The Parents as Teachers (PAT) program is a parent-education program that includes home visiting and is designed to begin prenatally or at birth. Through home visits, visitors called parent educators help parents to strengthen their parenting skills and knowledge of child development and to prepare young children for school. This article describes the PAT program and reports the results of evaluations of two randomized trials of PAT: (1) the Northern California (Salinas Valley) Parents as Teachers Demonstration, which served primarily Latino parents in the Salinas Valley of California's Monterey County; and (2) the Teen Parents as Teachers Demonstration, which served adolescent parents in four counties in Southern California. The two evaluations revealed small and inconsistent positive effects on parent knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, and no gains in child development or health, when analyses compared the experimental and control groups overall. However, subgroup analyses in the Salinas Valley program indicated that children in primarily Spanish-speaking Latino families benefitted more than either non-Latino or English-speaking Latino families, with significant gains in cognitive, communication, social, and self-help development. Subgroup analyses in the Teen PAT Demonstration indicated that families that received both PAT services and comprehensive case management services designed to help mothers improve their life course benefitted most. Subgroup analyses in the Salinas Valley study suggested that children in families that received more intensive services benefitted more than children whose families received less intensive services. Results from that study suggested that home visits produced about a one-month developmental advantage per 10 visits for participating children.
Wagner MM; Clayton SL
The Parents as Teachers (PAT) program is a parent-education program that includes home visiting and is designed to begin prenatally or at birth. Through home visits, visitors called parent educators help parents to strengthen their parenting skills and knowledge of child development and to prepare young children for school. This article describes the PAT program and reports the results of evaluations of two randomized trials of PAT: (1) the Northern California (Salinas Valley) Parents as Teachers Demonstration, which served primarily Latino parents in the Salinas Valley of California's Monterey County; and (2) the Teen Parents as Teachers Demonstration, which served adolescent parents in four counties in Southern California. The two evaluations revealed small and inconsistent positive effects on parent knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, and no gains in child development or health, when analyses compared the experimental and control groups overall. However, subgroup analyses in the Salinas Valley program indicated that children in primarily Spanish-speaking Latino families benefitted more than either non-Latino or English-speaking Latino families, with significant gains in cognitive, communication, social, and self-help development. Subgroup analyses in the Teen PAT Demonstration indicated that families that received both PAT services and comprehensive case management services designed to help mothers improve their life course benefitted most. Subgroup analyses in the Salinas Valley study suggested that children in families that received more intensive services benefitted more than children whose families received less intensive services. Results from that study suggested that home visits produced about a one-month developmental advantage per 10 visits for participating children. PMID:10414012
Wagner, M M; Clayton, S L
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test) revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.
AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI
|This booklet provides snapshots of teachers' work lives, using information obtained from previous Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS). The SASS is a set of integrated questionnaires that collect information nationwide about schools and the staff who work in them. A wide variety of schools complete the surveys. The SASS Teacher Questionnaire asks…
Alt, Martha Naomi; Kwon, Jin; Henke, Robin R.
Research into ways of improving the initial education and continuing professional development of science teachers is closely related to both common and unique strands. The field is complex since science teachers teach at different educational levels, are often educated in different science subjects, and belong to various cultures, both educationally and socially. Section 1 presents a review of the research literature across these dimensions and looks at the knowledge, skills and competences needed for teaching science, specific issues within science teacher education, and strategies for educating and developing science teachers.
Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry
News Event: Netherhall hosts inspiring SPEED Education: Amusement parks support physics education International: South Sudan makes progress Environment: Kilimanjaro reveals Africa in danger of warming up Teachers: IOP Teacher Network 'normal expansion' Competition: Board member scoops top prize Forthcoming events
Event: Netherhall hosts inspiring SPEED Education: Amusement parks support physics education International: South Sudan makes progress Environment: Kilimanjaro reveals Africa in danger of warming up Teachers: IOP Teacher Network 'normal expansion' Competition: Board member scoops top prize Forthcoming events
Objectives. We assessed a school-based intervention designed to promote tobacco control among teachers in the Indian state of Bihar. Methods. We used a cluster-randomized design to test the intervention, which comprised educational efforts, tobacco control policies, and cessation support and was tailored to the local social context. In 2009 to 2011, we randomly selected 72 schools from participating school districts and randomly assigned them in blocks (rural or urban) to intervention or delayed-intervention control conditions. Results. Immediately after the intervention, the 30-day quit rate was 50% in the intervention and 15% in the control group (P?=?.001). At the 9-month postintervention survey, the adjusted 6-month quit rate was 19% in the intervention and 7% in the control group (P?=?.06). Among teachers employed for the entire academic year of the intervention, the adjusted 6-month abstinence rates were 20% and 5%, respectively, for the intervention and control groups (P?=?.04). Conclusions. These findings demonstrate the potent impact of an intervention that took advantage of social resources among teachers, who can serve as role models for tobacco control in their communities. PMID:24028234
Sorensen, Glorian; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Stoddard, Anne M; Nagler, Eve; Aghi, Mira B; Lando, Harry A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Pawar, Pratibha; Gupta, Prakash C
Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218) and Turkish (N=142) high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a) the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b) teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c) teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (?= .758) was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.
This paper argues that Educational Effectiveness Research (EER) should establish closer links with research on teacher professional development. A dynamic integrated approach (DIA) to teacher professional development is proposed. The methods and results of a study comparing the impact of the DIA and the Holistic Approach (HA) to teacher…
Antoniou, Panayiotis; Kyriakides, Leonidas
Summative assessments that are integrated within the daily pedagogy of teachers are problematic. Some argue that they cannot both be helpful to pedagogy and yield results that are comparable across and between schools. Others claim that there is enough evidence to show that these targets can be achieved. The project described in this paper…
Black, Paul; Harrison, Christine; Hodgen, Jeremy; Marshall, Bethan; Serret, Natasha
Full Text Available This pioneer study deals with difficulties faced by the beginning Arab teacher. The theoretical framework of the research is based on Veenman’s (1984) analysis, which indicates 24 difficulties faced by the beginning teacher. These difficulties have been classified into eight categories ranked in order of importance. The study seeks to identify the difficulties experienced by the beginning Arab teacher during his first year of teaching and to predict his future dissatisfaction with teaching based on those difficulties. The questionnaire drafted especially for this study was completed by 130 participants (beginning teachers). The responses were analyzed, yielding six factors of difficulty. The findings indicate difficulties involving: 1) the interpersonal communication between beginning Arab teachers on the one hand and both students and parents on the other, 2) overload, 3) didactic and disciplinary knowledge, 4) support and recognition, 5) organizational climate (school culture), and 6) satisfaction. We examined the correlation between the beginning Arab teacher’s difficulties and his dissatisfaction with his work. The research findings reveal that the organizational climate (school culture) and overload factors significantly affect the satisfaction variable. With regard to the relation between the beginning Arab teacher’s general background characteristics and his difficulties in the first year, the background variable, specialization, was found to affect the factors of difficulty.
Full Text Available The objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and treatment of hypertension, underscoring the importance of physical education teachers in guidance and direction of this treatment. The methodological approach was based on a qualitative approach consisting of 15 hypertensive patients enrolled in a project offered by the Fire Department as a group defined the Golden Age, in the municipality of Crato-Ce-Brazil. To this end, we used the technique to collect data, the interview was focused on groups of hypertensive patients who were physically active on a regular basis. With the purpose of organizing the material obtained in interviews, conducted an analysis of their content, which allowed the identification of themes and construction of the following categories: 1) heredity, and lifestyle concerns: the perception of the causes of hypertension Hypertension, 2) Practical exercise training: a tool for prevention and promotion hypertensive patients, 3) Benefits of Physical Activity: the importance of awareness of hypertension, 4) Revealing the importance of continuing the practice of exercise. Thus, considering that for an effective control, prevention and promotion of hypertensive patients is necessary if there is an interaction between teacher / patient in order to provide, in addition to the benefits of activities, the motivation for continuing care. To do so, it is the physical education teachers see their importance and their role in guiding, monitoring and promoting health in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, so you can carry and to reveal the practices of physical exercise as an essential tool in controlling this pathology.
Italla Maira Pinheiro Bezerra; Juliana Correia Silva; Samara Calixto Gomes
|Previous studies have focused on how well students are learning economics, how teachers are trained, and other outcomes associated with improved understanding of economics. However, almost nothing is reported in the research literature on economics teachers' views of the curriculum, how they teach their subject, their views on public issues, and…
Schug, Mark C.; Dieterle, David; Clark, J. R.
The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the perceptions of childcare among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish early childhood teachers. Participants consisted of 78 American teachers, 156 Chinese teachers, 158 Japanese teachers, and 157 Swedish teachers. The results of quantitative analysis revealed that these…
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Lee, Yu-Yuan; Franceschini, Louis
Results are reported from an opinion survey completed by 257 teachers who have been evaluated by the state-mandated Texas Teacher Appraisal System (TTAS). The survey revealed that teachers were dissatisfied with the manner in which they were evaluated in the classroom and wanted more input into the evaluation process. (IAH)
Katima, David; And Others
In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children. PMID:17381790
Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas
In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.
Early DM; Maxwell KL; Burchinal M; Alva S; Bender RH; Bryant D; Cai K; Clifford RM; Ebanks C; Griffin JA; Henry GT; Howes C; Iriondo-Perez J; Jeon HJ; Mashburn AJ; Peisner-Feinberg E; Pianta RC; Vandergrift N; Zill N
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to identify administrators’ and science teachers’ views regarding in-service teacher training courses. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires have been utilized for collecting the data. The interviews were conducted with 6 head teachers (administrators) and 6 science teachers. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was conducted with 109 teachers from seven primary schools. The results showed that there were discrepancies between the results of questionnaires and the interviews. In the questionnaires, most of the teachers indicated that the in-service training courses were helpful in their professional development. In the interviews, even though most of the head teachers found in-service training courses to be helpful in teachers’ professional development, most of the teachers did not share the same opinion. Both the questionnaires and the interviews revealed some reported deficiencies and expectations from in-service training courses.
Volkan Hasan Kaya,; Yasemin Gödek Altuk
Inspired by the educational approach in the municipal pre-primary schools and infant-toddler centers of Reggio Emilia, Italy, two studio teachers and a researcher participant in Portland, Oregon capture classroom work, make investigations and interpretations in the studio as a laboratory space of learning, help children represent thinking, and…
There are two major types of Montessori teacher education in the United States: (1) AMI-USA (the American branch of the Association Montessori Internationale, founded by Dr. Montessori to carry on her work); and (2) AMS (American Montessori Society, founded by Nancy Rambusch to represent Montessori in America). This article presents the results…
Lillard, Angeline S.
Full Text Available Greek schoolteachers (the term, as used in this text, signifies only elementary school teachers) do not constitute a homogenous group, since there are differentiations in terms of the gender, age, social origin, studies, viewpoints and preferences of the men and women who teach in Greece’s elementary schools. The survey that was conducted on a representative sample, with the help of Cluster Analysis, has led to the grouping of elementary school teachers into nine clusters on the basis of the common features identified in analysing each group.
Elias ATHANASSIADIS; Yota XANTHAKOU; Rezan TATLIDIL
A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…
Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente texto pretende mostrar o potencial dos estudos de caso para revelar mudanças em contextos escolares e em concepções e práticas de professores que participaram do PROFORMAÇÃO - Programa de Formação de Professores em Exercício. A primeira parte do texto descreve brevemente o Programa de Formação que se destina a certificar professores leigos em exercício nas escolas das regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro Oeste do país. Na segunda parte são apresentad (more) os os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados na realização de seis estudos de caso, que incluíram visitas às salas de aula dos cursistas, entrevistas, análises de memoriais e aplicação de testes de desempenho. A terceira parte do texto discute os principais resultados do estudo avaliativo: mudanças em concepções e práticas pedagógicas dos professores, melhoria em suas habilidades de escrita e em sua auto-estima, valorização da cultura local e das experiências dos alunos e efeitos positivos nas políticas locais e nos contextos escolares. Abstract in english This paper aims to show the capacity of case studies to evidence changes in school contexts and in the concepts and practices of teachers who have taken part in PROFORMAÇÃO - a program for the development of teachers who are effectively teaching. The first part of the paper briefly describes the teacher development program, which aims at certifying untrained teachers working in the northern, north-eastern and centre-western areas of the country. In the second part the m (more) ethodological procedures will be presented which were used in the development of six case studies, which included visits to the trainees? classrooms, interviews, analyses of memoirs and the application of assessment tests. The third part discusses the main results of the assessment study: changes in the teachers? pedagogical concepts and practices, improvement in their writing skills, in their self-esteem and in their perception of the local cultures with positive results in the local policies and the school contexts.
|A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7…
Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.
A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7 and…
Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.
American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.
Tryon, Lisa A.
Through a project funded by the National Science Foundation, Horizon Research has been developing assessment items for students (in the process, compiling item-writing principles from several sources and adding their own). In this article, the authors share what they have learned about writing items that reveal student understanding, including best practices and concrete examples of applying them. Although most of the examples given are multiple-choice items, the principles are generally applicable to open-ended questions as well.
Taylor, Melanie; Smith, Sean
Objectives: Validated instruments to assess ADHD are still unavailable in many languages other than English for teachers, which constitutes a clear obstacle to screening, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD in many European countries. Method: Teachers rated 892 youths using the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). We investigated the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance based on confirmatory factor analyses. Results: Results support a bifactor model, including one general ADHD factor and two specific Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity factors. But the latter is improperly defined calling into question the existence of a Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subtype. The measurement invariance is fully supported across gender, age groups, and Gender × Age Groups. Conclusion: Results support the multiple-pathways hypothesis and suggest that a total ADHD score is meaningful, reliable, and valid, as well as specific assessments of Inattention. Some youths-especially older ones-may present a profile of ADHD particularly marked by Inattention symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).
Caci HM; Morin AJ; Tran A
Large splitting in shear-wave phases such as SKS and SKKS is usually attributed to anisotropy within the upper mantle, due to a preserved deformation imprint in the lithosphere or the influence of asthenospheric flow, or both. New shear-wave splitting measurements have been made in Ireland to supplement data from a previous study and increase the geographical coverage to the whole of Ireland. Most high quality results are from earthquakes in South America and eastern Asia. Average delay times are about 1.2 s, suggesting an anisotropic layer thickness of 80-100 km. Analysis of controlled-source data (Sg and SmS phases) from an experiment in southwest Ireland has confirmed that crustal anisotropy is not a significant contribution to the overall observed anisotropy. The new SKS-splitting results confirm the earlier results and show a clear variation of fast directions with back-azimuth. Events from eastern Asia show fast polarization directions that are closely related to the Caledonian/Variscan tectonic fabric in Ireland, indicating that the memory of this may be preserved in the mantle lithosphere. However, events from South America show fast directions that are consistently more northerly and so do not appear to carry the signature of the sub-continental lithospheric deformation history. Furthermore, there is no alignment of fast polarization directions with absolute plate motion direction, and so no direct correlation with mantle flow. Results from preliminary modelling based on two-layer anisotropy with contributions from mantle flow and lithospheric deformation do not fit the observed splitting pattern. The results are interpreted to indicate that the observed anisotropy in Ireland cannot be explained purely by upper mantle sources, and that it is more complex than previously thought.
Polat, G.; Readman, P. W.; O'Reilly, B. M.; Hauser, F.; Do, V.
Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to identify the environmental education awareness of upper primary school teachers (Grade VI to VIII) in relation to type of school, gender and subject streams. Environmental Awareness Test was used for collecting data from a random sample of 200 upper primary school teachers. Statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation and t test were applied for analysis of data. The results revealed that upper primary school teachers have average level of environmental education awareness. However, no significant differences were observed in environmental education awareness of these teachers in relation to type of school, gender and subject streams.
Vipinder Nagra; Kulwant Kaur
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal preservice teachers’ metaphors about the lecturers at university. Study group of the research consists of 347 preservice teachers enrolled at three different education faculties in Turkey in 2011-2012 academic year. Data was obtained from the preservice teachers’ completion of the sentences such as “University teacher is like ..., because ...”. For analysing the data quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. As a result, 183 metaphors were determined about University teachers in 16 conceptual categories. The categories which produced metaphors most about the University teachers are as follows; university teachers as the source and passer one of the knowledge (42 metaphors), the university teacher as a guide one (38 metaphors), the university teacher as a changing one (24 metaphors), the university teacher as a scary-repelling one (21 metaphors), the university teacher as a versatile one (17 metaphors) respectively. Besides, the metaphors can be used as an evaluation tool for determining the performance of a university teacher at studies of increasing quality in higher education.
Hasan Said TORTOP
Full Text Available The present case study mainly focused on the effects of a teacher’s questions on the development of students’ critical thinking. The purpose was to investigate whether teacher’s questions could facilitate students’ critical thinking which required students to manipulate knowledge instead of direct recalling. Classroom observation and interview were employed in the study. A teacher’s questioning behavior was observed and 17 students were interviewed. The results showed the teacher asked more lower-cognitive questions (79.2%) than higher ones (20.8%). Based on the theory of the cognitive domain, results revealed that excessive use of lower-cognitive questions could not facilitate the development of students’ critical thinking. Additionally, the misuse of higher-cognitive questions by the teacher was also identified.
Ping Shen; Butsakorn Yodkhumlue
Full Text Available The study examined the effect of teacher’s qualification on the performance of Senior Secondary School students in Physics. The purpose was to determine whether the status of the teacher has any impact on the performance of the students in Physics. The survey type of descriptive research design was adopted. The sample for the study consisted of 100 Senior Secondary Schools Physics students in Ekiti State and the teachers that prepared and presented the students in each school for 2009/2010 West African School Certificate Examination. The year’s result summary for each school was collated with the bio-data of their respective Physics teachers. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. The data collated were analysed using inferential statistics. The results revealed that students taught by teachers with higher qualifications performed better than those taught by teachers with lower qualifications. It was also showed that students performed better in physics when taught by professional teachers. The result also showed that teacher’s gender has no effect on their ability to impact knowledge on the students, much as he/she is a skilled teacher in that field of study. However, the experience of the teacher is significant at impacting the students’ academic performance in Physics. Based on the findings, it was recommended that experienced teachers with professional qualifications in higher level should teach Physics at the certificate class.
Owolabi, Olabode Thomas; Adedayo, Julius Olugbenga
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide information and difference about the level of environmental awareness of teacher trainees in West Bengal, India. Data was collected through self made questionnaire of 200 teacher trainees of Birbhum & Burdwan Districts in West Bengal, by randomly. The result revealed that 1) in-service teacher trainees are more aware than pre-service teacher trainees, 2) Science teacher trainees are more aware than humanities teacher trainees, 3) male teacher trainees and female teacher trainees, level of environmental awareness are not differ significantly, 4) govt.-aided college teacher trainees and private college teacher trainees are not differ significant in connection with level of environmental awareness.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine primary school teachers’ tendencies towards being administrators. 145 teachers from 12 schools, chosen constituted the study sample. Scale previously devised by Aksu (2004) was used as a tool for data collection. SPSS 13 was used in the analysis of the data. Scale consisted of two dimensions entitled as individual tendency and general tendency. As for the general tendency scale, teachers revealed low and moderate levels of tendency. However, as for the individual tendency, teachers were found to have moderate level of tendency towards being school administrators. Results of the study revealed that both women and men have moderate level of tendency towards being school administrators. T test conducted on gender variable showed that women teachers’ individual tendency values appeared to be higher than that of men’s individual tendency scores. Analysis on experience variable revealed that tendency values of teachers within difference experience groups did not differ significantly.
Mehmet Bingül; Özge Hac?fazl?o?lu
|Three hundred-one pre-service teachers enrolled in elementary teacher education program were administered two surveys to measure mathematics anxiety and mathematical beliefs. Results of the study revealed that there were significant differences between third year and fourth year pre-service teachers regarding their mathematics anxiety and…
Full Text Available Complexities of essential aspects of the teacher-student relationship were identified in a group of German adolescents and their teachers through participant observation. It is already known that the determinants of the teacher-student relationship cannot be simply categorized and analyzed as univariate features. Using Clifford Geertz’s concept of “thick description,” empirical data were collected during a six-month field study at a secondary school in the south of Germany. Thematic analyses of the extant empirical database identified six sociological principles that constitute fundamental components of the teacher-student relationship: power, dualism, solidarity, productivity, sympathy, and identity. Analyses showed that meaningful ritualized structures limit teachers and students to institutional roles that are incongruent with the general aim of having productive interactions in educational settings. The complexity of educational settings can only be grasped if the teacher-student relationship is understood as an interpersonal process. When reduced to their institutional roles, both teachers and students experienced their relationship and educational settings as unsatisfactory.
Diana Raufelder; William M. Bukowski; Sonja Mohr
Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in leadership positions in Turkish work life as well as in other countries. There are some social and personal barriers preventing women from managerial positions. One of the area in which women are underrepresented is school leadership. The main purpose of this study is to describe the attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions in schools. In accordance with the main purpose of the study it was investigated whether there were any differences between the attitudes and the views of the primary teacher and the primary pre-service teachers. The attitudes and the views about the barriers facing female teachers in school leadership were also compared according to gender and the grades of the primary pre-service teachers. Data were collected from 114 primary teachers working in primary schools in Çayeli district and 192 primary pre-service teachers attending primary school teacher training program in the Faculty of Education in Rize University.The attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions were described in two dimensions, personal attitudes and views, and social attitudes and views. Study results revealed that the attitudes and views differentiated significantly due to gender and position (teacher or pre-service teacher) in both dimensions. Moreover, it was indicated that gender and the position of the primary teachers and the primary pre-service teachers have significant joint effects on the personal attitudes and views whereas joint effects of the gender and positions on the social attitudes and views were not observed at statistically significant level. As a conclusion, study results indicated that female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers have not negative attitudes and views for female promoting to school leadership as much as their male counterparts. However, female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers seemed to accept voluntarily the social female roles more than male primary teachers and male primary pre-service teachers.In accordance with the study results some suggestions were developed. First of all, it was proposed that traditional gender roles should be redefined in Turkish Educational System. Secondly, gender discrimination subject might take place in teacher training programs. Moreover, further gender studies were recommended in terms of motivation, stress, work satisfaction, work performance, work commitment and organizational culture.
Cemalettin ?PEK; Seher YARAR
The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of secondary school teachers towards traffic safety behaviors. The study is concerning data coming from a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaires filled in by school teachers of Lazio and Campania regions. 262 teachers entered into the study. Among the scooter holders, 69.2% did use helmet; 95.8% of people who drives car uses seatbelts. The scooter and bicycle helmet is considered useful for 99.6% and 57.4% of participants. The accident rate depends on the means of transportation used: 10.8% and 19% for bicycle and scooter riders, respectively, and 44.6%for the car drivers. Regarding injuries using a bicycle, teachers with less than 40 years are less involved in accidents compared to the over 40 years (OR = 0.19; p = 0.05), as well as teachers who are married (OR = 0.16; p = 0.03) compared to the other group (single/widowed/divorced). Car accidents involve less frequently women (OR = 0.60; p = 0.05) compared to males. Road accidents prevention is part of the health priorities indicated in the National Health Plan, the National Prevention Plan and Regional Prevention Plans. School teachers' can play an important role in students' education on road safety, and there is the need to improve knowledge and behaviors in this field.
Miccoli S; Giraldi G; Boccia A; La Torre G
Full Text Available Previous research has revealed the influential role of teachers’ beliefs in determining their professional behavior; that is, the ways they plan their lessons, the kinds of decision they make, and the methods they apply in their classrooms. The present study aimed, first, to investigate the construct of teachers’ belief systems about reading strategies among EFL high school teachers, then to explore the degree of discrepancies or consistencies between teachers’ beliefs about reading strategies and their practical teaching activities in the context of English teaching as a foreign language in high schools of Iran, Mazandaran. Based on questionnaire data from 57 teachers, teachers’ beliefs and their self-reported classroom employment of reading strategies were explored. Findings indicated that teachers believe that reading strategies play an important role in reading comprehension and that it is necessary to teach reading strategies in reading classes. The results also revealed that there is inconsistency between teachers' beliefs and their self reported classroom practice.
Fatemeh KHONAMRI; Mahin SALIMI
Studied the use of the Repertory Grid in analyzing the personal constructs of 12 elementary school teachers in Spain regarding the characteristics of teachers with different levels of experience. Results reveal more similarities than differences about the principles of reform in Spanish education. Differences identified between experienced and…
Castejon, Juan L.; Martinez, Maria A.
Students report that teachers bully them, but a review of the literature indicates that little attention has been given to teacher-to-student bullying. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate elementary teachers' perceptions of seriousness and their intent to intervene in teacher bullying incidents. Results indicated that teachers…
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize) district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (Özgür, 1994) and the Turkish form of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Balo?lu and Karada?, 2008) were used as data gathering instrument in the study. The study results revealed that the first grade primary pre-service teachers’ scores on the attitudes towards teaching professions were statistically higher than the scores of the fourth grade primary pre-service teachers and of the primary teachers. However, the study results indicated that the teaching self-efficacy scores of the first grade pre-service teachers were statistically lower than the teaching self-efficacy scores of the fourth grade pre-service teachers and primary teachers. On the other hand, the study results showed that females’ attitudes towards teaching profession were higher than the attitudes of their male counterparts whereas self-efficacy scores did not differentiate due to the gender of the primary pre-service teachers and primary teachers. Moreover, the study results indicated that there were not any significant correlation between the self-efficacy and attitudes scores of the pre-service teachers and primary teachers.
Cemalettin ?pek; Fatih Camadan
Full Text Available Abstract Background A method to evaluate and analyze the massive data generated by series of microarray experiments is of utmost importance to reveal the hidden patterns of gene expression. Because of the complexity and the high dimensionality of microarray gene expression profiles, the dimensional reduction of raw expression data and the feature selections necessary for, for example, classification of disease samples remains a challenge. To solve the problem we propose a two-level analysis. First self-organizing map (SOM) is used. SOM is a vector quantization method that simplifies and reduces the dimensionality of original measurements and visualizes individual tumor sample in a SOM component plane. Next, hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering is used to identify patterns of gene expression useful for classification of samples. Results We tested the two-level analysis on public data from diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The analysis easily distinguished major gene expression patterns without the need for supervision: a germinal center-related, a proliferation, an inflammatory and a plasma cell differentiation-related gene expression pattern. The first three patterns matched the patterns described in the original publication using supervised clustering analysis, whereas the fourth one was novel. Conclusions Our study shows that by using SOM as an intermediate step to analyze genome-wide gene expression data, the gene expression patterns can more easily be revealed. The "expression display" by the SOM component plane summarises the complicated data in a way that allows the clinician to evaluate the classification options rather than giving a fixed diagnosis.
Wang Junbai; Delabie Jan; Aasheim Hans; Smeland Erlend; Myklebost Ola
BACKGROUND: A method to evaluate and analyze the massive data generated by series of microarray experiments is of utmost importance to reveal the hidden patterns of gene expression. Because of the complexity and the high dimensionality of microarray gene expression profiles, the dimensional reduction of raw expression data and the feature selections necessary for, for example, classification of disease samples remains a challenge. To solve the problem we propose a two-level analysis. First self-organizing map (SOM) is used. SOM is a vector quantization method that simplifies and reduces the dimensionality of original measurements and visualizes individual tumor sample in a SOM component plane. Next, hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering is used to identify patterns of gene expression useful for classification of samples. RESULTS: We tested the two-level analysis on public data from diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The analysis easily distinguished major gene expression patterns without the need for supervision: a germinal center-related, a proliferation, an inflammatory and a plasma cell differentiation-related gene expression pattern. The first three patterns matched the patterns described in the original publication using supervised clustering analysis, whereas the fourth one was novel. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that by using SOM as an intermediate step to analyze genome-wide gene expression data, the gene expression patterns can more easily be revealed. The "expression display" by the SOM component plane summarises the complicated data in a way that allows the clinician to evaluate the classification options rather than giving a fixed diagnosis.
Wang J; Delabie J; Aasheim H; Smeland E; Myklebost O
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare Dutch and Turkish pre service science teachers’ perspectives on their science teacher training programs. Measurement instrument used in this study was prepared by the researchers in their mother tongue and then was translated into Dutch. The questionnaire has 39-items. Reliability analysis of the instrument revealed that the Cronbach-Alpha coefficient in Turkish was (.784) and in Dutch was (.804) for the whole of the instrument. Measurement instrument was administered to 143 preservice science teachers to determine their perspectives. The results showed that there are many differences and similarities on the perspectives of preservice science teachers into science teacher training programs in Turkey and Netherlands. Suggestions have been made under the light of the results.
Mustafa Ergun; Senem AVCI
Full Text Available In recent years, the learning of English as a Foreign Language in Japanese high schools has become the focus of new educational policies applied at the national level. One of these is The Course of Study issue by the Ministry of Education, in which teachers are, for the first time in a long series of curriculum guidelines, adjured to develop students' "positive attitudes towards communicating in English." Another is the JET program, which has put thousands of native English speaking assistant language teachers (ALTs) into Japanese secondary classrooms for the purpose of team teaching with Japanese teachers. Data resulting from a survey project of 876 Japanese high school English teachers was used to provide empirical evidence of teachers' levels of approval of communicative, audiolingual and traditional (yakudoku) activities. Teachers were also asked to rate the strengths of a variety of influences on their instruction, including university entrance exams, and pre- and in-service teacher education programs. Teachers' perceptions of both activities and instructional influences were examined in light of teachers' length of career, type of school (private versus public, academic versus vocational), and level of contact with an ALT. The data revealed the complexities of imposing broad, national educational policies on a diverse group of teachers, and in an educational culture which likely precludes teachers' use of communicative activities.
Full Text Available Teachers are among the fundamental elements of education. The teacher has significant roles both within the society and the school. The place and importance of the teacher, particularly in the success of the students, cannot be denied. In this context, teaching as a career is a distinctive profession that requires professionalism. The profession of teaching requires expertise, as well as the support of both principals and primary education supervisors from time to time. For this reason, collaboration and cooperation among the teacher, the principal and the supervisor is inevitable for the success of the teacher, and consequently, the success of education. In order to maintain this collaboration and cooperation, it is necessary that principals, teachers and primary education supervisors act being aware of the expectations and needs of the others. The success of teachers and consequently the accomplishment of students can be maintained through utilizing the perceptions of principals and supervisors towards teachers. The aim of the present study is to determine the perceptions of primary school supervisors, primary school principals and teachers towards the teacher through the use of metaphors and discover the roles expected of the teachers. The study is a descriptive research study intended to determine and analyze the present situation. In the study, a qualitative research method was used to collect, analyze and interpret the research data. The sample group of the study consisted of 51 educational supervisors on duty in the province of Konya, 73 primary school administrators (65 headmasters and 8 deputy headmasters) and 154 teachers employed in the three central districts located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in the academic year of 2008-2009. The research data was collected by requesting the participants to complete the sentence “A teacher is like ......, because.......” in written form. The collected data was analyzed through content analysis. The metaphors produced by the participants were divided into 13 themes as; incompetent, devoted, hardworking, enlightening, shaper, leader, inefficient, cheap labor, monotonous, inconsistent, lazy, aggressive and crushed, by also taking the explanations into consideration. The results of the analyses showed that educational supervisors, principals and teachers perceived the teachers as individuals showing (1) positive (devoted, hardworking, enlightening, shaper and leader) and (2) negative (incompetent, inefficient, cheap labor, monotonous, inconsistent, lazy, aggressive and crushed) attitudes. When these two findings are interpreted together, it can be seen that supervisors, principals and teachers perceive teachers both as enlightening and shaping leaders who work devotedly without expecting any return in spite of all sorts of difficulties, and also as incompetent, inefficient and lazy individuals. The findings reveal the view that, besides the positive roles expected of the teachers, there are also teachers who cannot adequately meet these expectations. Furthermore, it can be stated that in order to perform the roles expected of them, teachers need to be authorized in accordance with their responsibilities, to have a better economic status and to be respected within the society. Suggestions: (1) School-based research studies should be conducted in order to determine the points that prevent the authorization of teachers in accordance with their responsibilities, (2) It should be maintained that primary education supervisors and school principals endeavour to understand the teachers and provide the required support in education and teaching activities (3) Senior managements, particularly principals, should create democratic environments in order to maintain the participation of teachers in the administration of schools and take the requests and suggestions of teachers into consideration.
