani, y permitió separar 173 cepas multinucleadas y 3 binucleadas, todas del género Rhizoctonia. El método fue efectivo utilizando sustrato de agua-agar 2,4 % más PDA 0,39 %, en cultivos de 18 a 48 h fijado con formaldehído 4 % y coloreado con fucsina ácida 0,025 en ácido láctico 50 %.Hyphal morphology and septal structure configuration of the fungi included in Rhizoctonia complex allows for differentiation of genus, while species may be distinguished by nuclear condition and thickness of the runner hyphae, or teleomorph morphometry. For characterization of species in uni, bi, and multinucleate diverse methods of staining have been developed using acridine orange, aniline and trypan blue, diamine phenyl indole (DAPI), giemsa, hematoxiline, orcein and saphranin O. Some of these procedures are quick to perform, while others require special techniques (fluorescence) or are time consuming, which impose a limit on the number of samples that can be processed at a time. A new method of nuclei staining was developed during the analysis of anastomosis groups (AGs) of R. solani strains isolated from potato plants cultivated in Mérida, Venezuela. The procedure is quick, easy, and reliable, and allows for simultaneous manipulation of a significant number of samples, and both nucleus and nucleolus maintain their integrity. The method was successfully assayed in 10 different AGs testers of R. solani, and allowed separation of 173 multinucleate and 3 binucleate Rhizoctonia strains. Method effectiveness depends upon growth medium (water agar 2.4 % plus PDA 0.39 %), culture age (18-48 h), fixing agent (formaldehyde 4 %), and stain (fuchsin acid 0.025 % in lactic acid 50 %).

Luis Cedeño

2008-01-01

307

Fusarium solani breast abscess  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An unusual manifestation of breast fusariosis was encountered in a 55-year-old female diabetic patient. Two fine needle aspirates (FNA) from the abscess were done at three days interval and they showed hyaline, septate, branched, fungal hypahe in 10% potassium hydroxide mount. Fungal infection was confirmed by demonstrating the fungal hyphae in the midst of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in Leishman stained smears. Culture of both FNAs yielded a heavy and pure growth of Fusarium solani . The patient responded to oral ketoconazole 200 mg once daily for 3 weeks. The breast fusariosis reported here is presumably the first case in India.

Anandi V; Vishwanathan P; Sasikala S; Rangarajan M; Subramaniyan C; Chidambaram N

2005-01-01

308

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. e identificação de novos grupos de anastomose em jardim clonal de eucalipto Characterization of isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. and identification of new anastomosis groups in eucalyptus clonal nurseries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Espécies de Rhizoctonia causam queima foliar em brotações de jardim clonal e podridão de estacas durante o enraizamento, que podem limitar a clonagem do eucalipto, por estaquia. Diante da importância do patógeno para a cultura e da falta de estudos sobre a diversidade de isolados, esse trabalho objetivou caracterizar isolados e relatar novos grupos de anastomose de Rhizoctonia spp. em jardim clonal de eucalipto. Os isolados obtidos nas diferentes fases de propagação por estaquia foram caracterizados quanto ao número de núcleos nas células vegetativas, agrupados segundo as características morfológicas das colônias e identificados quanto aos grupos de anastomose, incluindo auxotrofia por tiamina. Avaliou-se, também, a virulência ao eucalipto e o efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial dos isolados. Não se detectou correlação entre os agrupamentos morfológicos e reações de anastomose. Constatou-se, também, que a população de Rhizoctonia spp., nos solos de jardins clonais, é constituída por ampla gama de isolados, predominantemente binucleados, com diferentes graus de virulência a eucalipto. Os isolados binucleados e os multinucleados, tiveram a mesma tendência de crescimento em relação à temperatura, com ótimo para a taxa de crescimento entre 25-30 ºC. Observou-se, pela primeira vez, isolados de R. solani AG2-2 IIIB e os binucleados de Rhizoctonia spp., AG-P e AG-O, como agentes etiológicos da podridão de estacas em casa de vegetação, e os isolados binucleados AG-A e AG-L em solo de jardim clonal de eucalipto.Rhizoctonia spp. cause shoot and leaf blight of eucalyptus in clonal hedges as well as cuttings. Despite the importance of Rhizoctonia spp. to eucalyptus, little is known about their diversity. Thus, we characterized isolates and report new anastomosis groups in a eucalyptus clonal hedge. Isolates obtained at different stages of cutting propagation were characterized according to the number of nuclei in vegetative cells, grouped by morphological characteristics of the colony, anastomosis group, and thiamine auxotrophism. The isolates were also evaluated for virulence on eucalyptus and effect of temperature on their mycelial growth. No correlation between morphological grouping and anastomosis reaction was detected. A wide range of isolates, predominantly binucleate, forms the population of Rhizoctonia spp. present in the soil of clonal hedges, which differed in virulence to eucalyptus. Binucleate and multinucleate isolates had similar growth features at different temperatures, with an optimum growth rate between 25-30 ºC. Isolates of R. solani AG2-2 IIIB and binucleate isolates of Rhizoctonia spp., AG-P and AG-O, as agents of cutting rot, and binucleate isolates AG-A and AG-L in the soil of eucalyptus clonal hedge are reported for the first time.

