Student Teacher Reflective Writing: What Does It Reveal? (United States)

Some researchers claim that reflection helps student teachers to better understand their practice teaching. This study aims to explore how deliberate reflection by student teachers is encouraged as a way to prepare, analyse and evaluate their practice. A total of 104 student teachers in primary education participated in this study during their…

Mena-Marcos, Juanjo; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria-Luisa; Tillema, Harm



Florida Teacher Education Testing: Requirements and Results. (United States)

The Florida legislature recently mandated several testing programs to improve the quality of teacher education entrants, students, and graduates. These requirements and their impact on teacher education in Florida are discussed. (MT)

Anderson, Betty; And Others



Teacher Reflection: Supports, Barriers, and Results (United States)

In the context of rapidly changing classroom environments, it is crucial that teachers be able to make appropriate decisions. Those teachers who reflect on their practice, particularly while they are teaching (what Schon terms reflection-in-action), are best able to do so. It is the intent of this article to investigate the role of teacher

Jaeger, Elizabeth L.



Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

Nerrière Eléna



Obama Proposes Teacher Results in Federal Law (United States)

In its fiscal 2011 budget request, the Obama administration has laid out its intention of carrying forward key teacher-effectiveness policies within the economic-stimulus law into the next edition of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. In doing so, the budget proposal would invest heavily in competitive grants for new ways of recruiting,…

Sawchuk, Stephen



Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement (United States)

Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon




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Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.




Workshop Results: Teaching Geoscience to K-12 Teachers (United States)

A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these activities and intend to use them in their classes in the future. Copies of the materials used in this workshop are available upon request.

Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.



Teacher’s comments on the process and the results of theIn-service training studies  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the ideas of teachers about the process and results of the in-service training studies. This research includes totally 153 volunteer teachers; as 21 preschool and 132 primary school teachers in Istanbul in 2011-2012 academic year. This research is descriptive. In this research the effectiveness of the in-service training evaluation scale, which is also used to asses the effectiveness of the European Community Study Visits, is used in order to ases teachers’ in- service training process and results. In this research the following results were reached upon evaluating participant teachers’ comments on in-service training courses, seminars and other activities. It is obvious that there appears a lot of differances among teachers in terms of duration. It can be interpreted that the differance of the periods of the in-service training is caused by the differance in retirement and willingness or unwillingness for the attendance to the teachers’ in-service training studies.

Süleyman Göksoy



Results of Romanian Teachers Survey on Assessment in Early Education  


In the frame of the European Union funded project “Creative Little Scientists” our team conducted a national survey among preschool and primary school teachers in order to provide radiography on teachers perception and practice in relation to the development of creativity along with science and mathematics education, in the context of inquiry-based teaching and learning. The survey included more than 40 questions, each divided into additional sub-questions. Over 275 Romanian teachers took...

Dan Sporea; Adelina Sporea



The Results of an Era of Teacher Professional Development at McDonald Observatory (United States)

During the past decade, McDonald Observatory has been developing and refining its Teacher Professional Development Workshops, many of which have been supported by NASA. Metrics include attendance, perceived knowledge gain, and readiness to apply what was learned in the classroom. Evaluations show impact through the classroom application at five to six months after the workshops and through consistently high positive workshop results. This paper will show that a) our Teacher Professional Development Workshops are consistently well attended, b) the workshops improve teachers' confidence and their understanding of concepts, c) teachers enjoy unique interactions with astronomers and engineers, d) teachers appreciate hands-on and inquiry-based activities that are modeled and tied to state and national standards, and e) many teachers experience using the activities in their classrooms with good results.

Finkelstein, K. D.; Hemenway, M. K.; Preston, S.; Wetzel, M.; Meyer, J.; Rood, M.



Teacher's emotional stability: preliminary results of self-other agreement.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Brno : Nakladatelství K?epela, 2003, s. 107-120. [U?itelé a zdraví /5./. Brno (CZ), 26.09.2002-27.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : teachers * emotional stability * neuroticism Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

H?ebí?ková, Martina


Results of a radioactive waste course for high school teachers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A week-long three-credit graduate-level course was taught in the summer of 1991 for high school science and social science teachers. Instruction was at the layperson's level, and no prior knowledge was presumed. The objectives of the course were to present factual information about radioactive waste, measure recipient's changes in perception about this topic, and measure the effect of the course on others. The technical half of the course involved discussions of basic nuclear physics, radiation control, biological effects of radiation, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management principles, Hanford waste issues, and transport of radioactive waste. The social half of the course included a discussion of values and attitudes, risk perception and communication, and public participation in a decision-making role-playing session. Discussions about radioactive-waste issues with high school teachers, especially of an extended nature such as discussed in this paper, are an effective tool because high school teachers are a critical link to reaching the next generation. Armed with facts presented in an open, nonconfrontational format, these teachers tend to become more understanding and accepting of radioactive-waste issues


Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television. (United States)

To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max


Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey (United States)

Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott



Working Conditions of Foreign Language Teachers: Results from a Pilot Survey (United States)

Recent research has consistently shown that teacher working conditions are highly predictive of faculty turnover and student performance. However, very little work investigates specifically the experiences of foreign-language instructors. This paper reports results from a pilot survey of language teachers in public and private schools from across…

Lopez-Gomez, Coral; Albright, Jeremy J.



Investigating inquiry beliefs and nature of science (NOS) conceptions of science teachers as revealed through online learning (United States)

Creating a scientifically literate society appears to be the major goal of recent science education reform efforts (Abd-El-Khalick, Boujaoude, Dushl, Lederman, Hofstein, Niaz, Tregust, & Tuan, 2004). Recent national reports in the U.S, such as Shaping the Future, New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (NSF,1996), Inquiry in Science and In Classroom, Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 2001), Pursuing excellence: Comparison of international eight-grade mathematics and science achievement from a U.S. perspective (NCES, 2001), and Standards for Science Teacher Preparation (NSTA 2003) appear to agree on one thing: the vision of creating a scientifically literate society. It appears from science education literature that the two important components of being a scientifically literate individual are developing an understanding of nature of science and ability to conduct scientific inquiries. Unfortunately, even though teaching science through inquiry has been recommended in national reports since the 1950's, it has yet to find its way into many science classrooms (Blanchard, 2006; Yerrick, 2000). Science education literature identfies several factors for this including: (1) lack of content knowledge (Anderson, 2002; Lee, Hart Cuevas, & Enders, 2004; Loucks-Horsely, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; Moscovici, 1999; Smith & Naele, 1989; Smith, 1989); (2) high stake tests (Aydeniz, 2006); (3) teachers' conflicting beliefs with inquiry-based science education reform (Blanchard, 2006; Wallace & Kang, 2004); and, (4) lack of collaboration and forums for communication (Anderson, 2002; Davis, 2003; Loucks-Horsely, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; Wallace & Kang, 2004). In addition to the factors stated above this study suggest that some of the issues and problems that have impeded inquiry instruction to become the primary approach to teaching science in many science classrooms might be related to teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of inquiry science instruction in variety of wa

Atar, Hakan Yavuz


Subject Knowledge and Perceptions of Bioenergy among School Teachers in India: Results from a Survey  

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Full Text Available Teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy, and their motivation to teach such a topic, can largely determine the success of implementing bioenergy related education in schools. The study aimed to explore science teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy in India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 28 science teachers from four urban schools in India. Results indicated that the science teachers were fairly knowledgeable regarding bioenergy and they also demonstrated positive perceptions of bioenergy. In addition, they were positive towards the prospect of receiving more information to increase their own knowledge of bioenergy. However, the science teachers appeared to have some misconceptions regarding the issue of CO2 emission from using bioenergy. It also emerged that although the existing Science syllabus for Grade X in Indian schools includes a topic on bioenergy, the majority of the science teachers were not aware of it. Policy makers and educators are recommended to provide science teachers more support to improve their capacity for teaching energy and environmental topics in schools in India. In addition, an improvement of the current learning and teaching environment in Indian schools could help teachers to deliver energy and environmental education more effectively to their students.

Pradipta Halder



Changes in the social aspects of hypertensive patients through physical activity: revealing the importance of physical education teachers  

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Full Text Available The objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and treatment of hypertension, underscoring the importance of physical education teachers in guidance and direction of this treatment. The methodological approach was based on a qualitative approach consisting of 15 hypertensive patients enrolled in a project offered by the Fire Department as a group defined the Golden Age, in the municipality of Crato-Ce-Brazil. To this end, we used the technique to collect data, the interview was focused on groups of hypertensive patients who were physically active on a regular basis. With the purpose of organizing the material obtained in interviews, conducted an analysis of their content, which allowed the identification of themes and construction of the following categories: 1 heredity, and lifestyle concerns: the perception of the causes of hypertension Hypertension, 2 Practical exercise training: a tool for prevention and promotion hypertensive patients, 3 Benefits of Physical Activity: the importance of awareness of hypertension, 4 Revealing the importance of continuing the practice of exercise. Thus, considering that for an effective control, prevention and promotion of hypertensive patients is necessary if there is an interaction between teacher / patient in order to provide, in addition to the benefits of activities, the motivation for continuing care. To do so, it is the physical education teachers see their importance and their role in guiding, monitoring and promoting health in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, so you can carry and to reveal the practices of physical exercise as an essential tool in controlling this pathology.

Italla Maira Pinheiro Bezerra



[Stress and Burnout Risk in Nursery School Teachers: Results from a Survey. (United States)

This article presents results from a study of 834 nursery school teachers in Germany, investigating working conditions, stress, and stress-related health problems. In order to evaluate the extent of mental and psychosomatic troubles, as well as the risk of burnout, we used the standardised questionnaire "Burnout Screening Scales" (BOSS I). Data analysis yielded a high percentage of nursery school teachers who reported a remarkably high stress level; nearly 20% can be considered as a high-risk group for burnout. Poor staff conditions in many nurseries turned out to be the crucial stress source, along with large groups, insufficient teacher-child ratio, time pressure and multitasking. In the concluding discussion of the study results, we consider possible measures to reduce stress and to improve working conditions for nursery school teachers. PMID:25025291

Jungbauer, J; Ehlen, S



Accountability in Teacher Education: Fourth-Year Results from a Longitudinal Study Evaluating a Redesigned Teacher Education Program. (United States)

Western Illinois University's College of Education and Human Services has redesigned its teacher education program for pre-service elementary teachers. The redesigned program provides more classroom observations and onsite field experiences in the schools at earlier stages in student teachers' education and offers methods classes with integrated…

Godt, Pamela T.; Benelli, Cecelia; Kline, Rhonda



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Full Text Available The article deals with developing the teacher’s competence in the use of information and communications technology and gives the author’s opinion on the ways to develop IT-competence.The article views the teacher’s IT-competence as the ability to efficiently perform professional duties making use of the information and communications technology resources according to the achieved level of computer skills influenced by the personal learning environment and the learning environment of the educational institution.DOI:

Vladimir Borisovich Klepikov



Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers? The Results of a National Survey (United States)

Previous studies have focused on how well students are learning economics, how teachers are trained, and other outcomes associated with improved understanding of economics. However, almost nothing is reported in the research literature on economics teachers' views of the curriculum, how they teach their subject, their views on public issues, and…

Schug, Mark C.; Dieterle, David; Clark, J. R.



The Master Teacher Program: Professional Development for College Teachers  


In this qualitative study I explored six college (CEGEP) teachers’ perspectives on teaching and learning over a two-year period, as they completed the first four courses in a professional development program, the Master Teacher Program (MTP). Repeated, semi-structured interviews were analyzed, using the complementary processes of categorizing and connecting. Results revealed, through four patterns and three major dimensions, a process of evolution from a teacher- to a learner-centered p...

Susan Kerwin-Boudreau



Facilitating Teachers in Developing Online PBL Courses  


Developing a sound online problem-based learning (PBL) course plan is difficult because teachers need comprehensive PBL and technical knowledge. This paper proposes a model-driven approach to develop a PBL authoring tool that helps teachers create and customize online PBL course plans in a cost-effective and flexible manner. A pilot study was conducted to assess teacher acceptance of the tool. The results reveal that after a short training session, teachers understood the authoring tool and t...

Miao, Yongwu; Samaka, Mohammed; Impagliazzo, John




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Full Text Available Teachers play a prominent role in national and social reconstruction and in transmission of wisdom, knowledge and experiences of one generation, to another generation. This study was carried out to identify the prospective teachers' Sense of responsibility towards environment at bachelor of education level in National Capital Region (NCR. The sample comprised of 100 prospective teachers (males & females of B. Ed colleges. Data was collected from prospective teachers, through an Environmental Responsibility Assessment Inventory (ERAI. The results of the study revealed that State Board and CBSE Board prospective teachers are equally aware of environmental issues and overall responsibilities. English and Hindi Medium prospective teachers also bear equal environmental responsibilities.




Interrogating Practice in Culturally Diverse Classrooms: What Can an Analysis of Student Resistance and Teacher Response Reveal? (United States)

As classrooms have increasingly become diverse and complex, developing culturally responsive pedagogies is a professional imperative for teachers. However, considerable international research suggests that meeting the needs of diverse pupil cohorts is challenging for many teachers. In this article, we highlight how curriculum and teaching…

Santoro, Ninetta; Forghani-Arani, Neda



Analysis of Factors that Affect the Teacher Certification Exam Results in a University System in Puerto Rico (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect a teacher preparation exam results within a University System in Puerto Rico. Using Bertalanffy's System Theory as theoretical framework, this mixed methods study examined factors in the university system that could have affected student's preparation for a teacher exam (PCMAS by its…

Garofalo, Jorge H.



Teacher Responses to Pay-for-Performance Policies: Survey Results from Four High-Poverty, Urban School Districts (United States)

Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects on…

Wells, John



Beginning Teacher Knowledge: Results from a Self-Assessed TPACK Survey (United States)

For over twenty years teachers in Australia and internationally have been encouraged to use ICT in their practice. Various government policies have been implemented to provide the technical means for teachers to do so as well as numerous teacher professional learning programs, often skills based, short term and off site. Yet teacher uptake of…

Jordan, Kathy



Teacher Pension Preferences: Pilot Study Results. Conference Paper 2009-14 (United States)

Teacher pensions are fast becoming a significant issue in education policy. Mounting unfunded pension financial liability, likely larger numbers of retiring teachers, increasing mobility among existing teachers, and unfavorable comparisons with less generous private sector pension plans all contribute to putting pedagogues pensions in the public…

Smith, Elizabeth Ettema; Guthrie, James W.



Teachers Using Continuous GPS Data to Learn About Earthquakes - Sharing Research Results in the Classroom Through Lesson Study (United States)

This EarthScope-funded project is a collaboration between high school science teachers and their students, undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty from California State University San Bernardino (CSUSB), University of Arizona, and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). As high school teachers and their students work alongside one another, they are exposed to and contribute to an authentic research process that will lead to publishable results. The scientific goal of this project is to measure plate tectonic movement within the San Bernardino mountain area and the Inland Empire region of Southern California utilizing the Global Positioning System (GPS). Teachers and high school students collected survey-mode GPS data from 11 sites (among a total of 25 sampled by the larger group of participants) during a 5-day campaign from July 14 -19, 2011. The information obtained will be useful for understanding and characterizing seismic hazards in that region of Southern California. To enhance this experience, all of the teachers and their students have been invited to present their results at the SCEC Annual Meeting in September 2011. As part of the classroom implementation phase of the program the teachers are introduced to the Lesson Study approach. Lesson Study is a professional development process where teachers systematically examine their practice with the goal of becoming more effective. This process centers on teachers working collaboratively on a small number of Research Lessons. First, they identify the areas where their students are encountering challenges in learning standards-based content. The challenging areas are identified through results from standardized exams (e.g. California Standards Tests) or other assessment tools. To address areas of difficulty the teachers develop, test, and improve an instructional experience that promotes student learning of that standards-based material. Lesson Study is different from "lesson planning" because it focuses on what teachers want students to learn rather than on what teachers plan to teach. The 2011 teachers divided into three groups and each group is developing a Research Lesson. One of each of the group members teaches the lesson while the others observe the student learning. After the Research Lesson is taught the entire group comes together to debrief the lesson, make revisions, and another member of the group re-teaches the lesson (at a later date and at a different school) to incorporate what has been learned. This presentation will discuss how the CSUSB project has developed a successful framework for providing teachers with a valuable research experience as well as allowing an opportunity for them to think systematically about their craft, learn from experience, and become members of a learning community of practice.

de Groot, R. M.; McGill, S. F.



Strengthening TPACK: A Broader Notion of Context and the Use of Teacher's Narratives to Reveal Knowledge Construction (United States)

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework to understand and foster teachers' knowledge for efficient technology integration has the value of unveiling new types of knowledge and departing from technocentric approaches. In this article, we consider two approaches to advance this framework. One of these opens the discussion…

Porras-Hernandez, Laura Helena; Salinas-Amescua, Bertha



Teacher Misconceptions and Understanding of Cooperative Learning: An Intervention Study (United States)

The study presents the results of an educational intervention during in-service training of secondary school teachers in Cyprus, which led to participants' development. The aim was twofold, first to reveal teachers' conception about cooperative learning and second to help teachers through simulation of cooperative learning to construct the…

Koutselini, Mary



Emotional Competence and Stressors of Female School Teachers (United States)

A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7 and…

Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.





This study is an attempt to find out teachers’ attitude about the system of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. The sample consisted of 100 teachers from government and non-government schools of Dist. Sonipat, Haryana. For the collection of data, the investigator used, “Teachers attitude scale towards continuous comprehensive evaluation” developed by Dr. Vishal Sood and Dr. Arti Anand. The result of the study revealed that most of the teachers have highly favour...

Indu Rathee



Teachers' Statistical Problem Solving with Dynamic Technology: Research Results across Multiple Institutions (United States)

This study examined a random stratified sample (n = 62) of prospective teachers' work across eight institutions on three tasks that utilized dynamic statistical software. The authors considered how teachers utilized their statistical knowledge and technological statistical knowledge to engage in cycles of investigation. This paper characterizes…

Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Kersaint, Gladis; Harper, Suzanne; Driskell, Shannon O.; Leatham, Keith R.



Elementary School Teachers' Comprehension of Data Displays (United States)

This study investigated elementary school teachers' comprehension of data displays. Assessment, interview, and observation data were analyzed to determine their level of comprehension. Results revealed that the teachers were proficient at "reading the data" and computation types of "reading between the data" questions, but were unsuccessful with…

Jacobbe, Timothy; Horton, Robert M.



Bringing Real-Life Marine Science Experience to the Classroom: Results From a Teacher in the Bering Sea (United States)

Many public school science teachers are "textbook" teachers who lack basic research experience. Conversely, many scientists fail to relate their findings back to the general public in a meaningful way. The ARMADA project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is an effective program that exposes teachers to real-world oceanographic experiences. Additionally, the ARMADA project provides opportunities for teachers to pass on first hand experiences from the research community to their classrooms. After participating in a month long cruise aboard the USCGC Healy during July 2008 as part of the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST), a new appreciation for field research was developed. As part of a group from the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, first hand experience was gained on how marine scientists study the effects of global climate change in the Bering Sea. These experiences at sea have resulted in changes to the marine biology class curriculum to include the tools and techniques used by marine scientists to conduct their work. One lesson in particular discusses anthropogenic impacts on polar regions. In addition, students' attitudes toward the class have changed. For example, a lesson on global climate change from a teacher who has first hand experience of climate change research is far more effective than from one who lacks it. The effect of having a teacher who has unique field experience in front of the classroom on students is immeasurable. In addition, the presence of a teacher at sea encourages the scientists to reduce their work to the most significant observations and conclusions on a daily basis during the cruise, helping to prepare the scientists for future public communications. In this manner, the gap between science research and public education is reduced.

Karavias, J. A.; Kelly, R. P.



Estudos de caso revelam efeitos socio-pedagógicos de um programa de formação de professores / Study cases reveal socio-pedagogical consequences of a teacher development program  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente texto pretende mostrar o potencial dos estudos de caso para revelar mudanças em contextos escolares e em concepções e práticas de professores que participaram do PROFORMAÇÃO - Programa de Formação de Professores em Exercício. A primeira parte do texto descreve brevemente o Programa de For [...] mação que se destina a certificar professores leigos em exercício nas escolas das regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro Oeste do país. Na segunda parte são apresentados os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados na realização de seis estudos de caso, que incluíram visitas às salas de aula dos cursistas, entrevistas, análises de memoriais e aplicação de testes de desempenho. A terceira parte do texto discute os principais resultados do estudo avaliativo: mudanças em concepções e práticas pedagógicas dos professores, melhoria em suas habilidades de escrita e em sua auto-estima, valorização da cultura local e das experiências dos alunos e efeitos positivos nas políticas locais e nos contextos escolares. Abstract in english This paper aims to show the capacity of case studies to evidence changes in school contexts and in the concepts and practices of teachers who have taken part in PROFORMAÇÃO - a program for the development of teachers who are effectively teaching. The first part of the paper briefly describes the tea [...] cher development program, which aims at certifying untrained teachers working in the northern, north-eastern and centre-western areas of the country. In the second part the methodological procedures will be presented which were used in the development of six case studies, which included visits to the trainees’ classrooms, interviews, analyses of memoirs and the application of assessment tests. The third part discusses the main results of the assessment study: changes in the teachers’ pedagogical concepts and practices, improvement in their writing skills, in their self-esteem and in their perception of the local cultures with positive results in the local policies and the school contexts.

Marli, André.


An educational campaign about epilepsy among Italian primary school teachers. 2. The results of a focused training program. (United States)

A cohort of 582 Italian primary school teachers underwent a questionnaire survey to test their knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy and verify whether an intensive and focused educational program could result in improvement of knowledge and attitudes. The program consisted of a presentation of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and the distribution of informative brochures and an educational kit on the disease and its management to be used with their students. After several months, 317 teachers were retested using the same questions. Upon retest, the number of "don't know" answers decreased significantly for almost all questions. This was not the case for negative attitudes. The same holds true for teachers believing that epilepsy is a source of learning disability and social disadvantage. These findings support the beliefs that education on epilepsy is more likely to affect ignorance than prejudice and that stronger interventions are needed to counteract stigmatizing behaviors. PMID:25500360

Mecarelli, Oriano; Messina, Paolo; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Michelucci, Roberto; Romeo, Antonino; Beghi, Ettore; De Simone, Roberto; Cerquiglini, Antonella; Vecchi, Marilena; Boniver, Clementina; Monti, Fabrizio; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Baldassarri, Chiara; Cesaroni, Elisabetta; Stranci, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Severi, Sauro; Pizzanelli, Chiara; Ausserer, Harald; Montalenti, Elisa; Pieri, Ilaria; Germano, Michele; Cantisani, Teresa; Casellato, Susanna; Pruna, Dario



The Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory and Teachers' Ratings: An Investigation of Unexpected Results (United States)

Paper concludes with a discussion aimed at underlining, and to some extent explaining, differences between teachers' ratings and questionnaire responses in the sphere of emotional stability-instability. (Author)

Cookson, D.



Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers’ Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required For Teaching Mathematics  

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Full Text Available Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics that have been emphasized in the research literature. When the teachers freely described their views, issues related to content knowledge and the requisite knowledge for teaching mathematics were emphasized. The teachers valued most of the knowledge types available, even if only a few of them had highlighted them earlier in the interview. Some types, however, remained ambiguous from the teachers’ perspective. Our findings suggest that even if the mentor teachers are considered experts in mathematics teaching, they are not necessarily able to conceptualize their view of the knowledge required for mathematics teaching, or they may have their own views of the necessary types of knowledge. This in turn may impede student teachers in connecting their educational studies with mathematics studies during student teaching. In addition, it was found that mentor teachers frequently hold personal views about the importance of the types of mathematics teacher knowledge that may be valuable for student teachers when they are reflecting their own view of the requisite knowledge for teaching and the type of a teacher they want to become.

Mervi A. Asikainen





This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships w...




What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Results from a Survey of AMI and AMS Teacher Trainers (United States)

There are two major types of Montessori teacher education in the United States: (1) AMI-USA (the American branch of the Association Montessori Internationale, founded by Dr. Montessori to carry on her work); and (2) AMS (American Montessori Society, founded by Nancy Rambusch to represent Montessori in America). This article presents the results

Lillard, Angeline S.



An examination of an aspect of the worldview of female college science teachers as revealed by their concepts of nature (United States)

American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.

Tryon, Lisa A.


Case, Teacher and School Characteristics Influencing Teachers' Detection and Reporting of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: Results from an Australian Survey (United States)

Objective: To identify the influence of multiple case, teacher and school characteristics on Australian primary school teachers' propensity to detect and report child physical abuse and neglect using vignettes as short hypothetical cases. Methods: A sample of 254 teachers completed a self-report questionnaire. They responded to a series of 32…

Walsh, Kerryann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Farrell, Ann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Schweitzer, Robert



Teacher Perceptions of NeuroEducation: A Mixed Methods Survey of Teachers in the United States (United States)

Pickering and Howard-Jones (2007) reported educators' enthusiasm for NeuroEducation from a sample of teachers attending neuroscience professional development courses. Their results revealed teachers: (1) are enthusiastic about the role of neuroscience in education; (2) believe an understanding of the brain for educational program development is…

Serpati, Lauren; Loughan, Ashlee R.



Teacher Power Mediates the Effects of Technology Policies on Teacher Credibility (United States)

In this study, we examined the relationship between perceived technology policies and perceived teacher credibility, as well as the extent to which teachers' use of power bases mediates this association. Participants included 294 undergraduate students from a private university in the Southwest. Results revealed that policies encouraging…

Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.



Preservice Teachers’ Metaphors about University Teacher and Metaphor as an Evaluation Tool  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal preservice teachers’ metaphors about the lecturers at university. Study group of the research consists of 347 preservice teachers enrolled at three different education faculties in Turkey in 2011-2012 academic year. Data was obtained from the preservice teachers??? completion of the sentences such as “University teacher is like ..., because ...”. For analysing the data quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. As a result, 183 metaphors were determined about University teachers in 16 conceptual categories. The categories which produced metaphors most about the University teachers are as follows; university teachers as the source and passer one of the knowledge (42 metaphors, the university teacher as a guide one (38 metaphors, the university teacher as a changing one (24 metaphors, the university teacher as a scary-repelling one (21 metaphors, the university teacher as a versatile one (17 metaphors respectively. Besides, the metaphors can be used as an evaluation tool for determining the performance of a university teacher at studies of increasing quality in higher education.

Hasan Said TORTOP



What it’s like being a Waldorf teacher. Results of an empirical survey  

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Full Text Available In 2011 Dirk Randoll carried out a major study on job satisfaction among Waldorf teachers. He looked at their working conditions, various aspects of work-load as well their general attitude to their profession. This article presents a comprehensive summary of his findings. Work-load and modes of coping with it were considered in relation both to conditions in the school system in general and to certain ones peculiar to Waldorf schools (e.g., management by the college of teachers, pedagogical ethos. In selected areas of concern answers given by state teachers were included by way of comparison. The questionnaire was filled in by a representative sample of 1,807 Waldorf teachers from 105 Waldorf schools in Germany. In addition to the areas already mentioned, the following aspects were addressed: training, salary levels, professional behaviour, and challenges for the future. The findings demonstrate a fairly high level of job satisfaction, although the pressure of work-load was felt to be high. A number of critical points also emerged, such as questions about the efficiency of participatory management and the prognosis for future development.

Ines Graudenz



Examining the Heterotypic Continuity of Aggression Using Teacher Reports: Results from a National Canadian Study (United States)

This study examined the heterotypic continuity of aggression hypothesis (physical to indirect) using independent teacher reports of aggression drawn from a nationally representative sample of 749 Canadian girls and boys. Confirmatory factor analysis using an accelerated longitudinal design confirmed a two-factor model of physical and indirect…

Miller, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.



Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon (United States)

This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

Lange, Sarah



Design, Delivery, and Results of the Earth and Space Science Partnership Teacher Professional Development Program (United States)

The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists and science educators with seven school districts across Pennsylvania. Part of the multi-faceted ESSP effort includes long-term professional development that is built around annual summer workshops for middle grades teachers in several content areas, including Solar System astronomy. Our project was initially funded for five years (we are in year 3 now), so teachers remain engaged with the ESSP for longer than many professional development programs. This project duration allows us to implement several methods for building on the summer workshops: (1) Teachers are able to repeat workshops in a content area more than once, which means that in most of our workshops we have a mix of veteran teachers and those new to the program, (2) three meetings are held throughout the school year where all partners revisit the content and pedagogy from the summer, and (3) the teachers are encouraged and supported in their own efforts to create learning communities in their districts that meet more frequently. In this poster, we report on our efforts to impact the teaching of Earth and Space Science by offering a professional development program designed around coherent content storylines and a claims/evidence/reasoning (CER) framework. We will present the storyline from our summer 2012 astronomy workshop and samples of the CER activities that were developed to align with pieces of the storyline. Finally, we will discuss how aspects of the storyline / CER approach are being implemented in the sixth grade curriculum of one of our partner school districts, the Bellefonte Area School District. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF from a Targeted Math Science Partnership award DUE#0962792.

Palma, Christopher; Flarend, A.; Petula, J.; Richards, M. T.; Spotts, H.; McDonald, S.; Furman, T.



Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Beliefs: What Is the Relationship in Elementary Pre-Service Teachers? (United States)

Three hundred-one pre-service teachers enrolled in elementary teacher education program were administered two surveys to measure mathematics anxiety and mathematical beliefs. Results of the study revealed that there were significant differences between third year and fourth year pre-service teachers regarding their mathematics anxiety and…

Haciomeroglu, Guney



Effect of Teacher’s Qualification on the Performance of Senior Secondary School Physics Students: Implication on Technology in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the effect of teacher’s qualification on the performance of Senior Secondary School students in Physics. The purpose was to determine whether the status of the teacher has any impact on the performance of the students in Physics. The survey type of descriptive research design was adopted. The sample for the study consisted of 100 Senior Secondary Schools Physics students in Ekiti State and the teachers that prepared and presented the students in each school for 2009/2010 West African School Certificate Examination. The year’s result summary for each school was collated with the bio-data of their respective Physics teachers. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. The data collated were analysed using inferential statistics. The results revealed that students taught by teachers with higher qualifications performed better than those taught by teachers with lower qualifications. It was also showed that students performed better in physics when taught by professional teachers. The result also showed that teacher’s gender has no effect on their ability to impact knowledge on the students, much as he/she is a skilled teacher in that field of study. However, the experience of the teacher is significant at impacting the students’ academic performance in Physics. Based on the findings, it was recommended that experienced teachers with professional qualifications in higher level should teach Physics at the certificate class.

Owolabi, Olabode Thomas



Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might not fully correspond to the two A. gambiae incipient species in their entire geographical range. These limits are discussed and operational suggestions on the choice of the most convenient method for large-scale M- and S-form identification are provided, also taking into consideration technical aspects related to the epidemiological characteristics of different study areas.

Pinto João



Achieving results in History and the role of the teacher: A learner's perspective  

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Full Text Available Matriculating in December 2013 from a co-educational government school in the Western Cape, the writer was the top student in the National Senior Certificate examinations for History in the Province. She shares her personal experience, by providing insight from a learner's perspective, on the import [...] ance of studying history. She further shares her opinion on how a learner's achievement can be directly affected by a teacher's input and method of teaching. Based on her experience, she comments on the traits present in a superior teacher, teaching methods and techniques which she found effective in her learning experience, and what aspects of teaching contributed to her academic success, passion for history and its utility, and development as a person.

Maxine F, Gibb.



The Mysteries of Seamounts: Case Study Results of a Teacher Research Experience (United States)

Based on our classroom experiences, earth sciences websites can form the foundation for scientific discovery for students as young as 12. Using the latest developments in digital library technology and research models from the ERESE 2005 Plate Tectonics Teacher Workshop, Crossroads Academy sixth grade scientists developed a research program on biodiversity, volcanology, tectonic setting, life cycle and physical structure of seamounts. Using their own questions as starting points for individual inquiry, each student developed a testable hypothesis, gathered and analyzed data from selected seamount websites and reached a significant conclusion on an important aspect of seamounts. All of the work was documented in lab reports written as html files. References were linked into the lab reports to facilitate the teacher's checking of data sources and of the student's interpretations of their data. The links also provided a simple mechanism for twelve year olds to accurately cite data sources. Lab reports were presented to the class during a formal research session. The completed lab reports produced a student generated research database that was initially used by the students to complete a separate lab on factors influencing biodiversity at seamounts. Finally, the student investigators were able to work as a research team to answer a variety of additional questions posed by the teacher and other students.

Hjelm, E. E.