Atila Y?ld?r?m; Ali Ünal; Methi Çelik
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the teachers’ and students’ views about to what extend high school teachers display democratic attitudes and behaviors while managing classroom. This study also aims at investigating both teachers’ views according to gender, professional experiences, and subject variables and students’ views according to gender and grade variables. To this end “Democratic Classroom Management Scale” was administered on the participating teachers and students. The teacher of this descriptive study comprises of a total number of 916 teachers and a total number of 22.023 students from state high schools in Malatya city center during 2005-2006 semester. The sample of the study is 227 teachers and 953 students selected from 8 state high schools. Research results revealed that teachers’ and students’ views differed significantly. While teachers state that they behave in a democratic manner, students think the opposite. Also it was found that students’ views differed significantly according to gender and grade variables.
Gülcan YALÇIN- DURMU?; Hasan DEM?RTA?
Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the EndeavorTM-Stent-Stent (Medtronic Corp., USA) in daily practice. Material and methods: Data come from a prospective single-centre registry. Between 2005 and 2007 all patients, who received at least one Endeavor? coronary stent, were included into a registry. Patients were contacted after 12 and 24 - 36 months. Results: 326 patients (97 females, mean age 67.5 ± 10.3 years) were included. From these patients 137 (42%) had a 3-vessel disease, 96 (29%) presented with myocardial infarction ? 72 hrs, 19 (6%) with a left ventricular ejection fraction TM-Stent-Stents. Per patient, 0.4 ± 0.7 bare metal stents were implanted. Median follow-up time was 35.3 months, during follow-up 165 patients (50.6%) had repeated angiography. After 12 (24) months overall mortality was 5.8% (7.3%), cardiac mortality 3.1% (3.5%), myocardial infarction rate 1.5% (4.1%), target-vessel revascu-larization rate 8.7% (12.4%), target-lesion revascu-larization rate 6.1% (8.4%), and cumulative MACE-rate 14.1% (21.9%). In total, 2 definite or likely stent-thromboses (0.6%) occurred during follow-up. Logistic regression revealed the treatment of saphenous vein grafts and aorto-coronary ostial lesions as risk factors for target lesion revascularization. Conclusion: The EndeavorTM-Stent-Stent is a safe and effective drug-eluting stent in the treatment of daily-life coronary patients. Treatment of vein grafts and aorto-coronary ostial lesions appear to be associated with a higher need for re-interventions.
Klaus Hertting; Agneta Wieneke; Daniel Hausmann; Claudia Zeiler; Christian Pott; Werner Raut
This paper is about a research focusing on recent problems of Hungarian teachers. The aim of the study is to reveal the real troubles of Hungarian pedagogues, on the basis of their answers to a questionnaire, the nature of these problems and how they affect the role of the teacher. Supposedly, the nucleus of the problems of the teachers is…
Teacher ratings of students' potential achievement, classroom behavior, personal characteristics, and teacher-student dyadic interaction measures were obtained to examine the nature of teacher perceptions and interaction with Black and White, male and female students in integrated classrooms. Results show teachers perceived Black and White…
Cornbleth, Catherine; Korth, Willard
Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960). This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.
Olufemi Aremu FAKOLADE; Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI; Adeyinka TELLA
Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most severe disabling disorders in the world in view of teachers occupational stress, this study was desinged to measure the magnitude of depression among them. Methods: 291 Teachers from 21 primary schools in esfahan city were enamined by means of beck"s test. Results: This study revealed that 89% of the teachers suffered from afferent degrees of depression i.e ,33% mild , 28.3% moderate and 27.2% sever the degree of depression decreased as the level of education increased and with age the degree of depression increased. Conclusion: In view of their occupational roles, teachers are rulencable and more attention must be paid to their needs.
G AHMADZADEH; GH GHASEMI; M.M KARAMI
Full Text Available The current study explored the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' self-regulation and job performance. To empirically explore the postulated correlation between teachers' self-regulation and job performance, 80 EFL teachers from various language institutes in Mashhad were asked to complete the "Teachers Self-Regulation Scale" and the "Job Performance Scale". The results of the finding confirmed the hypothesized relationship between teachers' self-regulation and job performance. Moreover, the result of Step-Wise Regression Analysis revealed that mastery goal orientation among sub-components of self-regulation was the best predicator of job performance. Finally, the results were discussed in details and implications were recommended.
Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol; Nahid Royaei
Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta resultados obtidos por meio da pesquisa realizada entre 2005 e 2006, intitulada Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente, cujo propósito foi analisar possibilidades e limites da utilização dos resultados obtidos pelos alunos no Sistema de Avaliação do Rendimento Escolar do Estado de São Paulo (SARESP) para a formulação e o direcionamento de políticas de formação de professores. As preocupações recaíram sobre os programas de formação em língua portuguesa para o ensino fundamental. Foram visitadas quatro das treza diretorias regionais de ensino da capital do Estado de São Paulo a fim de conhecer o trabalho de formação docente realizado e analisar em que medida ele se relacionava aos dados obtidos no SARESP. O estudo qualitativo teve como principal estratégia a enquete exploratória, com uso de roteiros de entrevista e de observação semiestruturados. O referencial teórico sintetizou contribuições de Dennis Palumbo (1998) e de Marcus Figueiredo e Argelina Figueiredo (1986) para a compreensão do conceito e das etapas da política pública, assim como de Elba Barreto e Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders e Jody Fitzpatrick (2004) e Almerindo Afonso (1998) a respeito da discussão da avaliação de programas, entre outros. Concluiu-se que, apesar de a documentação dos programas de formação e o SARESP declararem que há relação entre os resultados da avaliação e os programas propostos, a concretização desse propósito depende do engajamento dos profissionais presentes nas diretorias de ensino. As ações formais da Secretaria da Educação para induzir esse uso de resultados não se mostraram suficientes para assegurar o pretenso vínculo entre avaliação e formação docente.This work presents results of a study conducted between 2005 and 2006 entitled The use of the results of the SARESP Exam: the role of assessment in teacher education policies (Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente), whose purpose was to analyze possibilities and limits of the use of the results obtained by pupils in the SARESP Exam (School Performance Assessment System of the State São Paulo) to formulate and direct teacher education policies. The attention was focused on education programs for teachers of Portuguese Language to pupils in fundamental education. Four out of the thirteen Regional Education Directorships of the State of São Paulo were visited to gain acquaintance with the teacher education programs they developed and to investigate to what extent they could be related to the results achieved in the SARESP exam. The qualitative study adopted as its main strategy the exploratory survey, with the use of semi-structured interview and observation scripts. The theoretical framework employed brought together contributions by Dennis Palumbo (1998) and Marcus Figueiredo and Argelina Figueiredo (1986) to understand the concept and stages of public policy, as well as by Elba Barreto and Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders and Jody Fitzpatrick (2004), and by Almerindo Afonso (1998) on the discussion about assessment programs, among others. It concludes that, the statements in the teacher education program and in the SARESP documentations about the correlation between the former and pupil assessment results notwithstanding, the actual achievement of positive results depends on the effective commitment of the professionals working at the Education Directorships. Formal actions by the Secretariat for Education to foster this use of the results have proved insufficient to ensure the proposed link between pupil assessment and teacher education.
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F
Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the effects of physical environment in pre-school education on teacher-child communication. The sample of the study is composed of 42 nursery classes and their teachers in primary schools affiliated with Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education. The study was conducted in survey model. In the study, “The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- the sub-dimensions of Classroom Space and Furnishings” was used to assess physical environment and “Teacher-Child Communication Questionnaire” which was developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher-child communication. The relation between physical environment and teacher-child communication was tested with Spearman Correlation. The results of the study revealed that teacher-child communication is a significantly related with ECER-S daily care, play and learning space sub-scale and furnishings for relaxation and comfort sub-scale.
Filiz Erbay*; Esra Ömero?lu
Full Text Available Some new and envisioned technologies such as brain machine interfaces (BMI) that are being developed initially for people with disabilities, but whose use can also be expanded to the general public have the potential to change body ability expectations of disabled and non-disabled people beyond the species-typical. The ways in which this dynamic will impact students with disabilities in the domain of special education is explored. Data was drawn from six special education school teachers from one school in Calgary, Alberta. Five sub-themes (social acceptance, not adding to the impairment, fear of judgement by society, pursuing “normality” and meeting the demands of society) were identified that fit under the main identified theme of “fitting in by not standing out”. Findings demonstrate a dichotomy in participant views of non- or socially acceptable communication devices. The perception of BMI technology was also explored among special education school teachers, revealing benefits and challenges with the uptake of this technology for students with disabilities. Perceptions of people with disabilities and ableism are presented as conceptual frameworks to interpret the influence and impact of the findings.
Lucy Diep; Gregor Wolbring
|The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…
Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta resultados obtidos por meio da pesquisa realizada entre 2005 e 2006, intitulada Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente, cujo propósito foi analisar possibilidades e limites da utilização dos resultados obtidos pelos alunos no Sistema de Avaliação do Rendimento Escolar do Estado de São Paulo (SARESP) para a formulação e o direcionamento de políticas de formação de professores. As pr (more) eocupações recaíram sobre os programas de formação em língua portuguesa para o ensino fundamental. Foram visitadas quatro das treza diretorias regionais de ensino da capital do Estado de São Paulo a fim de conhecer o trabalho de formação docente realizado e analisar em que medida ele se relacionava aos dados obtidos no SARESP. O estudo qualitativo teve como principal estratégia a enquete exploratória, com uso de roteiros de entrevista e de observação semiestruturados. O referencial teórico sintetizou contribuições de Dennis Palumbo (1998) e de Marcus Figueiredo e Argelina Figueiredo (1986) para a compreensão do conceito e das etapas da política pública, assim como de Elba Barreto e Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders e Jody Fitzpatrick (2004) e Almerindo Afonso (1998) a respeito da discussão da avaliação de programas, entre outros. Concluiu-se que, apesar de a documentação dos programas de formação e o SARESP declararem que há relação entre os resultados da avaliação e os programas propostos, a concretização desse propósito depende do engajamento dos profissionais presentes nas diretorias de ensino. As ações formais da Secretaria da Educação para induzir esse uso de resultados não se mostraram suficientes para assegurar o pretenso vínculo entre avaliação e formação docente. Abstract in english This work presents results of a study conducted between 2005 and 2006 entitled The use of the results of the SARESP Exam: the role of assessment in teacher education policies (Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente), whose purpose was to analyze possibilities and limits of the use of the results obtained by pupils in the SARESP Exam (School Performance Assessment System of the State São Paulo) to formulate and direct tea (more) cher education policies. The attention was focused on education programs for teachers of Portuguese Language to pupils in fundamental education. Four out of the thirteen Regional Education Directorships of the State of São Paulo were visited to gain acquaintance with the teacher education programs they developed and to investigate to what extent they could be related to the results achieved in the SARESP exam. The qualitative study adopted as its main strategy the exploratory survey, with the use of semi-structured interview and observation scripts. The theoretical framework employed brought together contributions by Dennis Palumbo (1998) and Marcus Figueiredo and Argelina Figueiredo (1986) to understand the concept and stages of public policy, as well as by Elba Barreto and Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders and Jody Fitzpatrick (2004), and by Almerindo Afonso (1998) on the discussion about assessment programs, among others. It concludes that, the statements in the teacher education program and in the SARESP documentations about the correlation between the former and pupil assessment results notwithstanding, the actual achievement of positive results depends on the effective commitment of the professionals working at the Education Directorships. Formal actions by the Secretariat for Education to foster this use of the results have proved insufficient to ensure the proposed link between pupil assessment and teacher education.
A recent project involving Year 3 (seven-eight year-old) pupils and their teachers revealed that "gender matters" differently to boys and girls, and teachers. The study sought to elicit whether pupils and their teachers felt the gender of a teacher mattered to their experiences of schooling. Pupils were concerned about how effective teachers were…
Skelton, C.; Carrington, B.; Francis, B.; Hutchings, M.; Read, B.; Hall, I.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is, to examine the physical education and sports teacher’s self-efficacy expectation level throughdifferent variances, who teach in Nev?ehir. To the purpose of determining the physical education and sports teacher’s (selfefficacy) levels, the data of the study collected with Teacher Competence Expectation Inventory (TCE?) which was developedby Yavuz and Koç which was used before. The study was processed with the 92 physical education and sports teachers in thecity of Nevsehir. The data obtained about the teacher’s teacher efficacy expectation were analyzed by ‘Single Way VarianceAnalyze’ and ‘the test of the importance of the the difference between two means’ (t-test). There have been significantdifferences identified in gender (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and in education levels (p<0.01) of subjects. According to thecomparison related with the residence place of the subjects the ANOVA results revealed that there was significant differencebetween groups. And post-hoc tests pointed that the difference was between the city and town, which was in favor of city.There was not any significant difference identified on the other variables of the research. The results related to teacher efficacylevels of the physical education and sports teacher’s in the city of Nev?ehir generally show that the teacher’s self efficiency levelsare at high level. The study results show that the between gender, marital statue, localization and the education step variancesand self-efficiency levels showed meaningful differences. Between the age and the school type variances and self-efficiencylevels no meaningful differences were found.
Gürkan YILMAZ; Baki YILMAZ; Nurgül TÜRK
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. METHOD: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered normophonic, mildly, moderately, and severely dysphonic, respectively) on 18 personality traits and 6 teacher attitude parameters. A flyer with a link to the survey was distributed via e-mail to teachers at 8 middle and high schools in Ohio. RESULTS: Thirty-two teachers completed the survey. Results revealed differences in teachers' perceptions of female adolescents with a normal voice compared to those with voice disorders. CONCLUSION: Adolescent female students with voice disorders may be at risk for academic, social, and vocational difficulties. These results highlight and support the need to inform teachers, speech-language pathologists, students, and families about the potential for subtle biases and negative perceptions of students with voice disorders by teachers. Furthermore, teaching self-advocacy to students who have voice disorders may help them obtain an optimal education experience.
Zacharias SR; Kelchner LN; Creaghead N
We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs.
Alves M; Chicau P; Matias H; Passarinho J; Pinheiro C; Ricardo CP
FGF signaling mutations are a frequent contributor to craniofacial malformations including midfacial anomalies and craniosynostosis. FGF signaling has been shown to control cellular mechanisms that contribute to facial morphogenesis and growth such as proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation. We hypothesized that FGF signaling controls not only the magnitude of growth during facial morphogenesis but also regulates the direction of growth via cell polarity. To test this idea, we infected migrating neural crest cells of chicken embryos with RCAS virus expressing both FgfR2(C278F), a receptor mutation found in Crouzon syndrome, and the ligand Fgf8. Treated embryos exhibited craniofacial malformations resembling facial dysmorphologies in craniosynostosis syndrome. Consistent with our hypothesis, ectopic activation of FGF signaling resulted in decreased cell proliferation, increased expression of the Sprouty class of FGF signaling inhibitors, and repressed phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK. Furthermore, quantification of cell polarity in facial mesenchymal cells showed that while orientation of the Golgi body matches the direction of facial prominence outgrowth in normal cells, in FGF-treated embryos this direction is randomized, consistent with aberrant growth that we observed. Together these data demonstrate that FGF signaling regulates cell proliferation and cell polarity, and that together these cell processes contribute to facial morphogenesis.
Li X; Young NM; Tropp S; Hu D; Xu Y; Hallgrímsson B; Marcucio RS
The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...
Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick
The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor containing two transcriptional activation domains. AF-1 is in the N terminus of the receptor protein and AF-2 activity is dependent on helix 12 of the C-terminal ligand-binding domain. Two point mutations of leucines 543 and 544 to alanines (L543A, L544A) in helix 12 minimized estrogen-dependent transcriptional activation and reversed the activity of the estrogen antagonists ICI182780 (ICI) and tamoxifen (TAM) into agonists in a similar manner that TAM activated WT ER? through AF-1 activation. To evaluate the physiological role of AF-1 and AF-2 for the tissue-selective function of TAM, we generated an AF-2-mutated ER? knock-in (AF2ERKI) mouse model. AF2ERKI homozygote female mice have hypoplastic uterine tissue and rudimentary mammary glands similar to ER?-KO mice. Female mice were infertile as a result of anovulation from hemorrhagic cystic ovaries and elevated serum LH and E2 levels, although the mutant ER? protein is expressed in the AF2ERKI model. The AF2ERKI phenotype suggests that AF-1 is not activated independently, even with high serum E2 levels. ICI and TAM induced uterotropic and ER-mediated gene responses in ovariectomized AF2ERKI female mice in the same manner as in TAM- and E2-treated WT mice. In contrast, ICI and TAM did not act as agonists to regulate negative feedback of serum LH or stimulate pituitary prolactin gene expression in a different manner than TAM- or E2-treated WT mice. The functionality of the mutant ER? in the pituitary appears to be different from that in the uterus, indicating that ER? uses AF-1 differently in the uterus and the pituitary for TAM action.
Arao Y; Hamilton KJ; Ray MK; Scott G; Mishina Y; Korach KS
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is generally considered a restrictive procedure. However, studies with nuclear medicine techniques have demonstrated that gastric motility changes occur following LSG. These motility changes could represent complementary mechanisms of weight loss. Therefore, we analyzed the stomach motility before and after LSG by means of dynamic MRI. METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, five female patients with a mean BMI of 51.6 kg/m(2) underwent MRI 1 day before LSG and 6 days and 6 months after LSG. Dynamic steady-state free precession sequences were used to analyze the gastric motility after ingestion of 500 ml water with a temporal resolution of 0.86 s. Axial image stacks were also repeatedly acquired to determine the intragastric fluid volume over time. RESULTS: Mean excess body mass index loss was 60.6% after 6 months. Dynamic analysis showed that antral propulsive peristalsis was preserved immediately after surgery and during follow-up, but fold speed increased significantly from 2.7 mm/s before LSG to 4.4 mm/s after 6 months. The sleeve itself remained without recognizable peristalsis in three patients and showed only uncoordinated or passive motion in two patients. Consequently, the fluid transport through the sleeve was markedly delayed, whereas the antrum showed accelerated propulsion with the emptying half-time decreasing from 16.5 min preoperatively to 7.9 min 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the LSG procedure, the stomach is functionally divided into a sleeve without propulsive peristalsis and an accelerated antrum. Accelerated emptying seems to be caused by faster peristaltic folds.
Baumann T; Kuesters S; Grueneberger J; Marjanovic G; Zimmermann L; Schaefer AO; Hopt UT; Langer M; Karcz WK
Physicians often elicit ratings from teachers when making diagnostic, treatment, or referral decisions. The purpose of this study was to view the relationship between teachers' ratings and children's academic skills, assess the utility of teacher ratings in detecting academic problems, and thus determine whether physicians can depend on teacher ratings when making decisions about patients' needs. Subjects were a national sample of 80 teachers and 934 children between 6 and 13 years of age participating in a test standardization study. Families were representative of United States demographics in terms of parental level of education, income, and ethnicity, and sites were geographically diverse elementary schools. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills--Revised (CIBS-R), a diagnostic academic achievement test. Teachers rated children's academic performance on a five-point scale ranging from far above average to far below average and were blinded to the results of the CIBS-R. Teacher ratings varied significantly with children's performance for all academic domains. Logistic regression revealed that teacher ratings were best predicted by children's performance in basic reading skills, followed by math skills, and were not influenced by race, parents' level of education, history of retention, or gender. Participation in Title I services, testing in winter or spring, and parents who spoke a language other than English produced significantly lower ratings. Nevertheless, teachers rated as average many students with mild to moderate academic difficulties. School system personnel and health care providers should avoid sole dependence on global teacher ratings when deciding which students need special education referrals or other services. Supplementing teacher ratings with standardized screening test results is needed to ensure accurate decision-making.
Full Text Available The present research paper is an attempt to study the attitude of school teachers towards school environment of Chennai district. The sample comprised of 250 teachers, teaching in different schools affiliated to CBSE, State board and Matriculation board of study. Normative survey method was applied and null hypothesis was framed. R. Prasad's (2006) school environment inventory was used to collect data from school teachers. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results revealed that there are significant differences among teachers' with resp
CHANDRASEKAR S; SRIDHAR. R
Full Text Available Recently, there have been numerous researches focusing on postmethod. Generally, the researches can be divided into three perspectives: a new look at method, theoretical exploration of postmethod, implication for teacher education. Obviously, language researchers tend to focus on the theoretical review on postmethod ignoring the actual use of postmethod in practice. The study was conducted to explore Chinese novice EFL teachers’ conceptions and implement of postmethod. The data were collected through lesson observations and interviews. The results reveal that the novice teachers lack the knowledge of postmethod, that they are greatly influenced by examination-oriented education, and that there is a discrepancy between teaching behaviors and teacher beliefs.
Full Text Available This study explored Bangladeshi science teachers’ conceptions of nature of science (NOS) with a particular focus on the nature of (a) scientific knowledge, (b) scientific inquiry and (c) scientific enterprise. The tentative, inferential, subjective and creative NOS, in addition to the myths of the scientific method and experimentation, the nature of scientific laws and theories, the social and cultural embeddedness, and cooperation and collaboration in science were considered in the conceptual framework. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently using the Myths of Science Questionnaire (MOSQ) from 145 science teachers. Results showed that the majority of the teachers in this study held uninformed conceptions about most of the target NOS aspects. Also, an inconsistent response pattern was revealed in teachers’ response to the aspects directly related NOS. The results suggest that further research is required to better understand how Bangladeshi teachers model NOS in their classes and how the pedagogies of teacher education inform this modelling.
Md. Mahbub Alam SARKAR; Jui Judith GOMES
Curricula in concentrated educational systems are prepared from an upper-stream reference and hand over teachers’ disposal. Curricula in Iran are compiled in the so-called math curriculum development office and then put at the disposal of teachers. The researches in this regard show that such plans ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, the researcher utilized an online survey to collect data. Quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant differences; however, qualitative analysis showed that there were more negative responses to survey statements pertaining to males. More than half of the participants perceived differences between female and male elementary teachers, including beliefs that female teachers are more nurturing, that male teachers are more laidback, and that male teachers are more dominant and commanding with students. Four conclusions were drawn: elementary teachers perceive differences between female and male teachers, male elementary teachers are perceived more negatively than female colleagues, a vast majority of participants feel that more male elementary teachers are needed in the elementary schools, and differences between female and male elementary teachers remain unclear.
Tracy Darrin Wood
Full Text Available Providing students in urban settings with quality teachers is important for student achievement. This study examined the differences in content knowledge, attitudes toward mathematics, and teacher efficacy among several different types of alternatively certified teachers in a sample from the New York City Teaching Fellows program in order to determine teacher quality. Findings revealed that high school teachers had significantly higher content knowledge than middle school teachers; teachers with strong mathematics backgrounds had significantly higher content knowledge than teachers who did not have strong mathematics backgrounds; and mathematics and science majors had significantly higher content knowledge than other majors. Further, it was found that mathematics content knowledge was not related to attitudes toward mathematics and teacher efficacy; thus, teachers had the same high positive attitudes toward mathematics and same high teacher efficacy, regardless of content ability.
Brian R. Evans
Data show that 46% of all teachers in public schools will leave the profession within their first 5 years of teaching (Ingersoll, 2003). These data refer to teachers from all disciplines including physical education. To address these problems school districts have developed teacher induction programs that show promising results. Our literature…
Banville, Dominique; Rikard, G. Linda
This study is part of a larger study that uses mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) to investigate preservice teachers' knowledge and understanding of multiculturalism and to prepare preservice teachers to work in diverse classrooms. The results indicate two findings: 1) that preservice teachers come from homogeneous backgrounds;…
Field trips are well recognized by researchers as an educational approach with the potential to complement and enhance classroom science teaching by exposing students to unique activities, resources, and content in informal settings. The following investigation addresses teachers' field trip practices in three related manuscripts: (1) A study examining the details of teachers' pedagogical strategies intended to facilitate connections between students' experiences and the school curricula while visiting an aquarium; (2) A study documenting and describing sources of knowledge that teachers draw from when leading field trips to an aquarium; (3) A position paper that reviews and summarizes research on effective pedagogical strategies for field trips. Together these three pieces address key questions regarding teachers' practices on field trips: (1) What strategies are teachers employing (and not employing) during self-guided field trips to facilitate learning tied to the class curriculum? (2) What sources of knowledge do teachers utilize when leading field trips? (3) How can teachers be better prepared to lead trips that promote learning? The Oregon Coast Aquarium served as the field trip site for teachers included in this study. The setting suited these questions because the aquarium serves tens of thousands of students on field trips each year but provides no targeted programming for these students as they explore the exhibits. In other words, the teachers who lead field trips assume much of the responsibility for facilitating students' experience. In order to describe and characterize teachers' strategies to link students' experiences to the curriculum, a number of teachers (26) were observed as they led their students' visit to the public spaces of the aquarium. Artifacts, such as worksheets, used during the visit were collected for analysis as well. Subsequently, all teachers were surveyed regarding their use of the field trip and their sources of knowledge for their practices. A subset of eight teachers were interviewed using guided conversations in order to shed further light on their use of the aquarium field trip and their pedagogical preparation. Data from all sources were organized by repeating ideas relevant to the questions of interest. The resulting evidence was interpreted to support distinct categories of teacher strategies and experience and related claims about these strategies and experiences. Thus, findings reveal that teachers attempt to link the curriculum to the activities, resources, and content encountered on the trip using a variety of connections. However, these curriculum connections are characterized as products of opportunistic situations and reveal limited depth. Evidence further indicates that teachers treat the aquarium visit as a background experience for their students rather than as an opportunity to introduce new concepts or do an activity that is integrated into the curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers included in this study were leading field trips that created countless learning opportunities for their students. Because training specific to field trips is rarely included in preservice programs, teachers were asked about influences on their field trip practice with specific focus on observed strategies. Findings suggest four categories of training experiences that teachers apply to their practice: (1) informal mentoring; (2) past experience trip leading; (3) outdoor education training; (4) traditional education training. Overall findings along with a review of previous research are suggestive of many ways in which efforts to enhance students' learning opportunities may be developed by means of support for teachers. Foremost among recommendations is the idea that field trip pedagogy be integrated into science methods courses required for preservice teachers (the premise for the final manuscript). Furthermore, the findings of this study may serve as a starting point for museums interested in the development of specific support and teacher professional development activities intended to enha
Full Text Available The present study sought the different perceptions of Iranian EFL instructors and teachers on the present and optimum status of in-service programs. A 26-item questionnaire completed by 90 participants, thirty of whom were instructors and the rest were teachers, revealed that instructors and teachers had different conceptions about these in-service programs. In the light of the results gained from questionnaire and interview, it is suggested that although most teachers were satisfied with these programs, they lacked adequate motivation to participate in these programs. Moreover, most instructors were not also satisfied with the present in-service programs, and they were looking for reforms in the educational plans and programs. The findings also suggest that, on the one hand, instructors should provide teachers with appropriate motives to enthusiastically take part in these classes, and they should feel responsible to address teachers’ weaknesses and strengths both theoretically and practically. On the other hand, teachers should seize theses opportunities with both hands to ameliorate and refresh their English knowledge. Therefore, it is suggested instructors and teachers should reconcile as far as methodological and pedagogical implications are concerned.
Parviz Birjandi; Ali Derakhshan Hesari
This study examined critical features of secondary special educator's experiences with transition professional development to predict variables most likely to influence performance of transition planning and services. Results included the extent to which secondary special educators are prepared to perform transition practices, the relationship…
Morningstar, Mary E.; Benitez, Debra T.
The modernization of teacher evaluation systems, an increasingly common component of school reform efforts, promises to reveal new, systematic information about the performance of individual classroom teachers. Yet while states and districts race to design new systems, most discussion of how the information might be used has focused on traditional…
Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.
Full Text Available In order to create a new teacher-student relationship and raise students’ politeness awareness and pragmatic competence in cross-cultural communication, this paper investigated and analyzed students’ face wants and English teachers’ awareness of students’ face want in their classroom feedback. The main data-gathering instruments are MP3-recording, non-participant observation, follow-up structured-interviews and closed- questionnaires. The results reveal that 60.6% of the teacher participants are frequently aware of their students’ face wants, and 27.2% of them are sometimes, while the other teachers seldom or never consider the students’ face want. Because of being influenced by the Chinese traditional culture in which teachers are superiors, not thoroughly understanding English Curriculum Standard which calls for human concern, and knowing a little about pragmatic theories, some Chinese English teachers ignore students’ face want. Suggestions on how to save students’ face want are put forward.
A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed. PMID:24060063
McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G
The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from the study, as indicated by the teachers’ completed logs, and supplemented by the data from the focus group interviews, show a different picture. Two months into the project, the teachers were using CL on a large scale. The average level of their use did not increase during the academic year. By two months into the course, teachers already perceived themselves as being able to apply the method. They also reported that their skills were developed further during the course. They found that they became better at solving educational challenges, that they became more satisfied with their own teaching, and that they were better able to solve the problems deriving from the heterogeneous composition of the student group. The data thus documents measurable but limited developments in the teachers competences after the first two month. Our analysis of the teachers’ reflection skills reveals that as early as two months into the project, a high level of reflection was taking place. Contrary to our initial assumptions, there is no gradual and continuous rise of the teachers’ competence. The increase in teaching competence is located relatively early in the academic year; after that there is only modest improvement.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service primary teachers’ ideas about how lunar phases occur. 154 third year primary student teachers were asked to explain “why the moon is seen in different shapes when we look at the sky at different times”. They have given enough time to explain their answers in writing. Then, their responses were examined and categorized as scientific explanations and misconceptions. Results of the study showed that while the 54 % of the student teachers’ ideas about the lunar phases are scientific, the remaining 46 % of them could be categorized as misconceptions. Some of the misconceptions detected from the student teachers’ explanations of the causes of the moon phases are: earth’s shadow on the moon, earth’s rotation or varying distance between the earth and the moon. The study revealed similar results with the previous studies conducted in other cultures.
OBJECTIVE: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs. METHODS: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire) were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation) from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010), emotional exhaustion (p=0.005) and depersonalization (p<0.001); however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children. CONCLUSIONS: Female teachers' of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education.
Zarafshan H; Mohammadi MR; Ahmadi F; Arsalani A
Objective Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs. Methods Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire) were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation) from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results. Results Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010), emotional exhaustion (p=0.005) and depersonalization (p<0.001); however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children. Conclusions Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Arsalani, Akram
The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student motivation and academic achievement in the science classroom.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine students’ perceptions of their teachers’ teaching practices and how it impact on their learning experiences. The sample of the study involved 358 students from 12 Junior High Schools (12-14years) who were randomly selected to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. The study revealed that students’ perceptions of their teachers’ teaching varies as the results established that both teacher-centred and student-centred teaching approaches were used by mathematics teachers. The study also established that teachers’ actions and inactions impact positively or negatively on students learning experiences as majority of the respondents reported that their learning experiences are to a larger extent controlled by that teacher. Majority of the respondents indicated that their teachers normally tell them which questions to solve and which methods to use. Although the study was limited only to 12 schools, the findings provide a conceptual framework for further research into how students’ views could be used by both teachers and educational authorities in improving the teaching and learning of mathematics as students’ are in a better position to provide useful information regarding their teachers teaching and how it impacts on their learning. Among others, it is recommended that students’ ratings or evaluation of their teaachers’ teaching should be considered in evaluating teachers’ teaching and effectiveness.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved
The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of ICT teachers' assigned position and to determine school administrators' and other teachers' perceptions towards ICT teachers and these teachers' positions, and to reveal the similar and discrepant aspects of their tertiary education and the roles (work and responsibilities) assigned to…
Topu, Fatma Burcu; Goktas, Yuksel
|The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of ICT teachers' assigned position and to determine school administrators' and other teachers' perceptions towards ICT teachers and these teachers' positions, and to reveal the similar and discrepant aspects of their tertiary education and the roles (work and responsibilities) assigned…
Topu, Fatma Burcu; Goktas, Yuksel
Full Text Available This study examined the predictability of EFL teachers’ self-efficacy on their motivational teaching behaviors. Participants involved 112 English teachers from China’s tertiary education institutes selected by a “snowball” sampling strategy and also from an EFL teacher training camp. They completed a questionnaire survey of the demographic information of participants, their perception of self-efficacy, and their motivational teaching behaviors in English classroom. Results from the descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis were generated based on the survey. It indicated that college EFL teachers perceived themselves with much higher self-efficacy for instructional strategies than efficacy for classroom management and efficacy for student engagement. Also, the results revealed that two most frequently used motivational strategies by teachers in language classroom were strategies for generating students’ initial motivation and strategies for maintaining and protecting students’ motivation. The results also showed that teachers’ self-efficacy significantly contributed to the prediction of teachers’ motivational teaching behaviors and accounted for more than one third of the variance to teachers’ motivational teaching behaviors. This study confirmed that there was a direct causal relationship between English teachers’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and their adoption of motivational strategies.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine that the problems of the primary school science teachers encountered during science teaching. Therefore, the problems of the primary school science teachers encountered were examined under these issues: graduation from another department of a university, curriculum, educational materials, laboratory, assessment and evaluation. This research was conducted with 10 primary school science teachers in Bal?kesir in the semester of 2004-2005. The data were collected by a semi-structured interview protocol and qualitative method was used to analyze data in the study. The results of the study revealed that graduation from another department of a university affected teaching of science negatively. In addition, teachers had some problems in completing science curriculum in time, doing laboratory studies, and making assessment and evaluation.