Eugenio Sanfuentes; Acelino C. Alfenas; Luiz A. Maffia; Reginaldo G. Mafia

2007-01-01

309

Variation in Rhizoctonia bataticola isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variation among eight isolates of Rhizoctonia bataticola from different hosts with regard to growth rate, effect of media, sclerotial number and size, effect of incubation temperature, fungicides, and virulence was studied. The isolates varied with regard to above characters. Isolates from brinjal and beans were highly virulent and less sensitive to fungicides. The study indicates the existence of different strains within R. bataticola.

Anilkumar TB; Sastry MN

1980-01-01

310

Rhizoctonia web blight on azalea  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, fungicides are the only useful control for azalea web blight, but fungicides do not eliminate the pathogen. We have discovered that Rhizoctonia colonizes the entire azalea plant 12 months of the year in the Gulf Coast climate. This results in healthy appearing stems collected for propagat...

311

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

Science.gov (United States)

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

312

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen.

Boruah HP; Kumar BS

2003-06-01

313

Integrated control of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of sugar beet with fungicides and antagonistic bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is one of the most damaging sugar beet diseases worldwide and causes significant economic losses in more than 25% of the sugar beet production area in the United States. We report on field trials in the years 1996 to 1999 testing both experimental fungicides and antagonistic Bacillus sp. for their potential to reduce disease severity and increase sugar yield in trials inoculated with R. solani AG 2-2. Fungicides were applied as in-furrow sprays at planting or as band sprays directed at the crown at the four-leaf stage, or four- plus eight-leaf stage, while bacteria were applied at the four-leaf stage only. The fungicides azoxystrobin and tebuconazole reduced crown and root rot disease by 50 to 90% over 3 years when used at rates of 76 to 304 g a.i./ha and 250 g a.i./ha, respectively. The disease index at harvest was reduced and the root and sugar yield increased with azoxystrobin compared with tebuconazole. The combination of azoxystrobin applied at 76 g a.i./ha and the Bacillus isolate MSU-127 resulted in best disease reduction and greatest root and sucrose yield increase.

Kiewnick S; Jacobsen BJ; Braun-Kiewnick A; Eckhoff JLA; Bergman JW

2001-07-01

314

Identification, molecular characterization, and evolution of group I introns at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in Rhizoctonia species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nuclear ribosomal DNA of Rhizoctonia species is polymorphic in terms of the nucleotide composition and length. Insertions of 349-410 nucleotides in length with characteristics of group I introns were detected at a single insertion point at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in 12 out of 64 isolates. Eleven corresponded to Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorous) and one (AG-Q) to Rhizoctonia spp. (teleomorph: Ceratobasidium). Sequence data showed that all but AG-Q contained conserved DNA catalytic core regions (P, Q, R, and S) essential for selfsplicing. The predicted secondary structure revealed that base-paired helices corresponded to subgroup IC1. Isolates from same anastomosis group and even subgroups within R. solani were variable with regard to possession of introns. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that introns were vertically transmitted. Unfortunately, sequence data from the conserved region from all 64 isolates were not useful for delimiting species. Analyses with IC1 introns at same insertion point, of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer at this site. The present study uncovered new questions on evolutionary pattern of change of these introns within Rhizoctonia species.