Teacher Burnout in Agricultural Education. (United States)

Results of the Maslach Burnout Inventory completed by 164 secondary agriculture teachers revealed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization in relationships, and a high degree of personal accomplishment. Gender, degree, contract length, preservice versus lateral entry method, school/department size, and community…

Croom, D. Barry



Are teacher candidates able to use educational technologies effectively? A case study in terms of standards  


The present study aims at investigating the educational technology use of teacher candidates attending education faculties in Turkey in terms of NETS*T standards. The study employed 2.566 senior teacher candidates from 7 different universities in Turkey. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the teacher candidates considered themselves to have a high level of self-efficacy with respect to educational technology standards as a whole. Considering the factors, teacher candidates reporte...

Ahmet Naci Çoklar; Hatice Ferhan Odaba??




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Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in leadership positions in Turkish work life as well as in other countries. There are some social and personal barriers preventing women from managerial positions. One of the area in which women are underrepresented is school leadership. The main purpose of this study is to describe the attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions in schools. In accordance with the main purpose of the study it was investigated whether there were any differences between the attitudes and the views of the primary teacher and the primary pre-service teachers. The attitudes and the views about the barriers facing female teachers in school leadership were also compared according to gender and the grades of the primary pre-service teachers. Data were collected from 114 primary teachers working in primary schools in Çayeli district and 192 primary pre-service teachers attending primary school teacher training program in the Faculty of Education in Rize University.The attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions were described in two dimensions, personal attitudes and views, and social attitudes and views. Study results revealed that the attitudes and views differentiated significantly due to gender and position (teacher or pre-service teacher in both dimensions. Moreover, it was indicated that gender and the position of the primary teachers and the primary pre-service teachers have significant joint effects on the personal attitudes and views whereas joint effects of the gender and positions on the social attitudes and views were not observed at statistically significant level. As a conclusion, study results indicated that female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers have not negative attitudes and views for female promoting to school leadership as much as their male counterparts. However, female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers seemed to accept voluntarily the social female roles more than male primary teachers and male primary pre-service teachers.In accordance with the study results some suggestions were developed. First of all, it was proposed that traditional gender roles should be redefined in Turkish Educational System. Secondly, gender discrimination subject might take place in teacher training programs. Moreover, further gender studies were recommended in terms of motivation, stress, work satisfaction, work performance, work commitment and organizational culture.

Cemalettin ?PEK



Analysis of changes in teachers concerning constructivist perceptions, philosophies, and practices resulting from the year-long Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Project (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which teachers were able to make changes needed to move toward the use of more constructivist behaviors after being involved in the year long Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP). Constructivist behaviors were investigated from four perspectives; namely, actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes, teachers and student perceptions of teacher use of constructivist teaching practices, teacher philosophy as revealed from the open-ended Philosophy of Teaching and Learning Instrument (PTL), and teacher reflections about their inquiry classrooms and uses of questioning strategies. Twenty-seven teacher participants and 321 of their students volunteered to participant in this study. Four types of data were collected to answer the research questions, namely (a) Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), (b) Philosophies of Teaching and Learning (PTL), (c) Videotapes evaluated with the Expert Science Teaching Evaluation Model (ESTEEM), and (d) Teacher Reflections regarding teaching strategies and questioning. Major findings include the following: (1) Teachers in the project showed significant growth concerning constructivist perceptions over time and for all six sub-scales of TCLES, namely personal relevance, scientific uncertainty, critical voice, shared control, student negotiation, and attitude toward science. (2) Teachers in the project indicated significant growth concerning philosophy of teaching and learning as measured by the PTL. (3) Teachers in the project indicated significant growth concerning constructivist teaching practices as evaluated by videotapes (using the ESTEEM instrument); significant differences were found for all four sub-scales of the ESTEEM. (4) Students in the project indicated significant growth concerning their constructivist perceptions over time for the total SCLES score and on the sub-scales of scientific uncertainty, shared control, and student negotiation. There were no significant differences found for the sub-scales, personal relevance, critical voice, and attitude toward science. (5) There were significant differences when comparing both teacher and student perceptions for the total CLES and for the sub-scales scientific uncertainty, critical voice, shared control, and student negotiation but not for personal relevance and attitude toward science. (6) Teacher reflections provided positive reflections concerning their experiences with improving questioning skills and treating science as inquiry.

Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah


Changes in teacher efficacy and beliefs during a one-year teacher preparation program (United States)

This study attempted to further understanding of factors affecting the teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary science preservice teachers, and to develop a model relating teacher efficacy to beliefs about teaching and students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was utilized in order to track participants' beliefs both broadly and in depth throughout a one-year teacher preparation program. Results from this analysis revealed that preservice teachers at the end of the program had significantly higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs than at the beginning of the program. No significant difference in science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs was found, although individual preservice teachers did develop alternate beliefs. Teacher efficacy beliefs were directly affected by three of Bandura's four sources of self-efficacy beliefs---Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion---with the influence of each source of self-efficacy information appearing to change during the course of the teacher preparation program. No evidence was found that affective states by themselves had resulted in belief changes, although many of the other experiences were more powerful because they were accompanied by an emotional incident. Connections between teacher efficacy beliefs, beliefs about students, and beliefs about teaching were uncovered, as was the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on a teacher's sense of efficacy.

Lockman, Alison Schirmer


No Evidence That Incentive Pay for Teacher Teams Improves Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Trial. Research Brief (United States)

Researchers examined whether rewarding teams of teachers for student performance had an effect on student achievement or teacher practices or attitudes in a demonstration project in Round Rock, Texas. They found that the intervention had no effect in any of these areas. Students taught by teacher teams who were offered incentives scored slightly…

Adamson, David M.



Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis (United States)

Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of climate change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about climate change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about climate change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.

Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami



What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal about the Movement toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All? (United States)

In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…

Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal



Interactive Visualization and Navigation of Web Search Results Revealing Community Structures and Bridges  


With the information overload on the Internet, organization and visualization of web search results so as to facilitate faster access to information is a necessity. The classical methods present search results as an ordered list of web pages ranked in terms of relevance to the searched topic. Users thus have to scan text snippets or navigate through various pages before finding the required information. In this paper we present an interactive visualization system for content analysis of web s...

Sallaberry, Arnaud; Zaidi, Faraz; Pich, C.; Melanc?on, Guy



Relationship between High School Principals' Humor Styles and Teacher Leadership  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the relationship between high school teachers' perceptions of teacher leadership and school principals' humor styles. A total of 252 teachers employed in 12 high schools located in the city centre of Ankara, Turkey participated in the study. “The Humor Behavior Scale” developed by Cemalo?lu, Recepo?lu, ?ahin, Da?ç? and Köktürk (2013 and “The Teacher Leadership Scale” developed by Beycio?lu and Aslan (2010 were used to gather data. Results of the study indicated that productive-social humor style was positively and significantly correlated with such dimensions of teacher leadership as institutional improvement, professional improvement, and collaboration among colleagues. Results also revealed that the productive-social humor style was a significant predictor of institutional improvement and professional improvement. Results were discussed within the context of the improvement of the leadership behaviors of teachers.

Ali Ça?atay K?l?nç



Exoplanet hosts reveal lithium depletion: Results from a homogeneous statistical analysis  

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Aims. We study the impact of the presence of planets on the lithium abundance of host stars and evaluate the previous claim that planet hosts exhibit lithium depletion when compared to their non-host counterparts. Methods. Using previously published lithium abundances, we remove the confounding effect of the different fundamental stellar parameters by applying a multivariable regression on our dataset. In doing so, we explicitly make an assumption made implicitly by different authors: that lithium abundance depends linearly on fundamental stellar parameters. Using a moderator variable to distinguish stars with planets from those without, we evaluate the existence of an offset in lithium abundances between the two groups. We perform this analysis first for stars that present a clear lithium detection exclusively and include in a second analysis upper lithium measurements. Results. Our analysis shows that under the above-mentioned assumption of linearity, a statistically significant negative offset in lithium a...

Figueira, P; Delgado-Mena, E; Adibekyan, V Zh; Sousa, S G; Santos, N C; Israelian, G




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Full Text Available This study is an attempt to find out teachers’ attitude about the system of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. The sample consisted of 100 teachers from government and non-government schools of Dist. Sonipat, Haryana. For the collection of data, the investigator used, “Teachers attitude scale towards continuous comprehensive evaluation” developed by Dr. Vishal Sood and Dr. Arti Anand. The result of the study revealed that most of the teachers have highly favourable attitude towards CCE. The overall results indicated that there is significant difference between the attitude of school teachers towards continuous comprehensive evaluation in relation to the nature of the school but teachers have a same kind of attitude towards CCE in relation to their subjects and teaching experience.

Indu Rathee



Exoplanet hosts reveal lithium depletion. Results from a homogeneous statistical analysis (United States)

Aims: We study the impact of the presence of planets on the lithium abundance of host stars and evaluate the previous claim that planet hosts exhibit lithium depletion when compared to their non-host counterparts. Methods: Using previously published lithium abundances, we remove the confounding effect of the different fundamental stellar parameters by applying a multivariable regression on our dataset. In doing so, we explicitly make an assumption made implicitly by different authors: that lithium abundance depends linearly on fundamental stellar parameters. Using a moderator variable to distinguish stars with planets from those without, we evaluate the existence of an offset in lithium abundances between the two groups. We perform this analysis first for stars that present a clear lithium detection exclusively and include in a second analysis upper lithium measurements. Results: Our analysis shows that under the above-mentioned assumption of linearity, an offset in lithium abundance between planet hosts and non-hosts is recovered. This offset is negative, showing an enhanced depletion for planetary hosts, and is a statistically significant result. By bootstrapping the error bars, we concluded that an inflation on the lithium uncertainty estimations by a factor of larger than 5 is required to render the measured offset compatible with zero at less than 3-4? and make it non-significant. We demonstrated that the offset as delivered by our method depends on the different nature of the stars in the two samples. We did so by showing that the offset is reduced down to zero if the planet-host stars are replaced by comparison stars in a mock planet-host sample. The offset is also shown to be significant at 3.75? when compared with that of a population in which planet-host and comparison tags are shuffled, representing a situation in which the tagging is decorrelated from the presence of orbiting planets. Moreover, the measured depletion is still significant when one imposes different constraints on the dataset, such as a limit in planetary mass or constrain the host temperature to around solar value. We conclude then that planet-host stars exhibit enhanced lithium depletion when compared with non-host stars.

Figueira, P.; Faria, J. P.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Israelian, G.



Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers  

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Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment

Seyedehhava Mousavy



The analysis of principle’s, supervisor’s and teacher’s perception of the term “teacher  

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Full Text Available Teachers are among the fundamental elements of education. The teacher has significant roles both within the society and the school. The place and importance of the teacher, particularly in the success of the students, cannot be denied. In this context, teaching as a career is a distinctive profession that requires professionalism. The profession of teaching requires expertise, as well as the support of both principals and primary education supervisors from time to time. For this reason, collaboration and cooperation among the teacher, the principal and the supervisor is inevitable for the success of the teacher, and consequently, the success of education. In order to maintain this collaboration and cooperation, it is necessary that principals, teachers and primary education supervisors act being aware of the expectations and needs of the others. The success of teachers and consequently the accomplishment of students can be maintained through utilizing the perceptions of principals and supervisors towards teachers. The aim of the present study is to determine the perceptions of primary school supervisors, primary school principals and teachers towards the teacher through the use of metaphors and discover the roles expected of the teachers. The study is a descriptive research study intended to determine and analyze the present situation. In the study, a qualitative research method was used to collect, analyze and interpret the research data. The sample group of the study consisted of 51 educational supervisors on duty in the province of Konya, 73 primary school administrators (65 headmasters and 8 deputy headmasters and 154 teachers employed in the three central districts located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in the academic year of 2008-2009. The research data was collected by requesting the participants to complete the sentence “A teacher is like ......, because.......” in written form. The collected data was analyzed through content analysis. The metaphors produced by the participants were divided into 13 themes as; incompetent, devoted, hardworking, enlightening, shaper, leader, inefficient, cheap labor, monotonous, inconsistent, lazy, aggressive and crushed, by also taking the explanations into consideration. The results of the analyses showed that educational supervisors, principals and teachers perceived the teachers as individuals showing (1 positive (devoted, hardworking, enlightening, shaper and leader and (2 negative (incompetent, inefficient, cheap labor, monotonous, inconsistent, lazy, aggressive and crushed attitudes. When these two findings are interpreted together, it can be seen that supervisors, principals and teachers perceive teachers both as enlightening and shaping leaders who work devotedly without expecting any return in spite of all sorts of difficulties, and also as incompetent, inefficient and lazy individuals. The findings reveal the view that, besides the positive roles expected of the teachers, there are also teachers who cannot adequately meet these expectations. Furthermore, it can be stated that in order to perform the roles expected of them, teachers need to be authorized in accordance with their responsibilities, to have a better economic status and to be respected within the society. Suggestions: (1 School-based research studies should be conducted in order to determine the points that prevent the authorization of teachers in accordance with their responsibilities, (2 It should be maintained that primary education supervisors and school principals endeavour to understand the teachers and provide the required support in education and teaching activities (3 Senior managements, particularly principals, should create democratic environments in order to maintain the participation of teachers in the administration of schools and take the requests and suggestions of teachers into consideration.

Atila Y?ld?r?m



Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4004 (United States)

One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey



Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. NCEE 2014-4003 (United States)

One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey



Excellent Mentor Teachers’ Skills in Mentoring for Pre-Service Teachers  

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Full Text Available This study aims to identify the performances of 76 Taiwanese awarded mentor teachers inmentoring pre-service teachers by analyzing their written reports related to mentoringprocesses. An inductive content analysis method was used to construct headings and codes inrelation to mentoring skills. The analytical result reveals that 448 headings were formed andwere further categorized into six groups, reported as six mentoring skills. The mentoringskills rank-order from high to low frequencies are as follows: employing the built model as aframework for teaching guidance, guiding interpersonal interactions, fostering careercompetitive ability, encouraging reflections on internship experiences, creating mentoringplan through discussions with pre-service teachers, and giving emotional supports. Like theprevious studies, the study finding reveals that the person-oriented supports like givingemotional supports, only accounting for 1.3%, seem to be unusually used by Taiwanesementor teachers.

Shih-Hsiung Liu



America Revealed (United States)

The tagline on the America Revealed website says it all: "America Revealed explores the hidden patterns and rhythms that make America work." A remarkable series from PBS, the show talks about everything from how fresh seafood is sourced to how farmers combat crop pests. The Stories section includes a collage of images that, when scrolled over, provide accounts from a variety of people and industries. First-time visitors might want to watch the "Introduction to Manufacturing" series, which explores items that are made in the United States. Visitors can also use the Map section to look for stories of note from around the country, from Long Island to Southern California. The Teachers area includes ten lesson plans and links to additional resources. Finally, visitors can click on the Episodes area to watch complete episodes of the program.



Student-Identified Exemplary Teachers: Insights from Talented Teachers (United States)

What roles do teachers play in the development of talent and in the attitude of students toward school? Research indicates that teacher enthusiasm, feedback, and content knowledge are keys to student motivation, learning, and engagement. Research also reveals the importance of positive and supportive student/teacher relationships. In previous work…

Gentry, Marcia; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Choi, Byung-yeon



A descriptive study of the middle school science teacher behavior for required student participation in science fair competitions (United States)

This descriptive study explores three aspects of teacher behavior related to student participation in science fair competitions: teacher attitudes, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and teacher motives for required student participation. Teacher motives for required student participation may stem from curriculum and standardized test requirements, school administrators' expectations, teacher preference for a competitive student-learning mode, and teacher attitudes towards science fair competitions. Survey data collected for this study included teacher attitudes about science fair competitions, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and demographic data about middle school teachers who sponsor students in PJAS science fair competitions. The theoretical framework in this study is the theory of planned behavior proposed by Ajzen. The results from the analysis of data in this study showed that the majority of the teachers in this sample held positive attitudes towards science fair competitions and required their students to conduct science fair projects but did not require their students to participate in science fair competitions. The middle school science teachers in the sample would involve their students in PJAS competitions even if their districts did not require them to participate. The teachers in this study preferred the cooperative and individualistic student-learning modes. Teacher gender did not influence a preference for a particular student-learning mode. Using the theoretical framework from this study revealed teachers who required their students to participate in science fair competitions also required their students to conduct science fair projects.

Fisanick, Laura M.


Linking Resources to Results: The Chicago Public Education Fund's Master Teacher Initiative. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 1 (United States)

"Linking Resources to Results" explores the deliberate approach--including specific goals, a clearly articulated grantmaking strategy and benchmarks for measuring progress--the Chicago Public Education Fund used to help the Chicago Public Schools recognize, reward and deploy high-quality teachers. The case study is intended to help grantmakers see…

Grantmakers for Education, 2012




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Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most severe disabling disorders in the world in view of teachers occupational stress, this study was desinged to measure the magnitude of depression among them. Methods: 291 Teachers from 21 primary schools in esfahan city were enamined by means of beck"s test. Results: This study revealed that 89% of the teachers suffered from afferent degrees of depression i.e ,33% mild , 28.3% moderate and 27.2% sever the degree of depression decreased as the level of education increased and with age the degree of depression increased. Conclusion: In view of their occupational roles, teachers are rulencable and more attention must be paid to their needs.




The Role of Teacher Leaders in School Improvement through the Perceptions of Principals and Teachers  

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Full Text Available These researchers examined the perceptions of fifteen principals and 96 classroom teachers regarding the role of teacher leadership in school improvement. The data revealed significant differences in how principals and teachers perceive teachers’ involvement in teacher leadership roles, in ratings of involvement of teachers in leadership roles when compared to the ratings of how involved they would like to be in those same roles, and how principals and teachers perceived the impact of teacher leadership roles on school improvement. Implications for practice are important to principals, teachers, and district level personnel.

Nancy Akert



Teachers Teaching Teachers (United States)

A guide for teachers in school to make teaching chemistry in a more interesting way is given. Practical experience not only facilitates the student's own learning, but also helps them to see how teachers can influence the next generation of students.

Mason, Diana S.



Computer Science and IT Teachers' Conceptions of Successful and Unsuccessful Teaching: A Phenomenographic Study (United States)

In this paper we present the results of a phenomenographic study revealing the conceptions of successful and unsuccessful teaching among information and communication technology, information technology (IT), and computer science academics. We examine ways in which the understandings of IT teachers are similar to or differ from other teachers in…

Carbone, Angela; Mannila, Linda; Fitzgerald, Sue



Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities (United States)

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.



Administrational Factors as Predictors of Teacher Burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at measuring the perceived burnout levels of Iranian (N= 230 and Turkish (N=156 EFL teachers and determining the role of four administrational factors (i.e., Teacher Autonomy, Reward Adequacy, Fairness, and Fringe Benefits in predicting EE, DP and PA burnout processes across Iranian and Turkish EFL teachers. The MBI-ES was used to measure the perceived burnout levels of the participants, and a four-dimension scale (41 items was developed based on the literature study to measure the participants’ perceptions in these four areas. The average internal consistency reliability of the 41-item scale was r = 0.703. The results of t-tests analyses showed that there was a slight significant difference between Iranian and Turkish groups only in EE burnout processes. Moreover, the results of regression analyses showed that EE, DP, and PA subscales were better predicted by Fairness factor among Iranian teachers, while by Teacher Autonomy among Turkish teachers. Finally, the contrasted results also revealed that Teacher Autonomy, Reward Adequacy, and Fairness factors had cross-culturally discriminatory roles, while Fringe Benefits factor did not have.




Administrational Factors as Predictors of Teacher Burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at measuring the perceived burnout levels of Iranian (N= 230 and Turkish (N=156 EFL teachers and determining the role of four administrational factors (i.e., Teacher Autonomy, Reward Adequacy, Fairness, and Fringe Benefits in predicting EE, DP and PA burnout processes across Iranian and Turkish EFL teachers. The MBI-ES was used to measure the perceived burnout levels of the participants, and a four-dimension scale (41 items was developed based on the literature study to measure the participants’ perceptions in these four areas. The average internal consistency reliability of the 41-item scale was r = 0.703. The results of t-tests analyses showed that there was a slight significant difference between Iranian and Turkish groups only in EE burnout processes. Moreover, the results of regression analyses showed that EE, DP, and PA subscales were better predicted by Fairness factor among Iranian teachers, while by Teacher Autonomy among Turkish teachers. Finally, the contrasted results also revealed that Teacher Autonomy, Reward Adequacy, and Fairness factors had cross-culturally discriminatory roles, while Fringe Benefits factor did not have.




Teacher Expectations: Determinants of Pupils' Reading Achievement. (United States)

Results of a study of teacher rankings of reading readiness suggested that teacher rankings are as reliable as reankings using the Metropolitan Readiness Tests; the results did not indicate that teacher expectations of student achievement can be altered. (FL)

Elijah, David



Investigation of the impacts of physical environment on teacher-child communication  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the effects of physical environment in pre-school education on teacher-child communication. The sample of the study is composed of 42 nursery classes and their teachers in primary schools affiliated with Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education. The study was conducted in survey model. In the study, “The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- the sub-dimensions of Classroom Space and Furnishings” was used to assess physical environment and “Teacher-Child Communication Questionnaire” which was developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher-child communication. The relation between physical environment and teacher-child communication was tested with Spearman Correlation. The results of the study revealed that teacher-child communication is a significantly related with ECER-S daily care, play and learning space sub-scale and furnishings for relaxation and comfort sub-scale.

Filiz Erbay*



A Study of Students and Teachers' Preferences and Attitudes towards Correction of Classroom Written Errors in Saudi EFL Context  

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Full Text Available It is no doubt that teacher written feedback plays an essential role in teaching writing skill. The present study, by use of questionnaire, investigates Saudi EFL students' and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards written error corrections. The study also aims at identifying the difficulties encountered by teachers and students during the feedback process. The questionnaire findings reveal that both teachers and students have positive attitudes towards written error correction. The study also shows that while teachers and students share such common preferences as the importance of error correction and the types of errors, there are considerable discrepancies as to the techniques of error correction. For instance, students favor the overall correction, whereas most teachers do not. However, the results show that students prefer teacher correction to peer and self-correction. Moreover, both the teachers and students have encountered a number of difficulties, so suggestions have been investigated so as to deal with the problems.

Arafat Hamouda



Some Student Teachers’ Conceptions of Creativity in Secondary School English  


This article explores a group of trainee teachers’ conceptions of Creativity in Secondary School English. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and interviews. Whilst there are many promising notions of creativity, the results also reveal some evidence of narrow conceptions, inconsistent thinking and some misconceptions.  This suggests that there may be significant implications for teacher trainers in universities and schools if we are to equip our students with the knowledge, unde...

Beth Howell





The study was intended to find out the Attitude towards E-Learning of Higher Secondary Teachers in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 700 Higher Secondary Teachers. Mean, Standard Deviation and t values were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that the Gender, Locality had no significant difference but, Teaching subject, Teaching experience and Internet users exhibited significant difference in respect of their A...

Naga Subramani, P. C.



Teacher Educators Modelling Their Teachers? (United States)

The teacher educator is always also a teacher, and as a role model may have an important impact on student teachers' views on teaching. However, what is the impact of these teacher educator's own role models on their teaching views and practices? Do teacher educators simply imitate the positive role models and reject the bad? It is already clear…

Timmerman, Greetje



Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA(30%)), 15% (TSA(15%)), or a risk reduction suggested by low-bias risk trials of the meta-analysis corrected for heterogeneity (TSA(LBHIS)). RESULTS: A total of 174 meta-analyses were eligible; 79 out of 174 (45%) meta-analyses were statistically significant (Por=0.05) meta-analyses, TSA(30%) showed absence of evidence in 80% (insufficient information size). TSA(15%) and TSA(LBHIS) found that 95% and 91% had absence of evidence. The remaining nonsignificant meta-analyses had evidence of lack of effect. CONCLUSION: TSA reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8

Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.



Neuromyths among Teachers and Student Teachers (United States)

Many so-called brain-based educational approaches have been strongly criticized for their lack of empirical support and occasionally for their use of pseudoscientific concepts. As a result, several use the term neuromyths to refer to false beliefs or misinterpretations regarding neuroscientific facts. We surveyed both teachers and student teachers

Tardif, Eric; Doudin, Pierre-André; Meylan, Nicolas



Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences (United States)

This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical merit of reflection. Preservice elementary teachers individually and collaboratively reflected on their early field experiences and used the resulting reflections to construct profiles of an elementary science teacher respectively in synthesis papers. Data sources included journal entries and synthesis papers resulting from individual and collaborative reflections. Thematic analysis revealed that profiles of an elementary science teacher constructed from both individual and collaborative reflections were based on the roles of teacher as a guide and teacher as a mediator. Analysis further revealed that classroom management and discipline and safety were the key foci factored within individual reflections while what promotes learning and the difference between what is effective and ineffective scaffolding respectively, served as the foci within collaborative reflections. Also, collaborative reflection provided a structured approach to reflection as it drew preservice elementary teachers into collective dialogue and negotiation capturing the tensions they faced when trying to make sense of the practice of other teachers. Implications include the need to frame early field experiences with objectives that are understood by all parties involved in early field experiences; and, the need to instill the importance of observation, documentation, and reflection which collectively sum up preservice teachers' early field experiences.

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan



Regression analysis exploring teacher impact on student FCI post scores (United States)

High School Modeling Workshops are designed to improve high school physics teachers' understanding of physics and how to teach using the Modeling method. The basic assumption is that the teacher plays a critical role in their students' physics education. This study investigated teacher impacts on students' Force Concept Inventory scores, (FCI), with the hopes of identifying quantitative differences between teachers. This study examined student FCI scores from 18 teachers with at least a year of teaching high school physics. This data was then evaluated using a General Linear Model (GLM), which allowed for a regression equation to be fitted to the data. This regression equation was used to predict student post FCI scores, based on: teacher ID, student pre FCI score, gender, and representation. The results show 12 out of 18 teachers significantly impact their student post FCI scores. The GLM further revealed that of the 12 teachers only five have a positive impact on student post FCI scores. Given these differences among teachers it is our intention to extend our analysis to investigate pedagogical differences between them.

Mahadeo, Jonathan V.; Manthey, Seth R.; Brewe, Eric



A Standards-Based Professional Development Program and the Resulting Impact on Two Sixth Grade Teachers' Classroom Practices (United States)

In 2000, California introduced science content standards as part of an across the curriculum reform. This presented a special challenge for elementary teachers due to an increased emphasis on math and language arts, and limited science background and resources. This two year qualitative study looks at a professional development program that…

Bereki, Debra Lynn



German-Algerian University Exchange from the Perspective of Students and Teachers: Results of an Intercultural Survey (United States)

Academic exchange programs provide students and teachers with the opportunity to study or work temporarily at educational institutions abroad. For exchange programs to be successful in promoting intercultural education, they must be designed with their participants in mind. The present study constitutes an investigation of attitudes and…

Doring, Nicola; Lahmar, Kamel; Bouabdallah, Mohamed; Bouafia, Mohamed; Bouzid, Djamel; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich



What Makes Reform Work?–School-Based Conditions as Predictors of Teachers’ Changing Practice after a National Curriculum Reform  

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Full Text Available Educational change initiatives, whether they involve the implementation of new policies or curriculum reforms, often fail to reach the level of teachers’ classroom practices. In the search for explanations, numerous studies have either characterized teachers as resistant to change or focused on how schools’ workplace conditions have failed to influence teacher change. This study draws attention to these issues by investigating teachers’ perceptions of the degree to which a national curriculum reform has brought about changes in their teaching. The study also proposes a model of how teachers’ perceptions of school-based conditions (i.e., school leadership, teacher collaboration, and development of school-based curricula are related to teachers’ general orientations towards change and teachers’ perceptions of change as a result of the reform. The participants were 738 Norwegian teachers in public primary and lower secondary schools, and the data were analyzed using descriptive data, correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM.The results indicate that the overall influence of the reform on teachers’ teaching was moderate. The results also revealed positive relationships between teachers’ perceptions of school-based conditions, teachers’ general orientations towards change and the degree of perceived reform changes in teachers’ teaching. However, a surprising finding is that school leadership and teacher collaboration were only indirectly related to teachers’ perceptions of reform changes, mediated through teachers’ general orientations towards change. The article highlights important relationships between educational reform, school-based conditions and teachers. It also contributes knowledge that is relevant to consider for successful reform of schools and education.

Magnus R. Ramberg



A new modeling of circumsolar dust distribution near the Earth revealed by the IKAROS-ALADDIN results (United States)

One of the primary scientific objectives of the dust detector ``ALADDIN'' onboard the solar sail spacecraft ``IKAROS'' is to shed light on spatial distribution of >10-mum-sized dust particles between 0.7-1 AU heliocentric distance. The ALADDIN dust impact data have successfully revealed the local structure of the circumsolar dust distribution composed of the dust clump at the trailing side of the Earth and the gap region in the vicinity of the Earth, for the first time of in-situ dust detection in the interplanetary space. Dust number density calculated by the ALADDIN flux data for >10-mum-sized dust obtained at the trailing side of the Earth was clearly higher than that by the existing dust flux model at 1 AU heliocentric distance (i.e., Grün model), which was mainly established with past in-situ dust impacts detection in the close vicinity of the Earth and with microcrater counting on lunar rock samples. The observed discrepancy suggests difficulty in use of the Grün model to estimate the number density of >10-mum-sized dust at 1 AU heliocentric distance other than the vicinity of the Earth. Furthermore, the discrepancy cannot be explained by existing numerical simulations of the circumsolar dust distribution, in which only an effect of dust capturing by Earth’s mean motion resonances (MMRs) is considered. In addition to such dust-planets MMRs, mutual collisions among these dust particles may play a crucial role in determining the structure of dust distribution not only in the present Solar System but also in any planetary systems with debris disks. However, there has not been, so far, a universal model to simulate the dust distribution in planetary systems with considerations of the effects from both dust-planets MMRs and dust-dust collisions. In this study, a new hybrid modeling for the circumsolar dust distribution near the Earth was developed by combining the existing MMRs-only simulation results and the collision-only model. The newly developed model demonstrates a consistent estimate for the azimuthal discrepancy of the dust number density near the Earth revealed by the ALADDIN.

Hirai, Takayuki; Yano, Hajime


Exploring professional development experiences: Teachers' and facilitators' perceptions of Alabama Science in Motion (United States)

Teachers are often disillusioned because most of the professional development that they receive is inadequate (Chappuis, Chappuis, & Stiggins, 2009; Borko, 2004). With that in mind, reform efforts have placed attentive measures on the classroom and the way teachers can improve their instructional practices. The purpose of this study was to explore biology and chemistry teachers' and facilitators' perceptions of the Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) professional development experience. Furthermore, the researcher conducted this study to determine whether or not ASIM had an impact on teachers' classroom instruction. The results of this study were significant in that it allows for policy makers to analyze the effect that the ASIM experience has on reforming and restructuring science education. A mixed-method research design was utilized. Data was gathered from teachers and facilitators via survey and focus group interview responses. The population consisted of teachers who were trained with ASIM modules and facilitators who trained teachers in the area of biology and chemistry. A statistical data analysis was employed using the Pearson r correlation coefficient test (Pearson r). The results of this study revealed that effective professional development has an impact on teachers' classroom instruction. Teachers and facilitators believed that ASIM made them more effective as a teacher and contributed strongly to their students' understanding of biology and chemistry. Moreover, teachers and facilitators believed that the ASIM modules assisted them in the implementation of the standards on the Alabama Course of Study.

Burruss, Linda D.


EFL Teachers’ Perceptions on Blackboard Applications  

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Full Text Available The widespread availability of technological infrastructure has enhanced the adoption of learning management systems (LMSs in educational institutions. Blackboard is one of the most popular marketable LMSs adopted in higher education institutions. As some previous studies have viewed that positive perceptions played a vital role in adopting new technologies, this paper aims to investigate teachers’ perceptions on blackboard applications in the context of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL. To gather data, 32 EFL university teachers from Saudi Arabia were surveyed and interviewed about their perceptions toward the use of the blackboard. The results from the data instruments reveal that EFL teachers have positive perceptions on Blackboard applications to English language teaching. Most teachers view Blackboard as a structured e-learning platform that helps improve the teacher-student relationship in a course and aids to make teaching English more successful. The study findings; however, revealed that the use of blackboard as a blending learning is still focusing on administrative issues rather than pedagogical significance for language learning. Recommendations and directions for future research are highlighted at the end of this article.