Seda Hilal ?ENGÜL; Gülcan ÇET?N; Hülya GÜR
Full Text Available This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374), who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final evaluations on nine categories of teaching performance revealed varying levels of strength among the skill areas. Implications of the findings are drawn: (a) for the undergraduate program administrators, faculty members, and practicum-program personnel at the university connected to this study, and (b) for other teacher-education institutions interested in making use of this information to help inform their deliberations in assessing/improving their own pre-service and practicum initiatives.
Edwin G. Ralph; Brian W. Noonan
Full Text Available This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374), who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final evaluations on nine categories of teaching performance revealed varying levels of strength among the skill areas. Implications of the findings are drawn: (a) for the undergraduate program administrators, faculty members, and practicum-program personnel at the university connected to this study, and (b) for other teacher-education institutions interested in making use of this information to help inform their deliberations in assessing/improving their own pre-service and practicum initiatives.
Edwin G. Ralph; Brian W. Noonan
Full Text Available Teacher preparation program is routinely make decisions regarding the best pedagogical methods from field experience studies, it can alter students’ understandings about academic content and some characteristics through professional practices. This study tries to investigate the extent to which individuals learning to be teachers feel what preservice teachers are capable of performing the pedagogical practices. Sixty seven preservice science teachers were described the influences of teacher preparation. Results indicated that preservice teachers enrolled in professional experiences courses perceived themselves as less capable of performing persuasive pedagogical practices than more generally accepted practices. In addition, preservice teachers perceived they were more capable of altering students’ knowledge about content than at modifying their beliefs about content. Implications for research and practice are forwarded.
Prasart Nuangchalerm; Veena Prachagool
Teachers' Domain is an online educational service with two related components: collections and courses that help teachers enhance their students' learning experiences and advance their own teaching skills. The Teachers' Domain collections include classroom-ready multimedia resources for use in lessons or independent study, and the Teachers' Domain Professional Development courses utilize many of the same resources along with videos of exemplary classroom practice. The collections provide learning experiences that no textbook can. This ever-expanding library currently includes collections on life science, physical science, engineering, earth and space sciences.
Full Text Available Abstract in english Worldwide teachers are faced with the task of continuously facilitating and implementing educational reform that has been designed without their participation. This exclusion of the key agents, who must mediate between the change agenda and actual change in the classroom, from the planning and decision-making processes, is detrimental to educational reform. Although school-based management has recently emerged as the instrument to accomplish the decentralisation of decisi (more) on-making powers to school level, the success thereof depends largely on school principals' disposition regarding teacher involvement. It is argued that the expectation of principals regarding their own leadership role, as well as the professional role teachers should fulfil, is a primary determinant of principals' willingness to involve teachers in responsibility-taking processes outside the classroom. The results from an empirical investigation revealed that principals' perception, of the wishes of teachers regarding involvement, significantly underestimated teachers' actual involvement wishes. Likewise, the expectation of teachers regarding the willingness of principals to involve them was a significant underestimation of the involvement level principals are actually in favour of. These misperceptions probably discourage actual school-based management and could jeopardize the implementation of educational reform in general.
Full Text Available Worldwide teachers are faced with the task of continuously facilitating and implementing educational reform that has been designed without their participation. This exclusion of the key agents, who must mediate between the change agenda and actual change in the classroom, from the planning and decision-making processes, is detrimental to educational reform. Although school-based management has recently emerged as the instrument to accomplish the decentralisation of decision-making powers to school level, the success thereof depends largely on school principals' disposition regarding teacher involvement. It is argued that the expectation of principals regarding their own leadership role, as well as the professional role teachers should fulfil, is a primary determinant of principals' willingness to involve teachers in responsibility-taking processes outside the classroom. The results from an empirical investigation revealed that principals' perception, of the wishes of teachers regarding involvement, significantly underestimated teachers' actual involvement wishes. Likewise, the expectation of teachers regarding the willingness of principals to involve them was a significant underestimation of the involvement level principals are actually in favour of. These misperceptions probably discourage actual school-based management and could jeopardize the implementation of educational reform in general.
The study used the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) questionnaire instrument developed by Hammer and Bennett (2001) to determine the level of intercultural sensitivity of Hong Kong secondary school teachers. Three hundred and eighty-six serving teachers were surveyed. Findings revealed that the majority of the teachers were operating in…
Yuen, Celeste Y. M.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out role of personal and job related variables in teacher stress and job performance of school teachers. Furthermore, levels and sources of stress and their relationship with job performance among teachers were also explored. The measures used in this study were indigenously developed i.e., Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI-Urdu), Teachers Job Performance Scale and personal and job related Information sheet. Two independent samples were selected from Government and Private Schools of Islamabad (Pakistan). Sample I was comprised of 400 teachers (men and women) from Primary and secondary schools. For the evaluation of teachers’ job performance another sample of 1200 students from the classes of teachers of sample I was selected. Three students were randomly selected from each teacher’s class. The students were requested to evaluate their respective teachers’ job performance. The findings revealed that negative significant relationship exists between teachers stress and job performance. The step-wise regression analysis revealed school system, gender, job experience, number of family members, and number of students as significant predictors of teacher stress and gender, school system, family members, job experience and age as significant predictors of teachers’ job performance.
Rubina Hanif; Sadaf Tariq; Masood Nadeem
Full Text Available This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and findings from mathematics education. Teacher beliefs about mathematics, learning and self-efficacy were expected to have a major impact on their classroom practices. We therefore assessed teacher beliefs about the usefulness of mathematics, learning (constructivist and socio-constructivist beliefs) and teacher self-efficacy when teaching modeling (teacher or class level variable). The student level variables assessed were modeling competence and other individual factors, such as basic mathematical skills and cognitive abilities. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured in a pre-post control group design using multilevel structural equation modeling. The results showed no direct effect of the intervention on student modeling competence. However, they did reveal that the intervention had a significant effect on teacher beliefs about learning (constructivist and socio-constructivist view) and an effect of these teacher beliefs about learning on student modeling competence. Further, the results showed that students’ gains in modeling competence is not only mediated by teacher beliefs, but also influenced by individual factors. Implications for teaching as well as limitations of the study are discussed.
Christoph Mischo; Katja Maaß
Full Text Available This paper focuses on teachers' stigmatizing perspectives of their students' nonstandard varieties of Portuguese. Theoretically, the study was grounded on Personal Construct Psychology, Perspective Transformation in Teacher Education, Transformative Bidialectalism and Critical Language Awareness. The objectives were to jointly access and assess the teachers? implicit theories about nonstandard language and to verify to what extent these theories affected their classroom pedagogy. My research questions turned to how the participating teachers understood nonstandard language; and to how their understandings are reflected on their language teaching. The viewing of the teachers? videotaped classes and Repertory Grid activities inspired reflective conversations with the two teacher participants on their language and classroom experiences. These conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed and their analysis followed the thematizing approach of Hermeneutic Phenomenology. The study revealed teachers? implicit theories about language variation defining pedagogies based on deficit and standard grammar perspectives. These pedagogies are in constant interaction with the teachers? lived experiences, the contextual restrictions of schools and the limitations of teacher education programs.
Telles João A.
Full Text Available We reveal the psychological mechanisms of impact of the formation level of the teacher’s positive values on the academic performance of students, one of the key components of which are the emotional states of students. We describe a study aimed to test the hypothesis that the positive values and standing behind them “strong” character traits of the teacher determine the emotional states specific of his students during the lesson. The study involved 241 teachers of school subjects and 498 pupils of VI, VIII, X, XI grades of several schools in Krivoy Rog. The study demonstrated that a high level of expression of teacher’s positive values, reflected in his professional qualities, provide the appearance of positive emotional states of students. We also revealed patterns of influence of teacher’s positive personal resource on the intensity of the emotional states experienced by students during lessons.
This website has information and links to resources for ocean sciences teachers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The resources include professional development opportunities, student opportunities, teaching resources and lessons, and organizations and agencies to connect teachers with ocean science materials.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the concept of competences which are necessary for defining a teacher with certain abilities as a competent teacher. While analysing the concept of competence one should remember about the differences in interpreting the notions of competence and qualifications, as well as about recognizing both competences and qualifications as key factors.
Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the differences in the job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Sabah with respect to gender, service category, job title, tenure and place of origin. It also attempts to identify the work dimension factors that affect the job satisfaction of the teachers and to ascertain how these factors relate to the aforementioned teachers’ characteristics. A survey was conducted with the participation of 200 teachers. The teachers’ job satisfaction were determined by two separate measures namely overall and facet specific overall job satisfaction. The work dimension factors were clustered into six comprising pay, working conditions, co-workers, promotion, work itself and supervision. This study reveals that secondary school teachers in Tawau, Sabah were generally satisfied with their job; there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and gender, whereby the male teachers were generally more satisfied than female teachers. The graduate teachers were more satisfied than non-graduate teachers. The higher ranking teachers were more satisfied than the ordinary teachers while the older teachers were more satisfied than their younger counterparts. However, there is no significant relationship between places of origin of teachers with job satisfaction. Based on the bivariate correlation tests, six work dimensions of teaching job are significantly related to teachers’ job satisfaction. In addition, there were significant different between the six dimensions by gender and service category of teachers. Only co-workers dimension is not significantly different among teachers’ career stage and their tenure of service. There was no significant difference between all the work dimensions and teachers’ place of origin. Based on the findings of the study several recommendations are forwarded.
Muhammad Madi Abdullah; Jegak Uli; Balakrishnan Parasuraman
The use and influence of large scale tests (LST), both national and international, has increased dramatically within the last decade. This process has revealed a tension between the legitimate need for information about the performance of the educational system and teachers to inform policy, and the teachers’ and students’ use of this information for pedagogical purposes in the classroom. We know well how the policy makers interpret and use the outcomes of such tests, but we know less about how teachers make use of LSTs to inform their pedagogical practice. An important question is whether there is a contradiction between the political system’s use of LST and teachers’ (possible) pedagogical use of LST. And if yes: What is a contradiction based on? This presentation will give some results from a systematic review on how tests have influenced the pedagogical practice. The research revealed many of the fatal wash back effects known from other research but gave additionally some insight in teachers’ attitudes towards LSTs. To account for these findings results from another research project - the Validation of PISA – will be included. This project analyzed how PISA has influenced the Danish educational system and the different theoretical foundations of PISA and most teachers’ pedagogically oriented, formative assessment, thus explaining the teacher resentment towards LSTs. Finally, some principles for linking LSTs to teachers’ pedagogical practice will be presented.
BACKGROUND: Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. AIM: We conducted a qualitative study to explore clinical teachers' views on how teaching teams deliver residency training. METHOD: Data were collected during six focus group interviews in 2010. RESULTS: The analysis revealed seven teamwork themes: (1) clinical teachers were more passionate about clinical expertise than about knowledge of teaching and teamwork; (2) residents needed to be informed about clinical teachers' shared expectations; (3) the role of the programme director in the teaching team needed further clarification; (4) the main topics of discussion in teaching teams were resident performance and the division of teaching tasks; (5) the structural elements of the organisation of residency training were clear; (6) clinical teachers had difficulty giving and receiving feedback and (7) clinical teachers felt under pressure to be accountable for team performance to external parties. CONCLUSION: The clinical teachers did not consider teamwork to be of any great significance to residency training. Teachers' views of professionalism and their own experiences as residents may explain their non-teamwork directed attitude. Efforts to strengthen teamwork within teaching teams may impact positively on the quality of residency training.
Slootweg I; Lombarts K; Van Der Vleuten C; Mann K; Jacobs J; Scherpbier A
Full Text Available Throughout the world there is awareness of the fundamental role of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the field of education. Theoretical and empirical studies have considered the importance of ICTs in the process of teaching and learning. This current paper investigates the level of ICT use for educational purposes by teachers in Jordanian rural secondary schools. The paper will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the level of ICT use and also, concerning the importance of teachers' attitudes towards the use of ICT for educational purposes. The data for the study were collected through the use of quantitative data. In October 2008, a questionnaire was distributed to 650 teachers in Jordan, randomly selected. Four hundred sixty teachers responded to the questionnaire. The survey included questions concerning the level of ICT use as well as questions related to the attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT. The findings of the study, which were obtained by analyzing the data collected from the teachers revealed that, teachers had a low level of ICT use for educational purpose, teachers hold positive attitudes towards the use of ICT, and a significant positive correlation between teachers’ level of ICT use and their attitudes towards ICT was found. The findings suggest that ICTs use for educational purposes should be given greater consideration than it currently receives. In general, the results were consistent with those previously reported in studies related to the use of ICT in the educational settings.
Naser Jamil Al-Zaidiyeen; Leong Lai Mei; Fong Soon Fook
Full Text Available Information behaviour studies have the potential to inform the design of effective information services that incorporate the information needs, information-seeking and preferences for information sources of target users; hence a doctoral study was conducted on the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho with the aim of guiding the design and implementation of an information service model for these teachers. This paper focuses on the analysis of the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho as a contribution of original knowledge on geography teachers’ information behaviour. The analysis established the information behaviour of geography teachers using the information behaviour concept that encompasses information needs, information-seeking and information sources. Data were collected and analyzed through focus group discussions and conceptual content analysis respectively.The analysis reveals that these geography teachers need current and accurate information covering a variety of aspects in teaching and learning, such as content, pedagogy, classroom management and learners’ assessment. Owing to the increasing number of orphans in schools as a result of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, most teachers expressed the need for information on social assistance for orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations include information literacy training for teachers and access to the Internet in schools, including the use of open access journals on the Internet by the teachers.
Full Text Available Classroom questioning is a crucial learning and instructional strategy. It has also been regarded as an important aspect of Assessment for Learning (AfL) by researchers. Classroom questioning helps students gain a better appreciation of what they are learning as well as how they are learning. It also helps teachers understand students’ learning progress. This qualitative case study is a part of a larger study on classroom questioning during AfL and it has to be reminded that only a part of the study is presented here which involves two ESL teachers (one teaching Year One and the other teaching Year Two class) and the types of questions they used during AfL. The current study was conducted in a selected primary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. To collect data, ten periods of each teacher’s classroom were observed and then interview was conducted with each teacher. Observations and interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The results of this study showed that the participating teachers were aware of the importance of questioning technique during AfL, however, they asked lower cognitive questions that did not trigger thoughtful reflection. The data also revealed that the teachers in this study formulated questions that at the first sight may seem to be open questions but they expected the students to provide a short-specific answer. Although questions were designed to suit the content of the lesson, it was observed that most of the questions asked by the teachers focused on content, structure and students’ background knowledge and elicited specific, predetermined answers. In short, Most of the questions asked by the teachers in their mixed ability classes were below the students’ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and did not help the students promote their thinking skills.
Sedigheh Abbasnasab Sardareh; Mohd Rashid Mohd Saad
|The classroom as a microsystem is characterised by many interpersonal relationships. These relationships are perceived differently by the teacher than they are by the students. In our research we examine the relationship between formal teacher characteristics, interpersonal teacher behaviour as perceived by the teacher, and teacher wellbeing.…
Van Petegem, K.; Creemers, B. P. M.; Rossel, Y.; Aelterman, A.
The classroom as a microsystem is characterised by many interpersonal relationships. These relationships are perceived differently by the teacher than they are by the students. In our research we examine the relationship between formal teacher characteristics, interpersonal teacher behaviour as perceived by the teacher, and teacher wellbeing.…
Van Petegem, K.; Creemers, B. P. M.; Rossel, Y.; Aelterman, A.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the proposed methodology of identification of the students’ weights or preferences of teacher’s managerial competencies at the Faculty of Economics, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague (CULS). The goal of this article is not to evaluate the teacher’s scientific ability but describe the evaluation of the teacher’s managerial competencies weights from students’ point of view. For setting of weights there are many different methods that varied in the proportion of including the subjective and objective judgement. Commonly diffused method is the Analytic Hierarchy or Network Process by prof. Saaty (AHP or ANP). Because it is not possible to see or to evaluate teacher’s competencies in complexity, we proposed the questionnaires for pairwise comparisons of various teacher’s managerial characteristics and competencies. These answers are then analysed using the AHP method. The AHP is a method deriving global weights from partial weights received as result of pairwise comparisons.
Full Text Available This study is to identify the level of use of technology-mediated tasks amongst teacher trainees during their teaching practicum. This article reports a survey conducted with 63 teacher trainees and a semi-structured interview conducted with nine lecturers in a TESL programme at a Malaysian university. The result of the quantitative and qualitative tools revealed that the majority of the teacher trainees had positive perceptions towards the use of computer-mediated tasks. The thematic analysis revealed that the use of computer-mediated tasks by teacher trainees was also high. The data points to the need for future studies on the level of teacher trainees’ exposure to computer-mediated tasks.
Misrah Hamisah Mohamed; Mohamed Amin Embi
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate primary school teachers’ proficiency in detecting the ability-achievement discrepancy as a landmark of possible specific developmental learning disabilities (SLD). Twenty-two teachers in five schools attempted to select, in accordance with their perception and out of a larger preliminary sample, those students whose school results revealed: (a) discrepancy between school achievement and general abilities (the group of purportedly disharmonic children, GPD) or (b) concordance between general abilities and achievement (the group of purportedly harmonic children, GPH). The children were tested by REVISK, while teachers re-assessed students’ reading, writing and arithmetic performance against a simple structured questionnaire based on demands of the approved elementary school program delineated by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Serbia. Research results indicate that more than 60% of children originally qualified to GPH have actually shown significant discrepancy between targeted scholastic skills and (normal) general intelligence. The data suggested some association between students’ disparity in attainment and teachers’ attribution accuracy, while the only homogenous quantitative marker of misplaced children were decreased values on some of the REVISK Verbal subscale tests. This study has shown that teachers can use their professional knowledge to enhance their capability to detect children with specific learning disabilities. In absence of criterion-referenced tests of reading, writing and mathematics, a structured approach to the projected course of skill progress might support teachers’ confidence regarding likely SLD.
Obradovi? Svetlana; Krsti? Nadežda
Full Text Available In the effective implementation of the Internet in the language classroom, it is important that language teachers and preserviceteachers have positive attitudes towards using the Internet in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL). This study reveals pre-service English teachers’ use and needs of the Internet. 195 third and fourth year students from DEU Buca the Faculty of Education, Department of English Language and Teaching constitute the sample of the study. The instrument used to accomplish the research purposes is Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes towards the use of and needs for Internet Applications in English Language Teaching survey questionnaire. The results indicate that most of the pre-service teachers are eager to use Internet applications and they mostly have good opinions about using it. The study also points out that pre-service teachers have some concerns about using the Internet. They also need training in using Internet applications for EFL teaching.
Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST) curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.
Ay?egül SA?LAM-ARSLAN; Yasemin DEVEC?O?LU-KAYMAKÇI; Selahattin ARSLAN
Full Text Available Teacher candidates come across many concepts while using the Internet and the concepts which are not understood may lead to misconceptions. With this study, teacher candidates’ comprehension levels of some concepts about the Internet and misconceptionswere tried to be determined. The research data was obtained by administering the prepared form of “Concept Defining” to 156 teacher candidates studying at Ahi Evran University Education Faculty. The findings revealed that the teacher candidates understand most of the internet partially or they have the idea about these concepts. Theresults also showed that they only understand “Chat Programs” very well. In addition to these results, the teacher candidates’ levels of understanding some concepts and their misconceptions were examined in term of some variables.
U?ur BA?ARMAK; Mehmet Fikret GEL?BOLU
Marine biogeographic barriers can have unpredictable consequences, even among closely related species. To resolve phylogeographic patterns for Indo-Pacific reef fauna, we conducted range-wide surveys of sister species, the scrawled butterflyfish (Chaetodon meyeri; N = 134) and the ornate butterflyfish (Chaetodon ornatissimus; N = 296), using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. The former is distributed primarily in the Indian Ocean but also extends to the Line Islands in the Central Pacific, whereas the latter is distributed primarily in the Central-West Pacific (including Hawaii and French Polynesia) but extends to the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean. Analyses of molecular variance and Bayesian STRUCTURE results revealed 1 range-wide group for C. meyeri and 3 groups for C. ornatissimus: 1) eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific, 2) Central Pacific, and 3) Hawaii. Estimates of the last population expansion were much more recent for C. meyeri (61 500 to 95 000 years) versus C. ornatissimus (184 700 to 286 300 years). Despite similarities in ecology, morphology, life history, and a broadly overlapping distribution, these sister species have divergent patterns of dispersal and corresponding evolutionary history. The mtDNA and microsatellite markers did not provide concordant results within 1 of our study species (C. meyeri), or in 7 out of 12 other cases of marine fishes in the published literature. This discordance renews caution in relying on one or a few markers for reconstructing historical demography.
DiBattista JD; Rocha LA; Craig MT; Feldheim KA; Bowen BW
How do students in training to be primary school teachers in Argentina and Israel understand the concept of energy? Do they hold correct scientific views that will enable them to instruct their future pupils accurately? Are there fundamental differences between students studying in these different populations? Studentsâ energy conceptions, expressed on a two-part written questionnaire, showed similarities and differences for Israeli and Argentinean students, as well as for first and second year students in each country. In general, there is a serious discrepancy between both Israeli and Argentinean student teachersâ understanding of energy and the accepted scientific concept. If this fundamental concept is to be used in a correct way in classroom, then every effort must be made to help teachers develop their understanding.
Trumper, Ricardo; Raviolo, Andres; Shnersch, Ana
Full Text Available The present paper reports a qualitative case study of investigating EFL students’ affective reactions to and perceptions of their teachers’ written feedback. In addition, the study reported here also focuses on contextual factors that may influence students’ reactions to and perceptions of their teachers’ written feedback. Data were collected using multiple methods that included semi-structured interviews, think-aloud protocols, teachers’ written feedback, and students’ written essays. Results of data analysis revealed that EFL students showed some variations in their affective reactions to their teachers’ written feedback. The students perceived their teachers’ written feedback as useful and very important for the development of their writing skills. The students wanted their teachers to focus on all aspects of written texts when they provide written feedback. Contextual factors such as students’ past experience, teachers’ wording of written feedback, students’ acceptance of teachers’ authority, and teachers’ handwriting have their impact on EFL students’ affective reactions to and perceptions of their teachers’ written feedback
Omer Mahfoodh; Ambigapathy Pandian
Lesson plans and exercises for teachers to use this site and the CD-ROM ?Atomic Archive: Enhanced Edition? in their classrooms. The exercises cover the following subjects: Arms Control, Atomic Physics, Delivery Systems, Fission, Fusion, History and Weapon Effects.
Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator. PMID:22578325
Williams, Stephen R; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni V; Grotewiel, Michael S; Elsea, Sarah H
Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator.
Williams SR; Zies D; Mullegama SV; Grotewiel MS; Elsea SH
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of different parenting styles and teachers’ strategies in classroom interaction for emotion regulation development in preschool children. The quantitative approach employed instruments to measure parenting style and emotion regulation scores. The qualitative approach involved classroom observations and interviews with the teachers. The data revealed to implement an authoritative parenting style. In addition, there is a significant difference in the emotion regulation scores. The results indicated that teachers’ act strategies in classroom interactions widely affected children’s emotion regulation. The study suggested both professional development programs and workshops should be applied to develop a consistent approach to classroom interaction.
Yi-Chan Tu; Mei-Ju Chou
Peak profiles in chromatography are characterised by their height, position, width and asymmetry; the two latter depend on the values of the left and right peak half-widths. Simple correlations have been found between the peak half-widths and the retention times. The representation of such correlations has been called half-width plots. For isocratic elution, the plots are parabolic, although often, the parabolas can be approximated to straight-lines. The plots can be obtained with the half-widths/retention time data for a set of solutes experiencing the same kinetics, eluted with a mobile phase at fixed or varying composition. When the analysed solutes experience different resistance to mass transfer, the plots will be solute dependent, and should be obtained with the data for each solute eluted with mobile phases at varying composition. The half-width plots approach is a simple tool that facilitates the prediction of peak shape (width and asymmetry) with optimisation purposes, reveal the interaction kinetics of solutes in different columns, and characterise chromatographic columns. This work shows half-width plots for different situations in isocratic elution, including the use of different flows, the effect of temperature, the modification of the stationary phase surface by an additive, the existence of specific interactions within the column, and the comparison of columns. The adaptation to gradient elution is also described. Previous knowledge on half-width plots is structured and analysed, to which new results are added.
Baeza-Baeza JJ; Ruiz-Ángel MJ; García-Álvarez-Coque MC; Carda-Broch S
In most states, there are two routes to teacher licensure; traditional and alternative. The alternative route provides an accelerated entry into the classroom, often without the individual engaging in education coursework or a practicum. No matter the route, teaching skills continue to be learned by novice teachers while in the classroom with the guidance of a school-based mentor. In this study, the perceptions of mentor teachers of traditionally and alternatively licensed high school science teachers were compared with respect to mentees' science teaching competency. Further, the study explored the novice teachers' self-perception of their teaching competency. A survey, consisting of 56 Likert-type questions, was completed by mentors (N = 79) and novice high school science teachers (N = 83) in six northeastern states. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the perceptions of the mentors of traditionally and alternatively licensed novice high school science teachers in the areas of general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional growth, with more favorable perceptions recorded by mentors of traditionally licensed science teachers. There were no differences in the perceptions of the mentors with respect to novice high school teachers' content knowledge. There was no statistical difference in the self-perceptions of competency of the novice teachers. While alternative routes to licensure in science may be a necessity, the results of this study indicate that the lack of professional preparation may need to be addressed at the school level through the agency of the mentor. This study indicates that mentors must be prepared to provide alternatively licensed novice teachers with different assistance to that given to traditionally licensed novice teachers. School districts are urged to develop mentoring programs designed to develop the teaching competency of all novice teachers regardless of the route that led them into the teaching profession.
Shea, Kathleen A.
Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, much has been written about constructivist learning theories and their applications to outcomes-based teaching and learning environments in South Africa. Approach: Little, if any, has been said about the implications of these ideas and practices for teacher professional development and teacher education. The introduction of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Policy requires teachers to acquire new skills, knowledge, attitudes and values and to employ a wide variety of teaching strategies, in order to enable students to construct their own knowledge. Results: The purpose of this desktop review is to rethink teacher professional development within a constructivist framework. Conclusion: In this article, we argue that teacher professional development can fit the context and, more specifically, in outcomes-based settings, as well as proposed a move away from a mechanistic world-view (modernist and behaviorist approach) to a holistic world-view (constructivist and situational or contextual approach) of teacher professional development.
V. J. Pitsoe; W. M. Maila
BACKGROUND: There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. AIMS: The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. SAMPLE: The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. METHOD: Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. RESULTS: Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes.
Rubie-Davies CM; Flint A; McDonald LG
UNLABELLED: Two identical randomized controlled trials designed to optimize adjuvant treatment of colon cancer (CC) (n =855) and rectal cancer (RC) (n = 796) were performed. Long-term evaluation confirmed that the addition of folinic acid (FA) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) improved 7-year overall survival (OS) in CC but not in RC and revealed different patterns of recurrence in patients with CC and those with RC. BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare long-term results of adjuvant treatment of colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC). Adjuvant chemotherapy of CC improved overall survival (OS), whereas that of RC remained at the level achieved by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: We separately conducted 2 identically designed adjuvant trials in CC and RC. Patients were assigned to adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU alone, 5-FU + folinic acid (FA), or 5-FU + interferon-alfa. The first study enrolled patients with stage IIb/III CC, and the second study enrolled patients with stage II/III RC. All patients with RC received postoperative irradiation. RESULTS: Median follow-up for all patients with CC (n = 855) and RC (n = 796) was 4.9 years. The pattern and frequency of recurrence differed significantly, especially lung metastases, which occurred more frequently in RC (12.7%) than in CC (7.3%; P < .001). Seven-year OS rates for 5-FU, 5-FU + FA, and 5-FU + IFN-alfa were 54.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.5-61.0), 66.8% (95% CI, 59.4-73.1), and 56.7% (95% CI, 49.3-63.4) in CC and 50.6% (95% CI, 43.0-57.7), 56.3% (95% CI, 49.4-62.7), and 54.8% (95% CI, 46.7-62.2) in RC, respectively. A subgroup analysis pointed to a reduced local recurrence (LR) rate and an increased OS by the addition of FA in stage II RC (n = 271) but not in stage III RC (n = 525). CONCLUSION: FA increased 7-year OS by 12.7 percentage points in CC but was not effective in RC. Based on these results and the pattern of metastases, our results suggest that the chemosensitivity of CC and RC may be different. Strategies different from those used in CC may be successful to decrease the frequency of distant metastases in RC in the future.
Kornmann M; Staib L; Wiegel T; Kron M; Henne-Bruns D; Link KH; Formentini A
Full Text Available As we enter the twenty-first century, the outcomes, consequences, and results of teacher education have become critical topics in nearly all of the state and national policy debates about teacher preparation and licensure as well as in the development of many of the privately and publicly funded research agendas related to teacher and student learning. In this article, I argue that teacher education reform over the last fifty years has been driven by a series of questions about policy and practice. The question that is currently driving reform and policy in teacher education is what I refer to as "the outcomes question." This question asks how we should conceptualize and define the outcomes of teacher education for teacher learning, professional practice, and student learning, as well as how, by whom, and for what purposes these outcomes should be documented, demonstrated, and/or measured. In this article, I suggest that the outcomes question in teacher education is being conceptualized and constructed in quite different ways depending on the policy, research, and practice contexts in which the question is posed as well as on the political and professional motives of the posers. The article begins with an overview of the policy context, including those reforms and initiatives that have most influenced how outcomes are currently being constructed, debated, and enacted in teacher education. Then I identify and analyze three major "takes" on the outcomes question in teacher education?outcomes as the long-term or general impacts of teacher education, outcomes as teacher candidates' scores on high stakes teacher tests, and outcomes as the professional performances of teacher candidates, particularly their demonstrated ability to influence student learning. For each of these approaches to outcomes, I examine underlying assumptions about teaching and schooling, the evidence and criteria used for evaluation, units of analysis, and consequences for the profession. I point out that how we construct outcomes in teacher education (including how we make the case that some outcomes matter more than others) legitimizes but also undermines particular points of view about the purposes of schooling, the nature of teaching and learning, and the role of teacher education in educational reform. In the second half of the article, I offer critique across the three constructions of outcomes, exploring the possibilities as well as the pitfalls involved in the outcomes debate. In this section, I focus on the tensions between professional consensus and critique, problems with the inputs-outputs metaphor, the need to get social justice onto the outcomes agenda, problems with the characterization of teachers as either saviors or culprits, and the connection of outcomes to educational reform strategies that are either democratic or market-driven.
Full Text Available This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication. Objective: To define the notion of "communicative competence of future teachers' Methodology of work: competence approach. Scope of the results: the preparation of future teachers at the Pedagogical University. Results: This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication.
Pakhomova Irina Yurevna
Counteracting perceptions of teaching as a profession with a flat career trajectory may require professional leadership opportunities for experienced teachers that differ substantively from those typically available. This evaluation study investigated the results of a professional development initiative for subject specialist teachers seconded to…
Taylor, Mike; Yates, Anne; Meyer, Luanna H.; Kinsella, Penny
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of students’ streaming practice in Malaysian secondary on students’ self-esteem through teachers’ expectancy. 17 teachers and 20 students from art and science streams of secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia were participated in this study. Unstructured interviews were used on teachers to collect the qualitative data of teachers’ expectancy. The participating students were from the fourth year of secondary school in Malaysian school system (between 16-17 years old, 10 from science stream and 10 from arts stream) were interviewed in order to collect the qualitative data of teachers’ perceived behavior and self-esteem. Result of this study shown that teachers expected science stream students to have good academic performance but expected arts stream students to be involved in disciplinary problems. Furthermore, science stream students perceived that their teachers were academically supportive but arts stream students perceived that their teachers were focusing on controlling their behavior. On the other hand, findings of this study also revealed that science stream students possed higher level of self-esteem than arts stream students. Accordingly, it was indicated that teachers’ perceived behavior and teachers’ expectancy are correlated to one another, and teachers’ perceived behavior predicts students’ self-esteem. It was discovered that teachers expected science stream students to be eager to improve their academic performance, and students from arts stream class were likely to be involved in disciplinary problems. Students were found to be aware of their teachers’ expectancy, and their perception of teachers’ expectancy affected their self-esteem. While self-esteem was referred to a discrepancy between a student’s ideal-self and actual-self, it was discovered that both groups of students pictured their ideal-self differently to each other. Science stream students pictured their ideal-selves as a character with overall success, while arts stream students pictured their ideal-selves as a socially well-functioned character. Nevertheless, arts stream students found to have lower self-esteem. It was concluded that streaming affected the students’ self-esteem through teachers’ expectancy and perceived behavior.Keywords: Streaming, students’ self-esteem, teachers’ expectancy, science stream, arts stream, supportive, controlling.