González D

2013-09-01

315

Identification, molecular characterization, and evolution of group I introns at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in Rhizoctonia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear ribosomal DNA of Rhizoctonia species is polymorphic in terms of the nucleotide composition and length. Insertions of 349-410 nucleotides in length with characteristics of group I introns were detected at a single insertion point at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in 12 out of 64 isolates. Eleven corresponded to Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorous) and one (AG-Q) to Rhizoctonia spp. (teleomorph: Ceratobasidium). Sequence data showed that all but AG-Q contained conserved DNA catalytic core regions (P, Q, R, and S) essential for selfsplicing. The predicted secondary structure revealed that base-paired helices corresponded to subgroup IC1. Isolates from same anastomosis group and even subgroups within R. solani were variable with regard to possession of introns. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that introns were vertically transmitted. Unfortunately, sequence data from the conserved region from all 64 isolates were not useful for delimiting species. Analyses with IC1 introns at same insertion point, of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer at this site. The present study uncovered new questions on evolutionary pattern of change of these introns within Rhizoctonia species. PMID:24012302

González, Dolores

2013-06-28

316

Variation in Rhizoctonia bataticola isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation among eight isolates of Rhizoctonia bataticola from different hosts with regard to growth rate, effect of media, sclerotial number and size, effect of incubation temperature, fungicides, and virulence was studied. The isolates varied with regard to above characters. Isolates from brinjal and beans were highly virulent and less sensitive to fungicides. The study indicates the existence of different strains within R. bataticola. PMID:7424223

Anilkumar, T B; Sastry, M N

1980-01-01

317

In situ and in vitro specificity between Rhizoctonia spp. and Spiranthes sinensis (Persoon) Ames. var. amoena (M. bieberstein) Hara (Orchidaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between the orchid Spiranthes sinensis (Persoon) Ames. var. amoena (M. Bieberstein) Hara and Rhizoctonia spp. were investigated in situ at germination and in adult plants, Seeds of the orchid placed in cotton gauze were buried at 210 sampling points in turf grassland, the orchid habitat (in situ germination). Eight weeks later, protocorm development of the orchid was confirmed at 67 of the 210 sampling points. Isolation of fungi from protocorms showed that in situ germination was induced mainly by Rhizoctonia rapens Bernard. Similarly, R. repens was the dominant mycorrhizal fungus isolated from roots of adult plants. The number of adult plants within a radius of either 30 or 50 cm of burial points did not influence seed germination. The distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. other than R. repens in the sample site was examined with a baiting method using buckwheat stems. Thirty-two isolates consisting of binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis group (AG)-A, AG-B, AG-G, and AG-1, R. solani Kuhn AG-4, Waitea circinata Warcup & Talbot, which anastomozed with WAG-O and WAG-Z, and a multinucteate Rhizoctonia sp. were isolated. Three AG-G isolates were obtained from the points at which protocorm development was induced by R. repens. Seeds of S. sinensis var. amoena were inoculated in vitro with these isolates to test for symbiotic germination. Most Rhizoctonia spp, not associated with the germination in situ induced seed germination in vitro. Seedlings which developed with these isolates in vitro were transferred to ex vitro conditions. New leaves developed and elongated as seedlings continued to grow for 3 months, The seed burial method enabled the clarification of the differences in orchid-fungal specificity in situ and in vitro. We concluded that the specificity between S. sinensis var. amoena and fungi in situ conditions was different to that in vitro.

Masuhara G; Katsuya K

1994-08-01

318

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND RHIZOCTONIA ORYZAE AT THREE DIFFERENT SCALES IN DIRECT-SEEDED WHEAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 36-ha farm north of Pullman, WA was cropped with a three-year rotation of spring wheat, winter wheat, and alternative crops (winter and spring cultivars of canola, barley, and pea). Twelve-ha plots of winter and spring wheat were sampled at GPS-located sites with 10 x 10 grids at three different s...

319

Use of SCAR-PCR in diagnostics of stem base pathogens of the Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula genus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the efficacy of SCAR-PCR assay and conventional diagnostic technique (visual assessment, isolation on PDA medium) in the identification of fungi from the genera Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula from winter triticale, rye, and barley during the shooting stage. The usefulness of molecular diagnosis of fungal pathogens in crop plants has been demonstrated. The application of SCAR- -PCR assay allowed early detection of the following pathogens: O. yallundae, O. acuformis, R. cerealis and R. solani, in plant tissues. This method was particularly effective in detection of R. solani. The research showed the usefulness of PCR markers for early detection of fungal pathogens, even if symptoms were not visible. Using the PCR technique, especially in combination with conventional methods, substantially increases the precision and effectiveness of disease diagnostics.