Mohammed Ali Mohsen



Views of parents, teachers and children on health promotion in kindergarten : first results from formative focus groups and observations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to capture the views of children, parents and teachers on the topic of physical activity in kindergarten through observation and focus group interviews. The study was conducted in the kindergartens from the sampling group in the Danish part of PERISCOPE. 1 st methodology : Children interviewed inside by the researcher on preferable movements and settings and then observed outside during their playtime. 2 nd methodology : Children asked to draw themselves playing their most preferred physical activity. Parents and kindergarten teachers interviewed in two different groups, using an identical guide. Children are skilled in taking advantage of the space and facilities available for physical activity; girls need more support than boys to initiate physical activity; children are happy with the facilities and the toys available in the kindergarten. Teachers feel an increasing pressure to take more responsibility and initiatives for the children ’ s health habits. Parents state that if more physical activity is initiated in the kindergarten, it could make children request domestic activity. Physical activity and movement concept are too abstract for children of this age to talk about: they quickly lose their focus and concentration. The new methodology of videotaping gives the researcher the chance to interpret facial expressions to capture movement, talk and actions, and to make a distinction among children, as they tend to interrupt each other. However, this method contains a weakness, if used alone, by the fact that the shooting is only a refl ection of what the video camera has recorded.

Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg



Can teachers' global ratings identify children with academic problems? (United States)

Physicians often elicit ratings from teachers when making diagnostic, treatment, or referral decisions. The purpose of this study was to view the relationship between teachers' ratings and children's academic skills, assess the utility of teacher ratings in detecting academic problems, and thus determine whether physicians can depend on teacher ratings when making decisions about patients' needs. Subjects were a national sample of 80 teachers and 934 children between 6 and 13 years of age participating in a test standardization study. Families were representative of United States demographics in terms of parental level of education, income, and ethnicity, and sites were geographically diverse elementary schools. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills--Revised (CIBS-R), a diagnostic academic achievement test. Teachers rated children's academic performance on a five-point scale ranging from far above average to far below average and were blinded to the results of the CIBS-R. Teacher ratings varied significantly with children's performance for all academic domains. Logistic regression revealed that teacher ratings were best predicted by children's performance in basic reading skills, followed by math skills, and were not influenced by race, parents' level of education, history of retention, or gender. Participation in Title I services, testing in winter or spring, and parents who spoke a language other than English produced significantly lower ratings. Nevertheless, teachers rated as average many students with mild to moderate academic difficulties. School system personnel and health care providers should avoid sole dependence on global teacher ratings when deciding which students need special education referrals or other services. Supplementing teacher ratings with standardized screening test results is needed to ensure accurate decision-making. PMID:11437191

Glascoe, F P



The Effects of Transformational Leadership and the Sense of Calling on Job Burnout among Special Education Teachers (United States)

This article examines the effects of transformational leadership of supervisors and the sense of calling on job burnout among special education teachers. A total of 256 special education teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and rated their supervisors on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results reveal that transformational…

Gong, Tao; Zimmerli, Laurie; Hoffer, Harry E.



Exploring Factors Related to Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy (United States)

This study examined how teacher (teaching experience, perceptions of teacher collaboration and teacher influence) and classroom (children's engagement) characteristics predicted teacher self-efficacy for 48 preschool teachers in the U.S. Results showed a significant interaction effect between teachers' perceptions of collaboration and children's…

Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.; Sawyer, Brook; Tompkins, Virginia



Formação continuada de professores e resultados dos alunos no SARESP: propostas e realizações / Teacher continued education and the results of pupils in the SARESP exam: proposals and achievements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta resultados obtidos por meio da pesquisa realizada entre 2005 e 2006, intitulada Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente, cujo propósito foi analisar possibilidades e limites da utilização dos resultados obtidos pelos alunos n [...] o Sistema de Avaliação do Rendimento Escolar do Estado de São Paulo (SARESP) para a formulação e o direcionamento de políticas de formação de professores. As preocupações recaíram sobre os programas de formação em língua portuguesa para o ensino fundamental. Foram visitadas quatro das treza diretorias regionais de ensino da capital do Estado de São Paulo a fim de conhecer o trabalho de formação docente realizado e analisar em que medida ele se relacionava aos dados obtidos no SARESP. O estudo qualitativo teve como principal estratégia a enquete exploratória, com uso de roteiros de entrevista e de observação semiestruturados. O referencial teórico sintetizou contribuições de Dennis Palumbo (1998) e de Marcus Figueiredo e Argelina Figueiredo (1986) para a compreensão do conceito e das etapas da política pública, assim como de Elba Barreto e Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders e Jody Fitzpatrick (2004) e Almerindo Afonso (1998) a respeito da discussão da avaliação de programas, entre outros. Concluiu-se que, apesar de a documentação dos programas de formação e o SARESP declararem que há relação entre os resultados da avaliação e os programas propostos, a concretização desse propósito depende do engajamento dos profissionais presentes nas diretorias de ensino. As ações formais da Secretaria da Educação para induzir esse uso de resultados não se mostraram suficientes para assegurar o pretenso vínculo entre avaliação e formação docente. Abstract in english This work presents results of a study conducted between 2005 and 2006 entitled The use of the results of the SARESP Exam: the role of assessment in teacher education policies (Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente), whose purpose was to analyze possibil [...] ities and limits of the use of the results obtained by pupils in the SARESP Exam (School Performance Assessment System of the State São Paulo) to formulate and direct teacher education policies. The attention was focused on education programs for teachers of Portuguese Language to pupils in fundamental education. Four out of the thirteen Regional Education Directorships of the State of São Paulo were visited to gain acquaintance with the teacher education programs they developed and to investigate to what extent they could be related to the results achieved in the SARESP exam. The qualitative study adopted as its main strategy the exploratory survey, with the use of semi-structured interview and observation scripts. The theoretical framework employed brought together contributions by Dennis Palumbo (1998) and Marcus Figueiredo and Argelina Figueiredo (1986) to understand the concept and stages of public policy, as well as by Elba Barreto and Regina Pinto (2001), Blaine Worthen, James Sanders and Jody Fitzpatrick (2004), and by Almerindo Afonso (1998) on the discussion about assessment programs, among others. It concludes that, the statements in the teacher education program and in the SARESP documentations about the correlation between the former and pupil assessment results notwithstanding, the actual achievement of positive results depends on the effective commitment of the professionals working at the Education Directorships. Formal actions by the Secretariat for Education to foster this use of the results have proved insufficient to ensure the proposed link between pupil assessment and teacher education.

Adriana, Bauer.



An Investigation of Students’ Face Wants in Chinese English Teachers’ Classroom Feedback  

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Full Text Available In order to create a new teacher-student relationship and raise students’ politeness awareness and pragmatic competence in cross-cultural communication, this paper investigated and analyzed students’ face wants and English teachers’ awareness of students’ face want in their classroom feedback. The main data-gathering instruments are MP3-recording, non-participant observation, follow-up structured-interviews and closed- questionnaires. The results reveal that 60.6% of the teacher participants are frequently aware of their students’ face wants, and 27.2% of them are sometimes, while the other teachers seldom or never consider the students’ face want. Because of being influenced by the Chinese traditional culture in which teachers are superiors, not thoroughly understanding English Curriculum Standard which calls for human concern, and knowing a little about pragmatic theories, some Chinese English teachers ignore students’ face want. Suggestions on how to save students’ face want are put forward.

Wanli Zhao



Chemistry Teachers' Functional Paradigms. (United States)

Discusses a study which examined the interpretive process used by high school chemistry teachers in translating curriculum materials into classroom practice. Results indicate that differences exist among teachers but that commonalities are greater. Explains the functional paradigm concept and its value for the interpretation of curriculum…

Lantz, Oliver; Kass, Heidi




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Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate organizational culture and organizational commitment perceptions of the primary school teachers in Turkey. Two different scales (Organizational Culture Scale and Organizational Commitment Scale were used as data gathering instrument. Statistical analyses were utilized to examine the organizational culture and commitment perceptions of teachers in terms of their some demographic factors like gender, teaching levels, marital status, and experience. Correlation analysis was also made to describe the links between subscales of organizational culture and subscales of organizational commitment. The results revealed that primary school teachers’ perceptions of organizational culture and organizational commitment vary due to their gender, teaching levels, marital status, and experience. In terms of gender, female teachers perceived more power and supportive culture in their schools. First level teachers expressed more achievement culture and more commitment at identification level than second level teachers. Also, married teachers revealed more achievement and supportive culture and more organizational commitment at identification and internalization levels. Other findings of the study indicated that although more experienced teachers perceived more cultural orientation in all cultural dimensions and more committed to their schools at identification and internalization levels, the less experienced teachers indicated more commitment at compliance level. Finally, as commitment based on compliance positively correlated power and role cultures, and negatively correlated achievement and support culture; commitments based on identification and internalization positively related with achievement and support cultures.

Cemalettin ?PEK



Training of adult education teachers : experiences from a teacher training programme in cooperative learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from the study, as indicated by the teachers’ completed logs, and supplemented by the data from the focus group interviews, show a different picture. Two months into the project, the teachers were using CL on a large scale. The average level of their use did not increase during the academic year. By two months into the course, teachers already perceived themselves as being able to apply the method. They also reported that their skills were developed further during the course. They found that they became better at solving educational challenges, that they became more satisfied with their own teaching, and that they were better able to solve the problems deriving from the heterogeneous composition of the student group. The data thus documents measurable but limited developments in the teachers competences after the first two month. Our analysis of the teachers’ reflection skills reveals that as early as two months into the project, a high level of reflection was taking place. Contrary to our initial assumptions, there is no gradual and continuous rise of the teachers’ competence. The increase in teaching competence is located relatively early in the academic year; after that there is only modest improvement.

Wahlgren, Bjarne



Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science (United States)

The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student motivation and academic achievement in the science classroom.

Littlejohn, Vania


Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs.Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results.Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010, emotional exhaustion (p=0.005 and depersonalization (p<0.001; however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children.Conclusions: Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education.

Hadi Zarafshan



Reflective Journal Writing on the Way to Becoming Teachers  

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Full Text Available In this qualitative research study, the purpose was to analyze the reflective journal entries of the 26 pre-service teachers attending the teacher education department of a state university. These teacher candidates were asked to write their reflections on a weekly basis during the “school experience” course in the fall semester. Twelve weekly entries and the end of the year reflection reports of these pre-service teachers (338 documents all together were analyzed according to the contents; similar issues were coded; common themes were found; in the second phase, the findings were analyzed again in the light of reflective practice research to find out about the learning experiences of the pre-service teachers and to analyze in which stage of reflective practice their entries mostly fell into. The results revealed that pre-service teachers benefitted from keeping reflective journals and their reflections mostly fell under the “interpersonal stage” and did not have many comments reflecting the other stages which were procedural and conceptual. The results show that in order for the pre-service teachers to gain more awareness through reflective writing, they need to be trained on how to write reflections effectively and on the different stages related to the reflective practice.

Feyza Doyran



Functional Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System: Professional Development for PreK-3 Teachers Using a "Train and Equip" Method Results in Learning Opportunities for Students (United States)

Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train…

Burns, E. Robert



Families Speak to Early Childhood Teachers: Impressions and Expectations (United States)

Investigators interviewed 54 families of children with disabilities ages seven through nine to examine the expectations that families of young children hold for their child's teacher. Responses themes were examined to determine if a pattern existed between families of different groups of children. Results reveal many families expressed true…

Thomas, Suzanne B.; Dykes, Frank



Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on meaning, form, or forms?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Despite the worldwide curriculum innovations to teach English through meaning-focused communicative approaches over the years, studies report that most language teachers still follow transmission-based grammar-oriented approaches. It is known that the success of any curriculum innovation is dependen [...] t on teachers. Therefore, given that teaching grammar has always been a central, but problematic domain for language teachers, what teachers believe and do regarding grammar instruction is an important issue that needs to be investigated. However, studies that research teachers and their grammar teaching are rare, and almost non-existent at the elementary-level English teaching contexts. Therefore, through a questionnaire given to 108 teachers and afocus-group interview, the present study investigated Turkish primary-level English language teachers' beliefs and practice patterns of teaching grammar, and the reasons behind these patterns. The results revealed that teachers predominantly prefer the traditional focus-on-formS approach, which indicates a serious clash with teachers and curriculum goals, on the one hand, and theoretical suggestions on the other. The paper ends with discussions and suggestions for teacher education and language policy-making.

Hacer Hande, Uysal; Mehmet, Bardakci.



Students’ Perceptions of their Teachers’ Teaching of Mathematics: The Case of Ghana  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine students’ perceptions of their teachers’ teaching practices and how it impact on their learning experiences. The sample of the study involved 358 students from 12 Junior High Schools (12-14years who were randomly selected to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. The study revealed that students’ perceptions of their teachers’ teaching varies as the results established that both teacher-centred and student-centred teaching approaches were used by mathematics teachers. The study also established that teachers’ actions and inactions impact positively or negatively on students learning experiences as majority of the respondents reported that their learning experiences are to a larger extent controlled by that teacher. Majority of the respondents indicated that their teachers normally tell them which questions to solve and which methods to use. Although the study was limited only to 12 schools, the findings provide a conceptual framework for further research into how students’ views could be used by both teachers and educational authorities in improving the teaching and learning of mathematics as students’ are in a better position to provide useful information regarding their teachers teaching and how it impacts on their learning. Among others, it is recommended that students’ ratings or evaluation of their teaachers’ teaching should be considered in evaluating teachers’ teaching and effectiveness.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Ernest Ampadu



Strategies for Longitudinal Analysis of the Career Paths of Beginning Teachers: Results from the First through Fourth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Research and Development Report. NCES 2013-336 (United States)

To learn more about the early career patterns of beginning teachers, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education undertook the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS). The ultimate purpose of this report is to develop a strategy for the longitudinal analysis…

Gray, Lucinda; Brauen, Marsha



Effects of EFL Teachers’ Self-efficacy on Motivational Teaching Behaviors  

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Full Text Available This study examined the predictability of EFL teachers’ self-efficacy on their motivational teaching behaviors. Participants involved 112 English teachers from China’s tertiary education institutes selected by a “snowball” sampling strategy and also from an EFL teacher training camp. They completed a questionnaire survey of the demographic information of participants, their perception of self-efficacy, and their motivational teaching behaviors in English classroom. Results from the descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis were generated based on the survey. It indicated that college EFL teachers perceived themselves with much higher self-efficacy for instructional strategies than efficacy for classroom management and efficacy for student engagement. Also, the results revealed that two most frequently used motivational strategies by teachers in language classroom were strategies for generating students’ initial motivation and strategies for maintaining and protecting students’ motivation. The results also showed that teachers’ self-efficacy significantly contributed to the prediction of teachers’ motivational teaching behaviors and accounted for more than one third of the variance to teachers’ motivational teaching behaviors. This study confirmed that there was a direct causal relationship between English teachers’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and their adoption of motivational strategies.

Wei Huangfu



English Language Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs: Validation of the Instrument  

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Full Text Available Despite the vast studies on the measurement of teachers’ sense of efficacy, little has been done in the domain of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL. Hence, this study was motivated by a practical need to develop and validate a teacher efficacy questionnaire in TEFL. To this end, the questionnaire (English Language Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs Questionnaire (ELTEBQ was developed through semi-structured interviews with English university instructors of universities in Iran and a review of relevant literature. In order to validate the instrument it was administrated to 65 English language instructors. The result of factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution with a reliability index (Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.82.Keywords: English language instructors, Teacher efficacy, Factor analysis    

Reza Rezvani



Physics Teachers' Professional Development in the Project "physics in Context" (United States)

Developing teachers' ways of thinking about "good" instruction as well as their views of the teaching and learning process is generally seen as essential for improving teaching behaviour and implementation of more efficient teaching and learning settings. Major deficiencies of German physics instruction as revealed by a nationwide video-study on the practice of physics instruction are addressed. Teachers participating in the project are made familiar with recent views of efficient instruction on the one hand and develop context-based instructional settings on the other. The evaluation resulted in partly encouraging findings. However, it also turned out that a number of teachers' ways of thinking about good instruction did only develop to a somewhat limited degree. The most impressive changes occurred for teachers who enjoyed the most intensive coaching.

Mikelskis-Seifert, Silke; Duit, Reinders



ICT Teachers' Assigned Roles and Expectations from Them (United States)

The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of ICT teachers' assigned position and to determine school administrators' and other teachers' perceptions towards ICT teachers and these teachers' positions, and to reveal the similar and discrepant aspects of their tertiary education and the roles (work and responsibilities) assigned to…

Topu, Fatma Burcu; Goktas, Yuksel



Personal Knowledge in Educational Autobiography: An Investigation on "Good Teachers" (United States)

A good teacher has various characteristics. We can observe directly teachers' behaviors or read their professional papers. However, the effective way is to have teachers tell their personal life history or educational autobiography. The personal knowledge of a good teacher will be revealed through the personal life history. According to numerous…

Liu, Lianghua



Factor structure of the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire in Portuguese children Estrutura fatorial do Questionário de Rutter para Professores numa amostra de crianças portuguesas  


OBJECTIVE: To examine the factor structure of the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire in Portuguese primary school children. METHOD: The Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, a 26-item scale covering a variety of behavioral problems, was completed by teachers of 877 children, aged 6 to 11 years. Data were subjected to factor analysis using the principal components solution with varimax rotation. RESULTS: The factorial analysis in total sample revealed three factors explaining 38.88% of the total variance. T...

Ana Telma Pereira; Berta Rodrigues Maia; Mariana Marques; Sandra Carvalho Bos; Maria João Soares; Ana Gomes; António Macedo; Maria Helena Pinto De Azevedo



Are teacher candidates able to use educational technologies effectively? A case study in terms of standards  

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Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the educational technology use of teacher candidates attending education faculties in Turkey in terms of NETS*T standards. The study employed 2.566 senior teacher candidates from 7 different universities in Turkey. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the teacher candidates considered themselves to have a high level of self-efficacy with respect to educational technology standards as a whole. Considering the factors, teacher candidates reported the highest level of self-efficacy for the factor of productivity and professional practices and the lowest level of f-self-efficacy for the factor of social, ethical, legal and human issues. Gender caused differences for certain factors. In addition, the department being attended was another variable that resulted in difference when the departments of the teacher candidates were taken into consideration.

Ahmet Naci Çoklar



Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States (United States)

This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students. Teachers from the two countries differed in their satisfaction with current levels of autonomy and reported different constraints on teaching science related to materials, lab space, curriculum standards, and assessment.

Robertson, Laura Elizabeth


Cross-Cultural Predictors of Teachers' Attitudes toward Gifted Education: Finland, Hong Kong, and USA. (United States)

This study investigated teachers' culture-dependent attitudes toward gifted education. A group of 147 Finnish teachers, 214 Hong Kong teachers, and 160 American teachers (preservice teachers, regular classroom teachers, and teachers of gifted students) completed an attitude toward gifted education scale. Researchers used the resulting data to…

Tirri, Kirsi A.; Tallent-Runnels, Mary K.; Adams, Aida M.; Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.


Analysis of Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strains Revealing Potential for False-Negative Real-Time PCR Results?  


Diphtheria surveillance depends on the rapid and reliable recognition of the toxin gene in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Real-time PCR is a rapid tool to confirm the presence of the diphtheria toxin gene (tox) in an isolate or specimen. We report that some toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains show atypical results in a real-time PCR for tox.

Cassiday, Pamela K.; Pawloski, Lucia C.; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Sanden, Gary N.; Wilkins, Patricia P.



Construction of Teacher Knowledge in Context: Preparing Elementary Teachers To Teach Mathematics and Science. (United States)

Attempts to further the understanding of how preservice teachers construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science in a school-based setting and the extent of knowledge construction. Analysis and synthesis of data reveal an extensive acquisition of teacher knowledge and pedagogical content…

Lowery, Norene Vail



Interdisciplinarity and Teacher Education: The Teacher’s Training of the Secondary School in Rio de Janeiro—Brazil  


This paper investigates the teacher’s perception and knowledge about interdisciplinarity on public secondary school in Rio de Janeiro. Among the participants, 101 teachers completed the questionnaire on the subject investigated. All data about the perceptions of teachers were faced with lesson plans prepared by teachers who reported having strong knowledge on interdisciplinary practice. Our results suggest that there is a lack of support in schools, and competence of ...

Antonio Augusto Fidalgo-Neto; Renato Matos Lopes; José Leopoldo Cerqueira Magalhães; Max Fonseca Pierini; Luiz Anastácio Alves



Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A (United States)

The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A). CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures. PMID:25400662

Swetha, Rayapadi G.



Influences of Teacher Preparation Program on Preservice Science Teachers’ Beliefs  

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Full Text Available Teacher preparation program is routinely make decisions regarding the best pedagogical methods from field experience studies, it can alter students’ understandings about academic content and some characteristics through professional practices. This study tries to investigate the extent to which individuals learning to be teachers feel what preservice teachers are capable of performing the pedagogical practices. Sixty seven preservice science teachers were described the influences of teacher preparation. Results indicated that preservice teachers enrolled in professional experiences courses perceived themselves as less capable of performing persuasive pedagogical practices than more generally accepted practices. In addition, preservice teachers perceived they were more capable of altering students’ knowledge about content than at modifying their beliefs about content. Implications for research and practice are forwarded.

Prasart Nuangchalerm



Personal and Job Related Predictors of Teacher Stress and Job Performance among School Teachers  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out role of personal and job related variables in teacher stress and job performance of school teachers. Furthermore, levels and sources of stress and their relationship with job performance among teachers were also explored. The measures used in this study were indigenously developed i.e., Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI-Urdu, Teachers Job Performance Scale and personal and job related Information sheet. Two independent samples were selected from Government and Private Schools of Islamabad (Pakistan. Sample I was comprised of 400 teachers (men and women from Primary and secondary schools. For the evaluation of teachers’ job performance another sample of 1200 students from the classes of teachers of sample I was selected. Three students were randomly selected from each teacher’s class. The students were requested to evaluate their respective teachers’ job performance. The findings revealed that negative significant relationship exists between teachers stress and job performance. The step-wise regression analysis revealed school system, gender, job experience, number of family members, and number of students as significant predictors of teacher stress and gender, school system, family members, job experience and age as significant predictors of teachers’ job performance.

Rubina Hanif



Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models (United States)

Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated as follows: (1) Chemistry teachers' knowledge of some known chemistry models was limited; (2) Chemistry teachers preferred those models that were vivid when they chose models; (3) Teachers' modeling process was incomplete; (4) Teachers adopted a general pattern when applying models in chemistry teaching. The findings have implications for teacher education.

Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting



Revealing the Sequence and Resulting Cellular Morphology of Receptor-Ligand Interactions during Plasmodium falciparum Invasion of Erythrocytes (United States)

During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite’s life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1) an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2) EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite’s actin-myosin motor, 3) a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4) an AMA1–RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine. PMID:25723550

Weiss, Greta E.; Gilson, Paul R.; Taechalertpaisarn, Tana; Tham, Wai-Hong; de Jong, Nienke W. M.; Harvey, Katherine L.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Barlow, Paul N.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.; Cowman, Alan F.; Crabb, Brendan S.



DNA Hydroxymethylation Profiling Reveals that WT1 Mutations Result in Loss of TET2 Function in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

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Full Text Available Somatic mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anticorrelate with TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant AML patients have reduced 5hmC levels similar to TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutant AML. These mutations are characterized by convergent, site-specific alterations in DNA hydroxymethylation, which drive differential gene expression more than alterations in DNA promoter methylation. WT1 overexpression increases global levels of 5hmC, and WT1 silencing reduced 5hmC levels. WT1 physically interacts with TET2 and TET3, and WT1 loss of function results in a similar hematopoietic differentiation phenotype as observed with TET2 deficiency. These data provide a role for WT1 in regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and suggest that TET2 IDH1/IDH2 and WT1 mutations define an AML subtype defined by dysregulated DNA hydroxymethylation.

Raajit Rampal



Teachers’ Expectancy and Students’ Attitude towards Science  


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of teachers’ expectancy and students’ attitude towards science (ATS). The participants were 130 teachers and 300 students from secondary schools in Indonesia. The results indicated teachers’ expectancy significantly affected students’ ATS. Different kind of expectancy led teachers to have different classroom behavior. Teachers expect students from the science streams to have significantly higher potential to impr...

Prihadi Kususanto; Chin Sook Fui; Lim Hooi Lan



Estimation of the possibilities of revealing real defects using the results of detection of standard defects in weld radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the statistic theory of detecting defects constructed are the diagrams for assessment of true defects (porous, slug and tungsten inclusions) in steel welded joints according to the results of detecting standard defects of the groove type for the arbitrary relationship between the sizes of standard and true defects. A technique for application of the above diagrams in prediction of detectability of the true defects is described. It is shown, that at the equal sizes of defects, the detectability of tungsten inclusions exceeds the detectability of porous, as for the tungsten inclusions the coefficient taking account of the material density exceeds a unit; the detectability of the slug inclusions is lower than the detectability of porous, as the above coefficient is less than a unit


The Relationship between Didactics and Classroom Management: Towards New Tools for the Training of Math Teachers  


This paper presents the interest of the “instrumental conflict” concept, developed by Marquet (2005), to understand the relationship between didactics and classroom management in the training programs of math teachers. It also shows some results of a survey, conducted in 2008 among pre-service teachers in the Université du Québec en Outaouais (Canada), revealing a perceived gap between both domains. However, those two domains are closely related during teaching in the classroom. The ...

Beaudoin, Michel; Lanaris, Catherine



Information and Communication Technology among Excellent Islamic Education Teachers in Selangor Malaysia  

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Full Text Available The development of technology in the era of the borderless world has grown rapidly in the entire field of human life, including in the field of education. The rapid development in science and technology led to the dissemination of information and knowledge through classroom also changed. Teachers as educators cannot refrain from directly involved in all activities related to information technology. These challenges provide an opportunity for educators to modify the teaching and learning process to become to become more active and more student-centred. This study draws to this issue by investigating the knowledge, skills, and the use of ICT and attitudes of Excellent Islamic Education teachers towards ICT. The participants were 70 Excellent Islamic Education teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. Data is collected using a questionnaire and the findings are analysed by using SPSS software 19.0. The results of the descriptive analysis involving the mean and standard deviation indicate that the knowledge and teachers’ attitudes towards ICT to be at the high level. While the skills and the use of ICT among the teachers at a moderate level. The result also revealed that there is a significant relationship between ICT knowledge and teachers’ attitude towards ICT. However, the strength of the relationship is very weak. There is also a significant relationship between ICT skills and teachers’ attitude towards ICT and the strength of the relationship is also weak. Finding also shows there is a significant relationship between the use of ICT and teachers’ attitude and the strength of the relationship is at moderate level. In conclusion, the use of ICT in teaching and learning of Excellent Islamic Education teachers is very important to determine the objectives achieved. Excellent teachers should consider that ICT only act as a complement, additional tools or aids to teachers who play the key role in delivering information using teaching methods that are more dynamic and efficient; rather than take the place or role of the teacher.

Khadijah Abdul Razak



Saudi EFL Teachers’ Readiness and Perceptions of Young Learners Teaching at Elementary Schools  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate EFL elementary school teachers’ perception of their own readiness to teach young learners at Saudi schools as it has been recently introduced at this level. Further, it inspects their major needs that should be considered when developing teacher-training programs. A questionnaire was distributed targeting elementary EFL teachers. 114 responses from both male and female EFL elementary school teachers from different areas of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia mostly from the eastern province were collected. Data was analyzed and computed. The results revealed that most of the EFL teachers were not fully ready to teach at this level since more than half of them did not receive enough pre-service nor in-service training concerning young learners’ teaching. Additionally, the teachers’ responses showed high enthusiasm towards teaching elementary students and considered it as a necessity. The study also surveyed the teachers’ perception of their own needs in terms of teacher training programs for these to be designed based on their personal point of views. Their priorities were mostly centered on using technology in young learners’ classrooms, methods and teaching strategies that suits young learners, and choosing and designing materials and activities that are suitable for the developmental stages of children. The study came up with valuable insights to those who are concerned and involved in teacher training.

Joza Fahd Al Malihi



Teaching Genetics in Secondary Classrooms: a Linguistic Analysis of Teachers' Talk About Proteins (United States)

This study investigates Swedish biology teachers' inclusion of proteins when teaching genetics in grade nine (students 15-16 years old). For some years, there has been a call to give attention to proteins when teaching genetics as a means of linking the concepts `gene' and `trait'. Students are known to have problems with this relation because the concepts belong to different organizational levels. However, we know little about how the topic is taught and therefore this case study focuses on how teachers talk about proteins while teaching genetics and if they use proteins as a link between the micro and macro level. Four teachers were recorded during entire genetics teaching sequences, 45 lessons in total. The teachers' verbal communication was then analyzed using thematic pattern analysis, which is based in systemic functional linguistics. The linguistic analysis of teachers' talk in action revealed great variations in both the extent to which they used proteins in explanations of genetics and the ways they included proteins in linking genes and traits. Two of the teachers used protein as a link between gene and trait, while two did not. Three of the four teachers included instruction about protein synthesis. The common message from all teachers was that proteins are built, but none of the teachers talked about genes as exclusively encoding proteins. Our results suggest that students' common lack of understanding of proteins as an intermediate link between gene and trait could be explained by limitations in the way the subject is taught.

Thörne, Karin; Gericke, Niklas



An Analysis of the Information Behaviour of Geography Teachers in a Developing African Country–Lesotho  

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Full Text Available Information behaviour studies have the potential to inform the design of effective information services that incorporate the information needs, information-seeking and preferences for information sources of target users; hence a doctoral study was conducted on the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho with the aim of guiding the design and implementation of an information service model for these teachers. This paper focuses on the analysis of the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho as a contribution of original knowledge on geography teachers’ information behaviour. The analysis established the information behaviour of geography teachers using the information behaviour concept that encompasses information needs, information-seeking and information sources. Data were collected and analyzed through focus group discussions and conceptual content analysis respectively.The analysis reveals that these geography teachers need current and accurate information covering a variety of aspects in teaching and learning, such as content, pedagogy, classroom management and learners’ assessment. Owing to the increasing number of orphans in schools as a result of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, most teachers expressed the need for information on social assistance for orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations include information literacy training for teachers and access to the Internet in schools, including the use of open access journals on the Internet by the teachers.