Prihadi Kususanto Chin Sook Fui
Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying and recording good music teaching practices that promote social inclusion, and at developing effective teaching strategies that incorporate student perspectives into the pedagogies. A music teacher in Hong Kong was selected for this study, and two different classes of Form 2 (ages 12-13) were observed. The teaching process was videotaped and reviewed. Afterwards the teacher and a group of students were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview to solicit their ideas towards good practice of music teaching. Findings reveal that the good practices observed were attributed to four factors: 1) teacher’s personality, 2) teacher’s pedagogy, 3) teacher’s musical competence, and 4) teacher’s philosophy of teaching.
Bo Wah Leung; Paulina Wong
Full Text Available This study assessed attitudes and views of thirty secondary school teachers and three heads of schools towards students’ sexual relationships in three secondary schools. Teachers filled in a questionnaire, which tapped their views and reaction towardsstudents’ sexual relationships; knowledge of sex education; and how they assisted students on sexual related matters. The heads of schools and twelve teachers were interviewed. The results of this assessment revealed a range of teachers’ attitudes and views towards students’ sexual relationships. Many teachers favoured the provisionof sex education; yet, most of them were either not conversant with sex education or did not want to educate or assist students in sexual related matters. Some teachers punished students involved in sexual relationships; this indicated negative attitudes towards students’ sexual relationships. Some teachers helped students on sexual matters, which indicated positive attitude towards students’ sexual relationships. This paper recommends for alternative ways to improve students’ wellbeing through provision of effective sex education to students, strengthening help and support systems in schools, and establishment of sex education programmes for teachers and students.
Budeba Petro Mlyakado
INTRODUCTION: The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. CONCLUSION: According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.
Pirzadeh A; Sharifirad G; Kamran A
Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: firstname.lastname@example.org or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire
This paper focuses on the process, approaches and teacher roles in values education and offers recommendations for teachers. It uses print materials and Internet sources on values education. These sources were analyzed and synthesized to reveal certain cases and/or opinions. In addition to contemporary sources, older reference materials were also…
Demirhan Iscan, Canay
A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.
Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.
Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i) Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii) it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii) related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.
I. Eloff; E. Swart; P. Engelbrecht
Full Text Available Teaching is a highly noble profession and teachers are always a boon to the society. The ultimate process of education could be simplified as a meaningful interaction between the teacher and the taught. The teacher thus plays a direct and crucial role in moulding a pupil towards education. Since a teacher is a role model for the students, job satisfaction and eventually performance of teachers become very vital in the fields of education. Thus the researcher felt the need to investigate the job satisfaction and performance of teachers in different categories of schools following different systems of education. From the total population, a sample of 196 teachers from state board schools, 198 teachers from matriculation board schools and 194 teachers from central board schools were drawn. The results of the study indicated that teachers in central board schools were significantly better in their job satisfaction and performance compared to their counterparts in matriculation and state board schools. This may be attributed to the fact that central board school teachers enjoy better infrastructure facilities and congenial working environment than the matriculation and state board teachers. It is for the school authorities, policy makers and society at large to ensure factors contributing to job satisfaction of teachers to the maximum possible extent and thereby enhancing their teaching perforrmance to its optimum.
Full Text Available Since sustainability is seen as the most important problem recently, science education for sustainable life has emerged a new education area searching new teaching and learning models. Thus, this study aims to reveal preservice science teachers’ views of reducing ecological footprints. The study was carried out with 49 third year preservice science teachers in Gazi University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Science Education in 2006-2007 education term. Student-centered teaching activities about sustainable life and ecological footprints were improved and conducted within the context of the study. ‘Interview Form’ was used to gather data and analyzed qualitatively content analysis. As a result of the interviews, it was found out that the preservice science teachers made some suggestions for the ways of reducing ecological footprints such as changing their life styles and looking over their consuming preferences.
Özgül KELE?; Mustafa AYDO?DU
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) how the junior high school English teachers in Bengkulu city exploited the commercially published textbooks for classroom use; (2) if there was a difference in the way the experienced and the inexperienced English language teachers exploited the commercially published textbooks in the classroom; and (3) whether the teachers adapted textbooks or produced their own materials for classroom use. Twelve English teachers (6 experienced and 6 inexperienced teachers) from four different junior high schools or SMPs (2 favourite and 2 non-favourite) in Bengkulu city were the participants in this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, classroom observations, and sample lesson plans. The results of the study revealed that: first, the junior high school English language teachers (ET and IT); (1) used the commercially prescribed textbooks to a large extent; (2) there was not much difference between the way experienced teachers and inexperienced teachers exploited the textbooks; (3) both groups of teachers adapted the textbooks or produced their own teaching materials.
Full Text Available Despite repeated attempts to reform schools, teachers' work has remained surprisingly stable. The purpose of this study was to investigate implementation of a state-funded restructuring initiative that intended broad changes in teachers' professional roles. Sponsors of the founding legislation reasoned that changes in teachers' roles would contribute to higher student achievement. This study examined the question of whether and how this program of comprehensive whole-school change promoted changes in teachers' roles in school governance, collegial relations, and the classroom. Further, the study traced the relationship of these changes to one another, and weighed the likelihood that they had the capacity to affect core educational practices. Theoretically, this study is situated in the available literature on teachers' collegial relations; participation in shared decision making; and classroom roles, relationships and practice. Three elementary schools served as the sites for intensive qualitative data collection completed over a two-year period. The schools differed in geographic location (two urban, one rural), but all enrolled a racially, ethnically and linguistically diverse population of students, and more than half of the students in each school qualified for free or reduced price lunch. The study resulted in multiple types and sources of data on teachers' professional roles, including: observations in classrooms, collegial interactions, and governance situations; interviews with teachers (including teacher leaders), parents, administrators, and students; and documents pertaining to the restructuring plans and process. Findings show that changes in the three areas were achieved unevenly in the three schools. All three schools introduced changes in classroom practice and roles, ranging from the adoption of multi-age classrooms to more modest innovations in curriculum or instruction. In only one case were changes in professional roles outside the classroom organized to support and sustain classroom changes. Two of the three schools introduced changes in staff organization (teacher teams) and leadership (governance committees), but under-estimated the professional development and other supports that would in turn support changes in classroom practice. Altogether, it appears unlikely that the observed changes in professional roles were sufficiently well established and connected to affect core educational practice in the long run.
Full Text Available This article's aim is to study what 180 Polish teachers understand by creativity and how they put it into practice. The Creative competency of teachers was evaluated, using 6 variables: 1) understanding of teaching as a creative action; 2) knowledge of opportunities and secure limits in implementing creative changes; 3) ability to create and change elements of classroom work; 4) understanding of educational entities and having the ability to act in order to increase the autonomy of such entities; 5) critical thinking; 6) ability to research their own practice. To do so both a semi-structured interview and direct observation in their classroom were utilized. Results point out the need to foster teachers' innovative and creative capabilities.
Anna Babicka; Przemys?aw Dudek; Ma?gorzata Makiewicz; El?bieta Perzycka
Full Text Available Tendencies of integration of visual impaired children to the mass schools as well as significant value of information-communication technologies (ICT) in the education of these children require corresponding training of primary school teachers. The purpose of this article is to analyse the approaches to the concept of ICT-competence with further definition of primary school teacher’s tifloinformation competences. Literature analysis has discovered that there is no connection between ICT-competences and pupil with visual impairments yet. As a result, the list of primary school teacher’s tifloinformation competences was formulated. The objective of further investigations consist in the development of techniques essential for creation of corresponding competences.????????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????-?????????????? ?????????? (???) ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????/?????????????? ? ?????? ??? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????????. ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????? ???-???????????/???????????????, ???'?????? ?? ???'????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????.
Full Text Available Distance education is used for teacher training at different levels and fields in Turkey. Launched in the 2000-2001 academic year and still applied by Anadolu University, the Pre-School Teacher Training Program is one of those programs offered by distance education. This study aims to evaluate Anadolu University’s Preschool Teacher Training Program in Turkey by obtaining student opinions. A total of 1,026 senior students enrolled in the Preschool Education major at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University participated in the survey. A questionnaire to determine the opinions of students on the program was used as a means of data collection. Means (X) and standard deviations (SD) were employed to analyze the survey data. The results showed that although the teacher candidates study at a good level, they do not have a good record of watching the television programs. The results also revealed that the opinions of teacher candidates about the textbooks, television programs, teaching practices, and academic assistance services are positive.
THE STUDY was designed to identify specific components of teacher excellence, focusing initially on the characteristics of the small number of teachers of the deaf who are certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), then comparing those with the characteristics of other teachers identified as master teachers by university faculty in teacher preparation in deafness. Classroom observation, written lesson plans, teacher questionnaires on beliefs, and content analysis of interactive electronic focus groups were used to compare the two groups of teachers. Results indicated similarities between Board-certified and non-Board-certified master teachers in regard to teacher behaviors and commitment to well-founded pedagogical principles. Differences were found in classroom priorities and in the greater level of interconnectivity expressed by Board-certified teachers as the result of becoming Board certified. Recommendations are made for preparing teachers of deaf students.
Scheetz NA; Martin DS
The present study investigated contextual and personal factors associated with teachers' achievement goals for teaching. A total of 211 teachers completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived school mastery goal structure and performance goal structure predicted teachers' mastery goals and…
Cho, YoonJung; Shim, Sungok Serena
Empirical evidence indicates that a teacher's personality influences the classroom climate, students' behaviors, and their interpersonal relationships. Although the effect of a teacher's personality on students' psychological well-being has long been stressed in many studies, very little is known about the actual personality characteristics of Greek in-service teachers. The purpose of this study was to allocate the characteristics that best describe the personality of Greek elementary school teachers (according to the 16 Cattellian primary factors). Our study belongs in the broader research field aiming at describing and understanding the possible foundations of teachers' behavior. The sample consisted of 138 elementary teachers, who completed a standardized Greek version of the 16PF. Our statistical analysis of one-sample t-test along with an effect size calculation revealed that certain personality characteristics described the Greek elementary teacher and clearly distinguishes them from the normative group of the Greek population. Elementary teachers appear to be quite submissive, cautious, with a tendency to oppose or postpone change. They also scored a low tolerance level against fear and arousal, and high tension levels. Elementary teachers seem to respond to events, ideas, and experiences more with feeling than with thinking and find it difficult to control their feelings, which results in getting upset easily. They also seem to pay little attention to how they may appear to others and generally do what they feel like doing. Elementary teachers also scored low on aspiration level. Possible implications of the results are discussed with reference to students' psychological well-being.
Roussi-Vergou CJ; Angelosopoulou A; Zafiropoulou MM
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of teachers’ expectancy and students’ attitude towards science (ATS). The participants were 130 teachers and 300 students from secondary schools in Indonesia. The results indicated teachers’ expectancy significantly affected students’ ATS. Different kind of expectancy led teachers to have different classroom behavior. Teachers expect students from the science streams to have significantly higher potential to improve their academic achievements compared to the students from non-science stream. The results also showed that there is a significant correlation between teachers’ expectancy and students’ perception of teachers’ behavior. Furthermore, because students from science stream perceived that their teachers are supportive, they believe that the teachers expected them to score higher in science. In turn, this belief led them to possess higher ATS compared to the non-science stream students, which perceived that their teachers are focusing more on controlling their behavior. It could be concluded that teachers’ expectancy affected students’ ATS, moderated by the students’ perception of teachers’ behavior.
Prihadi Kususanto; Chin Sook Fui; Lim Hooi Lan
Cooperation between English as a second or other language (ESOL) and content-area teachers, often difficult to achieve, is hard to assess linguistically in a revealing way. This article employs register analysis (which is different from, but complementary to, genre analysis) in a Systemic Functional Linguistic perspective to show how an ESOL…
Slater, Tammy; Mohan, Bernard
Full Text Available We consider socio-psychological aspects of specific relationships in the systems “teacher – gifted student” and “gifted student – teacher”. We consistently argue the need to consider actual socio-psychological requirements to the personality and the role of “special teacher for the gifted” with a targeted selection and training of teachers for developing work with gifted students in secondary schools. We reveal the peculiarities of relationship and mutual importance of teacher and gifted student, depending on the age characteristics of the latter. The fundamentally important position, stated in the article, is the idea based on the basic concept of personalization, that creativity and personal teachers’ “creativeness” is not only his individual psychological trait, but also an effective channel of transferring individual-specific approaches of that particular teacher to the problems of life in general, and to the problematic areas of interest of his gifted students in particular.
Full Text Available In this study an attempt was made to understand the perceptions of pre-service science teachers regarding effective science teaching strategies and teachers who are successful at implementing these strategies in their educational practice culminating towards being considered an effective science teacher. Firstly, for the purposes of this research a consideration of the following questions was necessary: What are the characteristics of effective science teaching? What are the characteristics of an effective science teacher? In order to gain insight into the research in question, related literature was reviewed and questionnaire research, including open-ended questions had been administered to pre-service teachers. Some remarkable findings have been discovered which are briefly discussed. The main feature revealed through the study is that pre-service science teachers believe the pedagogical skills of professional teachers should take precedence at first over the improvement of their theoretical knowledge on their subject matter.
Kutret Gezer; Kadir Bilen
Full Text Available At the present time German teacher training is confronted with a great political will to bring about change. International comparative studies of recent years have shown a dissatisfying learning outcome. The most dramatic result is a strong interdependence of school success and social background. German teachers experience their profession as problematic. At present only 35% work until the normal pension age. The article discusses structural differences in teacher training compared to other countries and analyses motivation for the choice of study, perceived self-efficacy, experience of stress, patterns of uncertainty avoidance and previous experience in a sample of 1358 students starting teacher training.Key words: Teacher training; Career choice motivation; Self-efficacy; Experience of stress; Uncertainty avoidance
Ewald Kiel; Sabine Weiß; Thomas Eberle
Full Text Available This study reports the usage of three commercial Internet search engines in information seeking among trainee teachers at a teacher training institute in Malaysia. It attempts to investigate the information seeking behavior of the trainees via three Internet search engines (Google, Yahoo and MSN) as gateways to information for research in academic learning using two cohorts of trainee teachers. The study surveyed 166 trainee teachers undergoing a 5-year Bachelor’s Degree program and compares the statistical differences on gender, programs and years of computer technology experiences. The results revealed that there were significant differences between gender for all the three search engines. Furthermore it also indicated that there was a significant difference between TESL and PISMP group for Yahoo and MSN but not for Google. A significant difference was also observed between years of computer technology experiences and the frequency of usage in the case of MSN. Post hoc test revealed a significant difference in the Internet search between those with more than 7 years of experience with those with less than 2 years experience and those between 2-4 years computing experience. The results provide insight into TESL and PPISMP trainee teachers’ use of the Internet search engines as a tool in information seeking when approaching research for their academic learning activities. Implications on the impact of the Internet to the trainee teachers’ academic learning in approaching research needs were discussed.
Lau Teck-Chai; Yeoh Kim-Hong; Choong Ching-Ching
Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and the activities they use most frequently in their classes. Additionally, the difference between male and female teachers’ teaching styles and the relationship between teaching styles and teachers’ experience and age were explored. Three hundred EFL teachers were selected by stratified random sampling from six districts of the capital city, Tehran. They filled in a personal information questionnaire and Teaching Activities Preference (TAP) questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the participants used a variety of teaching activities in English classes; however, they constituted a special group due to the high percentage of using sensing type activities. Further, it was found that male and female teachers were different in extroverting, sensing, and feeling styles of teaching while female teachers used activities related to these styles more than their male counterparts did. Besides, the obtained results revealed that EFL teachers’ age and experience had a negative relationship with sensing style and a positive relationship with thinking style of teaching.
Mehrak Rahimi; Fatemeh Asadollahi
Full Text Available Both teacher characteristics and professional knowledge and skills are required for teachers to offer quality preschool education. Even though teachers may know the basics of planning educational contexts, various reasons may bring them face to face with difficulties in planning and implementation. When such diffculties arise, support should be provided to teachers according to their needs so that quality preschool curricula emerge. Starting from this need, the present study aims to reveal the difficulties faced by preschool teachers in the planning and implementation of curricula and to offer suggestions accordingly.The study sample consisted of a total of 154 teachers working at private and official preschool education institutions in Ankara and Afyon. Data was collected by using a questionnaire with two sections. It included questions about teachers’ personal information and their views on planning educational contexts. The general data pertaining to teachers was analyzed with percentile and frequency values while Chi-Square test was used to analyze whether the teachers’ views on planning educational contexts varied with respect to variables such as their professional seniority, the institution they are working for and the type of school they graduated from.The results showed that the biggest difficulties teachers faced in preparing annual plans were distributing objectives and achievements over the year and evaluating the annual plan. At the same time, teachers were also found to experience difficulties with planning and evaluating the educational context in their daily plans. The first and foremost difficulty in connection with planning educational contexts seemed to be big class size, followed by materials selection and design, arranging the educational context, lack of physical facilities, attitude of families, selecting methods and techniques, respectively. A meaningful difference was also found between the type of institution that teachers were working for and the difficulties that arose when planning educational contexts (p<0,05). In light of these results, it may be suggested that the quality of education will be maximized if the size of preschool classes is reduced and the number of preschools increased; if school administrators are informed and appropriate measures are taken to improve the physical condition of classrooms such as space, materials, temperature and lighting, the lack of which may pose major problems in planning and implementing curricula; if preservice teachers, who initially experience more difficulties than senior teachers with regard to physical conditions, are taken to preschools with a diversity of conditions for their practice teaching during their university education so that they gain a multitude of rich experiences.
Doç. Dr. Adalet KANDIR; Dr. Saide ÖZBEY; Ar?.Gör. Gözde ?NAL
Every child has the right to a highly qualified teacher, yet as a nation we are reluctant to empirically investigate how teacher preparation programs are succeeding. Results from the present study suggested that (a) traditionally certified (TC) teachers felt better prepared than non-traditionally certified (NTC) teachers on communicating,…
Zientek, Linda Reichwein
This study examined the knowledge that teachers need in order to become successful early reading teachers in English as a foreign language. The findings showed that in-service teachers had better content knowledge than pre-service teachers, although the results indicated overall low performance and insufficiently developed concepts about the structure of language, spelling rules, and academic terminology in both groups.
For the best student outcomes, teachers need to engage in continuous professional development. As a result, models of teacher professional development have been developed, among which is the Critical Friends Group (CFG) technique. However, whether it works well with EFL teachers in an Asian context like Vietnam, where EFL teachers in particular do…
Vo, Long Thanh; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai
In this article, we present the results from a mixed-methods research study aimed to document indoor and outdoor fifth grade science experiences in one school in the USA in the context of accountability and standardized testing. We used quantitative measures to explore students' science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels, and via qualitative measures, we examined views on science education and environmental issues from multiple sources, including the school's principal, teachers, and students. Students' science knowledge in each of the four objectives specified for grade 5 significantly improved during the school year. Qualitative data collected through interviews and observations found limited impressions of outdoor science. Findings revealed that, despite best intentions and a school culture that supported outdoor learning, it was very difficult in practice for teachers to supplement their classroom science instruction with outdoor activities. They felt constrained by time and heavy content demands and decided that the most efficient way of delivering science instruction was through traditional methods. Researchers discuss potentials and obstacles for the science community to consider in supporting teachers and preparing elementary school teachers to provide students with authentic experiential learning opportunities. We further confront teachers' and students' perceptions that science is always best and most efficiently learned inside the classroom through traditional text-driven instruction.
Carrier, Sarah J.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Thomson, Margareta M.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to enhance pre-service teachers’ problem-solving skills by giving them opportunity to understand the problem solving process. The study, using an experimental approach, was conducted with 85 pre-service elementary school teachers. The experimental group experienced problem based learning (PBL), while the control group experienced traditional instruction (TI) in their science instruction course. Independent t-test and content analysis were used to analyse the quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative results, supported by the qualitative research, revealed that the problem solving skills of the pre-service elementary school teachers experiencing PBL were increased more than those experiencing TI.
Özlem KORAY; Arzu PRESLEY; Mustafa Serdar KÖKSAL; Muhammet ÖZDEM?R
Full Text Available Current literature reflects disparate characteristics of good language teachers: Harmer (2008) suggests that good language teachers should have sufficient knowledge of the language; studies from Grundy et.al. (2005) and Mullock (2003) both suggest the importance of teachers’ ability to understand students’ needs, while Brown (1994) discusses the importance of the desire to upgrade teaching skills. With divergent views concerning numerous characteristics that can improve one’s language teaching skills and enhancing teaching/learning effectiveness, it seems logical to assume teachers have their beliefs on what characteristics of good language teachers are more important than others. To this end, taxonomy with the characteristics of good language teachers drawn from the literature was developed by the researcher. Through ranking these characteristics in the taxonomy, this study explores what points of agreement or divergence emerge from the rankings by Chinese college TESOL teachers in Taiwan. Findings show that even with limited characteristics of good language teachers presented in the taxonomy, colleagues at the same department andschool still have conflicting rankings. It was also revealed that the characteristics they perceived as important when they were students are quite different from those characteristics they currently perceive to be important. This research revealed that Chinese TESOLcolleagues have strikingly different beliefs about the important characteristics of good language teachers, as well as demonstrated the importance of reflection by language teachers upon their own beliefs and the need to share those beliefs with their students.
Lilian Ya-Hui Chang
Surveyed teachers and their students from East and West Berlin, examining whether liberal teachers were producing violent, right-wing youth, primarily due to permissive teaching style. Results found that liberal and permissive teachers did not produce such students. Teachers who emphasized a universalistic, pluralistic political value conviction,…
Bovier, Elke; Boehnke, Klaus
|With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…
Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.
Full Text Available Teacher’s behaviour is substantially influenced and even determined by teachers’ thought processes. Several studies concerning effectiveness in physical education have analysed various topics such as student engagement, curriculum time allocation, teaching methods, teacher behaviour, and teacher perceptions. However, these investigations have not applied the classroom research findings identified by other researchers. Firstly, this study explains the implied thoughts of the explained Tunisian Gymnastic University Teachers (TGUT) to teach gymnastics learning processes by analyzing their thought processes. Secondly, we included the analysis of the connection, interaction and relationship between the three topics reviewed. Thirdly, we identified and analyzed the difference between different Tunisian physical educational teachers’ thoughts and its influence on their didactical practice intervention. Data were collected during 4 months of observations and interviews with six TGUT at the high institute of sport and physical education (ISSEP) in Tunisia. They all teach not mixed class in Level1 (first year, BAC + 1). These interviews were semi structured (40 minutes each) and gave teachers the opportunity to share their perspectives on broad topics such as education, teaching, and society, and also on more succinct topics such as individual students and situations that had occurred in previous lessons. The data were analyzed using constant comparison. Three topics emerged illustrate how the teachers’ thinking influenced their selecting, ordering, and formulating of curriculum units, their didactic and pedagogical manoeuvring during lessons. This study revealed three major conceptions used by TGUT: 1) Teaching based on pedagogical conceptions (7.20%), 2) Teaching based on sciences (17.42%), and 3) Teaching based on means and practices (75.37%). A number of themes emerged from the analysis of each case, aside to the contextualised responses of individuals. The perception of the TGUT had two consequences: 1) a didactic consequence; the TGUT plan activities that will assist students in developing only physical skills, 2) the legitimacy of the contributory sciences in training programs for student teachers of physical education (PE). Basis on this argument, we might reasonably ask what might be done to address this problem. The issues discussed in this paper will encourage teachers to reflect on their own teaching beliefs and practices and to include them in the process of planning and teaching effectiveness.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine Pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers’ classroom management styles in Turkey. In addition, differences in pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers’ classroom management styles by gender, and field of study were examined. In the study, the survey model was employed. The research data was gathered using the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory (Martin et al., 1998). The ABCC Inventory was adapted into Turkish by Savran (2002). The research group consisted of 204 pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers. Data was analyzed by utilizing descriptive statistics, t-tests and ANOVA. Results revealed that pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers had non-interventionist styles on the People Management subscale, whereas they had interventionist styles on the Instructional Management subscale.
Full Text Available In this study, the applicability in compliance to its goals, of the proficiency based modular curriculums that has been put into practice throughout all vocational high schools according to the Strengthening Vocational and Technical Education Project, has beenevaluated regarding the execution in hospitality and tourism vocational high schools. The research was conducted using surveys applied to teachers. The population of the surveys on the teachers consists of tourism vocational course teachers in hospitality and tourism vocational high schools.Results reveal that there exists problems with modular curriculums and their applications. Teachers think that definitions, content and aims in the prepared curriculum was adequate to provide the required proficiency levels. In conclusion, some suggestions as to rid themodular education system of its current defects were presented.
Cihan SEÇ?LM??; Kurban ÜNLÜÖNEN
Full Text Available This paper documents how a team progressed through the five stages of team development as a result of a school-based professional development program using a laboratory class cycle. Six Grade two teachers and their administrator in a primary school in the south eastern United States participated in the study. All the teachers were interviewed at the end of each laboratory class cycle. Their administrator was interviewed after the program ended. A grounded theory approach and constant comparative method were used. The study revealed how the teachers’ participation in the program progressed according to Tuckman and Jenson’s (1997) model of team development in the laboratory class cycle. Establishment of trust among teachers and team support over an extended time were identified as important factors in shaping the team development.
LU PIEN CHENG; HO-KYOUNG KO
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' perceptions related to their pedagogical content knowledge. Firstly, a preliminary perception scale of pedagogical content knowledge was constructed and then administered to 112 pre-service mathematics teachers who were enrolled in a mathematics teacher education programme. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item analysis, correlation analysis, internal consistency and descriptive statistic techniques were used to analyse the data. Then validity and reliability of the scale were investigated. The analyses resulted in the development of a five-factor scale of 17 items that was proved valid and reliable. We contend that the scale developed has the merit to contribute to pre-service teachers' self-awareness by revealing their perceptions regarding their pedagogical content knowledge.
Esra Bukova-Güzel; Berna Cantürk-Günhan; Semiha Kula; Zekiye Özgür; Aysun Nüket Elçí
Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and more numerous, etc.) have become an add factor in accelerating or influencing land use and overall sustainability. In relation to the future sustainability in nature and society it is northern communities, their adaptive capacities and creativity that are decisive. SOO enables to identify and monitor the implementation of local strategies that will stimulate the human capital improvement and act not only as the agent of economic modernization but as an important solutions for better state of environment and society.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary education pre-service teachers? self-efficacy beliefs by gender, grade level and age. Participants were 163 elementary education pre-service teachers. An instrument titled “Music Education Self-Efficacy Scale” (Afacan, 2008) was used as a means of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t test was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that elementary education pre-service teachers? music education self-efficacy was, in general, moderate. Results revealed that participants? self-efficacy beliefs differ by gender, grade level and age. Women?s self-efficacy beliefs were higher than men. Junior (3rd year) students? self-efficacy was higher than sophomores (2nd year). Similarly, self-efficay scores of particiapants with an age of between 22 and 24 was higher than those with an age of between 19–21.
Deniz Beste ÇEV?K
Full Text Available The Study investigated the awareness among senior secondary teachers towards Value Based Question in Chemistry. In this context, the present study is an attempt to study the awareness of Value Based Question among the student teachers in Central India. A total of 79 teachers working in senior secondary school in Central India, were randomly selected for the present study. The Value Based Question in Chemistry Awareness test was employed to assess the level of awareness among senior secondary teachers teaching Chemistry. Mean, Standard deviation and 't” test was employed to find out the significance of difference between the student teachers with respect to their Gender, Age, Degree, Subject, Area of Residence, Practice of Reading News Paper/Magazine and Medium of Instruction. Results revealed that on the whole, the student teachers level of Value Based Question awareness is high. In accordance to the variables, the teachers those who are above 25 years, those who possess P.G Degree, those who reside at Urban areas and those who the practice of reading News Paper and circulars possess higher level of Awareness.
PRASHANT THOTE; D.P.S RATHOURE
A formação de professores para a educação inclusiva: legislação, diretrizes políticas e resultados de pesquisas/ The formation of teachers for the inclusive education: legislation, political guidelines and research results
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo levantar alguns aspectos relativos à formação de professores no Brasil, com ênfase para a inclusão de pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais no ensino regular. Para tal tomaremos como base três referências: a legislação nacional e as diretrizes políticas específicas do Ministério da Educação (MEC); o resultado de pesquisas e a literatura especializada sobre o tema. O texto está organizado em três partes. Primeiro abor (more) damos a fundamentação da formação de professores estabelecida nos documentos oficiais. Em seguida, apresentamos os resultados de diferentes pesquisas sobre o tema. Por fim, traçamos alternativas para a inclusão educacional. Abstract in english This article aims to raise some aspects related to the formation of teachers in Brazil, with emphasis to the inclusion of people with special educational needs in the regular education. For such, we will base ourselves in three references: the national legislation and the specific political guidelines of the Education Cabinet (MEC); the result of researches and the specialized literature over the theme. The text is organized in three parts. First, we deal with the groundi (more) ng of the formation of teachers established in the official documents. Then, we show the results of different researches about the theme. At last, we trace alternatives for the educational inclusion.
Pletsch, Márcia Denise
The present study focused on the epistemology of teachers' practical knowledge by addressing the following research question: how do teachers attempt to reason about their practices and their practical knowledge? The results indicated that teachers supported their practical knowledge claims using the "practical argument". Within this conceptual…
Gholami, Khalil; Husu, Jukka
Modern economics has placed lifelong learning (LLL) at the center of an intensive ongoing political debate. Evidenced-based interventions are needed, not only in continuing education courses for teachers, but also in schools. This paper introduces evaluation results of TALK, a teacher education program for professional teachers with the objective…
Finsterwald, Monika; Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Luftenegger, Marko; Spiel, Christiane
This study examines preservice elementary teachers' (PTs) knowledge for teaching the associative property (AP) of multiplication. Results reveal that PTs hold a common misconception between the AP and commutative property (CP). Most PTs in our sample were unable to use concrete contexts (e.g., pictorial representations and word problems) to…
Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao; Capraro, Mary M.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate teachers’ perceptions and practices related to student outcomes and the criteria of student assessments in secondary school biology classes. Teacher interviews and documents provided the data for this study. According to the results of this study, teachers mainly assessed cognitive achievement by evaluating students' knowledge of basic facts, involving recall and recognition. Teachers also assessed non-cognitive characteristics to assign end-of-term grades. In addition, there were discrepancies between what teachers claimed to assess and what they actually assessed. Furthermore, teachers' expectations of students changed with the perceived level of student ability. Consequences of these findings on student learning are discussed throughout the paper, and suggestions for teacher education and practice are also provided.
Sabiha ODABASI CIMER; Atilla CIMER
Full Text Available The configuration of new intergroup and interpersonal relations that take place in the receiving social context as a result of migratory processes, owns direct influences over the school scene. Having in account there are different paradigms and models in multicultural education (Banks, 2009), the aim of the study is to analyse the impact that has on teacher’s social well-being, the main or minor percentage of immigrant students in the schools. The Social Well-Being Scale of Keyes (1998), adapted by Blanco & Diaz (2005) was applied on a sample of 281 primary education teachers from Guipúzcoa, (Spain). They were distributed in three groups for its comparison. The results indicate, that those teachers that carry out their work in schools with greater concentration of immigrant students, presented the greater level of social well-being with respect to their colleagues who belong to schools characterized by the sociocultural homogeneity of the pupils.
Alonso, María L; Martínez Taboada, Cristina
OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.
Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.