Grzegorz Lema?czyk

2011-01-01

320

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L. Nechet; Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Optimizing Fungicide Timing for the Control of Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot of Sugar Beet Using Soil Temperature and Plant Growth Stages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Azoxystrobin is applied early in the sugar beet growing season in north-central United States for control of Rhizoctonia damping-off and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomoses groups (AGs) 4 and 2-2, respectively. Fungicide application timings based on crop growth stage and soil temperature thresholds were evaluated in inoculated small-scale trials and in commercial fields with a history of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. Soil temperature thresholds of 10, 15, and 20°C were selected for fungicide application timings and used to test whether soil temperature could be used to better time applications of azoxystrobin. In both small- and large-plot trials, timing applications after attainment of specific soil temperature thresholds did not improve efficacy of azoxystrobin in controlling damping-off or Rhizoctonia crown and root rot compared with application timings based on either planting date, seedling development, or leaf stage in a susceptible (E-17) and a resistant (RH-5) cultivar. Application rate and split application timings of azoxystrobin had no significant effect on severity of crown and root rot. Other environmental factors such as soil moisture may interact with soil temperature to influence disease development. Cv. RH-5 had higher sugar yield attributes than the susceptible cultivar (E-17) in seasons conducive and nonconducive to crown and root rot development. All isolates recovered from both small- and large-plot trials in all years were AG 2-2. R. solani AG 4 was not identified in any samples from any year.

Kirk WW; Wharton PS; Schafer RL; Tumbalam P; Poindexter S; Guza C; Fogg R; Schlatter T; Stewart J; Hubbell L

2008-07-01

322

Lack of interaction between glyphosate and fungicide treatments on rhizoctonia crown and root rot in glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in the Saginaw Valley region of Michigan to determine if there were potential interactions between applications of glyphosate and the fungicide azoxystrobin and to determine the effectiveness of foliar and in-furrow azoxystrobin applications when Rhizoctonia solani is present. Significant differences in disease indices, percentage of harvestable sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), and percentage of healthy sugarbeet were evident among the different varieties and azoxystrobin treatments, but herbicide treatment did not significantly affect these parameters. Hillesho?g 9027RR and Hillesho?g 9029RR had the lowest disease indices and highest percentage of healthy sugarbeet when compared with Crystal RR827 and Hillesho?g 9028RR. Foliar applied azoxystrobin resulted in the lowest disease index (2.0) and highest percentageof healthy sugarbeet (42%) when compared with the in-furrow application or no fungicide treatment. In-furrow azoxystrobin reduced the disease index when compared with no fungicide. Similar trends were observed for harvestable sugarbeet, except for Crystal RR827 where there was not a significant difference between in-furrow azoxystrobin and no fungicide. Glyphosate did not affect the efficacy of fungicide treatments, but choosing a Rhizoctonia-tolerant variety and applying foliar fungicide applications appear to be the best methods for managing Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet.

Barnett KellyA; Sprague ChristyL; Kirk WilliamW; Hanson LindaE

2011-01-01

323

Rhizoctonia web blight in: compendium of azalea and rhodendron diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

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Genotypic and phenotypic variation among Lysobacter capsici strains isolated from Rhizoctonia suppressive soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Gram-negative bacterial strains, recovered from clay soils cultivated with different crops in the Netherland, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they belong to the genus Lysobacter and to be highly related to the type strains of L. antibioticus DSM 2044(T), L. gummosus DSM 6980(T), and L. capsici DSM 19286(T), displaying 99.1-99.3%, 99.2-99.6% and 99.4-100% sequence similarities, respectively, to these species. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies unambigiously indicated that the four strains belonged to the species L. capsici. Nevertheless, DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization indicated that there was a considerable diversification and niche differentiation among the strains belonging to L. capsici. The newly identified L. capsici strains strongly inhibit Rhizoctonia solani AG2 and originate from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils where also populations of L. antibioticus and L. gummosus were present. This is the first report of the presence of combined populations of closely related Lysobacter spp. within agricultural soils. PMID:20399056

Postma, J; Nijhuis, E H; Yassin, A F

2010-04-15

325

Genotypic and phenotypic variation among Lysobacter capsici strains isolated from Rhizoctonia suppressive soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four Gram-negative bacterial strains, recovered from clay soils cultivated with different crops in the Netherland, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they belong to the genus Lysobacter and to be highly related to the type strains of L. antibioticus DSM 2044(T), L. gummosus DSM 6980(T), and L. capsici DSM 19286(T), displaying 99.1-99.3%, 99.2-99.6% and 99.4-100% sequence similarities, respectively, to these species. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies unambigiously indicated that the four strains belonged to the species L. capsici. Nevertheless, DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization indicated that there was a considerable diversification and niche differentiation among the strains belonging to L. capsici. The newly identified L. capsici strains strongly inhibit Rhizoctonia solani AG2 and originate from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils where also populations of L. antibioticus and L. gummosus were present. This is the first report of the presence of combined populations of closely related Lysobacter spp. within agricultural soils.

Postma J; Nijhuis EH; Yassin AF

2010-06-01

326