Constance BITSO



Characteristics of Effective EFL Instructors: Language Teachers’ Perceptions Versus Learners’ Perceptions  

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Full Text Available Improving the field of foreign language teaching without improving the qualities of the teachers seems impossible. This attempt, at first hand, requires recognizing the qualities of effective EFL teachers. The aim of this study was to find what foreign language instructors perceive to be the most important characteristics of a successful EFL teacher. In addition, the teachers’ perception was compared to that of learners’ to see whether there were discrepancies between the two groups’ perceptions regarding the preferable characteristics of an effective English language instructors or not. A 58-item questionnaire was administered to teachers at a prominent language institute in Iran. This questionnaire was divided into eight sections and addressed issues relating to teachers’ personal qualities, command in English, teaching methods and evaluation methods they used within the class, mastery over teaching, teacher-student relation, class management and finally language skills management. Teachers were asked to specify the importance of each item in the questionnaire using terms like not important at all, somehow important, important and finally very important. Basic statistics were used to convert the qualitative results into quantitative ones for easier comparison. Interestingly however, the study revealed that the students’ perceptions and teachers’ perceptions do not differ in major ways although there are slight discrepancies.Keywords: EFL, effective instructors, leaners’ perceptions, instructors’ perceptions

Negar Hajizadeh



Break-seq reveals hydroxyurea-induced chromosome fragility as a result of unscheduled conflict between DNA replication and transcription (United States)

We have previously demonstrated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication, checkpoint inactivation via a mec1 mutation leads to chromosome breakage at replication forks initiated from virtually all origins after transient exposure to hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Here we sought to determine whether all replication forks containing single-stranded DNA gaps have equal probability of producing double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells attempt to recover from HU exposure. We devised a new methodology, Break-seq, that combines our previously described DSB labeling with next generation sequencing to map chromosome breaks with improved sensitivity and resolution. We show that DSBs preferentially occur at genes transcriptionally induced by HU. Notably, different subsets of the HU-induced genes produced DSBs in MEC1 and mec1 cells as replication forks traversed a greater distance in MEC1 cells than in mec1 cells during recovery from HU. Specifically, while MEC1 cells exhibited chromosome breakage at stress-response transcription factors, mec1 cells predominantly suffered chromosome breakage at transporter genes, many of which are the substrates of those transcription factors. We propose that HU-induced chromosome fragility arises at higher frequency near HU-induced genes as a result of destabilized replication forks encountering transcription factor binding and/or the act of transcription. We further propose that replication inhibitors can induce unscheduled encounters between replication and transcription and give rise to distinct patterns of chromosome fragile sites. PMID:25609572

Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; McCulley, Andrew; Haarer, Brian; Arnak, Remigiusz



Break-seq reveals hydroxyurea-induced chromosome fragility as a result of unscheduled conflict between DNA replication and transcription. (United States)

We have previously demonstrated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication, checkpoint inactivation via a mec1 mutation leads to chromosome breakage at replication forks initiated from virtually all origins after transient exposure to hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Here we sought to determine whether all replication forks containing single-stranded DNA gaps have equal probability of producing double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells attempt to recover from HU exposure. We devised a new methodology, Break-seq, that combines our previously described DSB labeling with next generation sequencing to map chromosome breaks with improved sensitivity and resolution. We show that DSBs preferentially occur at genes transcriptionally induced by HU. Notably, different subsets of the HU-induced genes produced DSBs in MEC1 and mec1 cells as replication forks traversed a greater distance in MEC1 cells than in mec1 cells during recovery from HU. Specifically, while MEC1 cells exhibited chromosome breakage at stress-response transcription factors, mec1 cells predominantly suffered chromosome breakage at transporter genes, many of which are the substrates of those transcription factors. We propose that HU-induced chromosome fragility arises at higher frequency near HU-induced genes as a result of destabilized replication forks encountering transcription factor binding and/or the act of transcription. We further propose that replication inhibitors can induce unscheduled encounters between replication and transcription and give rise to distinct patterns of chromosome fragile sites. PMID:25609572

Hoffman, Elizabeth A; McCulley, Andrew; Haarer, Brian; Arnak, Remigiusz; Feng, Wenyi



Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results (United States)

The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick



Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results  

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The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick



Metabolic profiling reveals altered pattern of central metabolism in navel orange plants as a result of boron deficiency. (United States)

We focused on the changes of metabolite profiles in navel orange plants under long-term boron (B) deficiency using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. Curling of the leaves and leaf chlorosis were observed only in the upper leaves (present before start of the treatment) of B-deficient plants, while the lower leaves (grown during treatment) did not show any visible symptoms. The metabolites with up-accumulation in B-deficient leaves were mainly proline, l-ornithine, lysine, glucoheptonic acid, fucose, fumarate, oxalate, quinate, myo-inositol and allo-inositol, while the metabolites with down-accumulation in B-deficient leaves were mainly serine, asparagine, saccharic acid, citrate, succinate, shikimate and phytol. The levels of glucose and fructose were increased only in the upper leaves by B deficiency, while starch content was increased in all the leaves and in roots. The increased levels of malate, ribitol, gluconic acid and glyceric acid occurred only in the lower leaves of B-deficient plants. The increased levels of phenols only in the upper leaves indicated that the effects of B on phenol metabolism in citrus plants may be a consequence of disruptions in leaf structure. Metabolites with opposite reactions in upper and lower leaves were mainly glutamine, glycine and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. To our knowledge, the phenomena of allo-inositol even higher than myo-inositol occurred characterized for the first time in this species. These results suggested that the altered pattern of central metabolism may be either specific or adaptive responses of navel orange plants to B deficiency. PMID:25212059

Liu, Guidong; Dong, Xiaochang; Liu, Leichao; Wu, Lishu; Peng, Shu'ang; Jiang, Cuncang



Vocational Instructors' Perceptions of the Values of Teacher Training. (United States)

A study to determine teacher perceptions of the value of the various sources of vocational teacher education in Washington revealed that courses taught at the universities and four-year colleges received the highest rating. (LRA)

Schill, William John; Plavins, Marvis



Job satisfaction among secondary school teachers  

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Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the differences in the job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Sabah with respect to gender, service category, job title, tenure and place of origin. It also attempts to identify the work dimension factors that affect the job satisfaction of the teachers and to ascertain how these factors relate to the aforementioned teachers’ characteristics. A survey was conducted with the participation of 200 teachers. The teachers’ job satisfaction were determined by two separate measures namely overall and facet specific overall job satisfaction. The work dimension factors were clustered into six comprising pay, working conditions, co-workers, promotion, work itself and supervision. This study reveals that secondary school teachers in Tawau, Sabah were generally satisfied with their job; there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and gender, whereby the male teachers were generally more satisfied than female teachers. The graduate teachers were more satisfied than non-graduate teachers. The higher ranking teachers were more satisfied than the ordinary teachers while the older teachers were more satisfied than their younger counterparts. However, there is no significant relationship between places of origin of teachers with job satisfaction. Based on the bivariate correlation tests, six work dimensions of teaching job are significantly related to teachers’ job satisfaction. In addition, there were significant different between the six dimensions by gender and service category of teachers. Only co-workers dimension is not significantly different among teachers’ career stage and their tenure of service. There was no significant difference between all the work dimensions and teachers’ place of origin. Based on the findings of the study several recommendations are forwarded.

Muhammad Madi Abdullah



Teachers’ Perceptions of Professionalism and Professional Development: A Case Study in Greece  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the notions of teachers’ professionalism and professional development by investigating the views of in-service primary teachers in Greece. An empirical study was carried out at the In-Service Teachers’ Training School of the Department of Primary Education of the University of Patras, Greece. Our research data were collected by using anonymously filled in questionnaires. The results revealed that the teachers of our sample were acquainted with the issues of professionalism and sought to enhance their professional development. They also stressed the importance to be offered more opportunities for lifelong learning education. This study expands our understanding of the factors which affect teachers’ professionalism and professional development.

Amalia A. Ifanti



Teachers before the 'threshold'  


During the summer of 2000, the government will introduce a new system of pay and performance management for teachers. The Centre for Economic Performance is conducting a ‘before-andafter’ panel study of teachers and schools to ascertain its effects on motivation and performance. This paper reports preliminary findings from the first wave of the survey, before the introduction of the new system. The likely effects of the new system, on the basis of these results, are examined from the poin...

Marsden, David





Education in the Indian region faces a number of problems. These problems include the shortage of qualified teachers, very large student populations, high drop-out rates of students and teachers, and weak curriculum. All of these negative aspects result in poor delivery of education. The education crisis is worsened by the devastating effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, increasing poverty, a brain drain in the teaching community, budgetary constraints, poor communication, and inadequa...

Girdhar lal Sharma



Teachers Voices Interpreting Standards  


The State of Virginia has adopted state-mandated testing that aims to raise the standards of performance for children in our schools in a manner that assigns accountability to schools and to teachers. In this paper we argue that the conditions under which the standards were created and the testing implemented undermine the professionalism of teachers. We believe this result has the further consequence of compromising the critical thinking and learning processes of children. We argue this has ...

Rigsby, Leo C.; Demulder, Elizabeth K.



A Study of Alternative English Teacher Certification Practices in Turkey (United States)

For several years the number of teachers trained in several subject areas through regular teacher education programs in Turkey has been insufficient to meet the demands in the country. As a result, to combat teacher shortages in many subjects alternative routes to teacher certification have been sought. Here we examine teacher candidates'…

Seferoglu, Golge



South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Belief Structures in Teaching Mathematics  


This study examines South Korean elementary teachers’ belief structures in the application of their knowledge in mathematics instruction based on the assumption that beliefs play the role of filters when teachers apply their knowledge. From the statistical analysis of the survey data, this study reveals that there are some dominant components in South Korean elementary teachers’ belief structures. In addition, some belief components might be affected by a teacher’s gender and academic d...

Rina Kim



Teacher's Niche (United States)

This website has information and links to resources for ocean sciences teachers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The resources include professional development opportunities, student opportunities, teaching resources and lessons, and organizations and agencies to connect teachers with ocean science materials.


Teachers’ Perceptions of Using Technology in Teaching EFL  

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Full Text Available No longer are students’ experiences with new languages limited to their textbooks or immediate environment. With the pervasiveness of the internet and the increased awareness of the importance of having technology in a classroom, both teachers and students all over the world are being provided with technological tools that will further accelerate their ability to acquire or teach a second or foreign language. Technology integration in the classroom has become an important aspect of successful teaching. It has triggered many researchers to investigate different aspects of such integration. In addition, it could be an effective teaching tool when used to engage all students in the learning process. The results of the study show that teachers have positive attitudes toward the use of technology, particularly computer. The focal point of the project was to promote students’ communicative competence and autonomy via the implementation of technological tools. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions of EFL teachers about the use of technology in their classes and factors affecting technology implementation in Iranian Language Institutes. Descriptive statistics and sample t-test were used to analyze the questionnaire data. Results obtained from both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed teachers’ perceptions about integrating technology in their classes, incentives for teachers who use technology, types of technology used, facilitating and inhibiting factors affecting technology implementation, and the different attitudes of male and female teachers toward using technology. According to the results, teachers had positive attitudes regarding the use of technology, in particular computer, in their classrooms. Keywords: Technology, computer, EFL teachers

Fatemeh Mollaei



Lost at Sea: Summary Results of a Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teacher Induction and Implications for Administrative Practice (United States)

This paper summarizes a qualitative meta-analysis of the empirical research on the effectiveness of teacher induction programs over the last decade for the purpose of identifying the essential elements that make them effective in reducing teacher attrition. The study used Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation as the theoretical framework for…

Shockley, Robert; Watlington, Eliah; Felsher, Rivka



Investigating Factors Affecting Science Teachers’ Performance and Satisfaction toward their Teaching Process at Najran University for Girls’ Science Colleges  

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Full Text Available In Saudi educational system, many factors have led to a various need for teaching qualifications in higher educational institutions. One main aim of this study was to determine the perception of college teachers on how to assess the effectiveness of the teaching process and what most students consider when evaluating their teachers. Further, it aimed to investigate the problems that academic teachers face in providing well-planned and effective services. To determine teachers’ perspectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 teachers selected at random from science departments at Najran University. It focused on several areas of teaching methods, such as curriculum programming, syllabus coverage of classes, teachers, and methods of effective teaching. Evaluation and student feedback was recorded. The collected data were analyzed through a list of key issues, concerns and themes to be discussed by the set of participants. The results revealed that teachers had some difficulties in addressing practical problems with implementing the current curriculum, using sufficient supplementation for teaching methods, and understanding validation of the evaluation process presented by students on the teachers’ achievements. Based on these findings, it is crucial to take teachers’ points of view into consideration in the development of the curriculum process, the exam system, resources, facilities and the evaluation system. Teacher involvement will create ownership and allow them to have an active role in teaching students with more devotion and commitment to evaluation. This will lead to significant improvement in teaching methods of science at all college levels.

Amel Thafer Alshehry



Elementary Teacher's Conceptions of Inquiry Teaching: Messages for Teacher Development (United States)

This study explored practicing elementary school teacher's conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers' pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers' conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.

Ireland, Joseph E.; Watters, James J.; Brownlee, Jo; Lupton, Mandy



An examination of the perceived teaching competencies of novice alternatively licensed and traditionally licensed high school science teachers (United States)

In most states, there are two routes to teacher licensure; traditional and alternative. The alternative route provides an accelerated entry into the classroom, often without the individual engaging in education coursework or a practicum. No matter the route, teaching skills continue to be learned by novice teachers while in the classroom with the guidance of a school-based mentor. In this study, the perceptions of mentor teachers of traditionally and alternatively licensed high school science teachers were compared with respect to mentees' science teaching competency. Further, the study explored the novice teachers' self-perception of their teaching competency. A survey, consisting of 56 Likert-type questions, was completed by mentors (N = 79) and novice high school science teachers (N = 83) in six northeastern states. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the perceptions of the mentors of traditionally and alternatively licensed novice high school science teachers in the areas of general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional growth, with more favorable perceptions recorded by mentors of traditionally licensed science teachers. There were no differences in the perceptions of the mentors with respect to novice high school teachers' content knowledge. There was no statistical difference in the self-perceptions of competency of the novice teachers. While alternative routes to licensure in science may be a necessity, the results of this study indicate that the lack of professional preparation may need to be addressed at the school level through the agency of the mentor. This study indicates that mentors must be prepared to provide alternatively licensed novice teachers with different assistance to that given to traditionally licensed novice teachers. School districts are urged to develop mentoring programs designed to develop the teaching competency of all novice teachers regardless of the route that led them into the teaching profession.

Shea, Kathleen A.


Special and General Education Biology Teachers Working Together Collaboratively (United States)

Collaborative teaching, between special education and general education teachers working together, came about as a result of the No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. Despite the positive intentions of those acts, teachers are not always ready to teach collaboratively. Guided by the theories of fundamental change and inclusion, this study was based on a lack of understanding about collaborative teaching at 3 high schools. The research questions focused on the benefits, process, and concerns related to collaborative teaching. The perspectives of 4 special education and 8 regular education teachers in 3 urban, public high schools were collected through interviews and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively and inductively using coding, reconstruction, and interpretation of the underlying meanings. The findings revealed that teachers benefitted from being in these classrooms by having a reduced work load and shared responsibility; however, they needed more time for collaboration and modifying instruction, professional development, and stronger support. Students in these classrooms benefitted from social interactions with other students and by getting direct answers to questions. Based on these findings, a professional development training was created based on how collaborative teachers can work together to promote successful learning. This project study can have a positive impact by assisting collaborative teachers with support, communication, strategies for modifications and accommodations, and an enhanced experience, and additionally by improving the academic outcomes for their students.

Gagne-Grosso, Melissa


Power of Practitioners: How Prior Teachers Informed the Teacher Role Identity of Thirty-Five Entry-Level Pre-Service Teacher Candidates  


This paper reports on a mixed-model research study that sought to uncover and explore the beliefs pre-service teachers held about teaching and the type of teacher they see themselves as being as they entered into their teacher education programmes. The results indicated that that it was those prior teachers that evidenced positive teaching practice that most informed how these student teachers saw teaching and themselves in the role as the teacher. Implications from this study highlight the v...

Sexton, Steven S.



Multiple case studies of STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering design (United States)

The following master's thesis is composed of two manuscripts describing STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering within the context of the Science Learning through Engineering Design (SLED) partnership. The framework guiding both studies was science teaching orientations, a component of pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, multi-day classroom observations, pre- and post-observation interviews, implementation plans, and written reflections. Data sources were analyzed to generate two orientations to science teaching through engineering design for each participant. The first manuscript illustrates a single case study conducted with a sixth grade STEM teacher. Results of this study revealed a detailed picture of the teacher's goals, practices, assessments, and general views when teaching science through engineering design. Common themes across the teacher's instruction were used to characterize her orientations to science teaching through engineering design. Overall, the teacher's orientations showed a shift in her practice from didactic to student-centered methods of teaching as a result of integrating engineering design-based curriculum. The second manuscript describes a comparative case study of two sixth grade SLED participants. Results of this study revealed more complex and diverse relationships between the teachers' orientations to teaching science through engineering design and their instruction. Participants' orientations served as filters for instruction, guided by their divergent purposes for science teaching. Furthermore, their orientations and resulting implementation were developed from knowledge gained in teacher education, implying that teacher educators and researchers can use this framework to learn more about how teachers' knowledge is used to integrate engineering and science practices in the K-12 classroom.

Rupp, Madeline


Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools (United States)

Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

Pinner, Pascale Creek


Pratical Implementation of Practical Chemistry among Secondary School Teachers  

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Full Text Available This study is aimed at identifying differences in terms of the practical implementation of practical Chemistry teaching on the basis of teachers’ perspectives based on gender and location. Implementation of practical Chemistry in the current study focuses on four major aspects such as the design, preparation, implementation and evaluation. Furthermore, the study also explored the relationship among the aspects of design, preparation, implementation and evaluation. The study used a survey approach by using questionnaire. The study sample comprised of 236 Chemistry teachers, randomly selected in Pekan Baru, Riau in Indonesia. Pilot test involved 40 teachers and the findings of the pilot test revealed that the Cornbach Alpha value of the instrument constructs was between 0.81 and 0.91, hightening that the instrument has high level of reliability. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics such as independent t-test and Pearson correlation employing SPSS 19. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in practical implementation of practical Chemistry science among the teachers regarding the aspects of the design, preparation, implementation and evaluation based on gender and location. However, there is a significant different in relation to the aspect of preparation based on location. Meanwhile, Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there are significant correlations between and among all aspects associated with implementation of practical Chemistry. It is suggested that training and workshops for chemical science teachers can be implemented by the related organizations including the Ministry of Education, the Board of Education Quality Assurance as well as Center for Development and Empowerment of Educators for science. Besides, the collaboration is also highlighted for experienced teachers to be able to train and teach practical skills to novice teachers, especially in preparing tools and materials needed for practical activities.

Jimmi Copriady



Connecting Curriculum Materials and Teachers: Elementary Science Teachers' Enactment of a Reform-Based Curricular Unit (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe how teachers used and adapted a set of curriculum materials that included opportunities for students to engage in scientific practices. Two-fourth-grade teachers in the same school were observed and interviewed. Findings revealed that teachers enacted almost every type of scientific practice in the curriculum, but in ways that varied from the written curriculum materials. Teacher interviews revealed ways in which the teachers understood the rationale for various scientific practices and how to enact them. These findings have implications for curriculum developers, professional development designers, and teacher educators. The study identifies the need to support teachers' understanding of scientific practices and why and how to enact them with their students.

Bismack, Amber Schultz; Arias, Anna Maria; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan



Social and psychological characteristics of the class teacher interaction with students  

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Full Text Available We summarize the results of socio-psychological studies of classroom management, performed on the basis of a theoretical model of value exchange, developed by R.L.Krichevsky. Classroom management is understood as a kind of management activity of a teacher, aimed at organizing group of students. Factor analysis revealed two major factors of the effectiveness of classroom management: the nature of the relationship between the students and their relations to the class teacher. As teacher’s activity characteristics, we considered manifestations of his attitudes toward students, leadership style, characteristics of individual interaction with students. It is shown that the activity of the class teacher, aimed at meeting the critical social needs of students, has two major dimensions: taking care about students and development of their motivation. We analyze the impact of social and perceptual characteristics of the teacher on the effectiveness of his interaction with students. We reveal the features of self-assessment and reflective evaluation of personality and activity of a class teacher, the specifics of causal attributions of success and failure of students in different areas of school life.

E.B. Petrushikhina



Characteristics of an Effective English Language Teacher as Perceived by Iranian Teachers and Learners of English  


This study attempted to characterize qualities of an effective English language teacher (EELT) as perceived by Iranian English language teachers and learners. For this purpose, a tailor-made questionnaire was administered to 59 English language teachers and 215 learners of English at universities, high schools and language institutes in Iran. The results indicated significant differences between teachers’ and learners’ views on some characteristics of EELTs. Teachers seemed to agree more ...

Homa Babai Shishavan; Karim Sadeghi



Empower Teachers Who Break the Mold (United States)

Teachers who are positive deviants are the most effective teachers, able to produce results and solutions to problems that others in the learning community cannot. As a result, students in their classrooms usually produce assessment scores that are higher than those of students in their colleagues' classrooms. Teachers willing to learn from their…

Miller, Frances A.



Teacher's Guide (United States)

Lesson plans and exercises for teachers to use this site and the CD-ROM ?Atomic Archive: Enhanced Edition? in their classrooms. The exercises cover the following subjects: Arms Control, Atomic Physics, Delivery Systems, Fission, Fusion, History and Weapon Effects.

Christopher Griffith


The role of teachers’ classroom discipline in their teaching effectiveness and students’ language learning motivation and achievement: A path method  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the role of EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students’ motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward, discussion, involvement, and aggression to discipline the classroom. The students evaluated their teachers’ teaching effectiveness by completing effective Iranian EFL teacher questionnaire (Moafian, & Pishghadam, 2009. They also filled in Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (GhorbanDordinejad & ImamJomeh, 2011 that assessed their motivation towards learning English as a foreign language. Achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received at the end of the academic year. The results showed that EFL teachers reward and praise students for good behavior and they are not very authoritarian. Further, teaching effectiveness, motivation and achievement in learning English were all found to be related to discipline strategies. The results of path analysis showed that those teachers who used involvement and recognition strategies more frequently were perceived to be more effective teachers; however, students perceived teachers who used punitive strategies as being less effective in their teaching. It was also revealed that in classes where teachers managed disruptive behaviors by using punitive strategies, students had problems in learning as punitive strategies lowered students’ motivation. Teaching effectiveness was found to mediate the effect of punishment on motivation while motivation mediated the effect of punitive strategies on achievement. Motivation was found to have the strongest effect on achievement.

Mehrak Rahimi



Especially for High School Teachers (United States)

Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context for constructivist approaches. In the section titled "What Research Has Revealed", the authors provide a succinct summary of specific research findings under three tantalizing subheadings: "What You Think You Know May Not Be the Way It Is", "Learning Is Not a Spectator Sport!", and "Appropriate Outcomes Must Be Identified and Measured". The authors' insight into future research challenges is detailed in a sidebar. ChemEd'99: A Great Success The 1999 ChemEd Conference was a great success, judging by the many very favorable comments of high school teachers who attended. Thanks and congratulations go to Babu George and to the many volunteers who made this event possible through a great deal of hard work, ingenuity, and creativity. Many of the volunteers who gave so generously of their time, before and during the conference, are high school teachers. The program reflected the broad range of needs and interests of high school teachers. Credit for the success also should go to the many presenters. The workshops, demonstrations, papers, and posters that I attended were of high quality and useful to teachers. Conversation with other attendees convinced me that the same degree of quality and utility was characteristic of the entire conference program. Demonstrations are always an outstanding feature of ChemEd conferences and the Signature Demonstrations continued this tradition, as did the large number of demonstration sessions scheduled throughout the general program. The Reg Friesen Memorial Lecture, delivered by Steve Spangler, featured spectacular and stimulating demonstrations in the context of building connections between chemical concepts and real-world applications. Some other themes that permeated the general program were Internet applications, methods of assessment, safety and waste disposal, calculator and computer based laboratory methods, and ideas for making classroom instruction interesting and effective. Thank you to each reader who visited the JCE Exhibit or participated in our workshop on using JCE Activities. We e

Howell, J. Emory




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evidence for gesture being a vital element in the classroom is becoming insurmountable; however, it remains to be seen how long it will take to be fully utilized in the EFL classroom. This study, using a qualitative descriptive methodology, briefly examines how a group of teachers perceive gesturing after viewing a video performance of an EFL practitioner. All of the data was collected online via a questionnaire and a recorded semi-structured interview. Volunteers were, or had been, teaching English within the past twelve months and approached the researcher to take part in the study via social media. The results of the study suggest that teachers fully acknowledge the importance of gesture and commonly attribute similar functions to specific gestures within a teaching performance. Overall, the results offer numerous pedagogical implications for gesture and SLA and support previous assertions regarding the need to make teachers fully aware of the gestures they use in the classroom. Analysis of the questionnaires also revealed that teachers seldom have the opportunity to view their own teaching and suggests that gesture needs to play a much greater role within critical reflective practice.

John Michael THOMPSON



Recommendation for Sustaining the In-service Professional Development of Tertiary EFL Teachers  

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Full Text Available The increasing influence of English as a lingua franca or an international language has brought new trends of teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL. But on the way to these new trends some issues have inevitably appeared, and one of them is the continuity of EFL teachers’ in-service professional development. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of the tertiary EFL teachers on the multilayered peer coaching model (the MPC Model that they had employed for their in-service professional development, and make the recommendation of this model for sustaining tertiary EFL teachers’ in-service professional development. The information was obtained from the EFL teachers at Guiyang University in China with the help of such instruments as observation, teacher’s diary, the researcher’s field note, questionnaire and interview, and the data were analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results revealed that the tertiary EFL teachers had positive attitudes towards the MPC Model and it could be recommended as one of the effective tools for the tertiary EFL teachers to sustain their in-service professional development.

Junyi Meng



Elementary teachers' acquisition of science knowledge: Case-studies and implications for teaching preparation (United States)

Elementary school is a key time for students to develop their understanding of basic science concepts as well as their attitudes towards science and science learning. Yet many elementary teachers do not feel comfortable teaching science; as a result, they are likely to devote less time on that subject and to be less effective as science teachers. The literature suggests that weaknesses in elementary teachers' knowledge of science could be a main cause of this problem and, furthermore, that current elementary teacher preparation programs have contributed to this weakness. This study aims at gaining more knowledge about how elementary teachers who are successful in teaching science have acquired their science content knowledge and how such knowledge could be best acquired, with the ultimate goal of informing the design of more effective elementary teacher preparation programs. More specifically, this study addresses the following research questions: Which science learning experiences for elementary teachers seem most conducive to develop the kind of science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge needed to support the teaching of science as called for by the most recent national and state standards? Which of these experiences should be included in elementary teacher preparation programs, and how? The core of this study consists of case studies of eight elementary school teachers who were identified as successful in teaching science. These subjects were selected so as to ensure differences in their teacher preparation programs, as well as gender and years of teaching experience. Information about each teacher's self-efficacy and motivation with respect to teaching science, history of pre-service and in-service preparation with respect to science, and how his/her current science knowledge was acquired, was sought through a series of interviews with each subject and triangulated with data collected from other sources. A cross-case analysis revealed some interesting similarities and differences in how these successful elementary science teachers developed their science knowledge, and identified the following main sources of science learning opportunities: (a) science content courses; (b) methods courses; (c) student teaching; (d) in-service workshops; (e) opportunities to work with colleagues on the design and/or delivery of science units. Based on what was learned from these case studies, a preliminary set of recommendations to improve elementary teacher's science learning opportunities was identified. Two focus groups were held---one with elementary teachers and another with teacher educators---to share these preliminary recommendations and gather feedback and additional suggestions. Informed by the information gathered in these focus groups, a final set of recommendations to improve elementary teacher's preparation to teach science was articulated.

Stein, Morton


Using Large Scale Test Results for Pedagogical Purposes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use and influence of large scale tests (LST), both national and international, has increased dramatically within the last decade. This process has revealed a tension between the legitimate need for information about the performance of the educational system and teachers to inform policy, and the teachers’ and students’ use of this information for pedagogical purposes in the classroom. We know well how the policy makers interpret and use the outcomes of such tests, but we know less about how teachers make use of LSTs to inform their pedagogical practice. An important question is whether there is a contradiction between the political system’s use of LST and teachers’ (possible) pedagogical use of LST. And if yes: What is a contradiction based on? This presentation will give some results from a systematic review on how tests have influenced the pedagogical practice. The research revealed many of the fatal wash back effects known from other research but gave additionally some insight in teachers’ attitudes towards LSTs. To account for these findings results from another research project - the Validation of PISA – will be included. This project analyzed how PISA has influenced the Danish educational system and the different theoretical foundations of PISA and most teachers’ pedagogically oriented, formative assessment, thus explaining the teacher resentment towards LSTs. Finally, some principles for linking LSTs to teachers’ pedagogical practice will be presented.

Dolin, Jens


Teacher Professional Leadership in Support of Teacher Professional Development (United States)

Counteracting perceptions of teaching as a profession with a flat career trajectory may require professional leadership opportunities for experienced teachers that differ substantively from those typically available. This evaluation study investigated the results of a professional development initiative for subject specialist teachers seconded to…

Taylor, Mike; Yates, Anne; Meyer, Luanna H.; Kinsella, Penny



Teacher Salaries and Teacher Aptitude: An Analysis Using Quantile Regressions (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between salaries and scholastic aptitude for full-time public high school humanities and mathematics/sciences teachers. For identification, we rely on variation in salaries between adjacent school districts within the same state. The results indicate that teacher aptitude is positively correlated with…

Gilpin, Gregory A.



Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?  

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Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

I. Eloff



The Impact of Lifelong Learning Teacher Education in Secondary School Results El Impacto de la Formación Permanente del Profesorado de Educación Secundaria en los Resultados Escolares.  

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Full Text Available Studies dealing with factors which have an influence on students outcomes are reviewed, teacher variables and teacher training are among their most common findings to influence school achievement. This study analyses the variable in-service teacher training on students? academic achievement. The analysis levels are departments and schools, being department the level where the relation among variables is more significative. There are significative correlations between the in-service teacher training in their own subject and the subject pedagogy in 50% of the analysed departments. In-service teacher training is recommended to be organized, taking into account these differences (context, teacher variables, in- service teacher training variables among departments, schools and districts to compensate the unequal school variables. Existe evidencia sobre la influencia de algunos factores en el rendimiento escolar de los centros y entre ellos de manera consistente aparecen las características del profesorado y su formación. Este estudio analiza la formación del profesorado con los resultados escolares de los centros de educación secundaria en Asturias. De las variables de formación, es únicamente la formación en la asignatura y su didáctica la que se asocia a los resultados en la asignatura. Se realizan análisis en dos niveles de agregación, departamento y centro, observándose que es en los niveles de departamento donde existen las correlaciones más significativas. Se aporta evidencia para la organización de una formación del profesorado que asigne recursos de formación en los diferentes niveles en base a sus desigualdades de origen (contexto, variables del profesorado y de formación y que garantice una efectiva igualdad de oportunidades para el conjunto de la población escolar de la Comunidad Autónoma.

Paula González-Vallinas



A Writing Log Helps Teachers Help Students. (United States)

Claims that writing logs constitute an effective teaching tool in basic college writing courses. Discusses one teacher's success using writing logs to assist the development of students' freewriting skills. Includes sample entries revealing students' comments and progress throughout the term and documenting the teacher's response to these…

Dodd, Anne Wescott



Further Education Teachers' Constructions of Professionalism. (United States)

Interviews with 12 further education teachers in Britain revealed a variety of conceptions of professionalism that conflict with standard definitions. The diversity of types may explain why further education teachers are not organized as a profession, are accorded low status, and are subject to exploitation. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

Clow, Ros



Methodical preparation of future teachers of mathematics  

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Full Text Available Question is considered In article about organizations of methodical preparing the future teacher math-ematicians on base competencial approach to education; revealled essence of the notion "professional-methodical competencie" future teacher mathematicians, are determined professional-methodical competencies, falling into it’s composition, and is considered one of the approach to determination level it’s shaping.

Mamontova Tatiyana



Teachers' Stories: Our Ways of Knowing. (United States)

Personal narratives can reveal the nurturing dimension of the teaching role, characterize important changes in teachers' professional lives, and encourage more reflective practice. Such stories are not superfluous features of teachers' lives, but rather are basic to their continued individual and professional growth. (25 references) (MLH)

Jalongo, Mary Renck



Can Teachers Cope with Creationism? (United States)

The creation/evolution controversy has gained renewed popularity in the last few years. This has resulted in serious implications for science teachers. All classroom teachers need to protect themselves by learning the distinctions between scientific law and theory and to acquire knowledge of the various theories of evolution. (JN)

Pearson, Craig



Organizational Health and Teacher Education. (United States)

Surveyed teacher education faculty and administrators regarding their views on organizational health in teacher education programs, measuring organizational health on 11 dimensions. Results supported an average view of organizational health. There were relatively high levels of interpersonal trust. The weakest dimension of organizational health…

Klingele, William E.; Lyden, Julie A.



Deliberate Practice in Teacher Education (United States)

Deliberate practice is increasingly recognised as necessary for professional development. This paper sets out to explore in what ways student teachers' learning activities in a teacher education programme can be characterised as deliberate practice. Based on an in-depth exploration of 574 learning activities, our results highlight the…

Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Koster, Bob; Vermunt, Jan D.



Quality of Distance Education in Turkey: Preschool Teacher Training Case  

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Full Text Available Distance education is used for teacher training at different levels and fields in Turkey. Launched in the 2000-2001 academic year and still applied by Anadolu University, the Pre-School Teacher Training Program is one of those programs offered by distance education. This study aims to evaluate Anadolu University’s Preschool Teacher Training Program in Turkey by obtaining student opinions. A total of 1,026 senior students enrolled in the Preschool Education major at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University participated in the survey. A questionnaire to determine the opinions of students on the program was used as a means of data collection. Means (X and standard deviations (SD were employed to analyze the survey data. The results showed that although the teacher candidates study at a good level, they do not have a good record of watching the television programs. The results also revealed that the opinions of teacher candidates about the textbooks, television programs, teaching practices, and academic assistance services are positive.

Mehmet Gultekin



How Should an Effective Performance Appraisal Be: EFL Teachers’ Perspective  

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Full Text Available This study is set to examine EFL teachers’ perceptions, views about what makes an effective performance appraisal system by adopting a quantitative survey design for data collection. A total number of 45 college instructors in the Sultanate of Oman responded to survey on: how is an effective performance appraisal perceived by EFL teachers? How do teachers perceive their participation in developing the appraisal system? And how might the present performance appraisal practices be improved? The result reveals that staff participation in developing performance appraisal system and goals, feedback confidentiality, quality appraiser, quality of place and time of appraisal, appraiser-appraisee relationships, and developmental nature of performance appraisal would help in making effective appraisal and the overall PA effectiveness depends mostly on these factors. The result has a significant implication for improving the process of teacher performance appraisal in Oman and enriches the body knowledge of PA in general. The study puts forwards suggestions and recommendations for improving PA practices and exercises in EFL contexts.Keywords: Effective Performance appraisal, FL teachers' perceptions, critical errors in performance appraisal, Colleges instructors in the Sultanate of Oman

Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali



Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teacher ratio, that is, the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day care institutions. We perform estimations for two time periods, 2002–2003 and 2005–2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teacher

GØrtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira



Child-to-teacher ratio and day care teacher sickness absenteeism. (United States)

The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teacher ratio, that is, the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day care institutions. We perform estimations for two time periods, 2002-2003 and 2005-2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teachers. PMID:24123527

Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira



Professionalism and Partnership: Panaceas for Teacher Education in Scotland? (United States)

A critical reading of the Donaldson Report on teacher education in Scotland reveals what might be termed a "panacea approach" to addressing perceived current problems in relation to the quality of teacher education. In particular, the essence of the Donaldson Report is that teachers need to embrace "twenty-first century professionalism" through a…

Kennedy, Aileen; Doherty, Robert



Strictly Business: Teacher Perceptions of Interaction in Virtual Schooling (United States)

This study explored the nature of teacher-student interaction from the perspective of eight virtual school teachers in an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide, supplemental virtual high school. Teacher interviews revealed the majority of interactions were student-initiated and instructional in nature. The main procedural interactions focused on…

Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.; Graham, Charles R.