Gardner, Cynthia Crompton
Full Text Available This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Kele?o?lu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selçuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was conducted on 312 teacher candidates. The data of this study was obtained by “academic selfefficacy scale” which was developed by Jerusalem and Schwazer (1981) and translated into Turkish by Y?lmaz, Gürçay, and Ekici (2007) and its reliability value was determined as .79. However, Cronbach Alfa reliability value of this scale became .76 with the result of the data analysis of the study. SPSS package program was used to analyze the data; and the data analysis, frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests (LSD) test were used. When the findings of the research were considered in general, the result showed that the academic self-efficacy perception level of the candidates was at desired level. However, teachers' views about the level of academic self-efficacy perception showed that most of them preferred a lower level option "suits me", instead of "totally suits me" option that was the highest degree of participation of four likert-type scale. This illustrated that their perception about this issue was not at a very high level. When independent variables were taken into account, among the academic perception levels of teacher candidates, a significant difference was detected in terms of working as a teacher or not and academic achievement variables but it revealed no significant difference in terms of gender and type of education program variables.
Dr. Etem YE??LYURT
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine qualitatively 109 third year primary teacher candidates’ views on being a good teacher. One open-ended question was posed to teacher candidates to be answered in writing. Although opinions about being a good teacher were categorized into six subtitles: personal characteristics, knowledge of subject and its teaching;, skills, professional growth, appreciation, and commitment to the mission, most of the answers were about different dimensions of personal characteristics.
Behiye UBUZ; Sibel SARI
Full Text Available Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Unfortunately, however, there is no public or private business or governmental agency that serves to certify or in any other formal way declare that any teacher test does, in fact, meet the psychometric recommendations stipulated in the Standards. Consequently, there are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests) nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the psychometric results reported by National Evaluation Systems (NES) in their 1999 Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT) Technical Report, and more specifically, to identify those technical characteristics of the MECT that are inconsistent with the Standards. A second purpose of this article is to call for the establishment of a standing test auditing organization with investigation and sanctioning power. The significance of the present analysis is twofold: a) psychometric results for the MECT are similar in nature to psychometric results presented as evidence of test development flaws in an Alabama class-action lawsuit dealing with teacher certification (an NES-designed testing system); and b) there was no impartial enforcement agency to whom complaints about the Alabama tests could be brought, other than the court, nor is there any such agency to whom complaints about the Massachusetts tests can be brought. I begin by reviewing NES's role in Allen v. Alabama State Board of Education, 81-697-N. Next I explain the purpose and interpretation of standard item analysis procedures and statistics. Finally, I present results taken directly from the 1999 MECT Technical Report and compare them to procedures, results, and consequences of procedures followed by NES in Alabama.
Larry H. Ludlow
Full Text Available Problem statement: School effectiveness research shows that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school-based factor in student success. The effects of poor teaching linger and can be measured for at least three years after students have left the classroom. It is too late to wait until secondary school level for backlogs to be eradicated. Education systems, such as the South African system, which grapple with large numbers of dysfunctional schools, should look anew at teacher effectiveness in all school phases. The urgent need for highly effective teachers in every classroom requires that education systems develop a comprehensive definition of teacher effectiveness and create training programmes to develop it. Thus, the problem investigated is: What are the characteristics, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers and what is the best way in which schools of education can adapt initial teacher education to meet the challenges of today?s classrooms? Approach: A mixed method approach was adopted. In addition to an in-depth literature review, open-ended questionnaires, probing perceptions of teacher effectiveness issues were distributed to teachers, school principals, policy officials and teacher educators. Interviews were conducted with a variety of educational experts. Classroom observations of experienced and novice teachers were conducted in a variety of contexts using open-ended classroom observation checklists. Results: Based on the findings of the research a synthesis of the characteristics, knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers was developed. Conclusion: If teachers are to be effective their initial training will have to be effective. This study has identified the characteristics and behaviours associated with effective teachers. These indicators are broad guidelines for schools of education to stimulate teacher education reform. Covering the curriculum, structuring of content, appropriate pacing and alignment, clear goal setting, clarity of content and presentation, are a few requirements for effective teachers which have direct implications for teacher education.
S. G. Pretorius
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate middle school science teachers’ frequency of exhibiting effective teacher behaviors. Science teachers’ frequency of effective teacher behaviors were examined by means of pre-service science teachers’ (N=110) observations in elementary schools. Based on their observations in the classrooms, the pre-service teachers filled out an observation form, which consisted of 25 items about skills related to effective teacher behaviors, by indicating the frequencies of teachers’ exhibiting certain behaviors in classroom. According to the results, teachers were found to be most effective in questioning and wait time and least effective in encouraging students to engage in group and self–evaluations.
?ule BAYRAKTAR; Derya ÇINAR
Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections. The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally. Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993), I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania. The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers. To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.
William C. Smith
Full Text Available In this work, it´s analyzed which contents related to plant nutrition are considered important by a group of secondary education teachers. Its objective is also to determine the existence of any correlations among teachers, depending on the selected and most valued contents in the evaluation activities and questions.The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the contents in which teachers are more focused are those describing the differences between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition, the photosynthesis process and the structures involved on it (plant and cellular organs). On the other hand, the less considered contents are related to the nutrition general concept, breathing concept and those associated to the ecological dimension of plant nutrition. The existence of certain trends among the teachers taking part in this study has been confirmed; a prevailing correlation has also been found. The majority trend is the physiogical.
González Rodríguez, Concepción;; García Barros, Susana;; Martínez Losada, Cristina
Full Text Available Developing countries have a responsibility not merely to provide computers for schools, but also to foster a habit of infusing a variety of ways in which computers can be integrated in teaching-learning amongst the end users of these tools. Earlier researches lacked a systematic study of the manner and the extent of computer-use by teachers. The current study examined a comprehensive investigation of 300 Central School teachers’ use of computers in India. Towards this end, a questionnaire was constructed that listed essential dimensions for teachers’ use of computers: Computer Aided Learning (CAL), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The findings revealed that teachers often used computers to update subject knowledge and teaching skills, develop lesson plans, prepare additional instructional material, notify relevant information via internet, prepare question banks. They sometimes used computers for showing something in the class, showcasing students’ work on school-website, preparing test papers, simulations, games, students’ assignments. They had either rarely or never used computers for presenting entire lesson, students’ classroom presentations, tutorials, sharing information with parents, publishing homework, giving tests to students – either offline or online, maintaining students’ records, and individualized instructions. The analysis indicated that amongst the three categories of computer use, CAL was the most popular category of computer use whereas CAI was the least popular among teachers. The results help to demystify seeming inconsistency and variation with regard to computer use among teachers. The identification of comprehensive ways of computer use empowers stakeholders with vital information and may assist implementation of appropriate measures to fully infuse computers in teaching-learning process.
BACKGROUND: Assessment can be a powerful force in promoting student learning. Still, few measures exist to gauge Assessment for Learning (AFL) in the classroom. Literature on AFL suggests that it encompasses both a monitor to track student progress as well as a scaffold to show or help students recognize in what areas they need to improve. AIMS: Based on a review of recent attempts to measure the AFL, we constructed Assessment for Learning Questionnaires for Teachers (TAFL-Q) and for students (SAFL-Q) for evaluating perceptions regarding AFL practices in classrooms using matching items. SAMPLE: The total sample included 1,422 students (49% girls, 51% boys) and 237 teachers (43% females, 57% males) in lower vocational secondary education. METHODS: The 28-item questionnaires were examined by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using EQS on one random half of the sample. The CFA was cross-validated on the second half. Measurement invariance tests were conducted to compare the students and teacher versions of the questionnaires. RESULTS: CFA revealed a stable second-order two-factor structure that was cross-validated: perceived monitoring, and perceived scaffolding subsumed under a common factor: AFL. Tests for measurement invariance showed that the parallel constructs were measured similarly for both students and teachers. CONCLUSION: The TAFL-Q and SAFL-Q capture the construct AFL in two subscales: Monitoring and Scaffolding, and allows for comparisons between teacher and student perceptions. The instruments can be useful tools for teachers and students alike to identify and scrutinize assessment practices in classroom.
Pat-El RJ; Tillema H; Segers M; Vedder P
Full Text Available From the perspective of the interactive theories and theories of second language acquisition, this paper explores the influence of the teachers’ language upon the EFL classroom interaction. The action research in this paper is based on a small-scale research, which served as a means to find the problems occurring in the teachers’ language in EFL classroom. We make a class observation 10 English teachers and 102 freshmen of non-English majors from HIT. The research results show that the teachers’ language has a great influence on the students’ language acquisition. In the end, a series of strategies for improving teachers’ language are summarized.
Xuemei Meng; Xuesong Wang
This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed throughout the program. More specifically, analysis of the teachers' discourse during the second version revealed that the program led to significant changes in teachers' knowledge about their students' knowledge and in teachers' views about the following: 1. the advantages of the KIRs' innovative teaching tool, 2. the "evidence" as a useful resource for evaluating the contribution of the KIRs to students' learning, and more generally, as a powerful tool for investigating students' learning, and for improving practice, and 3. several "learner-centered" pedagogical aspects: the importance and legitimacy of learning from peers, the need to listen carefully to students' ideas and reflections, and the need to investigate students' knowledge using a variety of methods, and to plan the teaching accordingly. Our analysis of the students' worksheets verified the teachers' findings about their students' initial state of knowledge and the improvement of this knowledge as a result of advancing through the KIR phases. When we extended the sample and examined worksheets of additional classes, we found similar findings. We also found that the students were aware of the improvement in their knowledge and attributed this improvement to their working with the KIRs. Two major recommendations emerge from this study: 1. We recommend that KIRs be routinely incorporated into physics teaching. The results show that the KIRs contribute to teachers' practice and to students' learning and support the teachers in becoming more learner-centered in their teaching. 2. We recommend incorporating an evidence-based approach in long-term programs aimed at bringing about a significant change in the teachers' practice. In order to engage the teachers with the evidence endeavor, it is recommended to introduce them an innovative teaching tool that is considered by them important and to evoke their curiosity to find out empirically about the influence of the tool on their students' learning. It is also recommended to engage the teachers in ongoing interactions about their expe
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to compare teacher’s level of effectiveness in public and private secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Two hypotheses were formulated for the study and the reviewed literature covered all the variables of interest. The study was hinged on the ex-post- facto research design. A special instrument known at the Teachers Gender Performance Evaluation Report Card (TGPERC) was developed to generate the needed data. Schools from where the teachers were selected were chosen via convenience sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using the t-test statistics for independent sample and all hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that the public and private school teachers have different levels of effectiveness in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Nigeria.
Mercy O. Omobude; Ujiro Igbudu
Full Text Available The present research is aimed to ascertain the role of locus of control in mediating or coping on various degree/levels of stress among the college/university teachers of Bahawalpur. For that purpose a sample of N=200 male/female college/university teacherswas selected by convenient sampling. Research tools, Locus of control by Julian Rotter (1966) and Stress questionnaire by International Stress Management Association UK, (2009) were administered for data collection. After the collection of data it was analyzedby SPSS. The results shows that the teachers identified with internal locus of control reveal low level of stress as contrast to the teachers with external locus of control. The study also confirms that high internal locus of control determines high coping andmediating ability of stress among the teachers. The study also pointed out that the teachers with external locus of control were more incline or prone to stress. Furthermore, Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation results at significant level of .000 show that bothvariables are highly correlated. Similarly, overall Mean of locus of control and Coefficient of variation reveals the high consistency role in relation with stress.
Aqeel Ahmad Khan (Corresponding author); Muhammad Saleem; Raheela Shahid
This module explores complex fluids, mixtures that have characteristics of more than one phase of matter. It features a video of cornstarch "coming to life" -- when combined with water, the resulting mixture becomes a non-Newtonian fluid with properties of both a solid and a liquid, depending on the amount of pressure or force applied to it. In a related hands-on activity, learners make a polymer called "Gak" from borax powder, glue, and water. The experiment is a springboard for teaching about polymers, long-chained molecules consisting of smaller repeating molecule units (known as monomers). Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate primary school teacher’s organizational learning experiences and their thoughts about these experiences. In order to realize this aim, educational practices, supportive leadership, communication and education technology, information sharing and cooperation dimensions of organizational learning are analyzed in terms of teachers’ perceptions. When we evaluate research findings, teachers’ perceptions about organizational learning differ meaningfully according to the teacher’s age and their tenure of office. It can be asserted that we can develop schools’ organizational learning ability only if we create systems which make easy and support managers’, teachers’, students’, parents’ and other education workers’ learning course. The results of this study showed that teachers’ perceptions about organizational learning differ according to managers’ use of managerial power in change applications, teacher’s liability to the team work and whether technological advancements is followed or not. The findings of the research also sign the importance of collective learning and application in order to realize organizational learning. When we look at the research findings, it can be asserted that motivating individuals in schools to work and learn collaboratively and to follow technological advancements about education can be effective in transforming schools to learning organizations.
Cevat CELEP; Tu?ba KONAKLI; Ergün RECEPO?LU
Analogies have been argued to be central in the process of establishing conceptual growth, making overt connections and carryover into an intended cognitive domain, and providing a generative venue for developing conceptual understanding inherent in constructivist learning. However, students' specific uses of analogies for constructing arguments are not well understood. Specifically, the results of preservice teachers' knowledge gains are not widely studied. Although we would hope that engaging preservice science teachers in exemplary lessons would assist them in using and generating analogies more expertly, it is not clear whether or how such curricula would affect their learning or teaching. This study presents an existence proof of how preservice science teachers used analogies embedded in their course materials Physics by Inquiry. This fine-grained analysis of small group discourse revealed three distinct roles of analogies including the development of: (a) cognitive process skills, (b) scientific conceptual understanding, and (c) social contexts for problem solving. Results suggest that preservice teachers tend to overgeneralize the analogies inserted by curriculum materials, map irrelevant features of analogies into collaborative problem solving, and generate personal analogies, which counter scientific concept development. Although the authors agree with the importance of collaborative problem solving and the insertion of analogies for preservice teachers' conceptual development, we believe much more needs to be understood before teachers can be expected to construct and sustain effective learning environments that rely on using analogies expertly. Implications for teacher preparation are also discussed.
Yerrick, Randy; Doster, Elizabeth; Nugent, Jeffrey; Parke, Helen; Crawley, Frank
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate primary pre-service teachers’ computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards educational technologies. The study was performed on 217 primary pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education in Rize University. Data were collected through the applications of Computer Self-Efficacy Scale (A?kar and Umay, 2001) and Technology Attitude Scale (Yavuz, 2005). Pre-service teachers’ computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards educational technologies were compared based on the variables such as class level, gender, computer ownership, and computer experiences. Moreover, pre-service teachers’ computer self-efficacy beliefs were predicted from their attitudes toward educational technologies. The study results revealed that male pre-service teachers have higher computer self-efficacy beliefs than their female counter parts and pre-service teachers owning personal computer have higher computer self-efficacy beliefs than those do not have personal computer. The study results also indicated that the pre-service teachers’ computer self-efficacy beliefs can be predicted from their attitudes towards educational technologies.
Cemalettin ?PEK; H. Yusuf ACUNER
In a questionnaire survey, 94 teachers in Taiwan and 140 in the United States judged which topics among 20 moral issues would be appropriate subjects of study in grade six of the primary school and in the first year of the university. The issues related to religion, ethnicity, gender, health care, crime, alcohol, tobacco, gambling, guns, government corruption, birth control, caring for the elderly, and television programming. The results revealed great diversity of opinion within each group of respondents. No single topic was approved by all teachers in either group, nor was any topic rejected by all. Among the 234 teachers, no two offered precisely the same configuration of answers over the 20 topics. Nevertheless, some group trends could be identified for individual topics. For example, in both countries the great majority of respondents would teach about industrial pollution, whereas very few would approve of trying to identify the best religion. In the rationales teachers offered in support of their choices, the four reasons that figured most prominently in both countries were that a topic would contribute to the nation's welfare, would help students to make wise decisions, would be interesting for students, and would represent a peaceful way to face social problems.
Lin, Huey-Ya; Davidman, Patricia; Petersen, George; Thomas, R. Murray
Full Text Available This article explores a group of trainee teachers’ conceptions of Creativity in Secondary School English. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and interviews. Whilst there are many promising notions of creativity, the results also reveal some evidence of narrow conceptions, inconsistent thinking and some misconceptions. This suggests that there may be significant implications for teacher trainers in universities and schools if we are to equip our students with the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach, support and facilitate creativity in their new careers. Romantic notions of original and innate genius, and a progressive emphasis on boundless, directionless play are two possible sources of misconceived ideas for training teachers of English. Creativity can be supported and developed within pedagogical frameworks and settings. This article, therefore, offers a consideration of how Sternberg’s 21 suggested strategies for “Developing creativity as a decision” might be adapted and implemented in the Secondary English classroom. Practical teaching methods and competencies are presented which could be developed and incorporated into graduate trainee teacher programmes.
Reports the results of a study designed to investigate teacher and student behavior in classes using Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) materials. The results indicate that teachers of ESCP have not for the most part integrated the ESCP inquiry approach into their teaching repertoire. (JR)
Smith, John P.
Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of gender and year in program on the performance and mathematical self-efficacy beliefs of 145 pre-service mathematics teachers in Turkey. One of the main purposes of this study investigate how duration in a teacher education program influenced the performance and mathematical selfefficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers. In addition, gender differences between male and female pre-service mathematics teachers, depending upon year in program, are examined. Results revealed that there were significant statistical effects of gender and year in program on both pre-service teachers’ performance and self-efficacy scores. Female pre-service teachers scored significantly higher than males on performance, butsignificant difference was detected between female and male pre-service teachers with respect to mathematics self-efficacy scores. Senior pre-service teachers had the highest scores compared to other students in program on bother performance and mathematics self-efficacy scores. Although the present study is small, results tentatively suggest a further investigation of the relationship between performance and self-efficacy beliefs might be fruitful. Studying how mathematical self-efficacy develops across school years and what factors facilitate its development could yield valuable implications for the field of mathematic education.
Full Text Available This study aims at exploring teachers’ perceptions of characteristics of teacher’s professionalism. This study also identifies understanding of teachers on seven criteria of teacher professionalism that are educating, teaching, guiding, instructing, training, evaluating, and reflecting. In addition, this study was conducted to observe how the seven elements of teacher professionalism have been practiced in high school classroom. The research instruments were (1) open-ended questions to explore the teachers’ perception of the characteristics of teacher’s professionalism, (2) fixed-response forms to identify percentage of teachers’ understanding on the scope of duty of teachers’ professionalism, and (3) observation checklist to identify percentage of teacher’s professionalism practices in classroom. Data was analysed by using thematic and descriptive approaches. Four themes emerged from this study are students’ behaviour management, teaching and learning in classroom, encouragement and Evaluation, and students’ performance. The data shows that the teachers are familiar with teaching professionalism. Data also revealed that quite a high percentage of teachers understand the scope of teacher’s professionalism. However, when it comes to practice, they employ it unsatisfactorily. The implication is that practice of professionalism in the classroom needs to be promoted in comparison with the other elements.
M. Nur Mustafa
Full Text Available We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general competency, were noted. The article concludes with recommendations on how to enhance critical thinking and language proficiency in the teacher-training curriculum.
M M (Mary) Grosser; Mirna Nel
Full Text Available This paper describes the early childhood teacher training program and the role of the Project Approach in the final practicum for student teachers in the Lisbon School of Education, Portugal. Student teachers, cooperating teachers, university supervisors, and instructors of teaching methods worked together to involve young children in interesting projects. This cooperation provided an opportunity for innovation and experimentation and, especially, a context for teacher educators to deepen their understanding of their roles and to improve their teaching strategies. As a consequence, the final practicum became central to the teacher education program. The article concludes with seven lessons learned as a result of this process.
Full Text Available The need for an inspired professional teacher corps to haul South African school education out of its current low level of quality was the driving force behind this project. Its aim was to determine what counted as sources of inspiration for student teachers and hence for future teachers. Based on a conceptual-theoretical study, a questionnaire that could probe student teachers' sources of inspiration was completed by a sample of student teachers (n = 1,683). A factor analysis of their responses revealed the following as their sources of inspiration, from most to least important: (extended) family, religion, the teacher education institution, teaching practice, friends, and personal life. A comparison with similar research elsewhere revealed that, in this sample of respondents, considerations, such as education being the only accessible profession or being forced to enter the teaching profession because of economic circumstances, did not figure at all.
Charl Wolhuter; Hannes van der Walt; Ferdinand Potgieter; Louisa Meyer; Thapelo Mamiala
This is a longitudinal study aimed at revealing the beliefs of prospective science teachers in the College of Education at Sultan Qaboos University/Sultanate of Oman about science teaching. To achieve this aim a Draw-A-Science-Teacher-Test Checklist (DASTT-C) tool was used. The study sample consisted of (45) prospective science teachers in the…
Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.
A teacher's scientific understanding has a dramatic impact on students' ability to learn science. This article describes the results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test to 142 science teachers in Wisconsin. The results show that these teachers are lacking a deep, coherent understanding of astronomy concepts. Implications for these…
Brunsell, Eric; Marcks, Jason
Full Text Available Students’ economic literacy depends on the contents they learn in school as well as at home. It also depends on teachers’ ability to teach and explain economic concepts and principles in the way students can understand them. But, it is very doubtful whether all the high school teachers of civics who teach economics have excellent knowledge and good teaching skill in economics. Because the authors know that only a few civics teachers in Japan had studied economics as a major subject when they were undergraduate students.In order to prove these facts, the authors conducted a nationwide survey using a questionnaire concerning personal attributes, attitude toward economic issues, and thinking about economy and economics of high school teachers of civics in Japan in 2009. 1,574 samples were collected out of around 14,000 civics teachers from every prefecture in Japan, and their answers were turned into data set for analysis. These samples proved to have high external validity representing their population, and results of analysis may reveal the characteristics of Japanese high school teachers of civics teaching economics.Findings of our survey will help improve the quality of economic education in Japan, especially the quality and attitude of economics teachers in high school.
Tadayoshi Asano; Michio Yamaoka; Shintaro Abe
Full Text Available Teachers’ attitudes toward science teaching influence science teaching and learning. Promoting positive attitudes toward science teaching in pre-service science teachers appears as an important task for science teacher educators. This study aims (a) to explore 113 pre-service science teachers’ attitudes toward science teaching at the beginning of the first semester in a standard-based science teacher preparation program, which had initiated in a university located in the middle region of Thailand, and (b) to track attitude changes of 30 volunteered participants after one semester of participation. The results revealed that, in overall, the participants had positive attitudes toward science teaching both at the beginning and the end of the semester. The participants with different genders significantly had different attitudes toward science teaching both at the beginning and the end of the semester, whereas the class level and study major variables did not significantly yield such differences. After one semester of participation in the standard-based program, the participants did not significantly enhance their attitudes toward science teaching. They, however, expressed additional negative attitudes regarding their inability to teach science adequately. The implications regarding how to promote positive attitudes toward science teaching in the context of science education are drawn from the results.
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.
Programa de Formação Continuada para Docentes da Educação Superior: um estudo avaliativo a partir dos resultados de uma tese Continuing Education Program for Higher Education Teachers: an evaluative study based on thesis results
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar considerações avaliativas sobre os resultados de uma tese de doutorado intitulada "Programa de Formação Continuada para Docentes do Ensino Superior: um estudo de caso",desenvolvida na Universidade do Vale do Itajaí - UNIVALI, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, e apresentada na Faculdade de Educação, da Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, em Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, em novembro de 2007. A metodologia utilizada na pesquisa foi um estudo de caso, por meio de narrativa. O plano de desenvolvimento do artigo está dividido em quatro partes. A primeira contextualiza a instituição e o referido Programa em sua primeira edição. A segunda apresenta a metodologia e a análise dos dados da pesquisa. A terceira parte aborda os resultados do estudo de caso. A quarta parte avalia os resultados alcançados. Ao final, efetuam- se considerações que sinalizam para a importância da continuidade de estudos, em favor do estado da arte sobre formação continuada para docentes do ensino superior, que objetive caracterizar a identidade e profissionalidade docente, em nível nacional, principalmente a partir dos saberes e fazeres desses programas.This article offers some evaluative considerations of the results of a doctorate thesis entitled "Programa de FormaçãoContinuada para Docentes do Ensino Superior: um estudo de caso" (Continuing Education Program for Higher Education Teachers: A case study), carried out at the Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (University of Vale do Itajaí) - UNIVALI, in Itajaí, Santa Catarina, and presented at the School of Education of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, in November 2007. The methodology used in the research was a case study, by means of a narrative. The article is divided into four sections. The first section outlines the context of the institution that developed the Program and the Program itself in its first edition. The second presents the research methodology used and the data analysis. The third addresses the results of the case study, and the fourth section evaluates the results obtained. At the end, some considerations are made that point to the importance of further studies on the state- of- the- art in the area of continuing education for higher education teachers, seeking to characterize the identity of the teaching professional, at the national level, particularly based on the knowledge and activities of these programs.
Sueli Petry da Luz; Newton César Balzan
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how teacher candidates cope with stress according to their gender, age, and major. The data for the study was collected via a personal information form and the Multidimensional Intimate Coping Questionnaire (MICQ) with the participation of 307 university students, 183 female (59.6 %) and 124 male (40.4). To analyze the data, for the gender and age variables an independent samples t-test, and for the major variable, a one-way ANOVA test was utilized. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the gender variable in the subscales of ‚Negative and Passive Coping?, ‚Seeking External Support? and ‚Belief in Religion? subscale for the female students. The difference was significant for the male students in the subscale of ‚Use of Alcohol and Drugs?. Also, according to the age variable, the difference was again significant for the participants between the ages of 23 and 31 in the subscale of ‚Positive and Active Coping? and ‚Supporting Oneself?. Moreover, there was a significant difference major variable in the subscales of ‚Denial/Mental Disengagement? for special education students, and ‚Belief in Religion ? subscale for students in science departments. As a result of the study, teacher candidates should be aware of the existing and potential stress sources and problems, and also the problems they will face in their profession. In addition, they should be equipped with the necessary skills to be able to cope with those factors effectively.
Bahtiyar Eraslan Çapan
Full Text Available Th e eff ects of the personality traits on the teacher qualifications of the teachers working of the high schools were analysed in this study. Th is study was a local survey research at 2010-2011 of the summer semester. Th e sample of the study consisted of 428 teachers. Personality test based on adjectives, and perceptions of compedence scale were used as data collection tools. “Path analysis” method was done for data analysis by structural equation modelling procedure. Analysis revealed that the openness for the experience, one of the personality traits, was found to be the most infl uential predictor of the teacher qualifications, also self-development, one of the teacher qualifications, was found to be most infl uenced dimension from the personality traits.
Full Text Available Research on teacher attitudes toward language and cultural differences has revealed that teachers form negative stereotypes of students with non-standard dialects (Münstermann, 1989). They consider dialect differences as deficiency in language learning, or sloppy pronunciation. Teacher’s attitude toward the students is important in that it creates the classroom atmosphere and affects the way language is taught to the students. The immediate goal of the present study is to investigate EFL teachers’ attitude toward dialect differences in Iran. It further investigates the roles that the variables like teachers’ gender, teachers’ years of teaching experience, school location and the students’ ethnic background play in forming the teachers’ attitude toward dialect variations. To this end, forty Iranian EFL teachers were randomly selected from nine different public high schools. To collect data, modified version of Hoover et al. (1996) Questionnaire was administered. The data were analyzed using simple frequency and percentages. The findings revealed that %71 of the teachers were sensitive toward varieties in dialect and considered them as forms of language and only %14 viewed them as language learning deficiency. The study has some implications for language teaching and material development.
Giti Mousapour Negari
Full Text Available This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs). Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result shows that students expect more encouragement and interaction with the NESTs, and more relaxed activities with less assignment and test. A third of the students expect NEST with a standard accent, while a quarter do not care about accent at all. The NESTs reveal their dissatisfaction toward the students’ passiveness and irresponsiveness. While students expect their NESTs to be interactive, they themselves seem to give the NESTs an impression of an unwillingness to participate. The discussion centers on this dilemma and offer some suggestions for English teachers.
kun huei Wu; I Chung Ke
BACKGROUND: Motivation in teaching, mainly studied in disciplines outside of surgery, may also be an important part of intraoperative teaching. We explored techniques surgeons use to motivate learners in the operating room (OR). METHODS: Forty-four experienced surgeon teachers from multiple specialties participated in 9 focus groups about teaching in the OR. Focus groups were transcribed and subjected to qualitative thematic analysis by 3 reviewers through an iterative, rigorous process. RESULTS: Analysis revealed 8 motivational techniques. Surgeons used motivation techniques tacitly, describing multiple ways that they facilitate resident motivation while teaching. Two major categories of motivational techniques emerged: (1) the facilitation of intrinsic motivation; and (2) the provision of factors to stimulate extrinsic motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons unknowingly but tacitly and commonly use motivation in intraoperative teaching and use a variety of techniques to foster learners' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivating learners is 1 vital role that surgeon teachers play in nontechnical intraoperative teaching.
Dath D; Hoogenes J; Matsumoto ED; Szalay DA
Estratégias de Interpretação Gráfica de uma Professora Polivalente ao Manipular Dados no Ambiente Computacional Primary School Teacher´ Strategies on Graphic Interpretation in Computational Environment
Full Text Available Este artigo refere-se à análise das estratégias de manipulação de dados por uma professora das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, sobre a formação de conceitos elementares de estatística. A formação ocorreu em oficinas realizadas numa escola pública e também em encontros individuais, tendo como tema a manipulação e representação de dados no ambiente computacional. Neste artigo nos deteremos à análise da resolução adotada pela professora em uma questão pontual. Os resultados dessa análise indicam que a professora em questão apresentava uma preferência para ler os gráficos como se fossem tabelas simplificadas (tabelas de freqüência), evitando assim a representação icônica. Embora tabelas de freqüência, muitas vezes, proporcionem um meio eficaz para análise dos dados, há momentos em que só as tabelas não são suficientes, fazendo-se necessário o uso da representação gráfica. Essa rejeição pelo modo gráfico revela também a pouca familiaridade da professora com a tecnologia que tinha em mãos. Palavras-chave: Manipulação de Dados. Formação de Professor. Informática Educativa. Ensino Fundamental. Formação de Conceitos.The present paper refers to the analyses of one primary school teacher’s manipulation of graphics dealing with basic Statistics concepts. The teacher’s formation occurred during workshops as well as individual meetings carried out at the school where this teacher works. The main themes were graphic manipulation and representation of data inside a computational environment. For the purpose of this paper, we will present an analysis of the teacher’s strategies to solve a ‘pontual question’. The results indicate that the teacher preferred to read graphics as if they were simplified tables, avoiding the iconic representation. Although frequency tables are often an efficient way to analyze data, there are moments in which tables alone are not sufficient, and a graphic representation is necessary. This teacher’s rejection of the graphic mode also reveals her lack of familiarity with the technology. Keywords: Teacher Formation. Data Handling. Primary School. Computer Environment. Concept Formation.
Sandra da Silva Santos; Sandra Maria Pinto Magina
Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post-SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed.
Batiza AF; Gruhl M; Zhang B; Harrington T; Roberts M; LaFlamme D; Haasch MA; Knopp J; Vogt G; Goodsell D; Hagedorn E; Marcey D; Hoelzer M; Nelson D
Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…
Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron
This report represents the eighth Follow-Up Study by the Teacher Education Assessment Committee (TEAC) at Central Missouri State University (Central). TEAC is a centralized system of data collection and assessment that conducts and publishes results of periodic assessments and evaluations of Central's teacher education programs by soliciting input…
Zelazek, John R.; Williams, Wayne W.; McAdams, Charles; Palmer, Kyle
This report presents the eighth Follow-Up Study by the Teacher Education Assessment Committee (TEAC) at Central Missouri State University (Central). TEAC is a centralized system of data collection and assessment that conducts and publishes results of periodic assessments and evaluations of Central's teacher education programs. Data came from…
Zelazek, John R.; Williams, Wayne W.; McAdams, Charles; Palmer, Kyle
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Isotopes page includes resources for teaching students about the structure and uses of isotopes.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Titration page includes resources for teaching students about the theory and applications of titrations.
The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Stoichiometry page includes resources for teaching students about stoichiometry.
Full Text Available Although research on Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has described the principles of the approach (Long 1985; Ellis 2003) and offered recommendations on how to implement TBLT (Willis & Willis 2007), there are only a few studies investigating teachers? use of tasks in the classroom environment (Samuda 2009). The present paper reports the findings of a case study that examines how two teachers of beginning French at tertiary level implemented two similar tasks into the classroom at two distinct moments in the academic year. The tasks are extracted from a task-based textbook, namely Rond Point (Labascoule et al. 2004). The purpose of the study is not, however, to assess the worth of the textbook but to investigate which pedagogical practices the teachers developed around the tasks in order to adapt them to the classroom context. The study analyses data collected through classroom observations as well as pre- and post- class time discussions in which the two teachers planned and assessed their teaching. The findings reveal an evolution in the teachers? procedures over the academic year from teaching to the “task-as-work plan” (Breen 1987) (or following the instructions in the textbook) to developing a pedagogical approach to teaching with tasks. The study concludes by stressing the importance of the teacher contribution to TBLT implementation, though it concedes that the findings cannot be generalised before additional teacher research is carried out in other educational contexts.
Full Text Available In Indonesia, Ki Hajar Dewantoro is one of the most respected scholars in education philosophy. He stated the importance of trust earned by teachers in guiding students in their learning activities. The teacher, as the leader in the class, needs to develop mutual trust between students and teachers. Trust to teachers is strongly required by students as a foundation in developing and expanding their relationship and also social network. It is also the fundamental element in their desire to pursue higher education, for it is only through a sense of trust that student will embrace an empowering sense of freedom and pursuit the knowledge. The exercise of this freedom requires a risk on behalf of students based on the trust of their teachers and the learning experience that they provide. If students trust their teachers, they will be more able to focus on the task at hand and to work and learn more effectively. A total number of 291 senior high school students in Yogyakarta (males=147, females=144) completed an open-ended questionnaire developed for this study that asks how much they trust their teachers and the reason why they trust their teachers. The data was analyzed using indigenous psychological approach of analyzing the content of open-ended responses, categorization of the responses and cross-tabulating with demographic/background information. Results indicated that 63% of participants stated that they trusted their teachers. The main reason for trusting their teachers are as follows: they are perceived as being similar to their parents, teachers’ ability in transferring knowledge, the relationship with teacher, and their abilities of guiding students. The study concluded that trust of senior high school students was established because of views that teachers are parents that have competence in delivering knowledge and are formally established as teachers. Therefore a teacher’s behavior that similarly represents a parent’s behavior at home will produce a child’s trust and this will become the foundation for the students to learn better.
Kurnianingsih, Sri; Yuniarti, Kwartarini Wahyu; Kim, Uichol
Full Text Available As in all sciences, interpersonal interactions develop new approaches. One of them is emotional intelligence (EQ), “observing and understanding capacity own and other’s emotion, definition of different type of emotion; and knowledge that you learned using to know other’s emotion and understanding. The purpose of this study is to determine EQ competence acquisition levels of senior students in secondary education system according to teacher perceptions. A survey method was used as the main research approach. Participants were 262 teachers who were selected from seven secondary schools in Adapazari that were selected randomly. Research questions were tested with ANOVA that includes Observed Power and Partial Eta analysis and t-test that includes Cohen d analysis. Results revealed that students, who have higher academic achievements, have the highest level in EQ traits as well. Science and Anatolian Secondary Schools’ students have higher EQ levels as cognitive skills.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate pre-service science teachers’ ideas of hands-on experiments and demonstrations in science classes and to compare them according to science disciplines (physics, chemistry, and biology) in order to obtain which of them are more preferred and are considered easy to generate science activities. Data was collected at Erciyes University in Turkey during spring term of 2010. A total of 27 (out of 119) students in science education program were asked to participated in this study. Results of the investigations revealed that pre-service science teachers lack to produce biology demonstrations and are able to create more hands on activities in chemistry than in physics or biology. The reason for such findings, according to the participants, lies in what they have gathered during high school education that shows that we are unable to offer them adequate knowledge of physics of biology demonstrations.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine how chemistry textbooks used by expert chemistry teachers are used during teaching process in secondary education, and to find how prospective chemistry teachers evaluate the situation mentioned. Thus, a project concerned with how expert chemistry teachers use them in their classes was carried out. Based on the research context, an interview that was used to interview with expert chemistry teachers by prospective chemistry teachers was prepared by the author. Next, prospective chemistry teachers were asked to evaluate how expert chemistry teachers used textbooks. The sample group of the study consisted of 21 expert high school chemistry teachers working at schools in Bal?kesir and 21 prospective chemistry teachers studying at Education Faculty of Bal?kesir University during 2007-2008 academic years. The findings of the study revealed that expert chemistry teachers did not use textbooks during their teaching process while they used them as the sources of problems and exercises at the end of units. Furthermore, it was found that University Entrance Exam (OSS) had an effect on how to use the textbooks by teachers.
On this site you will find the resource needed to teach a German Level I Course. There are links below for lesson plans and a link to the student page. This page is an introductory page for the teacher. Below are four links that will provide teachers with additional resources to use in their classrooms. Teacher Page - Lesson Plans Teacher Page - Resources Student Page - Deutsch Klasse Student WebQuests ...
Full Text Available Although there is a growing interest in studies of students’ problem-solving strategies and difficulties, and misconceptionsregarding stoichiometry, little is known about the way teachers understand and teach reaction stoichiometry. This articlepresents a case study of pedagogical content knowledge put into actions by chemistry teachers when teaching the topic ofstoichiometry to second year senior secondary school students. Fourteen chemistry teachers with teaching experience rangingfrom 5 to 20 years were involved in this study. Research data were obtained from classroom observations and videotapedrecordings of classroom practice. Analyses of the teachers’ teaching activities revealed their skillfulness, resourcefulness, andweaknesses in terms of pedagogical content knowledge displayed when teaching stoichiometry. The results of this exploratorystudy offer insight into the knowledge systems that need to be expanded, enriched, and elaborated for teaching stoichiometry.To better understand the findings of this study, the results obtained were presented under two separate sections: (1) resultsconcerning introducing reaction stoichiometry to students and (2) results concerning leading students to identify limitingreagents. Implications for instruction and teachers’ professional development are offered.
Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…
Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the elementary, secondary and high school students’ perceptions on a good language teacher. The participants are 365 Turkish school students who are learning English as a foreign language. The present study has revealed that most of the student groups generally differ in terms of issues related to teaching skills when compared with the issues related to the affective skills. In the present study it has been also found that what students expect from a good English teacher is to have the ability to maintain discipline, motivate students, learn about the learner’ needs and establish good relations with them. The study also reveals striking results with respect to classroom discipline and teacher subject knowledge.
Ebru Melek Koç
This study examines the transformation (professional growth) of career-changing women scientists who decided to become teachers. Drawing upon Mezirow's Transformative Learning Theory, we tracked their transformation for 3 years. Our findings revealed multiple identities, disorientation, a perceived sense of meaninglessness, loss and eventual regain in confidence, gain in pedagogical knowledge and skill, and changed perceptions of the social roles of science teachers and scientists. Driven by personal choice or need (financial, intellectual), such transformations were achieved through active pursuit of meaning in one's work, critical assessment of assumptions, planning, and trying on the unfamiliar role of a science teacher. It is argued that such transition entails complex changes in thinking about science teaching and identifying oneself as a science teacher.
Snyder, Catherine; Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Paska, Lawrence M.
Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stre...
Krnjaji? Stevan B.
During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…
Describes Brigham Young University's elementary rural teacher training program which has successfully provided rural student teaching experiences for over 250 prospective teachers since 1973. Details live-in experience, financial structure, reciprocal benefits, and school district-university cooperation in teacher preparation. (NEC)
Campbell, Milo K.
The trend in Scandinavia is to broaden teacher education and training for academic secondary school teachers in order to overcome excessive specialization. The context of apprenticeship of pre-school, primary teachers is changing toward a more academically oriented program. However, the affective part of the learning/teaching process is becoming…
|The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…
Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady
This article presents the results of an exploratory research study into induction practices of novice teacher educators in six different countries. The study was a project carried out by members of the Association of Teacher Educators Europe (ATEE) Research and Development Centre Professional Development of Teacher Educators. Induction is seen as…
van Velzen, Corinne; van der Klink, Marcel; Swennen, Anja; Yaffe, Elka
This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study that explored the experiences of one group of pre-service English language teachers in Hong Kong as they undertook an action research project as part of their undergraduate teacher training programme. Grounded in a theory of teacher identity construction as both practice and discourse, the…
This descriptive study examined the perceptions of career barriers and career support of preservice agriculture teachers and determined if gender differences existed. Data were collected from 215 preservice agriculture teachers using a survey instrument administered by teacher educators at 35 institutions across the nation. Results showed…
Rocca, Steven J.; Washburn, Shannon G.
Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…
Full Text Available Preservice teacher is an important role to fulfill quality of education in the future. They have to be initially grown transformative learning for helping students to aware knowing and nature of knowledge. This paper explores an application of contemplative practices, which enhance transformative learning of preservice teachers. Forty four preservice teachers were participated and reflected their transformative learning through contemplative pedagogy. The result can be discussed and provide future suggestion for teacher preparation program.
Prasart Nuangchalerm; Veena Prachagool
This study examined the knowledge that teachers need in order to become successful early reading teachers in English as a foreign language. The findings showed that in-service teachers had better content knowledge than pre-service teachers, although the results indicated overall low performance and insufficiently developed concepts about the structure of language, spelling rules, and academic terminology in both groups. PMID:22815105
Full Text Available Worldwide, and especially in South Africa, change and decentralised decision-making have been topical issues in the provision of education for the past years. It appears that teachers - the key agents in implementing the policies concerned - are largely ignored in the pre-implementation phases, and treated merely as implementers of these policies. The results from an empirical investigation revealed that the teachers in the South African sample expressed an exceptional degree of eagerness to be involved in decision-making and responsibility-taking concerning school change, even in aspects of management that could be considered as the principal's 'turf'. Although the views of a group of teachers in six other countries showed very similar result patterns, the sample of South African teachers was considerably more eager to be involved in initiatives of school change and related responsibilities than the teachers in the samples of the other countries. The results are illuminating, taking into consideration the increased workload of teachers, as well as certain other factors. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sex education of children, a complex issue in any culture, has always been a controversial subject. Schools can play a vital role in imparting sex education to children, particularly in more conservative communities. The objective of this study was to find out primary school teachers beliefs, attitudes, values, and understandings regarding sex education of school pupils. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study we employed a community-based approach to design the project. Purposeful, voluntary and maximum variation sampling was used to recruit 22 teachers from selected schools in Western Tehran (21 female and 1 male teacher). Information was collected in 4 focus-group discussion sessions. Grounded theory and thematic analysis were used.Results: Findings revealed three major themes: 1) organizational role, 2) institution construction, and 3) individual characteristics. These themes were described by subthemes as follows: 1. for organizational role: organizational culture and policies; 2. for institution construction: family and educational institutions; 3. for individual characteristics: biology, gender, instincts, curiosity, knowledge, and behaviors.Conclusion: From the participants point of views, the school and the family are two important institutions in children sex education. However, teachers are not sufficiently competent in sex behavior education. Inappropriate policies, resource limitations, and the family cultural structure are obstacles in sex education of children in schools. The participants believe the following are priorities in childrens sex education: changing cultural attitudes in organizations and institutions, such as cultural diffusion; sound training approaches in sex-related topics; providing sufficient resources; improving knowledge and skills of teachers in the area of sex education of pupils; and effective interaction between families and school authorities.
N Abolghasemi; E MerghatiKhoei; H Taghdissi
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal science and technology teachers views about requirement and applicability of science and technology guide books. The case study methodology was used in this study. The sample is consist of twenty- two volunteer science and technology teachers who works in Trabzon in 2007–2008 instruction year. The data was collected by using semi-structured interviews. At the end of this study, there are some contradiction between questions which are found at teachers guide books and which are asked at SBS. It was also found out that allocated time for activity and subjects is not enough.
Hakan ?evki Ayvac?; Sibel Er Nas
Teachers from six ethnically diverse inner-city schools participated in weekly mental health consultation for more than two years. Using a quasi-experimental design, a longitudinal sample of 91 teachers and 209 students was assessed periodically through multiple standardized measures. Results indicate that a low-cost, indirect intervention had a direct impact on teachers' sense of professional competence and was linked to positive changes in students' sense of cognitive competence and their academic achievement. PMID:9250339
Goldman, R K; Botkin, M J; Tokunaga, H; Kuklinski, M
Teachers from six ethnically diverse inner-city schools participated in weekly mental health consultation for more than two years. Using a quasi-experimental design, a longitudinal sample of 91 teachers and 209 students was assessed periodically through multiple standardized measures. Results indicate that a low-cost, indirect intervention had a direct impact on teachers' sense of professional competence and was linked to positive changes in students' sense of cognitive competence and their academic achievement.
Goldman RK; Botkin MJ; Tokunaga H; Kuklinski M
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to investigate primary school teachers’ opinions in relation to inservice training (INSET) programs via distance education. The subjects of this study were primary school teachers (n=70) working in the city center of Bolu-Turkey in the spring semester of 2006–2007 academic year. During the study, the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with primary school teachers by the researcher. The results of the interviews revealed that the INSET needs of the participants should be analyzed before these programs start, the instructional activities of these programs should emphasize the application of the topic areas studied during these programs, should emphasize the active participation of the participants to the program in order to meet their INSET needs and an evaluation of the program should be made when these programs are over in order to examine to what extent the objectives of the program are achieved.
Building on longitudinal findings of linkages between aspects of teachers' language during instruction and children's use of mnemonic strategies, this investigation was designed to examine experimentally the impact of instruction on memory development. First and second graders (N = 54, Mage = 7 years) were randomly assigned to a science unit that varied only in teachers' use of memory-relevant language. Pretest, posttest, and 1-month follow-up assessments revealed that although all participating children learned new information as a result of instruction, those exposed to memory rich teaching exhibited greater levels of strategic knowledge and engaged in more sophisticated strategy use in a memory task involving instructional content than did students exposed to low memory instruction. The findings provide support for a causal linkage between teachers' language and children's strategic efforts. PMID:23574097
Grammer, Jennie; Coffman, Jennifer L; Ornstein, Peter
Building on longitudinal findings of linkages between aspects of teachers' language during instruction and children's use of mnemonic strategies, this investigation was designed to examine experimentally the impact of instruction on memory development. First and second graders (N = 54, Mage = 7 years) were randomly assigned to a science unit that varied only in teachers' use of memory-relevant language. Pretest, posttest, and 1-month follow-up assessments revealed that although all participating children learned new information as a result of instruction, those exposed to memory rich teaching exhibited greater levels of strategic knowledge and engaged in more sophisticated strategy use in a memory task involving instructional content than did students exposed to low memory instruction. The findings provide support for a causal linkage between teachers' language and children's strategic efforts.
Grammer J; Coffman JL; Ornstein P
Full Text Available In this research it was aimed to investigate what kinds of solutions were given and interpretations were made by elementary school mathematics teacher trainees in solving non-standard word problems. Research was conducted with 126 teacher trainees who receive education faculty of Mersin University. Data was obtained from a problem solving test consisting of 12 problems and task-based interviews conducted with 12 pre-service teachers. In data analysis the coding developed by Verschaffel and et.al (1994) and Inoue (2005) and descriptive analysis method was used. Results revealed that participants’ solutions were realistic answer, expected non-realistic numerical answer, reflecting an unanticipated realistic understanding of reality, technical error, no answer and other. It was determined that there was a relation between class level of participants and solutions of non-standard word problems.
Full Text Available Grammar teaching dates back to many years ago. It is a critical issue since its importance has been clarified in second/foreign language teaching and learning. There are always some hints about a good grammar teacher, but one cannot easily find a holistic framework for a successful ESL/EFL grammar teacher. For this reason, the present study investigates the qualities of a good and effective grammar teacher based on observations and interviews. An Iranian EFL grammar teacher’s class was observed for about ten hours in order to see why his students and colleagues considered him to be a successful English grammar teacher. The results demonstrate that there are some important features for an effective ESL/EFL grammar teacher, which should be taken into account by other practitioners doing a similar job. Finally, this study provides a coherent framework for grammar teachers in order to make the outcome of their grammar lessons more fruitful.
Sasan Baleghizadeh; Mohammad Amin Mozaheb
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the perceptual change in pre-service teachers’ effective teacher beliefs throughout their education in English Language Teaching (ELT) Department of which programme is constructed spirally from theoretical knowledge to the practical one. Throughout a data collection procedure lasted 5 academic terms, 80 pre-service teachers were asked to write their ideas about “the characteristics of an effective teacher”. In each time, as the pre-service teachers moved from theoretical courses to practical ones, the data obtained at each time was analyzed through content analysis and classified under 3 semantic groups; “content knowledge, classroom behaviours, academic qualities”. Results showed that pre-service teachers’ beliefs of effective teacher changed throughout their teacher education programme as theymoved from theory to practice.
?aziyeYaman; Meryem Özdemir
Full Text Available Professional development for teachers is the range of formal and informal processes and activities that teachers engage in both inside and outside of the school, in order to improve their teaching knowledge and skills. The ultimate goal of teacher professional development is improving student learning outcomes. Research indicates that teachers have control over many factors that influence motivation, achievement and behaviour of their students. Therefore, professional development focusing on effective classroom management will enhance a teacher's skills and performance in the classroom.
Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.
Inez Barcellos de Andrade; Isabel Martins
This study employed the repertory grid technique to investigate how a sample of 27 student teachers in Hong Kong developed a personal sense of teaching efficacy. The analysis indicated that third-year students' perceptions were more homogeneous than were those of first-year students. The results also indicated that teaching efficacy was viewed in…
Yeung, Ka Wah; Watkins, David
The premise of the 15th ICMI Study is that teachers are key to students' opportunities to learn mathematics. What teachers of mathematics know, care about, and do is a product of their experiences and socialization, together with the impact of their professional education. The Professional Education and Development of Teachers of Mathematics assembles important new international work- development, research, theory and practice - concerning the professional education of teachers of mathematics. As it examines critical areas to reveal what is known and what significant questions and problems war
Hodgson, Bernard R
Full Text Available Tasks regularly completed by elementary teachers reveal the mathematical nature of their work. However, preservice teachers demonstrate a lack of depth of mathematical thought. This study investigated the criteria preservice teachers intuitively used to evaluate algorithms. The intent was to use that knowledge as a foundation for modeling mathematical habits of mind for similar tasks. Journal writings and notes from in-class discussions were collected over three semesters of an introductory course for future teachers. Data were analyzed to discover dominant criteria used by preservice teachers to evaluate student algorithms. Four criteria, namely efficiency, generalizability, mathematical validity, and permissibility, were routinely used by preservice teachers.
TRACIE McLEMORE SALINAS
Full Text Available This study examined the ICT competences of rural and urban day secondary school teachers in Chegutu District, Mashonaland West Region. The study looked into the training and literacy levels of computer usage by the practitioners with a view to find out the areas of strengths and weaknesses in ICT usage. Upon identifying weaknesses, the study aimed at providing recommendations for improvement. One hundred and twenty out of 320 secondary school teachers participated in the study by providing data which was sought through the use of questionnaires and a competence practical test. The instruments required information on ICT training background, competence and literacy level of the educators. Results reveal that the majority of the teachers were computer illiterate because they were not exposed to ICT training or the practical hands on experience. A significant number had no formal ICT qualifications. A few, however, had a diploma in computers while none had a degree. Results from the practical test given indicate that the majority of the respondents were not able to use the basic software in computers for lesson delivery. Further indications are that teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge of computer. In terms of applicability of the packages teacher weak knowledge levels show that their competence in ICTs for classroom use still lags behind. Challenges to ICT competence were identified as lack of adequate computer hardware, limited knowledge on how to make full use of ICTs in the classrooms and limited understanding on how to integrate ICTs into the teaching processes. To counter the effects of challenges, schools should fundraise in order to purchase computers. Staff development in ICTs should also be undertaken. All stakeholders should take part in mobilising resources for ICT resource centres. Teacher training institutions should offer ICT training to student teachers during their residential courses.
Richard Bukaliya and Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika
Full Text Available In this study, information will be provided about the Innovative Teachers Program which is collaboratively implemented by both Microsoft and the Ministry of National Education, and its evaluation. In this paper, how teachers get training and how the program approaching inservice teacher training differently from other inservice teacher training is implemented will be explained. For he program evaluation the questionnaire of which validity and reliability tests have already been conducted was used. Data obtained from 124 teachers were analyzed and with the analysis results the success of the program was determined. Also, at the end of the paper some points identified to have a succesful teacher training program in future were provided.
Harun YILMAZ; Hüseyin KOCASARAÇ
Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT), linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012) call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012), the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012) to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the ELTdepartment were found to be highly concerned about technology, their counterparts studying at the langauge and literature department were not interested in the issue. The study also reveals that despite EIL’s large space in the literature (Cogo, 2012; Sowden, 2012), it was not found as a major concern for the prospective teachers. Methodology was also the least rated concern for the prospective teachers at both departments on the contrary to the well-accepted literature.
mustafa naci kayao?lu; mustafa kerem kobul; ?akire erbay
Most experienced high school science teachers are asked at some point to serve as a mentor to a novice teacher. While mentor-training programs have been established in many states, they often only focus on how the mentor can help new science teachers understand and negotiate the school culture, such as how the school runs and where supplies are kept. Less attention is given to teaching mentors how to assist new science teachers to develop their content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, and science-specific pedagogical content knowledge. This article provides a checklist for mentor teachers to use when assessing the teaching skills and knowledge of new science teachers. This checklist helps prioritize what and how much assistance the new teacher needs.
Shea, Kathleen; Greenwood, Anita
Full Text Available This study investigated elementary and secondary teachers’ understanding and pedagogical strategies applied to students making errors in finding a missing length in similar rectangles. It was revealed that secondary teachers had better understanding of ratio and proportion in similar rectangles than elementary teachers. While all secondary teachers solved the similar rectangles problems correctly, a large portion of elementary teacher struggled with the problem. In explaining their solution strategies, and even though similar strategies appeared both from elementary teachers and secondary teachers, a majority of secondary teachers pointed out the underlying idea of similarity, whereas less than half of the elementary teachers explained their reasoning for using ratios and proportion. This article is derived from the research project registered under number 20110343 (Ruiz, 2011), and developed in Escuela Superior de Cómputo del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) (School of Computer Sciences of the National Poly-technical Institute of Mexico)
Elena Fabiola Ruiz Ledesma
Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a) that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b) that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c) that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students
Vello Hein; Francis Ries; Francisco Pires; Agnese Caune; Arunas Emeljanovas; Judit Heszteráné Ekler; Irena Valantiniene
Full Text Available Every teacher candidates no matter what disciplines of teaching they study is supposed to acquire information literacy in order to enhance his/her future teaching activities and create more enjoyable atmosphere for the students. The present study investigates what levels of knowledge pre-service teachers enrolled in science education and primary school teacher preparation programs possess regarding information literacy. The participants (N=144) were asked to complete the Information Literacy Questionnaire for Pre-service Teachers (ILIPT). Comparison between students? information literacy levels in two different teacher preparation programs and potential causes are explicitly examined. The outcomes of this investigation revealed that even though pre-service teachers possess adequate knowledge of information literacy, they still lack some of its aspects.
Full Text Available This article is a by-product of a qualitative study, which focuses on understanding the organisation of a teacher's professional life, understanding the organisation of her school's professional life and understanding her as a practitioner and as a person. The study was conducted in an ethnographic style of research. To carry out the investigation a teacher of a primary school of Laxmipur, Bangladesh was selected purposively. Data for the study were gathered through shadowing the teacher for three consecutive days, classroom observations, collection of artefacts, interviews with the teacher, with her students, informal discussion with the teacher and the Headteacher. The general findings reveal that the teacher has a huge work-load which poses a challenge for her. Yet because of her passion for teaching and supports from her family and school, she never loses interest in teaching.
Kh. Atikur Rahman
Full Text Available Research has shown that the use of visual tools in mathematics classrooms is beneficial, but what we do not know is how South African teachers negotiate the use of visual tools (e.g. diagrams, gestures, the use of colour, et cetera) in classrooms. Research was conducted with six ‘master teachers’ to explore the use of visual tools. Master teachers in this study are expert teachers identified by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education. They are experienced teachers with the potential to mentor new teachers. Master teachers were asked to complete a questionnaire, and they were observed and recorded whilst teaching mathematics lessons. Each master teacher was observed at least three times. All the video recordings were analysed, after which each master teacher was interviewed. After each master teacher interview had been analysed, one focus group interview was conducted with learners at each school. The study was undertaken within a qualitative, interpretive paradigm. The study was framed within Schön’s theory of teacher reflection. The findings suggest that each master teacher incorporated the use of visual tools in order to make mathematical concepts easier to understand for the learners. For example, one master teacher used a stick with coloured rubber bands to teach rotation about a point; another master teacher used various colours and lines on an interactive smart board to teach number patterns and a third used hand gestures to demonstrate the direction of the gradient of a line. Interview data suggest that the incorporation of such visual tools came about as a result of teachers’ reflecting in action. These findings are important for advancing teacher and curriculum development.
Pre-service teachers responded to two questionnaires regarding school violence, the Teachers' Attitudes about Bullying, and Trainee Teachers' Bullying Attitudes. Results suggest that teachers across all academic divisions view bullying as a serious concern important to their role within the profession. There were considerable differences regarding…
Craig, Katrina; Bell, David; Leschied, Alan
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in the Bahamas and Jamaica. A total of 168 Bahamian (n = 75) and Jamaican (n = 93) teachers completed the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall results indicate that teachers in the Bahamas reported higher…
Griffin, David K.
The fourth edition of CERN's High School Teachers programme welcomed 38 teachers to the Laboratory this July. For three weeks the teachers were immersed in the life of CERN, giving them a unique experience to take back to their classrooms. Participants and organisers of the HST 2001 programme. The pupils of the teachers who attended the High School Teachers (HST) programme at CERN will notice a difference when they meet their teachers at the beginning of next term. They'll see a new-found enthusiasm in their eyes, and this will be thanks to the three weeks they spent at the Laboratory attending the summer students' lectures and working with other teachers from around the world. 'This experience fires you up again!,' explains Wim Peeters, a Belgian teacher at CERN for the second time. For many teachers of physics, university is a long time ago. Physics research has moved on, and there are many new things to learn. That's why CERN has the HST, so that teachers can mix with university students in ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reveal the perceptions of prospective elemantary Social Science, Science and Classroom Teachers who will educate the students at elemantary school, by the help of metaphors about geography. Total of 357 senior students from Ahi Evran University College of Education, Social ScienceTeachers? Department (Men – 62/Women –69) Science Teachers? Department ( Men – 62, Women- 53 ) and Clarsroom Teachers? Department (Men – 57 , Women – 54 ) , joined this study. Datas of the research are based on that students completed the sentence: “Geography is as.................because ....................”. Datas which are gained , are commented in terms of content analysis technique . The results of this research show that 33% (per cent) of students thougt the concept of “geography” as source of life, 23,2% of students thought it as the area of life , 8.1% of students thought it as leading and to find directions and 7.5% of students thought that geography shelters the different branches in. So it is found that 56% of the prospective teachers relate geography with life.
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the speech content of male and female teachers in the context of Iranian EFL classes. Previous studies on speech content are mainly conducted on European cultures and there is a niche considering investigations of gender differences in Iranian EFL context with regard to speech content. To this end, 74 EFL classes were observed to figure out the quality of speech content in different genders among teachers. After observing the classes and recording teachers’ voices, their speech was transcribed. The content of the transcribed texts was counted based on the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) principles. The data were analyzed according to Newman, Groom, Handelman, and Pennebaker’ (2008) word-count model. Four categories were investigated to find out the gender differences among male and female teachers. The categories are linguistic dimensions, prepositions, psychological processes, and pronouns. The results revealed significant differences among male and female teachers considering various categories of speech content. The Chi-square formula was utilized to investigate the frequencies.
Attaran, Atena; Morady Moghaddam, Mostafa
Full Text Available This study investigated the perception of the teaching profession among the parents, teachers and secondary school students in Southwestern Nigeria. Four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level. Three potent instruments: Teacher perception of Teaching Profession Questionnaire (TPTPQ), Parent Perception of Teaching Profession Questionnaire (PPTPQ) and Students Perceptions of Teaching Profession (SPTPQ), were validated by the Department of teacher Education for content and construct validity. The test retest reliability coefficient yielded the reliability indices of 0.85, 0.81 and 0.79 respectively. The instruments were administered on 170 sample size: (50) parents, (60) teachers and (60) students. Inferential statistics of t-test and Analysis of Variance at 0.05 level of significance were used to test the hypotheses. The result revealed that there is significant differences in the way the participants perceive teaching profession (N=60 X=2.047, SD=1.137), (N=60 X=1.943, SD=1.007) and parents (N=50, X=1.698, SD = 0.661). It is recommended among other things that government should take the training and retraining of teachers more seriously.
Lawal B. O.
Full Text Available The research objectives were to analysis the factor and construct the questionnaire on competency of computer teacher at vocational certificate level of educational institute under Office of Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). The descriptive research and structural relationship model were used for the study. Sample groups comprised of 1) 90 experts and 2) 200 educational institutes under OVEC. Research instruments were questionnaires on competency of computer teacher at vocational certificate level for: 1) experts and 2) educational institutes. Data analysis were conducted with: 1) Exploratory factor analysis by using SPSS for Windows for data from experts, 2) The second order confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.72 program and Cronbach’s ? formula for data from educational institutes. Research results revealed that competency of computer teacher at vocational certificate level composed of 12 components from 62 variables covered 3 domains of knowledge, skill, and affection. Those 12 components were general knowledge about education, knowledge about curriculum, knowledge about teaching, knowledge about e-Learning and e-Media, knowledge about IT support, knowledge about computer use, teaching skill, skill about e-Learning and e-Media, skill about IT support, skill for using computer, supportive affection to be a teacher and affection in IT. The questionnaire on competency of computer teacher had good quality with good construct validity and high reliability in 2 dimensions of intent and actual competencies.
Punnee Leekitchwatana; Paitoon Pimdee; Sangutai Moto
BACKGROUND: Students, clergymen and teachers as role models can be very important in encouragement or prevention of cigarette smoking in young people. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of smoking in 3 male groups of teachers, clergymen and university students. Also, study their knowledge and attitude towards it and the prediction of their future consumption. METHODS: In a cross sectional study in 2009 in Tehran, Iran, 1,271 male students, 549 clergymen and 551 teachers were randomly enrolled. Each participant completed the global adult tobacco survey questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude and prediction of smoking for the next 5 years were questioned in these 3 groups. Chi-squared test and logistic regression were used for analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 31.1%, 21.9% and 27.2% among students, clergymen and teachers, respectively. Smoking in students was not associated with poor knowledge but were in teachers and clergymen. The odds ratio of smoking in students, clergymen and teachers was higher among those with having inappropriate attitude towards it (OR = 1.6, 6.1 and 4.5). Those with poor knowledge had an inappropriate attitude and predicted higher chance of cigarette consumption in the next 5 years (P < 0.0001). Inappropriate attitude in all 3 groups resulted in higher prediction of future smoking (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking among male students and teachers was higher than general population and clergymen who equally smoked. Also, level of knowledge and attitude of students were lower than teachers and clergymen.
Heydari G; Yousefifard M; Hosseini M; Ramezankhani A; Masjedi MR
Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????,???????????????????????????????,????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????:(?)?????????????????????,????????????????????????????;(?)??????????????????????????????????????????????,?????????;(?)?????????????????????????????;(?)??????????????????????,???????; (?)??????????????????????,????????????,????????????????????,????????The purpose of this research was to solve the problems occurring when elemen- tary teacher librarians and teachers collaboratively design integrated infor- mation literacy instruction. The collaborative action research was used as a framework in this study. The researchers, a teacher librarian, and three teach- ers worked together to implement four action plans, which lasted for one and a half years. During the research process, the methods of collecting data in- cluded observation, interviews, document collection, and survey. The research results showed the following possible strategies for improving the collaboration between the teacher librarians and teachers: 1. In the stage of collaborative initiation, the teacher librarian and teachers should actively invite each other, or join school research projects to start designing the integrated curriculum; 2. In the stage of collaborative planning, they should start to plan the detailed in- structional contents for the coming semester during summer or winter breaks, and the instructional schedule should be flexible; 3. In the stage of collabora- tive implementation, they should co-teach and allocate dedicated time for dis- cussion and reflection; 4. In the stage of collaborative evaluation, they should develop both of evaluation methods and rubrics, and assess students together; 5. In the stage of collaborative reflection, the teacher librarian should invite teachers to examine the curriculum comprehensively when it is finished, and in an ideal situation, they can collect all the documents into a portfolio for a ref- erence in the future.
Lin Ching Chen; Chia-Hui Lee
Full Text Available This study attempted to characterize qualities of an effective English language teacher (EELT) as perceived by Iranian English language teachers and learners. For this purpose, a tailor-made questionnaire was administered to 59 English language teachers and 215 learners of English at universities, high schools and language institutes in Iran. The results indicated significant differences between teachers’ and learners’ views on some characteristics of EELTs. Teachers seemed to agree more strongly than students that an EELT should assign homework and integrate group activities into the classroom. Other areas of significant difference in opinions included preparing the lesson well, using lesson plans and assessing what students have learned reasonably. Students, on the contrary, agreed more than teachers that teaching English in Persian (first language of the learners) was one of the prominent characteristics of an EELT. The qualitative analysis indicated that teachers perceived the features like mastery of the target language, good knowledge of pedagogy and the use of particular techniques and methods as well as a good personality to make an EELT, whereas, learners gave more weight to characteristics relating to a teacher’s personality and the way he behaves toward his students.