The Teacher Educator as a Role Model (United States)

New visions of learning have entered education. This article discusses the consequences for teacher education, and examines modelling by teacher educators as a means of changing the views and practices of future teachers. The results of a literature search and a multiple case study on modelling are discussed. Both the literature search and the…

Lunenberg, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred; Swennen, Anja



Reshaping Teacher Education through the Professional Continuum (United States)

The current policy gaze on teacher quality is resulting in significant shifts in how teacher education is conceptualized, designed and delivered. Traditional approaches to teacher preparation and continuing professional development (CPD) are being challenged, and often displaced, by new models that expedite the process and experience of becoming a…

McMahon, Margery; Forde, Christine; Dickson, Beth



Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady



The Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards Using Arabic in EFL Classrooms in Saudi Public Schools- A Case Study  

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Full Text Available This paper examined the attitudes of Saudi teachers and students towards employing Arabic as a facilitating tool in English classes, a topic which has gained wide attention recently. The present study was a case study which investigated teachers' and students' attitudes towards this issue in a Saudi intermediate school for females. To reach a clear understanding of this issue, the study focused on one intermediate classroom which had 30 students and three teachers of English in the entire school. Three research tools were used for gathering data: questionnaires, interviews and four observations of one classroom. The results revealed that the attitudes of the teachers and the students about using Arabic were generally positive. The participants preferred using Arabic in certain situations and for specific reasons. Although the attitudes of the teachers and the students received agreements, there were other points on which they disagreed. Recommendations for future studies and solutions were discussed.




Personal Digital Assistants - teachers prefer the personal  


This paper was presented at the Mlearn 06 conference in Banff October 2006. It presents the results of a small-scale project, funded by the UK Teacher Development Agency, where 13 teachers and 3 trainee teachers in one secondary school science department were given handhelds (Personal Digital Assistants or PDAs) with cameras and internet access for the academic year. The aims were: * to build capacity - enabling trainee teachers to share their mlearning practice; * to enable school based asso...

Wishart, Jocelyn



The teacher educator as a role model  


New visions of learning have entered education. This article discusses the consequences for teacher education, and examines modelling by teacher educators as a means of changing the views and practices of future teachers. The results of a literature search and a multiple case study on modelling are discussed. Both the literature search and the case study approach led to the conclusion that we have discovered what is almost a blank spot in both the body of knowledge on teacher educ...

Lunenberg, M.; Korthagen, F.; Swennen, A.





Abstract- The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of violence against teachers by students. The study included 175 teachers, five primary and five secondary schools. The age of respondents (teachers) ranges from 20 to 65, with average age being 44,33 years. The used  instrument has assessed violence against teachers and has consisted of  data about the characteristics of respondents, frequency and type of violence experienced from students.The results suggest that violence ...

Siniša Opi?; Maja Lokmi?; Vesna Bili?



Whistle-Blowing Intentions of Prospective Teachers: Education Evidence  


This study investigates whistle-blowing intentions of prospective teachers. Firstly, overall ethical awareness of the participants was examined, and then their underlying ethical reasons of whistle-blowing were investigated. Besides, impact on the intention to blow whistle to internal or external parties offering their job guarantee were searched. Three ethical dilemmas were constructed in three scenarios, and The Multi-dimensional Ethics Scale was used in the study. The results revealed that...

Asiye Toker Gökçe



Teacher as Researcher: Teacher Action Research in Teacher Education (United States)

Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…

Souto-Manning, Mariana



Teachers' experiences of enjoyment of work as a subtle atmosphere: an empirical lifeworld phenomenological analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to show how teachers' experiences of one dimension of enjoyment of work, namely joy as a subtle atmosphere, can be described and understood from a lifeworld perspective. The lifeworld phenomenological approach contributes to the whole research design and provides the con [...] cepts that form the theoretical basis for the analysis. The specific lifeworld concepts used are 'intertwinement', 'natural attitude', 'pre-predicativity', 'intentionality' and 'intersubjectivity'. Using these concepts, the results illuminate and describe the meanings of enjoyment of work, based on what the teachers expressed in interviews. The empirical study consisted of interviews with five teachers working with pupils aged seven to nine years. The results illuminate some vital and fundamental characteristics of teachers' experiences of enjoyment of work and its significance. These characteristics include its basic function and its inherent possibility for opening up the whole classroom situation to the teachers. In this sense, enjoyment of work is similar to standing in a doorway and involves an expectant foreshadowing. The study also found that teachers' experiences of joy are intertwined with their experiences of flow and control. The results found that enjoyment of work was significant in the sense of the confirmation of good work, like a receipt. Finally, the results revealed new concepts and metaphors for a richer understanding of this phenomenon. The research implications of the study illustrate how the lifeworld approach enables a deeper understanding of emotional dimensions in teachers work. The approach provides useful concepts that broaden the understanding of the content, function and meaning of teachers' experiences of enjoyment of work. The paper also points to the need for more research in this area. The results illuminate new and different aspects of teachers' work that may be a valuable resource in this profession.

Anna-Carin, Bredmar.



Scientists are from Mars, educators are from Venus: Relationships in the ecosystem of science teacher preparation (United States)

Great problems exist in science teaching from kindergarten through the college level (NRC, 1996; NSF, 1996). The problem may be attributed to the failure of teachers to integrate their own understanding of science content with appropriate pedagogy (Shulman, 1986, 1987). All teachers were trained by college faculty and therefore some of the blame for these problems rests on those faculty. This dissertation presents three models for describing secondary science teacher preparation. Two Programs, Two Cultures adapts C. P. Snow's classic work (1959) to describe the work of a science teacher candidate as that of an individual who navigates between two discrete programs: one in college science and the second in teacher education. The second model, Scientists Are from Mars, Educators Are from Venus adapts the popular work of John Gray to describe the system of science teacher education as hobbled by the dysfunctional relationships among the major players and describes the teacher as progeny from this relationship. The third model, The Ecosystem of Science Teacher Preparation reveals some of the deeper complexities of science teacher education and posits that the traditional college science approach treats students as a monoculture when great diversity in fact exists. The three models are described in the context of a large Midwestern university's teacher education program as that program is construed for future biology teachers. Four undergraduate courses typically taken by future biology teachers were observed and described: an introductory biology course; an introductory teacher education course; an upper division course in biochemistry and a senior level science teaching methods course. Seven second semester seniors who were biological Science majors were interviewed. All seven students had taken all of the courses observed. An organization of scientists and educators working together to improve science teaching from kindergarten through graduate school is also described in a case study. The three models described in the dissertation build upon one another and the third model, that of the ecosystem is recognized as both the most accurate portrayal and most complex and therefore most difficult to apply. The system of science teacher preparation is in many ways a system under stress and that stress will result in system evolution. Through better understanding Complex Adaptive Systems and applying that understanding to the system of science teacher education, individuals may be able to influence the nature of system evolution.

Duggan-Haas, Don Andrew



Investigating Elementary Teachers' Thinking About and Learning to Notice Students' Science Ideas (United States)

Children naturally use observations and everyday thinking to construct explanations as to why phenomena happen in the world. Science instruction can benefit by starting with these ideas to help children build coherent scientific understandings of how the physical world works. To do so, science teaching must involve attending to students' ideas so that those ideas become the basis for learning. Yet while science education reform requires teachers to pay close attention to their students' ideas, we know little about what teachers think this means in practice. To examine this issue, my dissertation research is two-fold. First, I examine teacher thinking by investigating how teachers understand what it means to pay attention to students' science ideas. Specifically, using new digital technology, three participating teachers captured moments of student thinking in the midst of instruction. Analysis of these moments reveals that teachers capture many different kinds of moments containing students' ideas and think about students' science ideas in different ways at different times. In particular, these three teachers most often think about students' ideas as being (a) from authority, (b) from experience, and (c) under construction. Second, I examine teacher learning through the development of an innovative science teaching video club model. The model differs from previous research on video clubs in several key ways in an attempt to focus teachers on student thinking in a sustained way. I investigate the ways in which this model was effective for engaging teachers in noticing and making sense of their students' science ideas during one implementation. Results indicate that teachers talked about student thinking early, often, and in meaningful ways. Science education leaders have recognized the potential of science teaching video clubs as a form of professional development, and the model presented in this work promotes the conditions for successful teacher learning. This work contributes to research on teacher cognition by advancing what we know about teachers' understanding of attending to students' science ideas. In addition, it provides practical information concerning the design of teacher professional development supporting their learning to attend closely to the ideas students raise about scientific phenomena.

Luna, Melissa Jo



CERN Multimedia

Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire



Job Satisfaction and Performance of School Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching is a highly noble profession and teachers are always a boon to the society. The ultimate process of education could be simplified as a meaningful interaction between the teacher and the taught. The teacher thus plays a direct and crucial role in moulding a pupil towards education. Since a teacher is a role model for the students, job satisfaction and eventually performance of teachers become very vital in the fields of education. Thus the researcher felt the need to investigate the job satisfaction and performance of teachers in different categories of schools following different systems of education. From the total population, a sample of 196 teachers from state board schools, 198 teachers from matriculation board schools and 194 teachers from central board schools were drawn. The results of the study indicated that teachers in central board schools were significantly better in their job satisfaction and performance compared to their counterparts in matriculation and state board schools. This may be attributed to the fact that central board school teachers enjoy better infrastructure facilities and congenial working environment than the matriculation and state board teachers. It is for the school authorities, policy makers and society at large to ensure factors contributing to job satisfaction of teachers to the maximum possible extent and thereby enhancing their teaching perforrmance to its optimum.

S. Chamundeswari



Cooperation between Science Teachers and ESL Teachers: A Register Perspective (United States)

Cooperation between English as a second or other language (ESOL) and content-area teachers, often difficult to achieve, is hard to assess linguistically in a revealing way. This article employs register analysis (which is different from, but complementary to, genre analysis) in a Systemic Functional Linguistic perspective to show how an ESOL…

Slater, Tammy; Mohan, Bernard



Teaching Styles of Iranian EFL Teachers: Do Gender, Age, and Experience Make a Difference?  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and the activities they use most frequently in their classes. Additionally, the difference between male and female teachers’ teaching styles and the relationship between teaching styles and teachers’ experience and age were explored. Three hundred EFL teachers were selected by stratified random sampling from six districts of the capital city, Tehran. They filled in a personal information questionnaire and Teaching Activities Preference (TAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the participants used a variety of teaching activities in English classes; however, they constituted a special group due to the high percentage of using sensing type activities. Further, it was found that male and female teachers were different in extroverting, sensing, and feeling styles of teaching while female teachers used activities related to these styles more than their male counterparts did. Besides, the obtained results revealed that EFL teachers’ age and experience had a negative relationship with sensing style and a positive relationship with thinking style of teaching.

Mehrak Rahimi



A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions About Mass and Gravity (United States)

The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, ``inertial mass'', ``gravitational mass'', ``gravity'', ``gravitational force'' and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions, and whether teachers' misconceptions affected their students' learning. The third was to determine the differences between science and physics student teachers' understanding levels related to mass and gravity, and between their logical thinking ability levels and their attitudes toward physics lessons. A total of 267 science and physics student teachers participated in the study. Data collection instruments included the physics concept test, the logical thinking ability test and physics attitude scale. All instruments were administered to the participants at the end of the 3rd semester of their university years. The physics test consisting of paper and pencil test involving 16 questions was designed, but only four questions were related to mass and gravity; the second test consisted of 10 questions with two stages. The third test however, consisted of 15 likert type items. As a result of the analysis undertaken, it was found that student teachers had serious misconceptions about inertia, gravity, gravitational acceleration, gravitational force and weight concepts. The results also revealed that student teachers generally had positive attitudes toward physics lessons, and their logical thinking level was fairly good.

Gönen, Selahattin



Revealing Rembrandt  

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Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

Andrew J Parker



South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Belief Structures in Teaching Mathematics  

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Full Text Available This study examines South Korean elementary teachers’ belief structures in the application of their knowledge in mathematics instruction based on the assumption that beliefs play the role of filters when teachers apply their knowledge. From the statistical analysis of the survey data, this study reveals that there are some dominant components in South Korean elementary teachers’ belief structures. In addition, some belief components might be affected by a teacher’s gender and academic degrees. The findings include representative illustrations of South Korean elementary teachers’ belief structures in building students’ mathematics ideas, addressing students’ misconceptions, engaging students in mathematics learning, and promoting students’ thinking about mathematics.

Rina Kim



Teachers at Sea with the ARMADA Project (United States)

Two science teachers accompanied an international scientific party of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program on a 6-week expedition to the high Arctic Ocean this summer. Kathy Couchon, a middle school science teacher from Narragansett, RI, was sponsored by the NSF-funded ARMADA Project (, directed by the Office of Marine Programs at the University of Rhode Island. Erik Zetterberg, a high school teacher from Sweden, was sponsored by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. The purpose of the expedition was to collect rock and sediment cores in order to reconstruct environmental and climatic conditions in the polar region over the past 60 million years. The $12.5M expedition involved over 200 people from more than 10 countries, three icebreakers, and two helicopters. Cores collected on one vessel were transferred to a laboratory on another, where 20 scientists analyzed microfossils as well as sedimentology, chemistry, and lithology. The teachers participated early in all aspects of the expedition, including coring operations, helicopter flights for ice reconnaissance, laboratory work, and science meetings. Formal education, such as learning how to prepare sediment samples for micropaleontological analysis, was complemented by informal education during one-on-one conversations with scientists over meals, or in social gatherings. The teachers posted reports regularly on websites (e.g., tea_cuchonfrontpage.html) and participated in a teleconference via Iridium satellite phone. When asked to compare preconceived notions with actual experience, the teachers noted the following: (1) there are many things that scientists don't know (and they are often the first to admit this); (2) the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery does not diminish with age and experience; (3) teamwork among the scientists was greater than expected, and competition among individuals was not observed; and (4) much in the natural world is unknown and opportunities exist to make major discoveries (in other words, science isn't dead). The scientists made the following observations regarding participation by the teachers: (1) they assisted in the laboratory, and got a taste of scientific research; (2) conversations revealed what they know, and how they convey it to students, and thus how scientists may assist in the educational process; (3) the teachers did not hesitate to ask basic questions, a healthy exercise, because it required the scientists to re-examine and re-explain some of their fundamental assumptions; (4) the presence of the teachers encouraged the scientists to describe their results in a manner that is more accessible to a wider audience; and (5) the teachers increased awareness among the scientists by reminding them about their responsibilities to the broader world, beyond their particular subdisciplines. Suggestions for enhancing the experience, for both the teachers and the scientists, will be presented.

Farrell, J.



Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa



Holistic Wellness and Perceived Stress: Predicting Job Satisfaction among Beginning Teachers (United States)

This study was conducted with 53 beginning teachers, each with less than 3 years of classroom experience, to determine the amount of variance in their job satisfaction that could be accounted for by holistic wellness and perceived stress. The results of a regression analysis revealed that both holistic wellness and perceived stress were…

Watson, Joshua C.; Harper, Sallie; Ratliff, Lindon; Singleton, Sabrina



Investigating Preschool and Primary School Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Needs in Teaching Science: A Pilot Study  

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Full Text Available In recent years, the curricula reforms at the levels of preschool and primary school in Sweden have caused new demands on the teachers. In particular, numerous teachers lack the educational training in science subjects. Therefore, this study aims to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy and needs in relationto science teaching. A total of 71 teachers, divided into three groups of preschool, 1-3 grades and 4-6 grades, were invited to join this pilot study. From the EU FP7 project, PROFILES, a Likert scale questionnaire (with scores from 1 to 3 to represent strongly disagree, agree to strongly agree, and I don’t know was scored 0 was used and revised for the data collection in this pilot study. The results showed that the participating teachers had relatively high self-efficacy and no significant differences were found among the three groups of teachers. However, even though the teachers had high self-efficacy, the needs of further education were expressed by the teachers to a large extent. In particular, the group of preschool teachers addressed the need for more content knowledge (CK in physics and chemistry (>41%. In terms of the groups of 1-3 and 4-6 grades teachers, the needs relating to scientific literacy were revealed, with a focus on engaging students in socio-scientific problems (52%, 56% and assessment (44%, 61%. The implication of this study is discussed in the hope to contribute to teachers’ professional development for both pre- and in-service teachers in science education.

Susanne Walan



Development of Teachers as Scientists in Research Experiences for Teachers Programs (United States)

This study examined the teachers' development as scientists for participants in three National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Teachers. Participants included secondary science and math teachers with varying levels of education and experience who were immersed in research environments related to engineering and science topics. Teachers' functionality as scientists was assessed in terms of independence, focus, relationships with mentors, structure, and ability to create new concepts. Hierarchies developed within these constructs allowed tracking of changes in functionality throughout the 6-week programs. Themes were further identified in teachers' weekly journal entries and exit interviews through inductive coding. Increases in functionality as scientists were observed for all teachers who completed both the program and exit interview ( n = 27). Seven of the 27 teachers reached high science functionality; however, three of the teachers did not reach high functionality in any of the constructs during the program. No differences were observed in demographics or teaching experience between those who did and did not reach high functionality levels. Inductive coding revealed themes such as teachers' interactions with mentors and connections made between research and teaching, which allowed for descriptions of experiences for teachers at high and low levels of functionality. Teachers at high functionality levels adjusted to open-ended environments, transitioned from a guided experience to freedom, felt useful in the laboratory, and were self-motivated. In contrast, teachers at low functionality levels did not have a true research project, primarily focused on teaching aspects of the program, and did not display a transition of responsibilities.

Faber, Courtney; Hardin, Emily; Klein-Gardner, Stacy; Benson, Lisa



Restructuring Teachers' Work  

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Full Text Available Despite repeated attempts to reform schools, teachers' work has remained surprisingly stable. The purpose of this study was to investigate implementation of a state-funded restructuring initiative that intended broad changes in teachers' professional roles. Sponsors of the founding legislation reasoned that changes in teachers' roles would contribute to higher student achievement. This study examined the question of whether and how this program of comprehensive whole-school change promoted changes in teachers' roles in school governance, collegial relations, and the classroom. Further, the study traced the relationship of these changes to one another, and weighed the likelihood that they had the capacity to affect core educational practices. Theoretically, this study is situated in the available literature on teachers' collegial relations; participation in shared decision making; and classroom roles, relationships and practice. Three elementary schools served as the sites for intensive qualitative data collection completed over a two-year period. The schools differed in geographic location (two urban, one rural, but all enrolled a racially, ethnically and linguistically diverse population of students, and more than half of the students in each school qualified for free or reduced price lunch. The study resulted in multiple types and sources of data on teachers' professional roles, including: observations in classrooms, collegial interactions, and governance situations; interviews with teachers (including teacher leaders, parents, administrators, and students; and documents pertaining to the restructuring plans and process. Findings show that changes in the three areas were achieved unevenly in the three schools. All three schools introduced changes in classroom practice and roles, ranging from the adoption of multi-age classrooms to more modest innovations in curriculum or instruction. In only one case were changes in professional roles outside the classroom organized to support and sustain classroom changes. Two of the three schools introduced changes in staff organization (teacher teams and leadership (governance committees, but under-estimated the professional development and other supports that would in turn support changes in classroom practice. Altogether, it appears unlikely that the observed changes in professional roles were sufficiently well established and connected to affect core educational practice in the long run.

Lisa Kirtman



EFL Teachers’ Attitudes towards Being Supervised in an EFL Context  


This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers’ attitude towards supervision and its influence on their classroom decision making. The study also examined the relationship between teachers’ teaching experience and their attitude towards classroom supervision. 74 male and female English teachers holding BA, MA, or PhD degrees participated in this survey. Classroom observation and a teachers’ questionnaire were used for the purpose of the study. The findings reveal ...

Ramin Rahmany; Mohammad Taghi Hasani; Kaivan Parhoodeh



Promoting Teacher Learning Through Learning Study Discourse: The Case of Science Teachers in Singapore (United States)

The potential of a theory of variation-framed learning study, a teacher professional development approach, to help teachers overcome curricular and pedagogical challenges associated with teaching new science curricula content was explored. With a group of Singapore teachers collaboratively planning and teaching new genetics content, phenomenographic analysis of data corpus from classroom observations, teacher meetings and interviews revealed teacher learning that manifested in the teachers' experiences. These were captured as (1) increased degrees of student-centered pedagogy and challenges to teachers' prior assumptions about science pedagogy, (2) increased awareness of possibilities and limitations of their beliefs about science pedagogy, and (3) emergence of new understandings about new curricular content and science pedagogy. The possibility of transformative and generative learning is also discussed.

Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Nashon, Samson Madera



language teachers  

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The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of ?Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : Please send applications with CVs to



Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy (United States)

The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

Cox, Elena K.


Science Teacher Leaders: Exploring Practices and Potential (United States)

It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments, rarely includes a disciplinary focus. In this exploratory, descriptive study the results of a web-based survey containing both closed and open-ended items were used in an inquiry into teacher leaders working with the discipline of science. Data from Ohio teachers responding to the survey were used first to create a standard profile for science teacher leaders. Descriptive statistics and correlations were then performed on quantitative survey data to explore science teacher leader tasks and factors that influence task performance. Analysis of data included descriptions of sense of purpose for their role held by these science teacher leaders. Results indicate that science teacher leaders appear to embrace their role as advocates for science and have great potential for implementing science education reform as well as other science-related school initiatives. Aligning performance, administrative oversight, impact on student achievement and teacher training concerning tasks science teacher leaders are expected to perform would enhance this potential. However, science teacher leaders face challenges to realizing that potential due to ambiguity of their leadership role, the breadth of tasks they tend to perform and lack of alignment between task and outcomes.

Stinson, John Kevin


Phylogeography of two closely related Indo-Pacific butterflyfishes reveals divergent evolutionary histories and discordant results from mtDNA and microsatellites. (United States)

Marine biogeographic barriers can have unpredictable consequences, even among closely related species. To resolve phylogeographic patterns for Indo-Pacific reef fauna, we conducted range-wide surveys of sister species, the scrawled butterflyfish (Chaetodon meyeri; N = 134) and the ornate butterflyfish (Chaetodon ornatissimus; N = 296), using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. The former is distributed primarily in the Indian Ocean but also extends to the Line Islands in the Central Pacific, whereas the latter is distributed primarily in the Central-West Pacific (including Hawaii and French Polynesia) but extends to the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean. Analyses of molecular variance and Bayesian STRUCTURE results revealed 1 range-wide group for C. meyeri and 3 groups for C. ornatissimus: 1) eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific, 2) Central Pacific, and 3) Hawaii. Estimates of the last population expansion were much more recent for C. meyeri (61 500 to 95 000 years) versus C. ornatissimus (184 700 to 286 300 years). Despite similarities in ecology, morphology, life history, and a broadly overlapping distribution, these sister species have divergent patterns of dispersal and corresponding evolutionary history. The mtDNA and microsatellite markers did not provide concordant results within 1 of our study species (C. meyeri), or in 7 out of 12 other cases of marine fishes in the published literature. This discordance renews caution in relying on one or a few markers for reconstructing historical demography. PMID:22888133

DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Craig, Matthew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Bowen, Brian W



Effects of Study Abroad on Teachers’ Self-perceptions: A Study of Chinese EFL Teachers  


This study reports on an enquiry into a group of 91 Chinese secondary EFL teachers with SA experience in the UK. Drawing on questionnaire data and 20 teachers’ interview narratives, the study examines how SA (study abroad) influenced their self-perceptions on EFL teaching in three aspects, namely, language proficiency, teaching ideology and NES (native English speaking)-NNES (nonnative English speaking) teacher debate. The enquiry revealed that the length of SA was a powerful factor in ...

Dong Wang



Efficacy in German Teacher Education  

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Full Text Available At the present time German teacher training is confronted with a great political will to bring about change. International comparative studies of recent years have shown a dissatisfying learning outcome. The most dramatic result is a strong interdependence of school success and social background. German teachers experience their profession as problematic. At present only 35% work until the normal pension age. The article discusses structural differences in teacher training compared to other countries and analyses motivation for the choice of study, perceived self-efficacy, experience of stress, patterns of uncertainty avoidance and previous experience in a sample of 1358 students starting teacher training.Key words: Teacher training; Career choice motivation; Self-efficacy; Experience of stress; Uncertainty avoidance

Ewald Kiel



The Ideal Psychology Teacher: Qualitative Analysis of Views from Brunei GCE A-Level Students and Trainee Psychology Teachers  


We qualitatively explored the notion of the ideal teacher from the context of pre-university Brunei General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-Level) psychology students and trainee psychology teachers. Both previous research and our own analyses on this concept revealed that the so-called ideal teacher was neither a perfect nor a super teacher but rather an effective instructor who was firm, fair, and a good communicator. Psychology students of various ability levels (high achiev...

Nurul Azureen Omar; Sri Ridhwanah Matarsat; Nur Hafizah Azmin; Veronica Chung Ai Wei; Mohd Mu izzuddin Mohd Nasir; Ummi Kalthum Syahirah Sahari; Masitah Shahrill; Lawrence Mundia



Enhancing and Evaluating Prospective Teachers’ Techno-pedagogical Knowledge Integration Towards Science Subject  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate educational computer aided teaching materials (CATM which designed by skilled prospective class teachers towards 4 and 5th grade science level according to the principles of an educational software and teaching methods and techniques. Therefore, materials were firstly scored with an educational software assessment scale and findings were presented in the tables after calculated by Microsoft Excel. Secondly, prospective teachers’ using level of teaching methods and techniques, and measurement and assessment methods and techniques were revealed from their CATM's interface. The sample of the study was consisted 29 prospective class teachers. As a result of the study, although prospective teachers designed successive materials, it is understood that they have paid more attention to visual design properties and functionality such as linking between pages, colored backgrounds, interactive buttons, interactive guidance and assistance properties, and multi-media properties excluding principles of editing content criteria. They tried to present science subject by concept mapping, brainstorming, case study and demonstration as teaching methods/techniques with assessment techniques such as multiple-choice test, matching, concept map as assessment respectively. In general, the findings of the study showed that designing and developing CATM allowed prospective teachers to increase their educational technology competencies, self-esteem and confidence. In conclusion, it is revealed that prospective teachers are in need of experiences and environment about how to integrate pedagogy and technology knowledge.

Necati HIRÇA



Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.



New Teachers' Experiences of Mentoring: The Good, the Bad, and the Inequity (United States)

Using a sample of 374 randomly selected first- and second-year teachers in three states, this study examines new teachers' experiences of official mentoring during their first year. Descriptive analyses reveal that experienced mentors are generally present in the work lives of new teachers. However, new teachers often have inappropriate…

Kardos, Susan M.; Johnson, Susan Moore



Critical Friends Group for EFL Teacher Professional Development (United States)

For the best student outcomes, teachers need to engage in continuous professional development. As a result, models of teacher professional development have been developed, among which is the Critical Friends Group (CFG) technique. However, whether it works well with EFL teachers in an Asian context like Vietnam, where EFL teachers in particular do…

Vo, Long Thanh; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai



Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot (United States)

This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

Richards, Jan



Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills (United States)

This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

Beaver, Melanie S.


Student Teachers’ Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10 biology student teachers. According to the data, the student teachers possessed different levels of understanding that can be summarized into three categories: (1 naïve, in that their study method was unscientific and memorization-based, (2 fragmented, and (3 unsound. Their ways of thinking were congruent with their ways of understanding, and this was reflected in their explanations, which were constructed ad hoc and focused on simple linear relationships. In line with these ways of thinking, the justification schemes used by the student teachers were mainly external and empirical schemes, which are considered to be unsophisticated or lower-level. This study is the first study that attempts to reveal and classify student teachers’ justification schemes in biology. Earlier studies on student learning processes have been conducted in mathematics. We discovered distinct patterns in the justification schemes used by student teachers, and these patterns were related to the nature of biology as a life science. At the end of the paper, we discuss our results and provide suggestions for teacher education and future research.

Sabiha Odabasi Çimer



Changes in high school chemistry teacher beliefs and practice after a professional development program (United States)

This study proposed that when professional development modeled the inquiry-approach and provided time for peer-observed enactment and reflection, it would produce change in in-service chemistry teachers' beliefs and practices. Case study methodology was used to collect a variety of in-depth data on teachers' beliefs and practice including interviews, journals, classroom videotape and participant-observation by the researcher to address the research questions: (1) How does the use of an inquiry approach with in-service chemistry teachers in a professional development result in their re-examining their pedagogical theories? (2) How does the reflection on the inquiry approach and practice teaching result in changes in these teachers' pedagogical theories? (3) How do the changes in these teachers' pedagogical theories translate into their classroom practice? Semi-structured interview data reveals 7 of 9 in-service chemistry teachers showed evidence of change in their beliefs over a year-long professional development (PD) program. Reflection data from the participating teachers showed they believed that modeled inquiry placing them in the student-learner role helped them to re-examine their pedagogical theories and develop more inquiry-based beliefs. Additionally, the professional development's emphasis on collaboration, peer-observed enactments, guided reflection, and the establishment of a community of learners helped them to re-examine their pedagogical theories and develop more inquiry-based beliefs. RTOP data revealed that 5 of 9 in-service teachers translated their beliefs into inquiry practice in their classrooms.

Spraker, Ralph Everett, Jr.


Links between teacher assessment and child self - assessment of mental health and behavior among children affected by HIV/AIDS. (United States)

Teachers are considered to be one of the most important influences in the lives of students. Teachers' assessments of students may be a primary source of information on children's mental and behavioral health; however, this topic has received little attention in research. We examined this issue through linking teachers' ratings of students and mental and behavioral outcomes of children affected by HIV. The hypothesis is that teacher ratings will be predictive of specific child mental and behavioral health outcomes. A quantitative cross-sectional design with self-administered paper-and-pencil instruments was used. The sample included 1221 children (aged 6-18, grades 1-11) affected by HIV including 755 orphans who lost one or both parents to AIDS and 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents in a central province of China. The corresponding teacher sample included 185 participants. Each child completed an assessment inventory of demographic information and mental and behavioral health measures. Teachers completed a questionnaire about children's school performance. SEM analyses revealed a good model fit according to all fit indices: comparative fit index = 0.93, root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.04. Structural equation modeling revealed that problem ratings by teachers were positively associated with child loneliness and behavioral problems, social competence ratings by teachers were negatively related to child depression, and personal growth and social interaction ratings by teachers were negatively related to child loneliness, depression, and trauma. The current study represents a unique contribution to the field in that it recognizes that teachers can be a valuable source of information on children's psychological health. Results from this study have implications for health prevention and intervention for children and families suffering from HIV/AIDS. PMID:25703050

Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Weinstein, Traci L; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang



Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers (United States)

Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

Gardner, Cynthia Crompton


Teachers' beliefs about culturally relevant teaching in the science classroom (United States)

In many of our nations' schools, African American students are experiencing inequitable opportunities to quality science. Since science teachers are one of the most influential factors on science learning and they are charged with instructing African American students, their beliefs and practices are vital to the understanding of this paradox. This mixed method study sought to investigate science teachers' beliefs about the importance of culturally relevant teaching in the classroom and their beliefs about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching. Two research questions guided the conceptualization and implementation of this study: (1) Do science teachers believe culturally relevant teaching is an important part of their instruction; (2) What are science teachers' perceptions about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching? The study was conducted in three phases. Survey data in Phase One revealed that 100% of the respondents believed culturally relevant teaching is important when working with culturally diverse students. Data also showed a significant consensus among the following pluralist statements; 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, and 17. The statement, "culturally relevant practice is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" was endorsed (75%) by the respondents while 25% strongly agreed with the statement. Similarly, respondents strongly agreed (75%) with the statement "encouraging respect for cultural diversity is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" while 25% agreed. Interview results in Phase Two revealed that teachers had a general idea about culturally relevant pedagogy. Data further showed that three of the four teachers supported culturally relevant teaching in theory, but their support was not reflected in their daily classroom instruction. Misconceptions and/misunderstandings about culturally relevant teaching fell under several common themes: knowledge, teacher beliefs, practices and implementations, and barriers and challenges. Phase Three illustrated a case of culturally relevant science teaching in a holistic manner by way of interviews, observations, and documents. Documents (i.e. lesson plans, student assignments, philosophy of teaching statement, and students' standardized assessment results) collected from one exemplary teacher further illustrated how culturally relevant teaching is demonstrated in a science classroom.