Homa Babai Shishavan; Karim Sadeghi
Full Text Available “The purpose of this study was to investigate science-teacher candidates’ science teaching self-efficacy beliefs according to grade level and gender. A survey approach was used in the study. The sample consisted of 192 first and fourth grade pre-service science teachers enrolled in the department of Science Teacher Training in the Education Faculty at Bayburt University. Data was collected using a likert type test, “science teaching self-efficacy belief scale” with 23 items, adapted to Turkish by the researcher, and originally developed by Enochs-Riggs (1990). The coefficient of Cronbach alpha for the Turkish version of the test was found to be 0.81. Variance analysis (two-way ANOVA) was performed on the collected data to reveal whether there are significant differences in science teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching according to grade level and gender. The results of the analysis showed that science-teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching are considerably high. In addition, the same findings indicated that there were statistically significant differences in science-teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching with respect to both grade level and gender, in favors of female.
Fatma A?GÜL YALÇIN
Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the changes related to the “child” concept of the teacher trainees through metaphors in their first and forth years based on behaviourism and constructivism. 104 teacher trainees studying at the faculty of education of a state university between 2007 and 2011 participated in the study. As a data collection tool, teacher trainees were given a paper on which “a child is like…; because…” was written. This paper was accepted as a written document. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were carried out in order to analyse the data. The metaphors gathered through the papers were analysed according to qualitative analysis principles. Kruskal-Wallis H Test was performed in order to find out whether the relation between the departments of the teacher trainees and the philosophical foundations of the metaphors they devised was significant. As a result of data analysis, it was observed that there was not an important change in the philosophical foundations of the metaphors devised by the teacher trainees regarding the concept of “child”. In addition, there was not a significant difference between the departments of teacher trainees and the philosophical foundations of the metaphors they devised in their final year.
A. O?uzhan KILDAN; Berat AH?; Müge ULUMAN
Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…
Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in the 2+2 program while another three served as the comparison. The results showed that 2+2 program significantly improved teachers’ professional performance, enhanced teachers’ collaboration, and increased the feedback between the peers.
The study tested two hypotheses (1) student attendance will be better in classes taught by andragogically trained teachers and (2) students will evalute such teachers more positively. The experimental group received nine hours of andragogy training. Results indicate that the treatment had a significant, positive effect on attendance, but no effect…
Beder, Hal; Carrea, Natalino
Full Text Available Best practice assessment of childhood ADHD includes behavior ratings from multiple sources across multiple environments. However, adolescents in secondary schools interact with several teachers each day, and research has shown that teacher perceptions of the same child can be highly inconsistent. As a result, rating scale data can be equivocal, depending on which teachers are selected. The intent of the present study was two-fold: 1) to assess the consistency between teacher behavior ratings of adolescents with ADHD, and 2) to explore predictors of rater leniency or severity (i.e., sources of bias). Results suggest that interrater reliability within our sample was moderate, consistent with previous research. Further, teacher characteristics, including sex and age, were related to biases on ratings of student hyperactivity-impulsivity. Specifically, women and younger teachers provided significantly more severe ratings on average than did men and older teachers. Implications for the interpretation and statistical norming of ADHD rating scales are discussed.
Brandon K. Schultz; Steven W. Evans
|This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.|
Full Text Available The concepts of variability and uncertainty are regarded as cornerstones in statistics. Proportional reasoning plays an important connecting role in reasoning about variability and therefore teachers need to develop students’ statistical reasoning skills about variability, including intuitions for the outcomes of repeated sampling situations. Many teachers however lack the necessary knowledge and skills themselves and need to be exposed to hands-on activities to develop their reasoning skills about variability in a sampling environment. The research reported in this article aimed to determine and develop teachers’ understanding of variability in a repeated sampling context. The research forms part of a larger project that profiled Grade 8–12 teachers’ statistical content and pedagogical content knowledge. As part of this larger research project 14 high school teachers from eight culturally diverse urban schools attended a series of professional development workshops in statistics and completed a number of tasks to determine and develop their understanding of variability in a repeated sampling context. The Candy Bowl Task was used to probe teachers’ notions of variability in such a context. Teachers’ reasoning mainly revealed different types of thinking based on absolute frequencies, relative frequencies and on expectations of proportion and spread. Only one response showed distributional reasoning involving reasoning about centres as well as the variation around the centres. The conclusion was that a greater emphasis on variability and repeated sampling is necessary in statistics education in South African schools. To this end teachers should be supported to develop their own and learners’ statistical reasoning skills in order to help prepare them adequately for citizenship in a knowledge-driven society.
Helena Wessels; Hercules Nieuwoudt
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reveal the ratio of misconceptions pre-service mathematics teachers have about astronomy before and after instruction and to determine the conceptual change rate. With the increased importance given to astronomy education, the number of studies in this field has increased. In Turkey and abroad, a large number of studies have aimed at revealing the astronomy concepts pre-service teachers have. In this study, a literature-aided multiple-choice test of 31 questions has been developed. After the revision of the survey by 3 physics experts, reliability studies have been done with 55 pre-service science teachers, and ?=0.61 has been obtained. This questionnaire was applied to 78 pre-service mathematics teachers before the instruction. After a 10- week instruction, the questionnaire was carried out again with the same subjects. A significant difference has been found between the results of pre and post-tests of four sections and the general questionnaire. It can be said that instruction has lead to a conceptual change.
Hüseyin KÜÇÜKÖZER; Ayberk BOSTAN; R. Suat I?ILDAK
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Burnout Syndrome is characterized by feelings of physical and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal fulfillment and teaching has been considered one of the contexts of work where the professionals seem to be more exposed to suffer from Burnout. The aim of this study was to relate Burnout, personality, affectivity, Coping strategies and life satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was used a sample of 404 teachers aged between 23 and 64 years (M = 41.20; SD = 9.79), ranging from the first cycle to university education. The following instruments were used: Coping Responses Inventory (CRI), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). RESULTS: The results showed that teachers with higher levels of neuroticism presented more Burnout, on the other hand teachers with a higher level of extraversion and agreeableness showed more personal accomplishment. Teachers who were high on negative affectivity where also high on Burnout, those who presented Coping strategies focused on the problem had higher results on personal accomplishment, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness to experience. Teachers who presented strategies more focused on emotions also revealed higher levels of neuroticism and Burnout. Results also showed that greater the satisfaction with life is correlated with higher personal accomplishment and extraversion and lower Burnout. Those who teach in higher levels of education revealed higher satisfaction with life and those who teach in lower levels showed higher emotional exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot understand Burnout ignoring personality processes and selection of coping strategies that accompany it.
David IC; Quintão S
With the existing shortage of qualified high school physics teachers and the current mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act requiring teachers to be "highly qualified" in all subjects they teach, university physics departments must offer content courses and programs that would allow out-of-field high school physics teachers to meet this requirement. This paper will identify how the University of Northern Iowa Physics Department is attempting to address the needs of the high school physics teacher through its course offerings and professional development programs for teachers. The effectiveness of one such physics professional development program, the UNI Physics Institute (UNI-PI), on secondary science teachers' and their students' conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics, and the teachers' instructional practices was investigated. Twenty-one Iowa out-of-field high school physics teachers participating in the program were able to complete the physics coursework required to obtain the State of Iowa 7â12 Grade Physics Teaching endorsement. Twelve of the participants completed a two-year program during the 2002 and 2003 summers. Background information, pre- and post-test physics conceptual assessments and other data was collected from participants throughout the Institute. Participants collected pre and post-test conceptual assessment data from their students during the 2002â2003 and 2003â2004 academic years. This comprehensive assessment data revealed the Institute's influence on participants' and students' conceptual understanding of Newtonian Mechanics. The results of this investigation, the insights we have gained, and possible future directions for professional development will be shared.
Escalada, Lawrence T.; Moeller, Julia
Findings from a series of studies of the educational implications of children's temperament patterns are summarized. This research has been guided by three hypotheses: (1) that there are real individual differences among children in behavioural styles or temperament; (2) that individual variations in children's patterns of temperament influence the nature of their interpersonal interactions; and (3) that perceived variations in temperament become especially powerful influences on adults' decisions when children are handicapped or at risk. Based on these assumptions, the study of temperament has followed two primary lines of research. in the first we have attempted to delineate the hypothesized link between perceived temperament variations and teachers' educational decisions. In the second we have attempted to determine the influence of perceived temperament variations on children's personal-social competence within intervention settings. Findings support a relationship between children's temperament and their achievement and adjustment in school. Temperament was related to measures of children's academic performance and to teachers' perceptions of other aspects of children's school adjustment. Further, teachers' ratings of children's temperament were related to their classroom management decisions. The results suggest that teachers' responses to children in the classroom are mediated by their perceptions of the children's temperament.
STEP, a National Science Foundation-funded initiative, forms an alliance between the three private Virginia Historically Black Colleges (Hampton University, Virginia Union University, and Saint Paul`s College) and nine school divisions, to increase the capabilities of middle school science teachers. Clearly articulated roles of each partner, and the inclusion of all partners in program planning has been invaluable. A unique feature of this project is the careful tailoring of the program to meet the needs of each school division, effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program includes a Lead Teacher and Teacher Trainee component, and emphasizes science content, using a hands-on approach. In addition to science content, the Lead Teachers receive training in leadership, proposal writing, and pedagogical enrichment responsive to the curriculum change directions in science education, especially as it relates to minority and at-risk students. The enrichment is provided by university scientists and educators, through summer institutes and academic year workshops. Results include: use of new technologies in the classroom, cross-grade communication, use of university scientists as presenters for family science programs, and improved knowledge.
Ramsey, P.P.; Bowman, A.W. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of redundant information in video streaming of ICDL course for Palestinian trainee-teachers. Two modes of video streaming were used, namely video and narration (VN) mode, and video and narration cum text (VTN) mode of ICDL course. The sample consisted of 203 trainee-teachers in the National Institute for Training (NIT) in Gaza. The results showed that redundancy in the VTN mode increases cognitive overload and split attentions; hence inhibiting the learning process. The Findings showed that trainee-teachers using the VN mode performed significantly better in post-test scores than counterparts in the VTN modes.
Ali H. AbuSaada; Soon Fook Fong
Full Text Available A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers' demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers' training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate of primary class and science teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. A total of 236 students, 120 primary class teacher candidates and 116 primary science teacher candidates, volunteered to participate in the research. The data for the research were collected with a data-collection tool that included two parts as “Personal Information form” and “Teaching Evolution Theory Attitude Questionnaire (TETAQ)”. In the analysis of the data, a multivariate analysis (MANOVA) for more than two group comparisons were used. In this study result; The teacher candidates’ negative attitudes for lack proof evolution due to the teaching of evolution theory mean scores of teacher candidates were higher than the teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards need to the teaching of evolution theory. According to this finding, It can be said that the teacher candidates are negative generally the attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory.
Full Text Available Without an understanding of the typologies of teacher participation in decision making, understanding the nature of the relationship between teachers’ sense of empowerment and school effectiveness is problematic. Therefore, in this study, two hypotheses were tested to clarify teachers’ participation in decision making: (1) teachers’ participation in school decision making is multidimensional and (2) predictive influence flows from the managerial dimension to the technical dimension. Using a national probability sample of 5,822 public high school teachers in the US, the results (1) substantiated the multidimensionality of teachers’ participation in school decision making and (2) supported the flow of influence from managerial to technical dimensions. The implications of enhancing the use of multidimensional teacher decision participation to understand and improve school management and leadership practices are considered.
S. Gokturk; R.O. Mueller
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the perspectives of faculty members who had experience teaching undergraduate calculus and preservice teachers who had recently completed student teaching in regards to a first semester undergraduate calculus course. An online survey was created and sent to recent student teachers and college mathematics faculty members who had experience teaching a first semester calculus course to help determine the aspects of calculus that they deemed most important in the teaching of calculus to pre-service mathematics teachers. Faculty members with experience teaching at the secondary level, faculty members without experience teaching at the secondary level, and recent student teachers’ survey results were compared and there were some notable differences between the groups. The aspect that was ranked the highest among all groups was problem solving which is consistent with the views of major mathematical organizations, such as the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). While all groups’ views were similar and consistent with research, recent student teachers’ responses suggest that when preparing future teachers in undergraduate calculus, more emphasis should be placed on connections to the secondary curriculum and applications in technology.
Full Text Available In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional teacher profile. The sample comprised 60 individuals, teaching various musical instruments in five primary music schools. The research method is explorative and based on the use of the five-factor personality model (NEO PI-R was administered). The findings show that music teachers display a higher level of: openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The degree of congruence with the findings of other research is discussed and certain similarities were found, as well as differences stemming from professional and cultural specificities. Differences are proved to exist in relation to gender, musical instrument, working experience, degree of musical education and active public performance. Compared to non-musical population, it is confirmed that teachers of instrument in musical education represent a distinctive group. There are also differences between teachers who are oriented to pedagogic work only and those who, in addition, actively perform in public. Selection of teachers, according to characteristics which may be connected to students’ accomplishment, is a practical implication relevant for the music education.
Bogunovi? Blanka D.
Full Text Available Investigations carried out in late 2001 in primary and secondary schools of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš comprised students, teachers and associates. The aim of investigations was to get insight into the state-of-the-arts problems and needs of our primary and secondary schools. The paper is a part of investigations, related to the results obtained for students' opinions of their interrelations with teachers as well as opinions of teachers themselves. The sample comprised 727 students of 4th grade of secondary vocational and high schools, 562 students of 8th grade of primary schools 168 secondary school and 107 primary school teachers. We investigated their interrelationships and within this framework the level of potential or current aggressive behavior. The majority of teachers (51%) estimated student-teacher relationships mediocre - neither good nor bad. The most frequent problem in students' behavior is, according to the teachers instruction disturbance. One-quarter of teachers find that students offend them, ridicule them, or mock at them in front of others, and 5 per cent complain of physical injury intimidation on the part of students. When a problem comes up, 18 per cent of teachers talk with a student, and nearly 10 per cent of teachers give lower grades in their subject, so as to punish a student for undisciplined behaviors. In teachers' opinion, society, school the least, is to be blamed for the situation.
Savovi? Branka B.
To examine the reciprocal relations between teacher-child relationships and children's behavior problems, the authors analyzed cross-lagged longitudinal data on teacher-child relationships and children's internalizing and externalizing problems using a structural equation modeling approach. The homeroom teachers of 105 first-year preschoolers aged 2-3 years filled in the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3, first at 3 months after the children's preschool entrance and then at the end of the first preschool year. Results showed significant cross-wave reciprocal relations between externalizing problems and teacher-child conflict and significant cross-wave relation from early internalizing problems to later teacher-child conflict. However, the cross-wave associations between internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-child closeness were not significant.
Zhan X; Sun J
Full Text Available The research aims to interpret the changes in teacher’s beliefs and teaching practice: she was committed to encourage her future teachers to adopt the socio-environmental issues for the development of scientific content in classrooms. The work is an action research conducted by a teacher at a private institution of Higher Education (IHE), in collaboration with other researchers over four years. The analysis used as a reference some concepts of Melanie Klein and the Teacher’s Discourses, drawn from analogies with Lacan’s Discourses. Data analysis allowed raising the difficulties, dilemmas and successes she encountered along the experience, as well as some changes in her educational beliefs and teaching practice. As a result of the process some social and environmental indicators were established which allowed to assess both the evolution of the teacher and the teaching projects of the students.
Marlene Rios Melo; Alberto Villani
Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.
Wong, Sissy Sze-Mun
In order for teachers to reflect deeply upon themselves, they need powerful models and images to guide their introspection. In teacher reflectivity, as in the therapeutic processes, psychic energy must ultimately be "contained" by models and modalities that enable one to make sense out of one's inner and outer experiences. This enables those…
This survey involving 1,211 teachers from 2 independent school districts in western Canada addressed teacher burnout issues. Findings of this qualitative/quantitative study indicate that experiences other than prolonged work stress may lead to burnout. These other factors include depersonalization and status dissatisfaction. (TJH)
Friesen, David; And Others
|This article adopts a complexity theory framework to review the literature on teachers' professional development practices, the generative systems of these practices, and the impact that learning experiences have on their knowledge and changes in classroom practices. The review brings together multiple strands of literature on teacher…
Opfer, V. Darleen; Pedder, David
|During the past 14 years, the elementary rural teacher training program at Brigham Young University (BYU), Utah, has successfully provided an 8-week student teaching experience which has assisted more than 250 prospective teachers in comparing their lifestyle and interests with those of rural America. Student participants are required to live…
Campbell, Milo K.
Identifies qualities of an ideal liberal teacher, including capability of giving a liberal education, living well, exhibiting orderly habits, possessing humane values, and believing in the power of the mind. Difficulties in becoming a good teacher are discussed. Available from: College of Education, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.…
Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a) definition and measurement of stress, (b) distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos), (c) teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism), (d) strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques).
Krnjaji? Stevan B.
Full Text Available Aim of this research is to determine the qualifications which an effective teacher should have and to designate these qualifications according to their importance in the light of teachers? perception.Teachers working in K?r?ehir city center have been the environment for this research.A specific sample hasn?t been choosen because all the environment has been reached.The questionnaire which has been made by the researcher has been used in order to collect data and these data have been analysed by using techniques of frequency and percentage and then interpreted in schedules.At the end of the research,effective teacher attitudes in the light of their perceptions have been classified as „?personality??, „?professional sufficiency??, „?behaviour to students??, „?branch knowledge?? and determined order of their importance.According to the teachers in this working group, preference orders of effective theacher qualifications have not changed in terms of their branches.
Many physics departments do some sort of professional development for area teachers, often summer workshops or summer courses. A program that is of high quality, already developed and perfect for teachers is already available, AAPT's PTRA. State MSP funding requires careful evaluation, and the PTRA program is already set up to do this sort of evaluation, both of teacher and student learning gains, as well as teacher confidence and use of technology. The professional growth of teachers involved in the program is amazing, and it is much easier to host PTRA workshops than try to develop something at your own institution from scratch. Assistance was even made available from AAPT/PTRA in preparing a proposal for the state. Some of our experiences in hosting PTRA workshops and pursuing state funding will be shared.
Full Text Available Although the use of physical manipulatives, which have been emphasized to use in preschool education program and primary and secondary mathematics curriculum, in classroom environments is old, it is very new to use virtual manipulatives in classroom environments. The selection, preparation, and the integration to learning environments of both types of manipulatives are the most basic duties of teachers. However, the experiences, of using the physical and virtual manipulatives in course environments, of teachers and pre-service teachers are influenced by beliefs about the nature, teaching and learning of mathematics. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the beliefs of teachers and pre-service teachers in different branches for the use of virtual and physical manipulatives in mathematics education. For this purpose, 148 teachers, in the provinces of Trabzon, Kars and Gümü?hane, and 228 pre-service teachers, in the Education Faculties of Karadeniz Technical University and Kafkas University, have been applied two types of scales and interviews have been conducted with 40 teachers and pre-service teachers selected from that sample. Frequencies, percentages and arithmetic averages have been used to analyze the data. As a result, the majority of teachers and pre-service teachers have been identified to carry positive beliefs for the use of virtual and physical manipulatives in mathematics education and they have expressed that they desire to use both types of manipulatives more in the future.
Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.
Malik L.M. Vazi; Robert A.C. Ruiter; Bart van den Borne; Glynnis Martin; Kitty Dumont; Priscilla S. Reddy
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research discipline models of using teachers in the classes in terms of different variables (sexuality, years old, seniority, civil situation, formation, participation to inner service education, prizes taken of teachers, satisfaction of teachers, success level of students, and doing duty education rank of teachers). “Inquiry of Teacher Discipline Models” is used in this study. Validity and reliability of inquiry is done. It is carried out to teachers. In the study, t-test, Kruskall Wallis H-test, the analysis of one-way variance, and Mann Whitney U – test are counted. In the end of study, some interesting results are found out; Miss Teachers use teacher ineffective education, Behavior alteration and intelligence-result model. Married, old and senior teachers use more the Canter model. There isn’t any difference between taken lessons by means of education formation and inner service education teachers and untaken teachers. Taken thanking teachers use Kounin model. Having high satisfaction teachers use more Canter and Glasser models. Again in this study, it is determined that success level of students is not effective chosen of discipline model of teachers. Lastly, it is determined that first step teachers preference more using of Glasser model in the primary education.
Yücel KAYABA?I; Necati CEMALO?LU
The roles and relationships of clinical faculty (experienced teachers who work with students in teacher education) in university teacher-education programs are examined to see how they might contribute to improvement of teacher education and what obstacles may exist. Implications for education reform are discussed. (SLD)
Cornbleth, Catherine; Ellsworth, Jeanne
The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the role of a teacher's caring and enthusiasm in an inclusive science classroom. Using stories, interviews, and action research, it is revealed that this teacher's approach focuses on two major ideas: (a) Combining activity-oriented science curriculum with the building of caring relationships in her classroom; and (b) Developing enthusiasm for science and fulfilling students' personal purposes. A case study of one student labeled as learning disabled is analysed and provides evidence of his remarkable growth in terms of his academic and behavioral performance over a period of two years. Based on the results of this study a number of ways of subverting labeling are suggested and two qualitative hypotheses for further research in this area are proposed. The main suggestion of this study is that thinking behind labels in the context of an inclusive science classroom needs to be revised in light of the role of teacher caring.
Zembylas, Michalinos; Isenbarger, Lynn
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the degree of correlation between quality of life at work (QVT) and personal lifestyle (EV) among physical education teachers. The sample, 1645 teachers, was selected in three phases. The first phase divided southern Brazil into federal states. The second subdivided each state into mesoregions and the third considered individual regional teaching centers. Data collection used questionnaires to evaluate QVT and EV. The single group Chi-square Test was used to establish discrepancies of opinion and behavior and the Spearman Test to evaluate correlations between the investigated variables, with a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the teachers are unsatisfied with salaries, working conditions, social integration and available leisure time; also revealed poor diet and stress control and limited personal physical activity. Evidence to support an association between specific concerns and socio-environmental position was insufficient to establish correlations between QVT and EV.
J. Both; J.V. Nascimento; C.N. Sonoo; C.A.F. Lemos; A.F. Borgatto
This study examines what contribution emotions make to the professional lives of experienced EFL teachers. Interviews with EFL teachers working in Tokyo universities revealed that the teachers had very positive feelings of emotional warmth regarding students, which they expressed through their identity as carers and moral guides. On the other…
Full Text Available The paper is aimed at to acquaint regarding teachers organizations and their role inteacher welfare. Teachers' organization has to play decisive role in back drop of therecent educational reforms. The role of teachers' organizations in fosteringprofessionalism and initiating teachers into social action can hardly is overemphasizedgiven the key position that the teacher holds in a society. The obligations whichconstitute the academic ethics are not the same as a comprehensive code of conduct foruniversity teachers in all spheres of life. A working of the teachers' organizations in Indiareveals that they have addressed themselves to fulfilling union-type functions.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers’ knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the forms of observations, interviews and written documents. Knowledge of students is defined as teachers’ knowledge of what mathematical concepts are difficult for students to grasp, which concepts students typically have misconceptions about, possible sources of students’ errors, and how to eliminate those difficulties and misconceptions. The findings revealed that preservice teachers had difficulty in both identifying the source of students’ misconceptions, and errors and generating effective ways different than telling the rules or procedures to eliminate such misconceptions. Furthermore, preservice teachers’ knowledge of students was intertwined with their knowledge of subject matter and knowledge of pedagogy. They neither had strong conceptual knowledge of mathematics nor rich repertoire of teaching strategies. Therefore, they frequently failed to recognize what conceptual knowledge the students were lacking and inclined to address students’ errors by telling how to carry out the procedure or apply the rule to solve the given problem correctly.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the areas of cooperation inwhich parent and teacher expectations were the same and where they differed. Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities. At the same time, we also explored building cooperation among the teachers, students, and their parents, within the framework of the program ‘Reading and Conversation’. The findings indicated that the third- and ninth- grade lead teachers were mostly in agreement about the importance of parent involvement and as such represented a fairly homogenous group. The third-grade lead teachers were more open about actual involvement of parents in instruction than their ninth-grade colleagues, who were more cautious and restrained. In contrast to the lead teachers who represented a relatively narrow professional group, parents’ views were much more diverse. Parental education was the best predictor of their readiness to become involved in the life and work of their children’s school. Whether the area in which the families lived was urban or suburban did not make any difference. The evaluation of the one-year ‘Reading and Conversation’ programme revealed increases in parents’motivation to collaborate with the school as a consequence of the program’s approach to work, as well as improvement in mutual relationships and dialogue.
Franc Cankar; Tomi Deutsch; Sonja Sento?nik
Full Text Available In this study, the statuses of teachers’ burnout are discussed in terms of size emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. And tried to determine what are the factors affecting the burnout. In the study “Maslach Burnout Inventory" as measuring tools to determine the status of teachers’ burnout was used. Analysis of data was used t test and one-way ANOVA. The sample of research is consist of 192 teachers who 114 women and 78 men that working in different training positions. The findings revealed that gender, education level, profession, seniority, number of students taught in classrooms, teachers' levels of academic work (primary 1st stage, 2nd stage, and secondary education) and whether teachers have a child or not had an influence on burnout.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved
Full Text Available Problem statement: To be an accredited teacher education program, physical education teacher education (PETE) programs must fulfill the national standards established by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). In order to meet the standards, a PETE program needs to have the cooperation of the following three levels of instructors: Specialist Teachers (STs), Inservice Teachers (ITs) and Preservice Teachers (PTs). The STs are those who teach at colleges or universities, possess advanced degrees with full/associate/assistant professor titles and teach theoretical and skill courses. They participate in the academic activities of the PETE program; for instance, they serve as academic advisors and instructors of the PTs. The ITs are those who possess teacher certificates, bachelor or higher degrees and currently teach physical education/activity classes at middle/high schools. They also participate in the academic activities; for example, they serve as cooperating teachers providing guidelines and supports for the PTs. The PTs were college students who were studying in a PETE program. They intended to become PE teachers at K-12 school levels. They must complete the student teaching requirements at primary and secondary school class settings in order to graduate from colleges or universities. Approach: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences and similarities of Teaching Behaviors (TB) and Learning Activities (LA) in Physical Education (PE) class settings taught by the three different levels of teachers. Participants were 45 PE teachers from the three levels and their students from a university and three high schools in an urban city of the United States. A total of 90 lessons taught by the three levels of teachers were videotaped and coded using the Direct Instruction Behavior Analysis (DIBA) system. Results: Findings of the one-way independent group ANOVA revealed that eight out of 13 variables were significantly different (p Inservice Teachers (ITs) > Specialist Teachers (STs); Praise/Encouragement, F = 14.422, PTs > STs > ITs; Feedback, F = 15.036, STs > ITs > PTs; Controlling, F = 8.997, PTs > ITs > STs; None of the Above, F = 17.313, ITs > STs > PTs; Motor-Engaged, F = 5.043, ITs > PTs > STs; Cognitive-Engaged, F = 6.049, STs > PTs > ITs; and Waiting for a Turn, F = 4.890, ITs > PTs > STs. No significant (p>0.05) differences were found on the following five variables among the three levels of teachers: Observing, structuring, questioning, preparing and get equipment/relocation. Conclusion: In conclusion, the STs appear to use more Feedback TB than the ITs and PTs and the students taught by the STs tend to engage more cognitive activities. The PTs appear to utilize more informing, praise/encouragement and controlling TB than the ITs and STs. Students taught by the ITs tend to have more Motor-Engaged and Waiting for a Turn activities than students taught by the STs and PTs. The ITs appear to utilize more None of the Above behaviors than the STs and PTs. The teachers of the three levels tend to use the behaviors of observing, structuring and questioning in a similar manner. The results of the present study facilitate the establishment of a new set of data in TB and LA for collegiate, high school and preservice teachers to modify and improve their instructions in PE class settings.
Howard Z. Zeng; Raymond W. Leung; Michael Hipscher
Full Text Available Abstract in english Evidence in literature indicates that Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of teachers is essential in creating effective schools. Since 2001 the implementation of education legislation and policies has progressively shifted the new agenda within a transformation framework aimed at reconstructing the education system to the fore. The many changes that have taken place in the education system arise out of the implementation of legislation and policies and the restruct (more) uring of the education system to align with the vision of the National Department of Education. One such policy, the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS) was introduced in an attempt to improve the culture of teaching and learning in schools. CPD is a performance standard in the IQMS policy which aims to contribute to the professional development of teachers. Quantitative research was used to investigate the perceptions of teachers in South African public schools on the importance of continuing professional development. The data analysis from questionnaires administered to teachers revealed that two factors form the underlying components of CPD as an aspect of IQMS, namely, purpose of teacher development programmes, and the process of teacher development programmes.
Mestry, Raj; Hendricks, Ilona; Bisschoff, Tom
Full Text Available Evidence in literature indicates that Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of teachers is essential in creating effective schools. Since 2001 the implementation of education legislation and policies has progressively shifted the new agenda within a transformation framework aimed at reconstructing the education system to the fore. The many changes that have taken place in the education system arise out of the implementation of legislation and policies and the restructuring of the education system to align with the vision of the National Department of Education. One such policy, the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS) was introduced in an attempt to improve the culture of teaching and learning in schools. CPD is a performance standard in the IQMS policy which aims to contribute to the professional development of teachers. Quantitative research was used to investigate the perceptions of teachers in South African public schools on the importance of continuing professional development. The data analysis from questionnaires administered to teachers revealed that two factors form the underlying components of CPD as an aspect of IQMS, namely, purpose of teacher development programmes, and the process of teacher development programmes.
Raj Mestry; Ilona Hendricks; Tom Bisschoff
Stefan Bitzer; Marco Klein; Matthias Schumann
Full Text Available Teachers from charter and traditional schools in Colorado were queried about their perceptions of their level of empowerment, school climate, and working conditions. Using a cluster sampling design, approximately 100 teachers from 16 charter schools and 100 teachers from seven traditional schools were surveyed by combining several well-established instruments to measure empowerment, school climate, and working conditions. Factor analyses yielded three composite variables each for the three constructs. One-way analyses of variance were used to explore these teachers' differences in perceptions. Results yielded consistent and practically significant differences in these charter and traditional school perceptions of empowerment, school climate, and working conditions. Not all of these differences, however, were consistent with expectations given the educational and legislative contexts driving Colorado's charter school movement. Implications and recommendations for future research are given.
Sally Bomotti; Rick Ginsberg; Brian Cobb
Full Text Available In Teachers Taking Action: A Comprehensive Guide to Teacher Research, editors Cynthia Lassonde and Susan Israel provide readers with a text that offers advice to teacher researchers on topics ranging from understanding what it means to conduct teacher research to developing a study and then getting that study published.
Being in the company of teachers is at the heart of the Coalition. The center of Ted Sizer's work, of his life, of CES, is the life of the teacher. "Horace's Compromise," the first of Sizer's well known series about teachers and school change, imparted a sympathetic portrait of Horace Smith, a teacher trying to make a difference in a system…
In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…
Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng
The teacher as decisionmaker is a fairly new concept, and yet the choices teachers make--among alternative approaches--afffect the attitudes, knowledge, and skills students carry into adult life. This booklet's chapter titles are as follows: (1) New Image for Teachers--Decision-Maker; (2) Decisions Teachers Make; (3) A Rational Model; (4) Planning…
Smith, Carl B.
|Most teachers often pass themselves off as "just" teachers, when in truth they are so much more. Teacher, adviser, consultant, confidante, manager, leader, partner, collaborator, role model, councillor, researcher, learner, friend. Of course, in the 21st-century education system teachers are expected to carry out roles well beyond "just"…
OBJECTIVE: To verify vocal tract discomfort (VTD) in teachers and determine its relationship to the presence of self-reported voice problems (S-rVPs), vocal signs and symptoms, voice self-assessment, and perceptual analysis of voice quality. METHODS: Thirty-two teachers with vocal complaints and 30 teachers with no complaints. PROCEDURES: Demographic questionnaire, signs and symptoms questionnaire, VTD scale, vocal self-assessment, and perceptual analysis of voice. RESULTS: The S-rVPs group was presented with higher frequency of all vocal signs and symptoms and also had greater frequency and intensity of discomfort than the teachers without complaint, for all the analyzed items (P<0.05). The group with S-rVPs experienced more than twice the level of discomfort than the group without S-rVPs (mean 6.3 vs 2.8 symptoms, P<0.05). Teachers with voice problems felt at least three symptoms of discomfort, whereas some teachers without complaint did not have any discomfort. We found a correlation between self-perceived voice and VTD. On the other hand, there is little correlation between discomfort and perceptual analysis of voice quality. VTD is also associated with specific voice signs/symptoms that might indicate an incipient voice disorder. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the importance of understanding the subjects' perception of their own problems so that issues experienced by patients that are not directly apparent to the clinician can be addressed in the treatment. Symptoms related to the vocal tract must therefore be given consideration to ensure a comprehensive and more relevant approach to the needs of patients.