Kelly-Jackson, Charlease Plushette


Teacher Resources (United States)

Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...

Heather Miller



The Influence of a Teacher Research Experience on Elementary Teachers' Thinking and Instruction (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how elementary teachers' thinking and instruction changed as a result of a teacher research experience. Each teacher worked with a scientist conducting research for a period of six weeks. Data in the form of classroom observations and interviews was collected before and after the research…

Dixon, Patricia; Wilke, Ryan A.



Teacher Pension Systems, the Composition of the Teaching Workforce, and Teacher Quality. Working Paper 72 (United States)

Teacher pension systems target retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine how the…

Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael



Teacher Pension Systems, the Composition of the Teaching Workforce, and Teacher Quality (United States)

Teacher pension systems concentrate retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine the…

Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael; Shi, Shishan



Preschool Teacher Competence Viewed from the Perspective of Students in Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…

Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia



Effective Teachers/Inspired Students: The Critical Role of Teachers in "Yeshiva" High Schools (United States)

Teachers are thought to be the backbone of any high school. Data indicating how students perceive their teachers was gathered from a questionnaire completed by 355 recent Yeshiva high-school graduates. Results show that Yeshiva High School teachers are thought of as open minded and tolerant (51.9%), caring (73.2%), and interested in developing the…

Tannenbaum, Chana



The Quality of Teacher Work Life Survey: A Measure of Teacher Stress and Job Satisfaction. (United States)

Administered Quality of Teacher Work Life Survey, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Educational Values Scales to 227 teachers. Results identified 10 factors contributing to teacher satisfaction and stress. The 10 factors accounted for 66.3 percent of the total item variance. (NB)

Pelsma, Dennis M.; And Others



Examining Teacher Technology Use: Implications for Preservice and Inservice Teacher Preparation. (United States)

Surveyed Massachusetts teachers regarding the extent to which they used technology within and outside of the classroom for instructional purposes. Results highlighted six categories of instructional technology use (preparation, e-mail, teacher- directed student use, recording grades, delivery, and special education and accommodation). New teachers

Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; O'Dwyer, Laura; O'Connor, Kathleen



Hunter College TTT Program: Training the Teachers of Teachers Elementary Education. (United States)

The Training the Teachers of Teachers Program at Hunter College is a program designed to train faculty and field personnel so that a more effective teacher education program can be implemented. Feedback from faculty, students, and a core of liberal arts and education faculty recruited for the program resulted in several changes. A new group of…

Gold, Milton J.


How Do Teachers Reason about Their Practice? Representing the Epistemic Nature of Teachers' Practical Knowledge (United States)

The present study focused on the epistemology of teachers' practical knowledge by addressing the following research question: how do teachers attempt to reason about their practices and their practical knowledge? The results indicated that teachers supported their practical knowledge claims using the "practical argument". Within this conceptual…

Gholami, Khalil; Husu, Jukka




CERN Document Server

The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on



Gender equity: A study of classroom interactions of sixth-grade science teachers before and after gender equity training (United States)

The researcher investigated teachers' perceptions of their interactions with students in their 6th grade science classrooms and the effects of gender equity training on teachers' interactions with students. Teacher perceptions were measured at pretest and posttest using the Gender Equity Teacher-Student Interaction Questionnaire (GETSIQ). The outcomes from one day of gender equity training, using the Gender Equity Video and Instructional Guide, were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow-up using the INTERSECT scale. A non-random sample of twenty 6th grade science teachers from five middle schools participated in the study. Ten teachers were assigned to each of the control or experimental groups. The first hypothesis posited that teacher perceptions of and actions toward male and female students in sixth grade science classrooms would be different as reflected by scores on the GETSIQ. The hypothesis was partially supported. Teachers reported significantly different amounts of acknowledgment, attention in general, and attention to questions, responses, and comments for boys and girls, and different evaluations based on their expectations for a student. Following training, teachers from the experimental group obtained somewhat higher scores, though the differences were not statistically significant. Hypothesis 2 stated that gender equity training would increase equitable teacher interactions with male and female students as demonstrated by scores on the INTERSECT Checklist. This hypothesis was partially supported. A comparison of the Intersect checklist (praise, acceptance, remediation, criticism) revealed that teachers were observed to more equally give praise to boys and girls following training, male teachers engaged in more acceptance responses with girls, and female teachers had more equitable distribution of acceptance. Male teachers increased the amount of remediation to girls, and female teachers continued to provide more remediation to boys. The differences between pretest and posttest were statistically significant. There was some reversion to pretest levels interactions at follow-up. The results of the study support the effectiveness of gender equity training in facilitating increased awareness and behavioral change in teachers. However, training needs to be of longer duration for continued effectiveness.

Giuliano, Joanne




The article focuses on developing the teachers’ skills which are integral to the processes of professional decision–making where teachers are constantly involved. The paper gives an overview of a model of teachers’ development offered by innovative educational processes, activity of the teachers on the organization of foreign student training activity, etc. It describes the results of the authors’ modeling on adapting the presentation reliability development among the business student...

Galina Petrova; Olga Milovanova; Olga Efimova



Tangled paths: Three experienced teachers' growth in understanding during an extended science community of practice professional development effort (United States)

This qualitative investigation extends the study of teacher learning within a reform-based community of practice model of professional development. This long-term, multiple case study examined three experienced teachers' transformations in thinking about science instruction. Data were collected during the three years of the Guided Inquiry supporting Multiple Literacies research project, designed to develop instructional practices informed by a socio-cultural, inquiry-based orientation. Data sources included: transcripts of semi-structured interviews collected at strategic points, the teacher's journals, initial application information, and teachers' written case studies. Using an interpretive case study approach, tenets of the teachers' orientations were identified through a recursive process. Results are organized to reflect two principles that were integral to the design of the professional development community. The first principle describes changes in teachers' orientations about the goals and characteristics of science instruction in the elementary grades. The second describes changes about teachers' knowledge about themselves as learners and the influence of this knowledge on their thinking about science instruction and student learning. Illustrative findings indicate that: (a) it is possible for teachers' language regarding conceptions of their practice to change with only superficial change in their orientations, (b) teachers can hold dualistic ways of thinking about their practice, (c) in some cases, teachers use a significant amount of autobiography about their own learning to explain their practice; over time, this was replaced with warrants using the language that developed within the professional development community, and (d) long-term case studies revealed differences in orientations that emerged and were refined over time. These findings provide strong support for communities of practice as a model of professional development and hold implications for advancing teacher learning.

Brown, Nancy Melamed


Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates  

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Full Text Available This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Kele?o?lu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selçuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was conducted on 312 teacher candidates. The data of this study was obtained by “academic selfefficacy scale” which was developed by Jerusalem and Schwazer (1981 and translated into Turkish by Y?lmaz, Gürçay, and Ekici (2007 and its reliability value was determined as .79. However, Cronbach Alfa reliability value of this scale became .76 with the result of the data analysis of the study. SPSS package program was used to analyze the data; and the data analysis, frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc tests (LSD test were used. When the findings of the research were considered in general, the result showed that the academic self-efficacy perception level of the candidates was at desired level. However, teachers' views about the level of academic self-efficacy perception showed that most of them preferred a lower level option "suits me", instead of "totally suits me" option that was the highest degree of participation of four likert-type scale. This illustrated that their perception about this issue was not at a very high level. When independent variables were taken into account, among the academic perception levels of teacher candidates, a significant difference was detected in terms of working as a teacher or not and academic achievement variables but it revealed no significant difference in terms of gender and type of education program variables.

Dr. Etem YE??LYURT



EFL Teachers' Self-regulation and Job Performance  


The current study explored the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' self-regulation and job performance. To empirically explore the postulated correlation between teachers' self-regulation and job performance, 80 EFL teachers from various language institutes in Mashhad were asked to complete the "Teachers Self-Regulation Scale" and the "Job Performance Scale". The results of the finding confirmed the hypothesized relationship between teachers' self-regulation and job performance. Moreov...

Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol; Nahid Royaei



Georgia Revealed (United States)

OneWorld and present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.


Mathematics revealed  

CERN Document Server

Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

Berman, Elizabeth



Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition (United States)

While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.



Agreement between parents and teachers on preschool children's behavior in a clinical sample with externalizing behavioral problems. (United States)

An accurate interpretation of information obtained from multiple assessors is indispensible when complex diagnoses of behavioral problems in children need to be confirmed. The present study examined the similarity of parents and kindergarten teachers ratings on children's behavior in a sample of 160 preschool children (a clinical group including 80 children with externalizing behavioral problems and a matched control group including 80 children). Behavioral problems were assessed using the SDQ, and the DISYPS-II questionnaires for ADHD and conduct disorders. The results revealed low levels of parent-teacher agreement for their ratings on the children's behavior in both groups with the highest correlations in the non-clinical sample. Parent-teacher agreement did not differ significantly across the samples. Parent and teacher ratings correlated with the prevalence of externalizing disorders and were found to be almost independent of each other. The results highlight the importance of multiple informants and their independent influence within the diagnostic process. PMID:24363143

Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz



Developing a Framework for Classroom Lesson Delivery to Improve English Teachers’ Performance in the Foundation Year Programme at a Saudi University  

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Full Text Available The current English programme provided to foundation year students at King Abdulaziz University is failing to equip learners with the desired level of English language. This paper assesses the teaching materials and proposes a teaching framework to improve teachers’ lesson delivery. The framework was designed to overcome some of the shortfalls in the mandatory course book series (Headway Plus. The framework adopted Kumaravadivelu’s (2010 principles for lesson delivery: diagnosis, treatment and assessment, and advocates the development of cognitive ability, encourages collaborative learning, problem solving, emphasizes process rather than product, communication skills, and self-inquiry. Fifteen English teachers participated in a pilot study by implementing the new lesson delivery framework over a 14-week course. A peer observation strategy was used to help the teachers reflect on their teaching methods and improve the quality of their teaching. Also, during the last two weeks of the course the head of the English unit and an external observer conducted observations to monitor and assess teachers’ development. The findings of the study revealed the new framework helped teachers improve their lesson delivery and encouraged them to use new teaching techniques such as problem solving and a student-centred approach. However, the results also indicated there was a need for teacher training courses to help teachers understand the principles behind the different teaching methodology. In addition, a cultural factor was found to be influential, as some teachers were reserved about criticizing other teachers’ performance.

Saeed J. Aburizaizah



Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education (United States)

The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo



The Effect of Teachers’ Self-reflection on EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement  

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Full Text Available Abstract The concept of teachers’ reflection refers to the extent to which EFL teachers contemplate and reflect on their teaching experience in the classroom in order to improve their teaching skills. This study sought to explore the effect of EFL teacher’s reflection on their learners’ writing achievement. Participants of the study included 100 EFL teachers teaching in Mashhad language institutes and their 1000 EFL learners. Reflective teaching instrument designed by Akbari and Behzadpour (2007 was administered to the teachers of the study. Also, their EFL learners’ Grade Point Averages (GPAs of their writing scores were calculated. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that teacher’s reflection significantly affects EFL learners’ writing achievement. This paper concludes with some implications for teaching and directions for further research.
Key words: Teacher; Self-reflection; Learner; Writing achievement

Le concept de la réflexion des enseignants se réfère à la mesure dans laquelle les enseignants de l'APL contempler et réfléchir sur leur expérience d'enseignement en classe en vue d'améliorer leurs compétences pédagogiques. Cette étude visait à explorer l'effet de la réflexion EFL enseignant sur la réussite d'écriture de leurs apprenants. Les participants de l'étude comprennent 100 enseignants EFL l'enseignement à Mashhad instituts de langue. Instrument pédagogique réfléchissant conçu par Akbari et Behzadpour (2007 a été administré aux participants de l'étude. Les résultats de l'analyse statistique révèle que la réflexion de l'enseignant affecte significativement atteinte écrit apprenants EFL.
Mots-clés: Enseignant; Auto-réflexion; L'apprenant; La réalisation d'écriture

Azar Hosseini Fatemi



A Comparative Analysis of Gender Effectiveness in Public and Private Secondary Schools Teachers’ in Oredo Local Government of Edo State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to compare teacher’s level of effectiveness in public and private secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Two hypotheses were formulated for the study and the reviewed literature covered all the variables of interest. The study was hinged on the ex-post- facto research design. A special instrument known at the Teachers Gender Performance Evaluation Report Card (TGPERC was developed to generate the needed data. Schools from where the teachers were selected were chosen via convenience sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using the t-test statistics for independent sample and all hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that the public and private school teachers have different levels of effectiveness in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Nigeria.

Mercy O. Omobude



PBS Teachers (United States)

The PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) Teachers web site provides access to thousands of lesson plans, teaching activities, videos, and interactive games and simulations for all levels of instruction, Pre-K to 12. These resources are correlated to state, national, and Canadian educational standards and are tied to PBS' on-air and online programming (NOVA, Nature, and others). They are organized by topic (math, science and technology, social studies, and others). Within each topic area the resources are searchable by grade level and subtopic. Other materials include links to blogs on educational topics, news articles and event announcements, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and information on PBS' professional development program, Teacherline.



The Effectiveness and Distribution of Male Primary Teachers: Evidence from Two Mexican States (United States)

Although the results of quantitative studies often indicate that students of male teachers perform worse on achievement tests than those of female teachers, it is not clear that men are less effective teachers. Instead, male teachers may work in more difficult environments. This study uses longitudinal data from Mexico's national teacher incentive…

Luschei, Thomas F.



Teacher-student interactions and domain-specific motivation: The relationship between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and motivation in middle school science (United States)

This study examined interactions between middle school science students' perceptions of teacher-student interactions and their motivation for learning science. Specifically, in order to better understand factors affecting middle school students' motivation for science, this study investigated the interactions between middle school students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in their science classroom and their efficacy, task value, mastery orientations, and goal orientation for learning science. This mixed methods study followed a sequential explanatory model (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases, with quantitative data in the first phase informing the selection of participants for the qualitative phase that followed. The qualitative phase also helped to clarify and explain results from the quantitative phase. Data mixing occurred between Phase One and Phase Two (participant selection) and at the interpretation level (explanatory) after quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Results from Phase One indicated that students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors were predictive of their efficacy for learning science, task value for learning science, mastery orientation, and performance orientation. These results were used to create motivation/perception composites, which were used in order to select students for the qualitative interviews. A total of 24 students with high motivation/high perceptions, low motivation/low perceptions, high motivation/low perceptions, and low motivation/high perceptions were selected in order to represent students whose profiles either supported or refuted the quantitative results. Results from Phase Two revealed themes relating to students' construction of their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and dimensions of their efficacy and task value for science. Students who reported high motivation and high perceptions of teacher-student interactions during the quantitative phase described the most instances of teacher cooperative behaviors, such as teacher helpfulness and understanding. Conversely, students reporting low motivation and low perceptions of teacher-student interactions described the most instances of teacher oppositional behavior, such as harsh and impatient behaviors. An in-depth description of categories and subcategories is also provided. This study concludes with an interpretive analysis of quantitative and qualitative results considered both separately and together. Implications for middle grades science education are discussed, including recommendations for behavior management, scaffolding students' transition to middle school, making explicit connections to science careers, and providing opportunities for small successes within the science classroom. Implications for science teacher education, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

Smart, Julie Brockman




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Full Text Available Education in the Indian region faces a number of problems. These problems include the shortage of qualified teachers, very large student populations, high drop-out rates of students and teachers, and weak curriculum. All of these negative aspects result in poor delivery of education. The education crisis is worsened by the devastating effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, increasing poverty, a brain drain in the teaching community, budgetary constraints, poor communication, and inadequate infrastructure.While societies in the region undergo rapid changes as a result of increased access to information, the majority of the school-going youth continue to undergo traditional rote learning. ICTs are one of the major contemporary factors shaping the global economy and producing rapid changes in society. They have fundamentally changed the way people learn, communicate, and do business.

Girdhar lal Sharma



Framing the debate over teacher unions  

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Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

William C. Smith



An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration (United States)

This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed throughout the program. More specifically, analysis of the teachers' discourse during the second version revealed that the program led to significant changes in teachers' knowledge about their students' knowledge and in teachers' views about the following: 1. the advantages of the KIRs' innovative teaching tool, 2. the "evidence" as a useful resource for evaluating the contribution of the KIRs to students' learning, and more generally, as a powerful tool for investigating students' learning, and for improving practice, and 3. several "learner-centered" pedagogical aspects: the importance and legitimacy of learning from peers, the need to listen carefully to students' ideas and reflections, and the need to investigate students' knowledge using a variety of methods, and to plan the teaching accordingly. Our analysis of the students' worksheets verified the teachers' findings about their students' initial state of knowledge and the improvement of this knowledge as a result of advancing through the KIR phases. When we extended the sample and examined worksheets of additional classes, we found similar findings. We also found that the students were aware of the improvement in their knowledge and attributed this improvement to their working with the KIRs. Two major recommendations emerge from this study: 1. We recommend that KIRs be routinely incorporated into physics teaching. The results show that the KIRs contribute to teachers' practice and to students' learning and support the teachers in becoming more learner-centered in their teaching. 2. We recommend incorporating an evidence-based approach in long-term programs aimed at bringing about a significant change in the teachers' practice. In order to engage the teachers with the evidence endeavor, it is recommended to introduce them an innovative teaching tool that is considered by them important and to evoke their curiosity to find out empirically about the influence of the tool on their students' learning. It is also recommended to engage the teachers in ongoing interactions about their expe

Berger, Hana


Orientation teachers of physical education for improve own health  

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Full Text Available Purpose . The features targeted pedagogical influence on students of the Faculty of Physical Education to strengthen their own health. Material and methods . The study involved 192 students of different pedagogical university faculties of both sexes aged 18-21 years. Results . Revealed that the level of health is not very different Arts Students from the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and is the most "below average". In the process of training future teachers of physical culture introduced pedagogical conditions : enriching the content of academic disciplines of scientific information and educational support during the implementation of the rehabilitation program students. Found that as a result of research indicators of physical health of students of physical education have improved significantly. Conclusions . These data indicate the feasibility and necessity of using these pedagogical conditions in the orientation of the future teachers of physical training to strengthen their own health and the health of the younger generation.

Muskharina Y.Y.



Teaching a Discrete Information Technology Course in a Constructivist Learning Environment: Is It Effective for Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers? (United States)

Measures preservice teachers' attitudes toward information technology (IT) following their participation in a discrete IT course taught in a constructivist learning environment where the students collaborated to achieve their learning goals and problem solve on tasks. Results revealed that with the constructivist learning approach infused in the…

Wong, Su Luan; Jalil, Habibah Ab; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hong, Tang Sai



Student Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher's Qualities (United States)

What qualities in teachers do student teachers feel are more important than others? Do student teachers agree as to the varying importance of these qualities? This pilot study conducted in Fall semester, 1975 at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale attempted to answer these questions. (Author)

Casey, John P.; Alden, Elaine



Teachers Helping Teachers: Peer Observation and Assistance. (United States)

This book, a research-based text, describes peer observation and assistance (POA), a method designed to isolate behaviors and skills shown to raise student achievement levels and the process by which teachers can help their peers improve performance in these areas. The volume is organized into 10 chapters: (1) Teachers Helping Teachers: The…

Willerman, Marvin; And Others


Teachers' Perceptions of the Effective Teacher (United States)

In this study, researchers qualitatively analyzed middle school teacher participant perceptions of qualities of teacher effectiveness across 3 years (2006-2009) through 66 focus group sessions by comparing the participants' identified qualities to Stronge's (2007) Teacher Skills Assessment Checklist. Surprisingly, a disproportionate number (42.6%)…

Watson, S.; Miller, T.; Davis, L.; Carter, P.



The Implications of Teacher Effectiveness Requirements for Initial Teacher Education Reform  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: School effectiveness research shows that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school-based factor in student success. The effects of poor teaching linger and can be measured for at least three years after students have left the classroom. It is too late to wait until secondary school level for backlogs to be eradicated. Education systems, such as the South African system, which grapple with large numbers of dysfunctional schools, should look anew at teacher effectiveness in all school phases. The urgent need for highly effective teachers in every classroom requires that education systems develop a comprehensive definition of teacher effectiveness and create training programmes to develop it. Thus, the problem investigated is: What are the characteristics, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers and what is the best way in which schools of education can adapt initial teacher education to meet the challenges of today?s classrooms? Approach: A mixed method approach was adopted. In addition to an in-depth literature review, open-ended questionnaires, probing perceptions of teacher effectiveness issues were distributed to teachers, school principals, policy officials and teacher educators. Interviews were conducted with a variety of educational experts. Classroom observations of experienced and novice teachers were conducted in a variety of contexts using open-ended classroom observation checklists. Results: Based on the findings of the research a synthesis of the characteristics, knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers was developed. Conclusion: If teachers are to be effective their initial training will have to be effective. This study has identified the characteristics and behaviours associated with effective teachers. These indicators are broad guidelines for schools of education to stimulate teacher education reform. Covering the curriculum, structuring of content, appropriate pacing and alignment, clear goal setting, clarity of content and presentation, are a few requirements for effective teachers which have direct implications for teacher education.

S. G. Pretorius



The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of prospective teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language p [...] roficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general competency, were noted. The article concludes with recommendations on how to enhance critical thinking and language proficiency in the teacher-training curriculum.

M M (Mary), Grosser; Mirna, Nel.


An investigation into pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching at two teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward science and science teaching of Saudi pre-service elementary science teachers at male and female teachers' colleges by using an Arabic translation of the Science Teaching Attitudes Scale (STAS-II) constructed by Moore and Foy (1997). It also used an Inquiry-based Science Instruction Questionnaire (ISIQ) constructed by the researcher to explore the relationship between self-reported inquiry-based science instructional experiences that the pre-service elementary science teachers had during their science preparation, their intention to practice inquiry-based science instruction in their future careers, and their attitudes toward science and science teaching. The sample size of the study was 300 Saudi male and female pre-service elementary science teachers at two teachers' colleges in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the first three hypotheses because the study has two independent (gender and grade level) and two dependent (attitudes toward science and attitudes toward science teaching) variables. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure was used to test the other hypotheses. In addition, all tests were conducted at alpha = 0.05. One of the findings of the study revealed that both Saudi male and female preservice elementary science teachers had positive attitudes toward science and toward science teaching, but females had more favorable attitudes toward science than males. The result of the MANOVA showed that there was a significant mean difference between males and females in regard to pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science (p = .002), but no difference between grade levels, or in the interaction between grade levels and gender. The result of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure showed that there were significant (moderate positive) correlations between pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching and their intention to practice inquiry-based science instruction in their future careers. In addition, the study showed that there were no significant relationships between pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science, and toward science teaching and their experiences with inquiry-based science instruction while at Medina Teachers Colleges. Therefore, further research studies, such as experimental research, are needed to study the impact of inquiry-based science instruction on pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and toward science teaching, and to discover what specific characteristics are most important.

Al-Kharboush, Soliman Saleh


Climatic effects on soil trophic networks and the resulting humus profiles in holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) forests in the High Atlas of Morocco as revealed by correspondence analysis  


Multivariate methods have been widely used for revealing the structures of communities, and in this paper we explore one particular method, namely correspondence analysis (also called reciprocal averaging), for studying humus profiles by the 'method of small volumes'. The present study was done on humus profiles under holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), an evergreen Mediterranean species, in the High Atlas of Morocco. Three sites (1500 m, 1700 m, 1900 m altitude) and 2 years (1999 and 2002) were...

Sadaka, Nassima; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois



Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study (United States)

School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both years (2008 and 2013). Additionally, a classroom observation was conducted with one of the interviewed teachers in 2013. Qualitative analyses were conducted following the constant comparative method and were facilitated by ATLAS.ti v. 6.2, a qualitative analysis software program. Qualitative findings identified themes at the district level that influenced teachers' use of Teaching SMARTRTM strategies. All the themes were classified as obstacles to sustainability: economic downturn, turnover of teachers and lack of hiring, new reform policies, such as Race to the Top, Student Success Act, Common Core State Standards, and mandated blocks of time for specific content. Results from the survey data showed no statistically significant difference through time in perceived instructional practices except for a perceived decrease in the use of hands-on instructional activities from 2008 to 2013. Analyses conducted at the individual teacher level found change scores were statistically significant for a few teachers, but overall, teachers reported similarly on the teacher survey at both time points. This sustainability study revealed the lack of facilitating factors to support the continuation of reform practices; however, teachers identified strategies to continue to implement some of the reform practices through time in spite of a number of system-wide obstacles. This sustainability study adds to the literature by documenting obstacles to sustainability in this specific context, which overlap with what is known in the literature. Additionally, the strategies teachers identified to overcome some of the obstacles to implement reform practices and the recommendations by district level administrators add to the literature on how stakeholders may support sustainability of reform through time.

Cotner, Bridget A.


Teachers' Views of Moral Education Topics - Taiwan and the USA (United States)

In a questionnaire survey, 94 teachers in Taiwan and 140 in the United States judged which topics among 20 moral issues would be appropriate subjects of study in grade six of the primary school and in the first year of the university. The issues related to religion, ethnicity, gender, health care, crime, alcohol, tobacco, gambling, guns, government corruption, birth control, caring for the elderly, and television programming. The results revealed great diversity of opinion within each group of respondents. No single topic was approved by all teachers in either group, nor was any topic rejected by all. Among the 234 teachers, no two offered precisely the same configuration of answers over the 20 topics. Nevertheless, some group trends could be identified for individual topics. For example, in both countries the great majority of respondents would teach about industrial pollution, whereas very few would approve of trying to identify the best religion. In the rationales teachers offered in support of their choices, the four reasons that figured most prominently in both countries were that a topic would contribute to the nation's welfare, would help students to make wise decisions, would be interesting for students, and would represent a peaceful way to face social problems.

Lin, Huey-Ya; Davidman, Patricia; Petersen, George; Thomas, R. Murray



Some Student Teachers’ Conceptions of Creativity in Secondary School English  

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Full Text Available This article explores a group of trainee teachers’ conceptions of Creativity in Secondary School English. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and interviews. Whilst there are many promising notions of creativity, the results also reveal some evidence of narrow conceptions, inconsistent thinking and some misconceptions.  This suggests that there may be significant implications for teacher trainers in universities and schools if we are to equip our students with the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach, support and facilitate creativity in their new careers. Romantic notions of original and innate genius, and a progressive emphasis on boundless, directionless play are two possible sources of misconceived ideas for training teachers of English. Creativity can be supported and developed within pedagogical frameworks and settings. This article, therefore, offers a consideration of  how Sternberg’s 21 suggested strategies for “Developing creativity as a decision” might be adapted and implemented in the Secondary English classroom. Practical teaching methods and competencies are presented which could be developed and incorporated into graduate trainee teacher programmes.

Beth Howell



Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Indices on Science Students’ Academic Performance in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools  

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Full Text Available The impact of science teachers’ motivation on science students’ academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo and Ekiti States of Nigeria was investigated in this study. This was a descriptive survey research which was questionnaire based and past WAEC O/L ((May/June 2008 and 2009 student results on the science subjects. The population of the study was all public Secondary Schools (science teachers and students in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. A stratified random sampling was used to select a total of five hundred and ten (510 science teachers (male and female from Ekiti and Ondo States from the selected schools for the study. And a total six thousand eight hundred (6,800 Science Students (male and female from the selected schools was also considered in the study. In each of the school selected for the study, only teachers of Biology, Chemistry and Physics were involved in the sample and the students that registered and wrote Biology, Chemistry and Physics WAEC examination of May/June 2008 and 2009 in Ekiti and Ondo states of Nigeria. The data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Multiple Regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. All the hypotheses were tested at 5 % level of significance. Among others, the study revealed that; there was significant relationship between regular payment of science teachers’ allowance and academic performance of science students; there was significant relationship between regular teachers’ participation in seminars/ workshops and academic performance of science students. Also, there exist statistical significant relationship between granting of study leave with pay to science teachers and academic performance of science students. As a result of the findings, it was recommended that the adequate science allowance should be regularly paid to the science teachers to enhance their excellent performance.

Afolakemi Oredein



The Influence of a Teacher Research Experience on Elementary Teachers' Thinking and Instruction (United States)

Creating opportunities for elementary teachers to develop knowledge of effective science teaching is an important goal of educators (NRC, 1996). Often unrecognized for their role in science education, elementary teachers may be responsible for delivering more hours of science instruction than high school teachers. However, previous research indicates that elementary teachers' content preparation in science is often inadequate (Tolman & Campbell, 1991). Moreover, unlike undergraduate science majors and secondary science teachers, elementary teachers are rarely given the opportunity to work with scientists in conducting science. In order to address these deficiencies in the preparation of elementary teachers, several forms of professional development have been explored by educators. These have included programs that focused on elementary teachers' analysis of video cases (Tippins, Nichols, & Dana, 1999), and collaborative inquiry (van Zee, Lay, & Roberts, 2003). However, few have examined the impact of the research experience model on elementary teachers' thinking and instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how elementary teachers' thinking and instruction changed as a result of a teacher research experience. Four elementary teachers participated in a six week professional development program designed to promote changes in scientific thinking and instructional practices. Each teacher worked with a scientist conducting research and collaborated with other teachers in translating their experiences into lessons. Data in the form of classroom observations and interviews were collected both before and after the research experience. Document analysis was also conducted on laboratory notebooks, reflective journals, and lesson plans that were collected during the research experience. Discussed are the specific changes to thinking and instruction that resulted from the research experience and how such changes differed between beginning and experienced elementary teachers.

Dixon, P. J.



Investigation of Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession in a Teaching Formation Certification Program(SDÜ Sample  

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Full Text Available In this study, pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards teaching profession were examined using different variables. The results reveals that, pre-service teacher candidates are interested in the teaching profession, enjoyed teaching profession, and have a higher level of commitment to teaching profession. Moreover pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward the professional responsibility and the social reputation of the teaching profession were positive according to the data analyzed. There is significant difference were found in terms of the interest of teaching profession, enjoying the profession, Professional commitment in terms of participants’ age and working in a job. However, there is no significant difference found according to the level of education, their graduation area, and the job sector. There is also significant difference was found in the reputation of teaching profession and professional responsibility in terms of the job sector pre-service teachers’ employed.

Hasan Hüseyin ÖZKAN



Processes of negotiation of meanings on algebraic thinking in a community of practice of pre-service mathematics teacher education  

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Full Text Available We presented in this paper results of a research which aimed to investigate how the community of practice context of pre-service mathematics teacher education collaborates for learning on algebraic thinking by these future teachers. We analyzed, taking into account the Social Theory of Learning developed by Wenger (1998 as a theoretical frame, processes of negotiation of meanings present in participants' algebraic thinking in the development of tasks in one of the actions of the project "Mathematical Education of Teachers of Mathematics" inside the program "Universidade sem Fronteiras". This analysis allowed us to define some forms of member participation and explicit reification of algebraic thinking, due to some interactions in the processes of negotiation of meanings, which revealed changes in the identity of participants in become teachers of mathematics.

Márcia Cristina de Costa Trindade Cyrino



Beginning, Developing and Succeeding as a Thai Saxophonist: A Study of Teachers, Performers and the General Public  

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Full Text Available This qualitative research analyses stimuli during three phases in the career of Thai saxophonists. From a purposive sample of six saxophone teachers, six performers and twelve members of the general public, the paper reveals inspirations behind pursuit of a career in the saxophone, requirements for development as a saxophonist and conditions for success. The results show that reasons for starting to play the saxophone are personal interest and love of the saxophone, musical upbringing, friends, lifestyle, admiration of skilled saxophonists and the media. There are six requirements for development: personal characteristics, disciplined practice, good teachers, listening skills, experience and a musical identity. Role awareness and responsibility were the important requirements for success as a saxophone teacher. Successful professional saxophonists perform wholeheartedly to their full potential. Both saxophone teachers and performers must adapt their methods and techniques to the audience.

Pramote Phokha



Determination and Comparison of Elementary Science, Primary Classroom and Preschool Teacher Candidates’ Environmental Attitude  

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Full Text Available Formation and solution of environmental problems, which have economy, politics and education depends on the mentality and attitudes. This study is carried out to determine and determine the behavior and attitude dimensions of teacher candidates from different branches toward environment. The sample of the study consisted of elementary science, primary classroom and preschool education students attending the first and fifth terms of the program . Environmental Attitudes Survey (EAS was administered to the teacher candidates. The responses of the teacher candidates were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and the education programs content of each department were analyzed to reason differences among the departments. It was revealed that science teacher candidates’ means of environmental attitudes are the highest of all. However, when comparing the first and fifth term students’ mean scores, it is interesting that first term preschool teacher candidates and first term primary classroom teacher candidates' EAS mean scores are higher than those of fifth term students. These results point out that it is required to consider important environmental education in higher education.

Serap Oz Aydin



Results. (United States)

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.



A New Teacher's Plea (United States)

New teachers are often too overwhelmed by their new responsibilities to be the effective teachers they wish to be. Brian K. Jones, a new teacher who loves his job but still thinks of quitting at least once a month, says that teachers need a more comprehensive system of supports before and after they enter the classroom. Such a system would include…

Jones, Brian K.



Helping Teachers become Leaders (United States)

For school improvement, more teachers need to function as leaders. Understanding the various dimensions of teacher leadership is requisite knowledge for encouraging the development of more teachers as leaders. Teacher leaders can fulfill multiple roles as they encounter obstacles in schools. The author addresses the challenge of supporting…

Phelps, Patricia H.



Technology Enhanced Teacher Evaluation (United States)

The purpose of this research and development study was to design and develop an affordable, computer-based, pre-service teacher assessment and reporting system to allow teacher education institutions and supervising teachers to efficiently enter evaluation criteria, record pre-service teacher evaluations, and generate evaluation reports. The…

Teter, Richard B.



Mathematics teachers' beliefs and curriculum reform (United States)

This paper discusses the role of mathematics teachers' beliefs and their impact on curriculum reform. It is argued that teachers' beliefs about the teaching and learning mathematics are critical in determining the pace of curriculum reform. Educational change is a complex process in which teachers hold strong beliefs about the quality and the process of innovation. Curriculum implementation may only occur through sufferance as many teachers are suspicious of reform in mathematics education given its equivocal success over the past decades. It is not surprising then that many teachers, when they come to enact the curriculum in their classes, rely more on their own beliefs than on current trends in pedagogy. These beliefs, conservative as they might be, have their own rationality in the practical and daily nature of the teaching profession, and in the compelling influence of educational systems from which these teachers are paradoxically the social product. The literature indicates that many of these teachers hold behaviourist beliefs, a fact that has strong implications for the success of constructivist-oriented curriculum reform. In general, studies of teachers' pedagogical beliefs reveal the extreme complexity of bringing about educational change, and largely explains the failure of many past reform endeavours.

Handal, Boris; Herrington, Anthony



Union Contracts and Teacher Professional Development  


In this article, I report the results of an investigation that examined the impact of teacher union contracts on the development of professional learning communities in schools. There are three primary sources of data used in the study: 1) 100 written teacher union contract documents; 2) structured interview data from 21 educators (school superintendents, principals, directors of staff development, and teacher union representatives; and 3) focus group interview data from educational leaders i...

Bredeson, Paul V.



An Analysis on Proactive-Reactive Personality Profiles in Student-Teacher Relationship through the Metaphorical Thinking Approach (United States)

This study analyzed the proactive and reactive personality traits in teachers and students. These traits were interpreted with the help of the ideas and images revealed through metaphors. With the help of these metaphors, the certain imaginative categories and statements of student teachers about the teacher, the student and teacher-student…

Yucel, A. Seda; Kocak, Canan; Cula, Serpil



An Interpretive Inquiry of the Case Law of Teacher Evaluation in the Southern Regional Education Board States: Forecasting Pressing Problems (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyze case law related to teacher evaluation between 1980 and 2008 in the SREB states to determine the problems associated with teacher evaluation and if these problems were documented in the literature. Content analysis of teacher dismissal cases revealed many types of teacher evaluation problems. The two most…

Kidder-Wilkerson, Kathy S.



The Paradox of Teacher Professional Development Programs for Behaviour Management: Comparing Program Satisfaction alongside Changes in Behaviour Management Practices (United States)

A teacher professional development program using applied behavioural techniques was delivered to primary school teachers. Teachers (N = 78) rated the program highly and reported improved knowledge and skills in managing disruptive student behaviour. Objective measures of teacher (n = 32) pre- and post-workshop data revealed significant changes in…

Giallo, Rebecca; Hayes, Louise



Organizational Learning: Perceptions of Teachers’ in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate primary school teacher’s organizational learning experiences and their thoughts about these experiences. In order to realize this aim, educational practices, supportive leadership, communication and education technology, information sharing and cooperation dimensions of organizational learning are analyzed in terms of teachers’ perceptions. When we evaluate research findings, teachers’ perceptions about organizational learning differ meaningfully according to the teacher’s age and their tenure of office. It can be asserted that we can develop schools’ organizational learning ability only if we create systems which make easy and support managers’, teachers’, students’, parents’ and other education workers’ learning course. The results of this study showed that teachers’ perceptions about organizational learning differ according to managers’ use of managerial power in change applications, teacher’s liability to the team work and whether technological advancements is followed or not. The findings of the research also sign the importance of collective learning and application in order to realize organizational learning. When we look at the research findings, it can be asserted that motivating individuals in schools to work and learn collaboratively and to follow technological advancements about education can be effective in transforming schools to learning organizations.




TXESS Revolution: Utilizing TERC's EarthLabs Cryosphere Module to Support Professional Development of Texas Teachers (United States)

TERC’s EarthLabs project provides rigorous and engaging Earth and environmental science labs. Four existing modules illustrate sequences for learning science concepts through data analysis activities and hands-on experiments. A fifth module, developed with NSF, comprises a series of linked inquiry based activities focused on the cryosphere to help students understand concepts around change over time on multiple and embedded time scales. Teachers recruited from the NSF-OEDG-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program conducted a pedagogical review of the Cryosphere EarthLabs module and provided feedback on how well the materials matched high school needs in Texas and were aligned with state and national standards. Five TXESS Revolution teachers field tested the materials in their classrooms and then trained other TXESS Revolution teachers on their implementation during spring and summer 2010. Here we report on the results of PD delivery during the summer 2010 TXESS Revolution summer institute as determined by (1) a set of evaluation instruments that included a pre-post concept map activity to assess changes in workshop teachers’ understanding of the concepts presented, a pre-post test content knowledge test, and a pre-post survey of teachers’ comfort in teaching the Texas Earth and Space Science standards addressed by the module; (2) teacher reflections; and (3) focus group responses. The findings reveal that the teachers liked the module activities and felt they could use them to teach Environmental and Earth Science. They appreciated that the sequence of activities contributed to a deeper understanding and observed that the variety of methods used to present the information accommodates different learning styles. Information about the cryosphere was new to all the teachers. The content knowledge tests reveal that although teachers made appreciable gains, their understanding of cryosphere, how it changes over time, and it’s role in Earth’s climate system remains weak. Our results clearly reflect the challenges of addressing the complexity of climate science and critical need for climate literacy education.

Odell, M.; Ellins, K. K.; Polito, E. J.; Castillo Comer, C. A.; Stocks, E.; Manganella, K.; Ledley, T. S.



Functional Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System: Professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a Â?Train and equipÂ? Method Results in Learning Opportunities for Students (United States)

This resource describes a professional development program for preK - 3rd grade teachers. The purpose of the program was to update teachers in the content of cardiovascular and respiratory physiology and provide the necessary tools for teachers to adapt these lessons to their classroom.

Dr. E R Burns (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences)



Burnout Levels of Teachers of Students with AD/HD in Turkey: Comparison with Teachers of Non-AD/HD Students (United States)

This study was designed to explore the difference between the burnout level of teachers of students with AD/HD and teachers of non-AD/HD students in Turkey. The Turkish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to a total of 78 Turkish elementary school teachers. Overall findings revealed that there were no significant differences…

Ozdemir, Selda



Language teachers and teaching  

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This volume gathers contributions from a range of global experts in teacher education to address the topic of language teacher education. It shows how teacher education involves the agency of teachers, which forms part of their identity, and which they take on when integrating into the teaching community of practice. In addition, the volume explores the teachers' situated practice dynamic negotiation of classroom situations, socialization into the professional teaching culture, and ""on the ground experimentation"" with pedagogical skills/techniques.

Ben Said, Selim



Examination of the Factors Influencing the Exam Results (United States)

The defectiveness of the effectiveness of the Hungarian general education revealed in the PISA survey appears in the higher education as well. The "Introduction to Informatics" subject has one of the lowest exam results among the students of the College of Nyíregyháza majoring in Computer Program Designer and Teacher of Computer Science.…

Sitku-Görömbei, Cecília



Haunting Native Speakerism? Students’ Perceptions toward Native Speaking English Teachers  

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Full Text Available This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs. Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result shows that students expect more encouragement and interaction with the NESTs, and more relaxed activities with less assignment and test. A third of the students expect NEST with a standard accent, while a quarter do not care about accent at all. The NESTs reveal their dissatisfaction toward the students’ passiveness and irresponsiveness. While students expect their NESTs to be interactive, they themselves seem to give the NESTs an impression of an unwillingness to participate. The discussion centers on this dilemma and offer some suggestions for English teachers.  

kun huei Wu



Teacher Candidates’ Strategies for Coping with Stress  

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Full Text Available This study aims to explore how teacher candidates cope with stress according to their gender, age, and major. The data for the study was collected via a personal information form and the Multidimensional Intimate Coping Questionnaire (MICQ with the participation of 307 university students, 183 female (59.6 % and 124 male (40.4. To analyze the data, for the gender and age variables an independent samples t-test, and for the major variable, a one-way ANOVA test was utilized. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the gender variable in the subscales of ‚Negative and Passive Coping?, ‚Seeking External Support? and ‚Belief in Religion? subscale for the female students. The difference was significant for the male students in the subscale of ‚Use of Alcohol and Drugs?. Also, according to the age variable, the difference was again significant for the participants between the ages of 23 and 31 in the subscale of ‚Positive and Active Coping? and ‚Supporting Oneself?. Moreover, there was a significant difference major variable in the subscales of ‚Denial/Mental Disengagement? for special education students, and ‚Belief in Religion ? subscale for students in science departments. As a result of the study, teacher candidates should be aware of the existing and potential stress sources and problems, and also the problems they will face in their profession. In addition, they should be equipped with the necessary skills to be able to cope with those factors effectively.

Bahtiyar Eraslan Çapan



Factors affecting secondary science teachers' appraisal and adoption of technology-rich project-based learning environments (United States)

We are learning much about how to design project-based curriculum that leverages technology, but we know less about the everyday needs of teachers and the implicit and explicit factors that influence their curriculum adoption decisions. Given that teachers are the gatekeepers of their classrooms, it is essential that designers and reformers understand the criteria teachers use to support their judgments regarding the appraisal and adoption of innovative curricula if they wish to see widespread use of their designs. Toward this end, this dissertation examines the perceptions of teachers as they appraise and consider the adoption of one innovative, technology-rich, project-based curriculum. Thirty secondary science teachers in Indiana were recruited. This study took place in two phases. During the first phase, data consisted of teachers' comments in the form of "think aloud's" and observations as teachers interacted with an Internet-based science program: Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment. Through an examination of these data, six implicit factors were identified: Trust, Identity, Self-Efficacy, Process Goals, Situational Constraints, and Contextual Idiosyncrasies. Examination of the content related to these categories suggests that curricular adoption is not simply an academic process but is also a personal one. Also, trust between the teacher and both the change facilitator and the innovation plays an influential role. Data collected during the second phase included item analysis of factors that emerged during semi structured interviews and rated by the teachers in terms of their importance in influencing their adoption of the WISE-water quality program. Teacher identified factors were collapsed into 26 explicit factors and analyzed using cluster analysis, resulting in five clusters of teacher profiles: Logistically Focused, Subject-Matter Focused, Scaffolded Optimists, Accountability Focused, and Pedagogically Savvy. This study reveals that factors affecting teachers' decision-making processes extend beyond those of which they are consciously aware. Additionally, there is no one set of factors important to all teachers. Instead, different groups of teachers have different concerns and therefore different needs. A central contribution of this study is the identification of cross-cutting concerns. Additionally, this study provides practical implications for both designers and change agents interested in facilitating technology-infused curricular innovations.

Luehmann, April Lynn


Revealing Mercury (United States)

The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size-frequency distribution suggest that smooth plains on Mercury's surface range in age from the end of the period of heavy impact bombardment to as young as perhaps 1 billion years; these ongoing measurements are helping to elucidate the volcanic history of the planet. Mercury's global tectonic history is also revealed by the MESSENGER image and laser altimeter data. Significant evidence for global contraction was seen in Mariner 10 images in the form of widespread lobate scarps. The MESSENGER images show that contractional features are the dominant tectonic landform globally, and the inferred average contractional strain is at least one third greater than previously inferred from Mariner 10 observations. Only three exceptions to the dominance of contractional deformation have been found to date: extensional troughs that include prominent basin-radial systems documented in two basins, the Pantheon Fossae within the 1500-km-diameter Caloris basin and a similar set of features within a newly-imaged 700-km-diameter basin, and a circumferential trough system within the smaller, younger Raditladi basin. That these extensional tectonic features are rare on Mercury, and that they are not seen within basins elsewhere in the Solar System, pose important constraints on the thermal and mechanical evolution of Mercury's interior.

Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.



Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies  

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Full Text Available Technology is rapidly improving in both hardware and software side. As one of the contemporary needs people should acquire certain knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits to understand this technology, to adapt to it and to make use of its benefits. In addition, as in all domains of life, change and improvement is also unavoidable for educational field. As known, change and improvement in education depends on lots of factors. One of the most important factors is teacher. In order to disseminate educational reforms, teachers themselves should accept the innovation first (Hardy, 1998, Baki, 2002; Oral, 2004. There has been variety of studies investigating teacher and prospective teachers? competences, attitudes and opinions (Paprzychi, Vikovic & Pierson, 1994; Hardy, 1998; Kocasaraç, 2003; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Eliküçük, 2006; Ye?ilyurt, 2006; Fendi, 2007; Teo, 2008; Arslan, Kutluca & Özp?nar, 2009. As the common result of these studies indicate that teachers? interest towards using instructional technology have increased. Accordingly, most of the teachers began to think that using instructional technologies becomes inevitable for teachers. By reviewing the related literature, no studies have been come across comparing the opinions of teachers and teacher candidates about instructional technologies. In this study, it was aimed to investigate and compare the views of mathematics teachers with prospective mathematics teachers about ICT. It was considered that collecting opinions of teachers and teachers candidates about the instructional technologies, comparing and contrasting them will contribute to the field. To follow this research inquiry, a descriptive approach type; case study research design was applied. The reason for choosing such design is that the case study method permits studying one aspect of the problem in detail and in a short time (Yin, 2003; Çepni, 2007. The study was conducted with the total sample of 12. 3 of them were mathematics teachers chosen from 3 different schools of different social stratification among primary schools in Artvin city center in the spring term of 2008-2009 educational year, another 3 of them were mathematics teachers from 3 different schools of different social stratification among primary schools in Trabzon city. Prospective mathematics teachers at their last year were randomly chosen from the elementary mathematics teacher training program of Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University.The chosen 6 teachers and 6 candidate teachers were interviewed with 9-item semi-structured interviews in duration of 25 to 40 minutes. The opinions of the teachers and candidate teachers were compared and interpreted in a multidimensional point of view by the researchers. Concerning the research inquiries, the obtained data were classified under the titles as; definition of the instructional technology concept, instructional technologies used by the participants, benefits of this usage, competences related to usage of these technologies, suggestions for using these technologies. Based on the data these results were drawn; while the teachers take the instructional technologies concept as technological tool specifically, the candidate teachers, on the other hand, perceive the concept from a broader point of view. The teachers are more acquainted with mainstream technological products like computer and internet however the candidate teachers are also aware of books, magazines and concrete materials. Complying with some previous studies (Baki, 2000; Ye?ilyurt, 2006; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Ayvac? et al., 2007, both teachers and candidate teachers agree on that using instructional technologies matters in a positive way. However, since the teachers are actively in-service, they mentioned on application problems, on the contrary the candidate teachers are unaware of the prospective problems. The reason of this situation may be the problems faced during the application but could not be envisaged in the theoretical pre-service education. T

Adnan Baki



Teacher’s Interaction Styles during Sociodramatic Play that Promote Reading and Writing among Preschoolers  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to help understand a teacher’s facilitation of reading and writing during sociodramatic play among Filipino preschoolers. It describes how Filipino preschool teachers demonstrate redirecting and extending style interactions as they participate during sociodramatic play. It also identifies the ways by which the teacher provided print-rich environments in the dramatic play area to promote early reading and writing among Filipino children with ages ranging from four years old to f ive years old and 11 months. Five female teachers from four schools in Quezon City that adopt the play curriculum based on a set of criteria were studied. Each teacher was interviewed regarding play, her role, and how she prepares the dramatic play area. She was observed for 10 consecutive school days. The teachers’ interaction styles were classified as either extending or redirecting. Four of the f ive teachers demonstrated at varying degrees both extending and redirecting styles as they participated in the children’s sociodramatic play. The interaction style of the teacher revealed her ability to perform within the context of the play and the ways she assisted children in performing reading and writing activities. The considerable increase in the frequency of children’s literacy activities during sociodramatic play could be attributed to the combination of extending style interaction and the integration of literacy materials in the dramatic play area.

Excelsa C. Tongson



Teachers' professional development: Awareness of literacy practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This article draws upon our experiences of participating in a Literacy Hub in South Africa. The aim is to describe and analyse how dialogue among Grade Eight teachers in a Literacy Hub around literacy teaching practices might lead to professional development and deepen teachers' understanding of lit [...] eracy practices and teaching. Interviews and observations with eight teachers were conducted to understand their literacy practices. The result indicates that sustainable development is a process that takes time. Furthermore, the study shows that the teachers relate to students' context and own experiences as a means of introducing a topic. While some teachers try to give the students access to cognitively demanding tasks, most tasks and events in the classrooms are cognitively undemanding and context-embedded. The importance of offering teachers examples of varied literacy practices and of making classroom literacy practice visible is noted.

Berit, Lundgren; Eileen, Scheckle; Denise, Zinn.



The Development of Teacher and Teacher-Librarian Collaboration Scale and the Examination Structures of Collaboration Models  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to construct the Collaboration Scale for primary and secondary school teacher and teacher-librarian of Taiwan. Teachers and teacher-librarians were selected from five municipals in the south of Taiwan. Fifty-nine teacher-librarians, 76 teachers and 2 principals from 60 primary and secondary schools participated in this study for the testing of scale quality. Results indicated as follows: 1. The Collaboration Scale consisted of 22 items, divided into three factors, which were integrated instruction, teacher-librarian as resource, and traditional role of teacher-librarian. 2. The Collaboration Scale had reasonable coefficient of internal consistency reliability and content validity. 3. Exploratory factor analysis showed that The Collaboration Scale had acceptable construct validity. Three factors explained variance 60.23%and had high correlations of the Collaboration Scale separately. The second purpose was to examine the facets of teacher and teacher-librarians collaboration. Results indicated that teacher and teacher-librarians had low-end collaboration, most of the cooperation existed in teacher-librarians provided materials or resources for the teachers; high-end collaboration, integrated instruction appear to be less prevalent among participants in this study.

Hai-Hon Chen



Satisfaction of Jewish and Arab teachers in Israel. (United States)

The author investigated the differences between Jewish Israeli and Arab Israeli teachers in their satisfaction with their work. Initially, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether there were demographic attributes (such as age, gender, and education) that differentiated between the two groups of teachers. Later, the author added two variables, teachers' perceptions of their occupation and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership styles, to the analysis to examine their contribution to the level of satisfaction for each group. Regression analyses revealed the significant power of the two added variables in predicting teacher satisfaction among both Jewish and Arab Israeli teachers. The author discussed implications of the findings in relation to principals' roles and teachers' perceptions. PMID:15739776

Bogler, Ronit



Teachers’ professional development needs in data handling and probability  


Poor Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) results and widespread disappointing mathematics results in South Africa necessitate research-based and more efficient professional development for in-service mathematics teachers. This article reports on the profiling of mathematics teachers’ statistical knowledge, beliefs and confidence in order to inform the development of in-service teacher education programmes in statistics for Grade 8 and Grade 9 teachers. Ninety mathe...

Helena Wessels; Hercules Nieuwoudt





Trying to develop new perspectives of teaching is never easy, but trying to cultivate ownership and initiative among teacher education students is a still greater aspiration that is infrequently realized. This article addresses each of these highly valued goals for teacher educators as a case study reveals the impact of involving teacher candidates in interdisciplinary focused, constructivist and reflective models and planning for teaching, and then student teaching, which reaffirms this appr...

Judit Kerekes; King, Kathleen P.



Teachers' use of questioning in supporting learners doing science investigations  


I examine how teachers employ a questioning strategy in supporting Grade 9 learners doing science investigations in South African schools. A particular focus of this study was how teachers use questioning in contributing towards the autonomy of these learners. The research adopted a qualitative approach which involved the collection of data by means of classroom observations and interviews with five teachers at schools resourced for practical work. The analysis of transcript data revealed tha...

Umesh Ramnarain





Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi



Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training  

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Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

Pechko O.M.



Emotional intelligence (EQ levels of the senior students in secondary education system in Turkey based on teacher’s perceptions  

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Full Text Available As in all sciences, interpersonal interactions develop new approaches. One of them is emotional intelligence (EQ, “observing and understanding capacity own and other’s emotion, definition of different type of emotion; and knowledge that you learned using to know other’s emotion and understanding. The purpose of this study is to determine EQ competence acquisition levels of senior students in secondary education system according to teacher perceptions. A survey method was used as the main research approach. Participants were 262 teachers who were selected from seven secondary schools in Adapazari that were selected randomly. Research questions were tested with ANOVA that includes Observed Power and Partial Eta analysis and t-test that includes Cohen d analysis. Results revealed that students, who have higher academic achievements, have the highest level in EQ traits as well. Science and Anatolian Secondary Schools’ students have higher EQ levels as cognitive skills.

Osman Titrek



Using the Project Approach in a Teacher Education Practicum  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the early childhood teacher training program and the role of the Project Approach in the final practicum for student teachers in the Lisbon School of Education, Portugal. Student teachers, cooperating teachers, university supervisors, and instructors of teaching methods worked together to involve young children in interesting projects. This cooperation provided an opportunity for innovation and experimentation and, especially, a context for teacher educators to deepen their understanding of their roles and to improve their teaching strategies. As a consequence, the final practicum became central to the teacher education program. The article concludes with seven lessons learned as a result of this process.

Teresa Vasconcelos



Towards Development of OER Derived Custom-Built Open Textbooks: A Baseline Survey of University Teachers at the University of the South Pacific  

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Full Text Available Textbook prices have soared over the years, with several studies revealing many university students are finding it difficult to afford textbooks. Fortunately, two innovations – open educational resources (OER and open textbooks – hold the potential to increase textbook affordability. Experts, though, have stated the obvious: that students can save money through open textbooks only if teachers are willing to develop and use them. Considering both the high price of textbooks and the benefits offered by OER and open textbooks, the aim of this study was to assess the University of the South Pacific (USP teachers’ willingness towards development of custom-built OER derived open textbooks for their courses with a focus on providing a foundation for strategies to promote open textbook development at USP. This paper reports the findings of an online survey of 39 USP teachers. The results show that 17 teachers were willing to develop OER derived custom-built open textbooks for their courses. Besides this, there are findings relating to six important areas: teachers’ motivation to develop open textbooks; the frequency of more than one prescribed textbook per course; teachers’ awareness of the costs of the prescribed textbooks; the average cost of prescribed textbooks in a course; teachers’ awareness and utilization of OER and open textbooks; and teachers’ perceived barriers to using OER and types of challenges they encounter while using OER. These findings have been discussed in relation to research studies on OER and open textbooks.

Deepak Prasad



Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry: Exploring and Acknowledging Nigerian Chemistry Teachers Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

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Full Text Available Although there is a growing interest in studies of students’ problem-solving strategies and difficulties, and misconceptionsregarding stoichiometry, little is known about the way teachers understand and teach reaction stoichiometry. This articlepresents a case study of pedagogical content knowledge put into actions by chemistry teachers when teaching the topic ofstoichiometry to second year senior secondary school students. Fourteen chemistry teachers with teaching experience rangingfrom 5 to 20 years were involved in this study. Research data were obtained from classroom observations and videotapedrecordings of classroom practice. Analyses of the teachers’ teaching activities revealed their skillfulness, resourcefulness, andweaknesses in terms of pedagogical content knowledge displayed when teaching stoichiometry. The results of this exploratorystudy offer insight into the knowledge systems that need to be expanded, enriched, and elaborated for teaching stoichiometry.To better understand the findings of this study, the results obtained were presented under two separate sections: (1 resultsconcerning introducing reaction stoichiometry to students and (2 results concerning leading students to identify limitingreagents. Implications for instruction and teachers’ professional development are offered.

Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon



Science Teacher Quality and Effectiveness: Gweru Urban Junior Secondary School Students’ Points of View  


The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions among junior secondary science students from Gweru Urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe towards science teachers' teaching quality and effectiveness. This qualitative study approached and interviewed Form 2 students from 10 different schools in Gweru urban. The results show that three key dimensions of science teacher quality and effectiveness emerged: teacher's scientific knowledge, teacher’s pedagogical skills and teacher's social co...

Mandina Shadreck; Mambanda Isaac





The present study, aimed at revealing the views of elementary school gifted students about the roles and behaviors of their teachers in class as well as about the in-class roles and behaviors that they expect from an ideal teacher with respect to different variables. Another question in the study was directed to determine students’ views about learning academic subjects via e-learning applications instead of at teachers. The participants of the study were 46 gifted students identified with ...

Bahadir ERISTI,



Formas de enseñanza y evaluación utilizadas por los docentes de Odontología: resultados y su clasificación psicopedagógica / Forms of teaching and assessment used by teachers in dental sciences: results and psycho-pedagogical classification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: Se presenta un estudio de la manera de enseñar y evaluar de los profesores que imparten el Plan de Estudios de Cirujano Dentista de la Facultad de Odontología (FO), UNAM, vigente desde 1992. Objetivo: Identificar las principales formas de enseñanza y evaluación utilizadas por los docen [...] tes de la FO, y clasificarlas psicopedagógicamente. Método: Estudio observacional, transversal, exploratorio tipo encuesta con escala Likert. Los datos se analizaron con SPSS (Alfa de Cronbach=0.880) a través de estadística descriptiva y con un análisis factorial exploratorio. Resultados: De una muestra de 484 profesores (45.6% mujeres, 54.4% hombres), se determinó que las principales formas de enseñanza utilizadas son: los profesores realizan preguntas sobre temas vistos previamente y la exposición de temas por parte del profesor; las que menos: el dictado y la exposición por parte de los estudiantes. Respecto a las estrategias de enseñanza-aprendizaje utilizan principalmente: demostraciones, ilustraciones y análisis de casos. Las formas de evaluación de la teoría más utilizadas son: participación en clase, exámenes de opción múltiple y listas de control; y en la práctica: exámenes de opción múltiple, número de trabajos y listas de control. Discusión: De las formas de enseñanza y evaluación que los profesores utilizan, algunas son más eficaces ya que fomentan la solución de problemas, y promueven una fuerte motivación en el estudiante. Conclusiones: Los profesores utilizan pocas formas de enseñanza y evaluación con diferente enfoque; prevalece la enseñanza centrada en el profesor y el uso excesivo de formas de evaluación relacionadas con el área cognoscitiva, el cumplimiento de tratamientos y el saber teórico de los procedimientos. Se sugiere crear conciencia y enriquecer las prácticas educativas habituales con capacitación continua y actualización constante, respecto a las formas de evaluación fundamentadas en la construcción del conocimiento y en el desarrollo de habilidades y actitudes profesionales. Abstract in english Introduction: We report a study of the way of teaching and assessment is performed by the professors at the School of Dentistry (Facultad de Odontología, FO), of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The curriculum of dental surgeon has been in use since 1992. The object of the study [...] is to identify the main forms of teaching and assessments used by teachers at the School of Dentistry (FO), and classify them both psychologically and pedagogically. Method: An observational, cross-type exploratory survey with a Likert scale. Data were analyzed with SPSS (Cronbach's Alpha=0.880) through descriptive statistics and an exploratory factor analysis. Results: From a sample of 484 teachers (45.6% female, 54.4% male), it was determined that the main ways of teaching were: teachers prepare questions on topics previously seen, and give a seminar on the day's topic. Few give: dictation or have presentation by students. Regarding teaching strategies the most used are: demonstrations, illustrations and case analysis. The forms of assessment most often used are: class participation, multiple-choice tests and checklists; and in practice: multiple choice exams, number of assignments and checklists. Discussion: Among all forms of teaching and assessment that teachers use, some are more effective if they encourage problem solving, and promote a strong motivation in the student. Conclusions: Teachers use a few ways of teaching and evaluation with a different approach; prevailing teacher-centered teaching and excessive use of evaluation forms related to the cognitive area, fulfillment of treatments and theoretical knowledge of procedures. It is suggested to create awareness and enrich the regular educational practices with continuous training and updating regarding the evaluation forms grounded in knowledge construction and the development of skills and professional attitudes.

Olivia, Espinosa-Vázquez; Adrián, Martínez-González; Frida, Díaz-Barriga Arceo.



Revealing Rembrandt  


The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cogn...

Parker, Andrew J.



Does content knowledge matter for new teachers? (United States)

There is considerable evidence that new teachers are ill prepared for classroom practice, including self-reported evidence collected from teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), and statistical evidence for differences in the achievement of students with new versus more experienced teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). In light of the challenges encountered by new teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), this study examined the value of different forms of teacher knowledge for teachers with different levels of experience. In particular, this study investigated the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teacher content knowledge, and student achievement in mathematics and science. In New York City, Boyd et al. (2009) linked practice-focused teacher preparation to student mathematics achievement in the first year of teaching and teacher content preparation to achievement in the second. However, other studies demonstrated interactions between teaching experience and content knowledge with different interpretations (e.g., Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Monk, 1994). At the same time, this study examined the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement. Extant models of teacher career development (Huberman, 1989; National Research Council, 2010) and how teacher education affects student achievement (e.g., Desimone, 2009) offered theoretical grounding for the study. With nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth grade U.S. students--participants in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study--this study employed hierarchical linear modeling to address its research questions among an array of student achievement outcomes in the domains of mathematics and science. This study attempted to account for salient student, teacher, and contextual factors, and the probabilities of teachers' receipt of various teacher education "treatments" (i.e., propensity score analysis) to reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

Reeves, Todd D.


The Influence of Personality Traits of High School Teachers on Their Teacher Qualifications  

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Full Text Available Th e eff ects of the personality traits on the teacher qualifications of the teachers working of the high schools were analysed in this study. Th is study was a local survey research at 2010-2011 of the summer semester. Th e sample of the study consisted of 428 teachers. Personality test based on adjectives, and perceptions of compedence scale were used as data collection tools. “Path analysis” method was done for data analysis by structural equation modelling procedure. Analysis revealed that the openness for the experience, one of the personality traits, was found to be the most infl uential predictor of the teacher qualifications, also self-development, one of the teacher qualifications, was found to be most infl uenced dimension from the personality traits.




Improving Pre-Service Teachers’ Visual Literacy through Online Photo-Sharing Applications  

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Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how pre-service teachers' visual literacy skills are affected by their use of online photo management and sharing applications like Flickr. Two approaches are used to develop the visual literacy skills of pre-service teachers through Flickr. The first is to help them decode visuals through practicing analysis techniques, and interpreting and creating meaning from visual stimuli. The second is to help them encode visuals as a tool for communication. Visual literacy tests, participants' logs, photograph evaluation instruments, and interviews are used to assess the improvement in the participants' visual literacy skills. The results of the analysis revealed that the pre-service teachers' skills in interpreting, understanding, and appreciating the meaning of visual messages were enhanced through online exchange and interaction by means of photo management and sharing applications. They were able to communicate more effectively through applying the basic principles and concepts of visual design.

Alaa Sadik



Teachers’ Perceived Beliefs and Reported Practices in Two Distinct EFL Contexts: Turkey and Macedonia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perceived beliefs and reported practices of the fifth grade English teachers at two distinct EFL contexts: Turkey and Macedonia. The theoretical framework is based on the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC policy statement for developmentally appropriate and inappropriate reported practices (Johnson and Ivrendi, 2002. One hundred and thirty two (n=132 Turkish and one hundred and thirty four (n=134 Macedonian fifth grade English teachers working in public schools participated in the study. The data came from a Teacher Belief Scale (TBS and a focus group interview. The results revealed important implications in relation to the process of foreign language learning, which should be closely considered by the Ministry of Education while designing the fifth grade English curricula across different EFL contexts.