Rodrigues G; Zambon F; Mathieson L; Behlau M
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um survey interseccional realizado com 104 professores de piano atuantes de Porto Alegre. Com relação à formação, cerca de 60% dos professores pesquisados possuem uma formação acadêmica na área de Música e menos da metade cursou o Bacharelado em Piano. A maioria dos professores considera ter aprendido a ensinar na prática e um terço da amostra alega seguir o modelo de seus professores. Quanto à atuação, os locais mais destacados são: a própria casa, seguido da escola de música e da casa do aluno. Os resultados revelaram que os professores investigados parecem aproximar-se dos modelos de professor improvisado, professor artesão e professor como profissional (RAMALHO, NUÑEZ e GAUTHIER, 2004).This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional survey conducted with 104 piano teachers in Porto Alegre (Brazil). Concerning the professional training, about 60% of the interviewed teachers possessed an academic degree in Music, and less than half of them were Piano undergraduates. Most of the teachers considered that they have learned how to teach within their daily practice and one third followed the model provided by their previous piano teachers. Regarding their professional practice profile, most of the participants teach at home, followed by those who work in music schools or at the student’s home. The results revealed that the investigated teachers could be described according to what RAMALHO, NUÑEZ & GAUTHIER (2004) named as improvised, artisan and professional teacher models.
Karla Dias de Oliveira; Regina Antunes Teixeira dos Santos; Liane Hentschke
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine conceptual understanding level of prospective science teachers on enzymes before, after and six month later traditional instruction. A conceptual understanding test consisted of three open ended questions was prepared and administered as pre-, post- and delayed post test to 88 prospective teachers. Then, in order to reveal opinions of the students in more details, semi-structured interviews were conducted to 19 teacher candidates. At the end of the study, it was reached that prospective science teachers have certain sorts of difficulties in understanding enzymes, and that traditional instruction is insufficient on providing conceptual understanding. It was revealed that candidates have misconceptions particularly on enzyme activity mechanism and other specifics of enzymes. In the light of the findings, it was suggested that activities based on constructivist approach and conceptual change model should be used for assembling of teaching environment.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop, test, evaluate and finally implement effective state-of-the-art Teacher Trainings in didactic skills and methods. The training concept should be designed and beneficial for medical teachers in under- and postgraduate Medical Education.Methods: A 5-day workshop with 12 theoretical and 9 „hands-on" modules has been designed and stepwise improved, according to trainees' feedback. All trainees were educated in small groups (6 to 10 participants per workshop). The workshops consisted of mini-lectures, repeated microteaching exercises and video-supported feedback concerning the following key-competencies: Communication of goals, methods to trigger interactivity, design of slides in ppt-presentations, effective feedback-techniques and use of media, time-management, skills teaching, assessment methods (e.g. OSCE and others), evaluation and general presentation skills. The evaluation was based on two components: A) Trainees' scores in two OSTEs (objecitve structured teaching exercises) at the beginning and end of workshop: the ratings of 15 to 20 external oberservers were checked for significant trends (X2 -Test Pearson) in 17 pregiven criteria for high teaching effectiveness. B) The trainees rated 20 teaching competencies in a retrospective „pre-post-analysis" (self-assessment questionaire) at the end of each workshop and after 6 to 12 months later. The results revealed highly significant improvements (p < 0.01) in 15 of 17 OSTE-criteria and in 19 of 20 items of the pre-post-analysis, predominantly estimated to be „persistent". Overall, trainees' feedback has been highly encouraging to continue and broaden the program. The discussion covers potential factors for the training success as well as pitfalls and controverse issues of time and costs.In conclusion, the designed 5-day training workshops to enhance didactic skills and teaching methods turned out to be highly effective and can be attended by all medical teachers with different teaching backgrounds and specialities (http://www.medidak-pilotprojekt.de/). The training has been CME-certified for 21 credits (category „C") by the Academy of the Physicians' State Association North-Rhine-Westfalia (LÄK Nordrhein).
Hofer, Matthias; Jansen, Martin; Soboll, Sibylle
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between teacher commitment and transformational leadership in secondary schools. A survey instrument was developed, based on conceptual framework on transformational leadership (Bass and Rigglo, 2006), and teacher commitment (Dannetta, 2002). Quantitative survey method was applied and two broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 1014 trained teachers serving in twenty-seven secondary schools in Miri, Sarawak. The results indicated a moderate level of teacher commitment and a low level of transformational leadership qualities among the respondents. The results from multiple regression analysis provided little to moderate support for the analysis. They offer insights on how leadership practices affect teachers’ commitment. It also necessitates for leadership development of school leaders to acquire transformational leadership qualities that are crucial in changing teachers’ attitude and improving their commitment level.
Sii Ling Mee Ling; Mohammed Sani Bin Ibrahim
The present study tested the prediction that male teachers are judged more harshly than female teachers for engaging in heterosexual intercourse with a student. One-hundred and eighty-seven adults (116 women, 71 men) evaluated a hypothetical newspaper article describing an alleged student-teacher relationship as part of a 2 (Gender Dyad: Male Teacher/Female Student or Female Teacher/Male Student) x 2 (Initiator: Student or Teacher) between-subjects design. As expected, a reverse sexual double standard was revealed, in which participants judged situations involving male teachers more harshly than they judged situations involving female teachers, but only when the sexual contact was teacher-initiated. Participants also believed that male students received more social benefits from the sexual contact than did female students.
Howell JL; Egan PM; Giuliano TA; Ackley BD
The results indicated that most (80%) of the teachers were fairly knowledgeable about the nutrition needs of athletes. However, while many teachers agreed that carbohydrates and fats were the main sources of muscular energy, 35% indicated that protein was the primary source of energy for muscular activity. Also, 12% agreed that the consumption of salt tablets during athletic events prevents muscle cramps. The results suggest nutrition education for HPE teachers is needed. Information provided to HPE teachers should address their three main nutrition concerns, which are a balanced diet for athletes, weight control, and fluid replacement. PMID:3385109
Pratt, C A; Walberg, J L
The results indicated that most (80%) of the teachers were fairly knowledgeable about the nutrition needs of athletes. However, while many teachers agreed that carbohydrates and fats were the main sources of muscular energy, 35% indicated that protein was the primary source of energy for muscular activity. Also, 12% agreed that the consumption of salt tablets during athletic events prevents muscle cramps. The results suggest nutrition education for HPE teachers is needed. Information provided to HPE teachers should address their three main nutrition concerns, which are a balanced diet for athletes, weight control, and fluid replacement.
Pratt CA; Walberg JL
Full Text Available Coexistence is influenced by relationships of conflict among people, which sometimes may end up in violence and aggressiveness. Violence is the result of the accumulation of small hostile situations which arouse maladjustments in feelings and reactions. Recent empirical research has shown that the number of violent situations in the classroom has doubled. The answers offered by the administration and the educational centres are oriented to the setting up of programs for violence prevention, considering the school as an organisation which coexists with the conflict. Among the proposed alternatives, I emphasize individual and group tutorship and mediation processes as two viable resources which facilitate coexistence and improve the school’s climate together with a better understanding of the teacher’s use of non-verbal communication in the classroom
Juana María Rodríguez Gómez
The Monterey Bay Aquarium has long had an ambitious outreach mission. As a result, its Teachers' Place is a fine resource for educators around the world. On the homepage, visitors will find sections such as Teacher Programs, Field Trips, and Classroom Resources. In the Classroom Resources area, visitors can take advantage of lesson plans and interactive media features that include Rocky Shore, Kelp Forest, Sea Otters, and Mission to the Deep. The Games & Interactives area includes downloadable posters, fact cards, and a virtual dive into Monterey Canyon that provides visitors with a truly immersive experience, minus the actual water, of course. This same section also has some pretty great tunes, such as "Hold On or Go With the Flow," which is a paean to surviving the rough and tumble world of the rocky shore.
The neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state has changed the conditions for teacher practice. Teachers’ narratives have been collected in the western part of Denmark. They give insight in teacher practice and how teachers’ conditions for working have changed. 3 themes are discussed to illustrate this development: 1) individualisation, 2) operating economy and 3) loss of authority. The teachers’ main focus is the benefit of the children even though this means they have to manipulate the demands issued on them.
Daugbjerg, Peer SchrØder
Education page with resources for teachers and students. Teacher's Place has teacher professional development opportunities such as Wetlands Teacher Institute and Teacher Open House, a quarterly electronic educator newsletter, and hands-on elementary level classroom activities. Subjects include: kelp forests, sea otters, sharks, tide pools, and penguins. Kid's Corner has games and activities, aquarium career information, summer programs, web cams, and animal field guides.
This paper presents findings of surveys completed by student teachers on their ability to prepare a teacher work sample, discussing potential program improvements arising from survey responses related to planning, assessment, and student learning, which are components of a teacher work sample, also sharing student teachers' perceptions of their…
Keese, Nancy; Brown, Tammie
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the Jordanian teachers’ awareness of their roles in the classroom. The independent variables investigated were gender, experience, and specialization, teaching load, and academic qualifications. A questionnaire was used to collect the data necessary to answer the study questions. Correlation coefficient, Five-way ANOVA, means, and standard deviations were used to analyze the data collected. The sample of the study consisted of Jordanian teachers working at Jordanian schools in rural areas in the North of Jordan. The findings of the study revealed that Jordanian teachers’ awareness of role Applicability and Practice was “High”. The “High” awareness of role was attributed to many different reasons.
Mohammad Ahmed Al-Jabali; Mohammed Mahmoud Obeidat
Girths are frequently blamed for veterinary and performance problems, but research into girth/horse interaction is sparse. The study objectives were (1) to determine location of peak pressure under a range of girths, and (2) to compare horse gait between the horse's standard girth and a girth designed to avoid detected peak pressure locations. In the first part of the study, and following validation procedures, a calibrated pressure mat placed under the girth of 10 horses was used to determine the location of peak pressures. A girth was designed to avoid peak pressure locations (Girth F). In the second part, 20 elite horses/riders with no lameness or performance problem were ridden in Girth F and their standard girth (Girth S) in a double blind crossover design. Pressure mat data were acquired from under the girths. High speed video was captured and forelimb and hindlimb protraction, maximal carpal and tarsal flexion during flight were determined in trot. In standard girths, peak pressures were located over the musculature behind the elbow. Pressure mat results revealed that the maximum forces with Girth S were 22% (left) and 14% (right) greater than Girth F, and peak pressures were 76% (left) and 98% (right) greater (P<0.01 for all). On gait evaluation, Girth F was associated with 6-11% greater forelimb protraction, 10-20% greater hindlimb protraction, 4% greater carpal flexion, and 3% greater tarsal flexion than Girth S (P<0.01 for all). Peak pressures were located where horses tend to develop pressure sores. Girth F reduced peak pressures under the girth, and improved limb protraction and carpal/ tarsal flexion, which may reflect improved posture and comfort.
Murray R; Guire R; Fisher M; Fairfax V
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to suggest a model for improving and retaining the highly qualified teachers in higher technical education. There are numerous researches going on all over the world regarding the key quality factors which are directly linked with teacher’s performance and the methods to improve them. Whatever the methods and measures, the teacher’s active participation and dedication is very important to achieve these objectives. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to highly qualified and experienced teachers who are working in engineering colleges for more than five years. Since the variables in this study are quality factors, the collected data is analyzed using the fuzzy logic and inference is drawn for getting more accurate results compared to probability study of the same case. Based on the results obtained from fuzzy inference system, a new model called Adaptive Performance-Incentive-Development (PID) control system for improving the quality as well as retaining the highly qualified teachers in the teaching profession is created.
Sunish Kumar O S
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Students learning in clinical education environment is the major part of the curriculums. This study was done with the purpose of comparing the students’ and teachers’ points of view about the status of clinical education environment in Paramedical Sciences and Nursing & Midwifery Schools of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2012.Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was done on 154 students of Nursing and Midwifery, Operating Room, Anesthesia in fifth semester and above who were serving their apprenticeship and 18 teachers. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire consisted of 22 questions in four major domains (learning opportunity, support for learning, the environment’s facilities, and student-teacher communication.Results: There was a significant difference between students’ and teachers’ points of view in the domains of teacher-student communication, learning opportunity, support for learning, and overall point of view. Also, teachers had more favorable point of view (p<0.05), But no significant difference was observed in the domain of hospital environment facilities (p=0.999).Conclusion: According to the results of this study, knowing the students’ and teachers’ points of view as well as similarities and differences of these viewpoints could be effective in planning for the improvement of clinical education environment.
Seyed Ahmad Bathaei; Mohammad Koohbor; Reza Heidarifar; Maryam Mirizadeh; Neda Khorasani Niasar
A COMPARISON OF ORAL EVALUATION RATINGS BY NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS AND NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS/ UNA COMPARACIÓN DE ESCALAS DE EVALUACIÓN POR PROFESORES NATIVOS ANGLOPARLANTES Y PROFESORES NO NATIVOS ANGLOPARLANTES
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este estudio procura explorar las diferencias y similitudes entre profesores de inglés nativos del idioma (NES del inglés) y profesores de inglés no nativos (NNES del inglés), en relación a su evaluación oral a estudiantes que cursan el mismo nivel universitario. Para ello, se utilizaron dos instrumentos: iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric y un cuestionario. Los resultados revelan que los NESs son menos severos en su evaluación oral en relac (more) ión a los NNESs. En referencia a los resultados del cuestionario utilizado, éstos revelan que los profesores NES consideran más los aspectos de fluidez y pronunciación en comparación con los NNESs cuando evalúan el desempeño oral de sus estudiantes, mientras que los NNESs enfatizan más la precisión gramatical y el vocabulario. En el área de la evaluación oral aún se requiere mayor investigación, específicamente en relación a la nacionalidad, edad, experiencia laboral y conocimiento de una segunda lengua. Abstract in english This study attempts to explore the differences and similarities between native English speaker (NES) teachers and non-native English speaker (NNES) teachers in their oral evaluation ratings of the same university level English language learners. To this effect, the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric and a questionnaire were employed. The results reveal that NES teachers are more lenient in their oral evaluation ratings than NNES teachers. In regard (more) s to the questionnaire employed, it was found that NES teachers take into consideration the aspects of fluency and pronunciation more so than NNES teachers when orally assessing students, while NNES teachers take more into consideration the aspects of grammatical accuracy and vocabulary. Further research is required in the area of oral assessment specifically pertaining to nationality, age, work experience, and knowledge of a second language.
Baitman, Brittany; Véliz Campos, Mauricio
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of the teachers' survey on health problems and health protecting activities. It shows the insufficient level of the teachers' awareness of the notions of health, healthy lifestyle, health protection, and health protecting technologies. It proves the importance of teachers' professional health formation, the necessity to develop a system of professional training on the basis of theoretical and methodological concepts of health protecting activities. In research took part 95 teaches of Saki, Simferopol and Kerch.
TeacherTECH is the teacher-training component of GirlTECH, a program of Center for Excellence and Equity in Education (CEEE) at Rice University. The project focuses on providing technology training and exploring "innovative teaching strategies that impact equity in the classroom." TeacherTECH offers lesson plans designed by teachers in a way that is intended to "take full advantage of Internet resources and to teach mathematics and science concepts in new and exciting ways." From this website, visitors can select lessons by the year they were developed (going back to 1995) or search on a particular topic or string of words. The lesson ideas are described along with links to additional resources. The lesson descriptions include related graphs, data tables, as well as suggested ways to extend the activity or integrate technology.
This workshop presentation from the 2006 PTEC Conference covers issues of mentoring new physics teachers. Mentee needs, strategies for successful mentoring programs, and examples are included in the discussion.
Freeland, Dale; Olsen, Julia
... the development of the child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP), parents, teachers, and other professionals will determine the ... with Disabilities Education Act 2004 What is an IEP (Individualized Education Program)? Transitioning from School to Community ...
Full Text Available Teacher action research is in the emergent stages in Sudanese schools and needs to be well disseminated and actively supported from the Ministry of education. Although the teacher-as-researcher movement has been in existence for some twenty years, there is a reason to think that the majority if not all, of Sudanese class teachers remain uninvolved. What lies behind their reluctance? This paper looks at the complexities in the role of a teacher engaging in action research. This includes the need to explore further the principles and practice of action research. This study puts forward explanations in four main areas: teachers’ perception of action research; teachers' professional status, teachers' confidence, and teachers' difficulty engaging in action research. For this purpose a workshop was held and representatives from seven Universities and 25 school teachers participated in a thorough discussion and further investigation was carried out based on the workshop discussion. The data was analyzed statistically and the results showed that the Sudanese teachers have no idea about action research it is not part of their culture as well as the institutions culture. Teachers are reluctant to do an action research and that due to the lack of knowledge which was an important factor. Teachers are not certain about the adequacy of doing an action research. There are other factors such as time and the over load. Based on these findings recommendations are drawn, it is suggested that classroom teaching is an all-demanding and all-involving task which is excluding of an activity as exacting as research. However, it is argued that with appropriate support more teachers may become involved in an action research.
The aim of this study was to examine how teachers in the Step by Step and traditional kindergartens assess their child-centred activities. 308 teachers participated in the study and a questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that teachers in the Step by Step programme used a child-centred approach more in their work than teachers in…
Oun, Tiia; Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin
Full Text Available Aim: To explore the knowledge and behaviour of adolescents from a low socio-economic region of Istanbul, regarding smoking and how these variables are affected by their teachers’ smoking status.Method: This is a descriptive study carried out between February-March 2007 among 6th-8th grade students of 3 primary schools in Tasdelen region. A questionnaire was filled out by adolescents under supervision about their smoking experience, related factors and whether the students were affected by their teachers’ smoking behaviour. After descriptive and comparative analysis of the data, a logistic regression analysis was performed.Results: Among the 560 participants, mean age was 13±1.08 (11-15). The incidence of a smoking experience at least once was 12%. At least one of the teachers was observed while smoking by 83.8% of the students, and 16% of them declared they were negatively affected by their teachers’ smoking behaviour. Among the factors related to smoking experience, the teachers’ smoking status (being a smoker) increased the risk of smoking significantly, according to the regression analysis (p=0,008;OR 7,476;95% CI 1,703-32,826).Conclusion: Adolescents are influenced by teachers’ smoking at school. We think that the extent of this influence will decrease after the legislation (section number 5727, to take effect on July 19th 2009) prohibiting smoking in doors is passed.
Çi?dem Apayd?n Kaya; Mehmet Akman; Kübra Saçar; Selçuk Kaya; Muhammed Sulukaya
We analyze in this article to what extent beginning teacher education students at the primary school level differ with respect to previous educational pathways, socio-demographic characteristics, academic self-concepts and occupational motivations. In order to overcome methodological problems of most previous empirical studies on teacher recruitment we draw on data from a recent comparative study on teacher recruitment based on two different samples: In both Denmark and Finland we surveyed a representative group of first year teacher education students as well as last year upper-secondary pupils. The nature of the data collected enables us to characterize teacher education students in contrast to a baseline reference group eligible to apply for teacher education and to compare these differences across countries (difference-in-differences estimation). This analytical strategy allows us to overcome problems of most previous studies that use samples of teacher-education students only in order to characterize teacher education students and to estimate differences between beginning teacher students across countries more reliably. Our results clearly show that Finish and Danish beginning teacher education students for the primary school level differ markedly with respect to previous academic pathways, academic self-concepts as well as occupational motivations.
Reimer, David; Dorf, Hans
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of motivation innovation of future teachers. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Philology and the Faculty of Physical Education and Safety CSPU. We used data from a survey 247 students of 4–5 courses, the aim of which was to study the motives that impel prospective teachers to engage in innovative activities.
Vera Elagina; Elena Nemydraya
This is the Teacher Page of an activity that teaches students about the stratigraphy of lava flows produced by multiple eruptions. This page has background information on lava flows (with an emphasis on the Moon), recipes for the play dough required for the activity, and questions for the teacher to ask. The procedures for this activity can be found on the Student Page. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.
This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.
Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the problems of students’ (future teachers’) noxological training during their occupational training. The methodological basis of the research compiles the concept of life safety education: E. Antyukhin, M. Sulla; the concept of education methodology (V.E. Gmurman, M.A. Danilov, G.P. Schedrovitsky and others), the concept of basic personal culture formation in the entire pedagogical process. The research data appeared to be the problems specification of modern teacher’s noxologically oriented training for the activity under the conditions of social risk. The application area of results is training process in professional higher education institutions.
Nurgatina Irina Efimovna
Full Text Available The literature asserts that when a foreign language is learned after puberty, the fossilized pronunciation problems of adult FL learners cannot be remedied. However, to the best of knowledge there was no empirical evidence to support this belief. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether or not non-native English teachers’ fossilized pronunciation mistakes on /æ/ vowel phoneme of the British English language can be cured through treatment. First, a diagnostic test as a pre-test was used before the treatment phase to identify participants’ pronunciation problems and the same test was repeated after treatment to check out any difference. As the data revealed from repeated measurements, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used and the results displayed a significant difference (z= -3.527, p< .05). That is, the application of the cure programme developed using the audio-articulation method facilitated participant teachers to cure their pronunciation problem on /æ/ vowel phoneme of the British English. In brief, this study has proved this case and cured non-native English teachers’ problem. All in all, this study recommends non-native language teachers to improve language teaching materials with explicit pronunciation exercises especially for adult learners using similar methods.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the opinions of preschool teacher candidates towards the teaching practices that they have developed for teaching children’s rights to the students. Thirteen volunteer senior students studying at Anadolu University Faculty of Education, Department of Primary Education Preschool Teaching Training Program, participated in the presentstudy. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with teacher candidates and the gathered data were analyzed through the content analysis method. The results of the study revealed that the teacher candidates mainly made use of drama, mother tongue, and play activities while teaching children’s rights courses. Subsequent to practicing the teaching activities, participants stated that although it seemed difficult to practice the activities at initially, they easily managed to put them into practice and they observed that their students enjoyed practicing such activities. The preschool teacher candidates believe that children’s rights education in the preschool environment is helpful and desirable when they are presented in age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate ways.
Seviye NESL?TÜRK; A. Figen ERSOY
Full Text Available Following cognitive views to language pedagogy; there have been considerable studies particularly in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) contexts via metaphor analysis as a reflective research tool. Considering the inadequate attempts in an Iranian EFL environment, the present study seeks to unpack metaphorical reflections by a group of Iranian non-English-major university students about EFL teachers' roles. To this end, a metaphor elicitation questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of 187 Iranian bilingual (Kurdish-Persian) university students majoring different disciplines at three public and private universities in Ilam. Using content analysis, the metaphorical expressions collected via completion of the metaphor prompt "An English language teacher is (like) …. because …." were structured into dominant thematic categories for further analysis. The metaphors were also examined to determine whether they fit into the design of current language teaching and learning approaches and methods. Generally, the results revealed that the metaphorical images were comparatively for and against several proposed models of language learning and teaching about EFL teachers' roles. There were also several pedagogical implications for teacher education programs as well as suggestions for further investigations.
The present study investigated whether salient preadolescent behaviors and experiences predicted parents' and teachers' underestimation of preadolescents' shyness. Participants included a community sample of 129 fifth and sixth graders, along with one parent and teacher per preadolescent. Preadolescents, parents, and teachers provided reports about preadolescents' shyness, and parents and teachers rated preadolescents' prosocial and aggressive behaviors, peer victimization experiences, and academic performance. Results indicated that parent- and teacher-reported prosocial behavior, teacher-reported aggressive behavior, and parent-reported peer victimization were associated with lower parent and teacher reports of preadolescent shyness, relative to preadolescent reports, controlling for demographic variables and parent stress. Additionally, higher parent-reported academic performance was associated with lower teacher reports of preadolescent shyness, compared to preadolescent reports. These findings suggest that preadolescents with higher levels of relatively conspicuous behaviors and experiences feel more shyness than their parents and teachers report.
Tu KM; Erath SA
Full Text Available The present study investigates the longitudinal effects of a pay-increase schema, known as the teachers’ cadre, on teachers’ job satisfaction. A total of 155 primary school teachers responded to a questionnaire tapping their overall job satisfaction over four occasions. The results of the study showed that pay increase did not have a significant effect on teachers’ job satisfaction. After pay increase, teachers with high academic attainments were significantly less satisfied with their teaching profession than teachers with low academic attainments. After pay increase, male teachers were significantly more satisfied with their teaching profession than female teachers. Length of service did not have a significant effect on teachers’ job satisfaction.
Sabry M. ABD-EL-FATTAH
Full Text Available To explore the impact of teacher training on the professional identity of primary and secondary school mental health teachers, this study conducted a half-month professional development training program to 54 primary and secondary school mental health teachers, and performed measurement on the professional identity of the teachers in the experimental group and the control group with “Teachers’ Professional Identity Questionnaire”. The result shows that after the training there is a significant improvement in the professional identity of the teachers in the experimental group, and the teachers’ scores on the four dimensions of profession identity: the sense of role, the professional behavioral tendency, the occupational values, and the sense of belonging, all increased significantly. This indicates that the curriculum intervention for the primary and secondary school mental health teachers could effectively improve the teachers’ professional identity.
Hao Lei; Cheng Guo; Yanling Liu
|In this paper, we investigate the effects of teacher characteristics and school context on the timing of teachers' decisions to exit schools where they teach. The two-level discrete time survival analysis framework allows for simultaneous examinations of who exits, when, and under what conditions. Our results for a large sample of teachers in the…
Newton, Xiaoxia A.; Rivero, Rosario; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke
Full Text Available This study which examines the team perception levels of the teachers in primary schools based on various variables (?lkö?retim okullar?nda ö?retmenlerin tak?m alg?s? düzeylerini ve tak?m alg?s? düzeylerinin çe?itli de?i?kenlere göre inceleyen bu ara?t?rma) were done with the data acquired from 10 primary schools in the Sapanca district of Sakarya in 2011 – 2012 academic year. The universe of the research consists of 242 primary school teachers in Sapanca,Sakarya. In the study, instead of sampling method the entire universe was tried to be reached.The results of the study present that teacher don’t/can’t work with team spirit within the teams; team perception of the female teachers are higher than of the male teachers and the teachers working in the same school for a longer period have better team perception.
Çi?dem AYANO?LU; Mehmet Ali HAMEDO?LU
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the physics teacher’s views about changes made to physics curriculum andin-service training needs about new topics added. To achieve this purpose, a survey is conducted via Internet. Aquestionnaire of 11 Likert-type items was used as a data collection tool. Data supplied by the participants werecleaned and finally views of 100 teachers were taken into account. The analysis of the results demonstrated thatphysics teacher’s attitudes toward the changes are positive. And their in-service training needs are not too much.Further, the differences between the attitudes and needs of male-female teachers and state-private schoolteachers are also determined.
Nuri BALTA; Ali ERYILMAZ
Full Text Available Inquiry-based teaching has emerged as a highly valued strategy in science education. In Portugal, the science curriculum has been redesigned in order to promote such teaching. This implies substantial change in teacher practice. It is therefore important to understand students’ perceptions of teacher practice. In this study, we describe student perception of teacher practices and look for associations between the perceptions and student motivation. Three low-achieving, secondary-level science classes were studied. Motivation was measured by two scales (Intrinsic and Extrinsic); Perceptions were measured in four dimensions. Significant associations (p < .05) were observed between intrinsic motivation and (a) Perception of the use of Laboratory Work; (b) Perception of Science-Technology-Society and (c) Perceived Student Autonomy. No association was noted between intrinsic motivation and the Perception of Teacher as Facilitator. Results are generally consistent with previous literature. Teacher professional development lags behind curricular change. Teachers require new conceptions of assessment.
Carolina CARVALHO; Sofia FREIRE; Joseph CONBOY; Mónica BAPTISTA; Ana FREIRE; Mário AZEVEDO; Teresa OLIVEIRA
Full Text Available In the educational process “listening” is taking an important role like interpersonal communication. So, it is possible to increase the activity of teacher in communication between teacher and student by gaining and strengthening the “listening ability”. In the point of this view, the purpose of this study was to find out interpersonalcommunication ability level of classroom and physical education teacher department students and make some suggestions.For this purpose, 150 classroom teacher and 150 physical education teacher department students voluntarily join the study. A questionnaire, validity and reliability tests were done, applied the samples. Researchers were applied percentage, frequency, mean and t-test for statistical analysis by using SPSS statistical program.In the result; listening ability of both classroom teacher department and physical education teacher department students was “medium level”. There was no significant difference between gender and different department students on “listening ability” and finally it was an important foundation to think about that students(except two of them) did not have “the best listening ability”.
O?uzhan YONCALIK; Zafer Ç?MEN
Full Text Available Preservice teachers are key element to shape students’ attributes and key factor affecting to motivate students to have achievement in learning behaviors. This study aims to investigate pedagogical content knowledge of preservice teachers. Forty three preservice science teachers participated the study, inquiry-based instruction was implemented in the context of science teaching and learning for enhancing pedagogical content knowledge. A variety of qualitative methods were employed to examine the engagement of their pedagogical content knowledge. The findings can be indicated that inquiry-based instruction can enhance pedagogical content knowledge and its result can be used for teacher preparation program as well.
Full Text Available Fifty-five Chinese kindergarten teachers from Shenzhen (n = 38) and Hong Kong (n = 17) were surveyed to discern their beliefs and reported practices about multiple literacies related to e-learning and knowledge management. Results indicated that: (1) Shenzhen teachers had a better knowledge about multiple literacies and facilitated the development of multiple literacies in their students more than their counterparts from Hong Kong; (2) Teachers’ educational attainment and their beliefs did not predict the multiple literacies practice; and (3) after controlling for these variables, child-PC ratio significantly contributed to the variation in multiple literacies practice. Educational implications and challenges associated with teacher education are discussed.
Hui Li; Nirmala Rao
Full Text Available Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 19 chemistry teachers who work in the private courses. According to the results obtained, chemistry teachers think that there are some deficiencies and obstacles in the application of this textbook.
INTRODUCTION: In Iran, the total number of elementary schoolteachers is estimated to be nearly 300?000 people and this population is at risk for developing voice disorders. Acoustical characteristics of voice for schoolteachers in Iran are unknown but are relevant to the quantitative description, diagnosis, intervention, reassessment, and outcomes of their voices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen female and 15 male Iranian primary schoolteachers in the age range of 35-40 years with 15 years teaching experience volunteered to participate in the study. The control group consisted of 30 Iranian adults aged 35-40 years (15 men and 15 women). Recordings and audio signal analyses were carried out using Praat software. Each subject was asked to sustain the vowel /â/ using habitual and constant vocal pitch, loudness, and quality for at least 5 seconds. Five tokens from each subject were obtained. RESULTS: For the male subjects, the results indicated no significant difference (at the 0.05 level) for each variable between the two groups. However, for the female subjects, t tests showed significant differences between the teachers and the nonteacher controls in all parameters at the 0.01 level. The Iranian female teachers had significantly lower F0 (190.27Hz) than the control group (236.32Hz). Also, for the perturbation acoustic parameters (jitter% and shimmer%), the female teacher group had significantly higher values than their corresponding control group. Similarly, the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) measures for the Iranian female teacher population were significantly lower than for their corresponding control group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that female Iranian teachers appear to be more susceptible to voice stability change than the male Iranian teachers. Also, acoustic analysis of voice for teachers may significantly contribute to the objective voice examination of this group. Further investigations of factors that promote individual susceptibility to vocal stability are necessary.
Dehqan A; Scherer RC
Full Text Available Studies have shown that many training programs are relatively ineffective in preparing prospective teachers for classroom teaching. Such findings suggest that teacher training programs might require improvement and that prospective teachers should be more thoroughly assessed during the training period. This study examined the learning process of a group of EFL teachers during their practicum at elementary schools. Our findings indicate that prior language learning experience and peer student teachers play a critical role in this period. Overall, the results suggested that student teachers would benefit from greater integration between field experiences, practicum, and lecture courses, which would enable the students to link teaching theory and practice more effectively.
A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student atten