Enisa MEDE



Students’ Perceptions of Emotional and Instrumental Teacher Support: Relations with Motivational and Emotional Responses  

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Full Text Available We explored whether students’ perceptions of emotional and instrumental support provided by their mathematics teacher constitute separate dimensions of teacher support and how they are related. We also analyzed how students’ perceptions of emotional and instrumental support in math lessons relate to math anxiety, intrinsic motivation, help-seeking behavior, and effort. The participants were 309 Norwegian students in 9th and 10th grade. The data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results revealed that emotional and instrumental support constitute separate but strongly correlated constructs. Directly or indirectly, both emotional and instrumental support was related to all motivational constructs. The strongest relations were found for instrumental support. Additionally, instrumental support predicted lower levels of anxiety. One implication of this study is that teachers should aim at providing both emotional and instrumental support.

Roger A. Federici



Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North (United States)

Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and more numerous, etc.) have become an add factor in accelerating or influencing land use and overall sustainability. In relation to the future sustainability in nature and society it is northern communities, their adaptive capacities and creativity that are decisive. SOO enables to identify and monitor the implementation of local strategies that will stimulate the human capital improvement and act not only as the agent of economic modernization but as an important solutions for better state of environment and society.

Vlasova, Tatiana




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Full Text Available In article questions of formation of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health in system of additional professional education are considered.  The concept "readiness of the teacher for training at home children with limited opportunities of health" is defined.  The advanced training course program "Training at home children with limited opportunities of health" as means of formation of this type of readiness is submitted.Research objective is justification and skilled and experimental check of process of formation of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health.As a result of research special educational needs of children with limited opportunities of the health, defining specifics of activity of the teachers training at home children with limited opportunities of health are revealed; structural components of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health are revealed and scientifically proved; the model of process of formation of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health is developed; scientific and methodical ensuring process of formation of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health is developed.Scope of results: the educational and methodical complex developed by the author (the program, monitors, educational and methodical grants can be used by the faculty of pedagogical highest and average special institutions for development of special courses; the faculty of system of additional professional education of teachers for the purpose of development of curricula and educational programs, didactic and methodical materials for the organization of process of formation of readiness of the teacher to training at home children with limited opportunities of health.DOI:

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Preservice String Teachers' Lesson-Planning Processes: An Exploratory Study (United States)

This yearlong qualitative study is an examination of 10 undergraduate preservice teachers' lesson planning for the classes and/or individual lessons they taught in a university string project. Data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers held differing views of lesson planning from each other and from their supervisor. Five themes…

Schmidt, Margaret



The Atlas-3D project - IX. The merger origin of a fast and a slow rotating Early-Type Galaxy revealed with deep optical imaging: first results  

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The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) selected from the Atlas-3D sample, NGC 680 and NGC 5557. Our ultra deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag/arcsec^2 in the g-band. They reveal very low-surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long tail East of NGC 5557 hosts gas-rich star-forming objects. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended HI tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galax...

Duc, Pierre-Alain; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M



Massachusetts Superintendents' Perceptions of Teacher Bargaining Practices (United States)

For five decades, collective bargaining has been implemented in American public schools (Loveless, 2000). It has protected the rights of teachers; and teacher work conditions issues and compensation have improved (Hannaway & Rotherham, 2006). However, improvements have created adversarial labor-management relationships, resulted in excessive…

Borstel, Scott L.



Globalization and Its Challenges for Teacher Education (United States)

There are serious implications of the global economy for teacher education. In this paper, the authors identify some of the influences of the global economy on education and teacher education, point out responses to these, and discuss some of the resultant challenges from the vantage point of the United States.

Wang, Jian; Odell, Sandra J.



Vocational Teachers between Educational Institutions and Workplaces (United States)

The aim of this study is to analyze discursively how the relationship between educational institutions and workplaces materializes in the position of a vocational teacher. Several studies have pointed out that the role of vocational teachers is changing as a result of current educational reforms, which can be understood in terms of bringing…

Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka



Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems (United States)

Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

Essandoh, Albert



Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology (United States)

This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann



Elementary School Teachers and Teaching with Technology (United States)

This study aims to identify the relationship between elementary school teachers' ICT engagement with their attitudes towards technology. To this end, one hundred elementary school students were asked to fill out questionnaires related to their ICT knowledge, usage, and attitude towards technology. The results show that teachers' ICT…

Varol, Filiz



Teacher Rankings, Readiness Tests, and Socioeconomic Status. (United States)

Reports correlations between scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, teacher rankings of reading readiness, and socioeconomic (SES) status of 536 beginning first-grade pupils. Discusses results in terms of the effects SES may have on both a student's readiness scores and a teacher's view of student readiness. (FL)

Elijah, David; Legenza, Alice



Teaching Interactive Decisionmaking Skills to Preservice Teachers. (United States)

A report is given of a program that was developed to train student teachers in how to make effective decisions while they are engaged in the act of teaching. This type of thinking has been labeled "interactive decisionmaking" (IDM). As a result of the training, the beginning teachers were expected to make improvements in their classroom decisions.…

Stuempfig, Daniel W.


Preschool Teachers' Exposure to Classroom Noise (United States)

This research examined exposure to classroom noise of 25 full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The results indicated that one teacher exceeded the maximum permissible level of daily noise exposure for employees under the health and safety legislation. Three staff approached this level and 92% of teachers

Grebennikov, Leonid



Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education (United States)

Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron



Secondary Teachers' Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices. (United States)

Compared nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health/physical education, home economics, science, and social science teachers (44 percent response rate from 1191 questionnaires mailed). Results indicate that teachers who taught something about food/nutrition have had more food/nutrition courses, higher knowledge scores, and more…

Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.



Work Stoppage Policies in Teacher Education Programs. (United States)

Teacher education institutions are forced to come to grips with the role which their students play if a strike occurs in a school district in which their students are engaged in practicum experiences. The results of a survey of Wisconsin teacher education institutions indicate the impact of the work stoppage policy of the Wisconsin Improvement…

Olsen, Dwayne G.


Exemplary Practices for Secondary Math Teachers (United States)

Discover what the best math teachers know and do to provide motivational and challenging math instruction for middle and high school students. From setting up the classroom through planning learning experiences and assessing results, this is an idea guide for inexperienced teachers, new staff members, and math faculty who are mentoring other…

Posamentier, Alfred S.; Jaye, Daniel; Krulik, Stephen



Meeting the Challenge: Evoking Some Hope; From Personal Advocacy to Public Activism; Seeing Yourself Sitting There; Letting Kids' Gifts Shine Through; Revealing the Secrets of the Brain. (United States)

Interviews with a learning disabled student, parent activist, teacher, tutor, and researcher reveal that learning disabilities are neurologically caused, not the result of low motivation or dysfunctional families. A variety of educational practices are explained that accommodate different learning styles of children with learning disabilities. It…

Sherman, Lee; Lewis, Bryan; Ramsey, Betsy; Tibbetts, Daniel; Kaplan, Kay; Berninger, Virginia



The Professionalism of Women Teachers (United States)

Article investigated the widely held assumption that female teachers are less professional than male teachers, and that family considerations make the married female teacher face more barriers to professionalism than single female teachers. (Author/RK)

Nasstrom, Roy R.; Butler, William E.



Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling (United States)

Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara



Classroom Leadership and Creativity: A Study of Social Studies and Islamic Education Teachers in Jordan  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership practices and creativity traits as perceived by social studies and Islamic education teachers in Jordan. A sample of 289 social studies and Islamic education teachers were selected randomly. Data were collected using quantitative research method. Leadership practices were measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self developed by Kouzes and Posner (2003 with self-developed items on the Islamic component by the researchers, and creativity traits were measured using the Creativity Self-Perception Questionnaire (CSPQ developed by Goertz (1993. The validity and the reliability of two instruments are already developed and assessed. The data have been statistically analyzed (by using the SPSS. Findings of the study revealed that teachers perceived themselves positively in all dimensions studied. They were also found to be creative, as they perceived themselves to possess all the creativity traits. The study also showed that there was a significant correlation between the results of the ten leadership dimensions together and the eight creativity traits of teachers were positively significant. The results showed that there were no significant differences according to the dependent variables (gender, major of specialization, educational experience, and stage of schools on most of the independent variables (eight creativity traits and ten leadership dimensions. The study also offered some recommendations to enhance the status of educational leadership, creativity of social studies and Islamic education teachers.

Samih Al-Karasneh



The Impact of Teacher Self-efficacy on the Students’ Motivation and Achievement  

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Full Text Available The study of self-efficacy and its impact on human performance has intrigued a lot of scholars during the last two decades (e.g. Clayson, D. & Sheffet, M. 2006; Nauta, M. 2001; Muijs &Rejnolds, 2001; Bandura, 1997; Podell & Soodak, 1993. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of teacher self-efficacy (TSE on the students’ motivation and achievement. To this end, eighty senior high school teachers in four different cities in Iran, and one hundred and fifty senior high school students, based on their teachers’ level of self-efficacy, have been selected randomly. For data collection, two instruments were employed: Teacher Self-Efficacy and Students’ Motivation questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The results of the study revealed that teacher self-efficacy has a positive influence on the students’ motivation and achievement. The results of the study and their pedagogical implications are discussed, and recommendations for further research are provided.

Ahmad Mojavezi



Teachers' Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Examining the Boundary between In-Role Behavior and Extra-Role Behavior from the Perspective of Teachers, Principals and Parents (United States)

This study examined how different stakeholders in school (principals, teachers, parents) conceptualize teachers' role breadth, i.e., whether they define given behaviors commonly assumed to be OCBs as in-role or extra-role behaviors. Drawing on a survey of 29 principals, 245 teachers and 345 parents, the results showed that principals and teachers

Belogolovsky, Elena; Somech, Anit



Preservice Teachers' Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations with Teachers' Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…

Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.



Making the transition to middle schooling: A case study of experienced science teachers coping with change (United States)

The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of coping with the stress of these changes. The discussion includes meta-assertions and recommendations concerning the leadership and planning process for movement to a middle school philosophy, the most appropriate building structure for meeting needs of science teachers, teachers as curriculum makers, and the nature of middle level professional development for experienced science teachers.

Strong, Donna Dorough


A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit (United States)

Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers addressed a few NOS tenets, emphasizing the full range of possible NOS objectives included in historical PBL is warranted. This study also revealed the importance of creating a collaborative classroom culture and building positive student-teacher relationships when implementing PBL instruction. The four teachers agreed that the historical PBL instructional unit provided a context for learning state standards, and they positively viewed their experiences teaching the lesson. Thus findings from this study suggest that teaching science in a historical context using PBL can be effective.

Pecore, John L.


The Relationships between Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Teacher-Child Interactions  


The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high correlations with Conflict in the relationship. Task Orientation was positively correlated to the Closeness subscale in three of the classrooms. In two of th...

Meral Oren; Ithel Jones



Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers  


The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, the researcher utilized an online survey to collect data. Quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant differences; however, qualitative analysis showed that there were more negative responses to survey statements pertaining to males. More than half of the participants perceived differences between female and male elementary tea...

Tracy Darrin Wood



Evaluation of Teacher Guide Books Based on Teachers’ Views under Constructivism Learning Theory  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal science and technology teachers views about requirement and applicability of science and technology guide books. The case study methodology was used in this study. The sample is consist of twenty- two volunteer science and technology teachers who works in Trabzon in 2007–2008 instruction year. The data was collected by using semi-structured interviews. At the end of this study, there are some contradiction between questions which are found at teachers guide books and which are asked at SBS. It was also found out that allocated time for activity and subjects is not enough.

Sibel Er Nas



Easing the transition for queer student teachers from program to field: implications for teacher education. (United States)

Tensions exist between what some queer student teachers experience in the university setting, their lives in schools during field placements, and upon graduation. We describe a series of workshops designed for queer student teachers and their allies that were conducted prior to field placement. Participants revealed high degrees of satisfaction with the program and increased feelings of personal and professional self-efficacy. Participants reported high levels of experienced homophobia in their academic programs; as such, the workshops were a valuable "safe space." These workshops appear to fill a significant gap for queer students and their allies in teacher preparation programs. PMID:24479552

Benson, Fiona J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Flanagan, Tara



Turkish Primary School Teachers' Perceptions of School Culture Regarding ICT Integration (United States)

The current study aimed at identifying Turkish primary school teachers' perceptions of school culture regarding ICT integration in education. In addition, the current study was designed to investigate factors that might influence their perceptions. The participants were 1540 primary school teachers. The findings revealed that the teachers'…

Tezci, Erdogan



Staffing High-Needs Schools: Insights from the Nation's Best Teachers (United States)

This article provides a summary of the five major recommendations from the nation's highly accomplished teachers on the problems in staffing high-needs schools. Insights from these teachers reveal that salary incentives alone will not suffice to attract and retain good teachers for high-needs schools. Working conditions matter--most notably,…

Berry, Barnett



How Distributed Leadership Can Make a Difference in Teachers' Organizational Commitment? A Qualitative Study (United States)

The present study explores the relation between distributed leadership and teachers' organizational commitment. Semi-structured interviews with teachers and school leaders of secondary schools were conducted. A comparative analysis of four schools with high and four schools with low committed teachers was carried out. Findings revealed differences…

Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert



Sources and Manifestations of Occupational Stress as Reported by Full-Time Special Education Teachers. (United States)

Analysis of scores of 365 special education teachers on the Teacher Stress Inventory Survey revealed that many exhibited frequent and strong indications of job related stress. Emotional as well as behavioral and physiological manifestations were ranked. Stress came from any sources and affected teachers to varying degrees. (CL)

Fimian, Michael J.; Santoro, Theresa M.



Teacher Professionalism under the Recent Reform of Performance Pay in Mainland China (United States)

In 2009, a reform in teachers' pay, linking remuneration to performance, was implemented in China. The intention was to improve the quality of education by making teachers more diligent and creative and removing the inequality in pay between teachers in different schools. A review of this reform reveals that it has resolved the problem of…

Wang, Lijia; Lai, Manhong; Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai



Perceptions of Business Teachers and Business Education Majors Regarding the Roles of Women (United States)

Findings revealed that: (1) male and female and black and white business teachers differed on some perceptual factor scores; (2) teachers with low and high family incomes differed from those with medium family incomes on some perceptual scores; and (3) business teachers and business education majors differed on only one score. (BP)

Thomas, Edward G.



Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System (United States)

This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin



Teacher and Student Perceptions of Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare teacher and student perceptions of motivation for reading. Motivational constructs were theoretically derived from previous work on efficacy and task orientation. First-grade students and teachers were asked to complete parallel reading motivation questionnaires. Results suggest both first-grade teachers

Coddington, Cassandra S.; Guthrie, John T.



The Impact of Women Teachers on Girls' Education. Advocacy Brief (United States)

The recruitment of women teachers can have a positive impact on girls' enrollments in school. This advocacy brief promotes the recruitment of women teachers which is currently held back as a result of gender disparities. The publication explains how recruitment of women teachers could relate to girls' education, stating some current issues facing…

Online Submission, 2006



Follow the Teacher: Making a Difference for School Improvement (United States)

In this book, Robert Hess promotes teacher leadership as the critical component to achieving breakthrough results in school improvement. Developed from conversations and stories of dozens of teacher leaders and administrators, this book advocates that all teachers can and should take on leadership roles in their school. It contains many stories of…

Hess, Robert T.



Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives on Teacher Attitudes: The Third Year. (United States)

Since 1988, teacher surveys and interviews have been conducted in the 24 professional development schools (PDS) in Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools to document teachers' attitudes toward efficacy and empowerment and toward their schools' learning climate. The 1990-1991 survey results show that teachers seem to have positive opinions of…

Ruscoe, Gordon C.; Whitford, Betty Lou


Teacher Immediacy Scales: Testing for Validity across Cultures (United States)

Cross-cultural validity of teacher immediacy scales is a constant concern in instructional communication research. The present study examines the validity of two existing teacher immediacy scales: the Revised Nonverbal Immediacy Measure (RNIM) and the Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) in U.S., Chinese, German, and Japanese cultures. Results

Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G.; Takai, Jiro



Impact of Satisfaction and Commitment on Teachers' Organizational Citizenship (United States)

This study examined the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a structural equation model. The study was employed to a group of teachers and their supervisors. The results indicated that job satisfaction and commitment to the school had an impact on OCBs of the teachers

Sesen, Harun; Basim, Nejat H.



Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles (United States)

The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman



Chapter 2: Adoption of Instructional Innovation across Teachers' Career Stages (United States)

Teachers are regularly exposed to a number of new and innovative technologies, ideas, philosophies, systems, and experiences from the time they enter teacher education to the time they leave the profession. A predictable result of this increased exposure is that teachers are regularly faced with decisions about whether to incorporate one or more…

Metzler, Michael W.; Lund, Jacalyn; Gurvitch, Rachel



Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language (United States)

Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers

Benzer, Ahmet



Developing Teachers' Subject Didactic Competence through Problem Posing (United States)

Problem posing (not only in lesson planning but also directly in teaching whenever needed) is one of the attributes of a teacher's subject didactic competence. In this paper, problem posing in teacher education is understood as an educational and a diagnostic tool. The results of the study were gained in pre-service primary school teacher

Ticha, Marie; Hospesova, Alena



Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady



Effects of Teacher Rewards on Recognition and Job Enrichment. (United States)

Implications of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory for teacher reward programs were tested by comparing changes in teachers' (N=38) job-enrichment opportunities and recognition after the teachers had chosen one of two rewards (travel to professional training conferences or cash). Results were consistent with the motivation-hygiene theory. (IAH)

Frase, Larry E.



Do We Produce Enough Mathematics and Science Teachers? (United States)

Empirical research on the supply and demand of math and science teachers finds some surprising results. The employment of qualified math and science teachers has more than kept pace with the demand, and most schools find qualified teachers for those positions. However, about a third of public schools--particularly high-poverty, high-minority, and…

Ingersoll, Richard M.



EFL Foreign Teacher Stress in Korea: Causes and Coping Mechanisms (United States)

Survey study of 53 foreign EFL teachers in Jeonju City, South Korea looks at causes of teacher stress and coping mechanisms between the years of 2004 and 2006. Results show foreign EFL teachers report moderate levels of stress and attribute stresses in roughly equal measures to student misbehavior and school director/administrative sources. Survey…

Brundage, Gregory C.



Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature  

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Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the ELTdepartment were found to be highly concerned about technology, their counterparts studying at the langauge and literature department were not interested in the issue. The study also reveals that despite EIL’s large space in the literature (Cogo, 2012; Sowden, 2012, it was not found as a major concern for the prospective teachers. Methodology was also the least rated concern for the prospective teachers at both departments on the contrary to the well-accepted literature.

mustafa naci kayao?lu



Teacher Competence in ICT: Implications for Computer Education in Zimbabwean Secondary Schools  

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Full Text Available This study examined the ICT competences of rural and urban day secondary school teachers in Chegutu District, Mashonaland West Region. The study looked into the training and literacy levels of computer usage by the practitioners with a view to find out the areas of strengths and weaknesses in ICT usage. Upon identifying weaknesses, the study aimed at providing recommendations for improvement. One hundred and twenty out of 320 secondary school teachers participated in the study by providing data which was sought through the use of questionnaires and a competence practical test. The instruments required information on ICT training background, competence and literacy level of the educators. Results reveal that the majority of the teachers were computer illiterate because they were not exposed to ICT training or the practical hands on experience. A significant number had no formal ICT qualifications. A few, however, had a diploma in computers while none had a degree. Results from the practical test given indicate that the majority of the respondents were not able to use the basic software in computers for lesson delivery. Further indications are that teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge of computer. In terms of applicability of the packages teacher weak knowledge levels show that their competence in ICTs for classroom use still lags behind. Challenges to ICT competence were identified as lack of adequate computer hardware, limited knowledge on how to make full use of ICTs in the classrooms and limited understanding on how to integrate ICTs into the teaching processes. To counter the effects of challenges, schools should fundraise in order to purchase computers. Staff development in ICTs should also be undertaken. All stakeholders should take part in mobilising resources for ICT resource centres. Teacher training institutions should offer ICT training to student teachers during their residential courses.

Richard Bukaliya and Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika





We used a multiple baseline design across participants to determine if teacher greetings would reduce the latency to task engagement. Three participants were identified by their respective teachers as having difficulty initiating task-appropriate engagement at the beginning of class. Latency was measured from teacher greeting until the participant was actively engaged for 5 consecutive seconds. Results showed that teacher greetings were effective at reducing latency to task engagement for all...

Allday, R. Allan; Bush, Miranda; Ticknor, Nicole; Walker, Lindsay



Designing Teacher Professional Development for Mathematics Teaching With Variation Theory  


In this study, we aimed at demonstrating the power of Variation Theory in exploring the local situation of Indonesian teachers and Teacher Professional Development program. The projection of Variation theory regarding the enterprise of teaching results on the need of sensitivity of students and exemplary teaching strategy that differ with teachers teaching style. Besides, It requires more opportunities for teachers to understand the critical feature of object of learning. By sequence of ac...

Rooselyna Ekawati; Fou-Lai Lin



Work Motivation of Teachers: Relationship with Organizational Commitment  


Abstract: In the modern world of competitive higher education the role of motivated teachers is undeniable. This study aims to find the importance of organizational commitment in motivating the teachers. Data was collected from 450 degree college teachers of Bangalore city. Analysis of data and the discussion is included. The results showed a positive relationship between work motivation and organizational commitment of degree college teachers. More commi...

Thara Sabapathy; Louis George



Knowledge foundations for beginning reading teachers in EFL. (United States)

This study examined the knowledge that teachers need in order to become successful early reading teachers in English as a foreign language. The findings showed that in-service teachers had better content knowledge than pre-service teachers, although the results indicated overall low performance and insufficiently developed concepts about the structure of language, spelling rules, and academic terminology in both groups. PMID:22815105

Goldfus, Carol





Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student?...

Vera Stojanovska



Mathematics Special Content Competencies of Elementary School Teachers  


According to the results of national and international level examinations, the achievement of students in Turkey in mathematics is low. Elementary school teachers play a significant role in the education of students. Elementary school teachers differ from other teachers in that they are responsible for teaching more than one subject. In determining the competencies and performance indicators of elementary school teachers, the Ministry of National Education has paid regard to the common ground...

Mehmet Gülteke; Ekber Tomul; Fikret Korur



Relationship between High School Principals' Humor Styles and Teacher Leadership  


This study aimed at examining the relationship between high school teachers' perceptions of teacher leadership and school principals' humor styles. A total of 252 teachers employed in 12 high schools located in the city centre of Ankara, Turkey participated in the study. “The Humor Behavior Scale” developed by Cemalo?lu, Recepo?lu, ?ahin, Da?ç? and Köktürk (2013) and “The Teacher Leadership Scale” developed by Beycio?lu and Aslan (2010) were used to gather data. Results of th...

Ali Ça?atay K?l?nç; Ergün Recepo?lu; Serkan Ko?ar



Promoting Transformative Learning of Preservice Teacher through Contemplative Practices  

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Full Text Available Preservice teacher is an important role to fulfill quality of education in the future. They have to be initially grown transformative learning for helping students to aware knowing and nature of knowledge. This paper explores an application of contemplative practices, which enhance transformative learning of preservice teachers. Forty four preservice teachers were participated and reflected their transformative learning through contemplative pedagogy. The result can be discussed and provide future suggestion for teacher preparation program.

Prasart Nuangchalerm



Conceptual Change and Science Achievement Related to a Lesson Sequence on Acids and Bases Among African American Alternative High School Students: A Teacher's Practical Arguments and the Voice of the "Other" (United States)

The study of teaching and learning during the period of translating ideals of reform into classroom practice enables us to understand student-teacher-researcher symbiotic learning. In line with this assumption, the purpose of this study is threefold:(1) observe effects of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM), a conceptual change inquiry model of teaching and learning, on African American students' conceptual change and achievement; (2) observe the shift in teacher's practical arguments; and (3) narrate the voice of "the Other" about teacher professional learning. This study uses retrospective data from a mixed-method approach consisting of Phenomenography, practical arguments and story-telling. Data sources include audio-recordings of a chemistry teacher's individual interviews of her students' prior- and post-intervention conceptions of acids and bases; results of Acid-Base Achievement Test (ABA-T); video-recordings of a chemistry teacher's enactment of CKCM acid-base lesson sequence; audio-recordings of teacher-researcher reflective discourse using classroom video-clips; teacher interviews; and teacher and researcher personal reflective journals. Students' conceptual changes reflect change in the number of categories of description; shift in language use from everyday talk to chemical talk; and development of a hierarchy of chemical knowledge. ABA-T results indicated 17 students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher scores than 22 students in the control group taught by traditional teaching methods. The teacher-researcher reflective discourse about enactment of the CKCM acid-base lesson sequence reveals three major shifts in teacher practical arguments: teacher inadequate preparedness to adequate preparedness; lack of confidence to gain in confidence; and surface learning to deep learning. The developing story uncovers several aspects about teaching and learning of African American students: teacher caring for the uncared; cultivating student and teacher confidence; converting dependence on teacher and self to peer interdependence. The study outlines six implications: caring conceptual change inquiry model for the often unreached mind; developing simple chemical talk into coherent chemical explanation; using CKCM for alternative high school students' conceptual change and achievement; engaging teachers in elicitation and appraisal of practical arguments for reconstruction of beliefs; overcoming challenges in teacher practical argument research; and "storytelling" as a way of unpacking teacher transformation amidst complexities of classroom teaching and learning.

Wood, Lynda Charese


Writing and the situated construction of teachers??? cognition : portfolios as complex performative spaces  


With this paper, I aim to contribute to the understanding of the teaching portfolio as a genre. I analyse the linguistic construction and performative nature of the reflective voice in the portfolio of one pre-service teacher. The results reveal her voice to have been constructed upon the convergence of other voices and to perform diverse reflective actions. The portfolio is conceptualised as a complex performative space that is used to construct a complex thought about practice and, accordin...

Pereira, Iris Susana Pires



The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of prospective teachers  


We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general...

Grosser, M. M.; Mirna Nel



ChemTeacher: Neutron (United States)

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Neutron page includes resources for teaching students about neutrons.



ChemTeacher: Titration (United States)

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Titration page includes resources for teaching students about the theory and applications of titrations.



The Teacher as Philosopher. (United States)

Teachers have a professional need for instruction in philosophy and philosophy of education that must be satisfied by teacher preparation institutions. Educational philosophers should devote some research effort to exploring philosophical contributions to the guidance of practice. (SK)

Carbone, Peter F., Jr.



ChemTeacher: Proton (United States)

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Proton page includes resources for teaching students about protons.



Differentiated Teacher Evaluation. (United States)

Calvert County School District, Maryland, has developed a differentiated teacher evaluation system that promotes collaboration among supervisors and administrators in rating teacher performance. Methods involve informal observation, rating observation, and nonrating observation. Implementation is accompanied by extensive formative evaluation by…

Glatthorn, Allan A.; Holler, Richard L.



ChemTeacher: Fission (United States)

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fission page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fission.



Effects of teacher training  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.

Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund



Attitudes and knowledge level of teachers in ICT use: The case of Turkish teachers  


This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-...

Erdo?an Tezci



Developing teacher sensitivity to individual learning differences (ILDs) : Studies on increasing teacher effectiveness  


Effective teachers are sensitive to individual learning differences (ILDs). This dissertation investigates teacher changes as a result of eight long-term professional development (PD) courses (56-hours and 28-hours) designed to help them become more sensitive to ILDs. In these courses, the teachers were mediated to investigate their own and colleagues' ILDs with the help of learning style inventories and a cognitive style test. The styles scores, interviews of colleagues and mediated d...

Rosenfeld, M. N.



What Is the Teacher Doing? What Are the Students Doing? An Application of the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test (United States)

This study documents the use of the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test as diagnostic tool for both preservice teacher beliefs about science teaching and science methods course effectiveness. Direct comparison of pre-course to post-course images from 50 preservice elementary teachers was undertaken using McNemar's test. Results indicated statistically…

Minogue, James



The Role of Teacher Inquiry in Helping Prospective Teachers Untangle the Complexities of Technology Use in Classrooms (United States)

The objective of this research was to explore how authentic technology use and teacher inquiry may coalesce during curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences for prospective teachers. Thirteen inquiries were analyzed using qualitative analytic procedures (Rossman, 1998). Results suggest that teacher inquiry may serve a variety of…

Dawson, Kara



Teacher Page - Deutsch Klasse (United States)

On this site you will find the resource needed to teach a German Level I Course. There are links below for lesson plans and a link to the student page. This page is an introductory page for the teacher. Below are four links that will provide teachers with additional resources to use in their classrooms. Teacher Page - Lesson Plans Teacher Page - Resources Student Page - Deutsch Klasse Student WebQuests ...

Frau Barlow





Professional development for teachers is the range of formal and informal processes and activities that teachers engage in both inside and outside of the school, in order to improve their teaching knowledge and skills. The ultimate goal of teacher professional development is improving student learning outcomes. Research indicates that teachers have control over many factors that influence motivation, achievement and behaviour of their students. Therefore, professional development focusin...

Kayarkanni, Dr S.



Teacher Training and Pre-service Primary Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Science Teaching (United States)

This study focuses on the improvement of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy for teaching science by including science courses within the teacher training program. Knowing how efficacy beliefs change over time and what factors influence the development by pre-service primary teachers of positive science teaching efficacy beliefs may be useful for teacher training universities, so that they can adapt their curriculum to accommodate these factors. Participants included 292 pre-service primary teachers, a cross-sectional sample from two different universities in the Netherlands across the four different years of study in the training program. Based upon our results, we conclude that the science teaching self-efficacy of pre-service teachers, in particular, improved during years 1 and 2, and not during years 3 and 4. Higher levels of self-rated subject-matter knowledge and science teaching experience in primary schools both contributed to higher levels of personal self-efficacy for science teaching. Differences at the university level in courses taken during the first year between science content courses and science methods courses also influenced the pre-service teachers' development of science teaching self-efficacy. After their first year, the pre-service teachers from the university with science content courses had significantly higher self-efficacy than pre-service teachers from the university that offered science methods courses. After the second year of teacher training, however, this difference in self-efficacy was no longer present.

Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules



Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. (United States)

In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D



Contract Teachers in India (United States)

In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka



Teacher Mentoring and Collaboration. (United States)

This article briefly reviews research supporting the value of teacher mentoring programs for beginning and experienced teachers and reports on implementation efforts including Cincinnati's Peer Assistance and Evaluation Program, the Rhode Island Teachers & Technology Initiative, and programs at the University of Texas-El Paso and Iowa State…

Smith, Sean



Performance Pay for Teachers (United States)

During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…

Protheroe, Nancy



Assessment of Teacher Motivation (United States)

The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…

Gokce, Feyyat



Teacher Education in Scandinavia. (United States)

The trend in Scandinavia is to broaden teacher education and training for academic secondary school teachers in order to overcome excessive specialization. The context of apprenticeship of pre-school, primary teachers is changing toward a more academically oriented program. However, the affective part of the learning/teaching process is becoming…

Wasser, Henry


Finding Exemplary Teachers (United States)

Teacher quality is the most crucial component in promoting student learning. For all the controversy about No Child Left Behind, one underlying emphasis of the federal law that is irrefutable is the importance placed on teacher quality. Therefore, a school organization committed to excellence must recruit and select outstanding teachers. The Obama…

O'Donovan, Eamonn



Mapping Teacher-Faces (United States)

This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian



Smith-Magenis Syndrome Results in Disruption of CLOCK Gene Transcription and Reveals an Integral Role for RAI1 in the Maintenance of Circadian Rhythmicity  


Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a c...

Williams, Stephen r; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni v; Grotewiel, Michael s; Elsea, Sarah h



Revealing the results of whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing in research and clinical investigations: some ethical issues. (United States)

The introduction of new sequencing technologies whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) that are much less finely targeted than previous genetic tests has resulted in ethical debate about what should be done with clinically significant findings that may arise during the sequencing process. In this piece we argue that, in addition to whether the finding has been intentionally sought or arises incidentally, the ethical issues concerning what should be done with WES and WGS findings are also influenced by whether sequencing occurs in a clinical or research setting. We argue that decisions about the disclosure of WGS and WES findings generated in the clinical context are much less ethically contentious than decision making about the feedback of research results. We conclude by calling for greater transparency about the purpose of sample collection, more explicit protocols for transitioning between research and clinical contexts and patients and research participants to be warned of the potential for incidental findings to be generated, their potential significance and the actions that might be taken as a result. PMID:25038088

Hallowell, Nina; Hall, Alison; Alberg, Corinna; Zimmern, Ron



Teachers discovering nuclear science for the 90's  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High school and junior high school teachers from across the country have rediscovered nuclear science through summer participation as teacher research associates at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As a result of their new knowledge and awareness of the broad range of applications of nuclear science with obvious positive benefit to society, these teachers are putting nuclear chemistry and physics back into their curriculum. Through direct research participation teachers become a primary resource for students. The Department of Energy is now supporting over 150 teacher research associates in its TRAC program in all areas of science. The eight week teacher research associate appointments provide an in-depth experience for the teacher, and an opportunity for teachers and scientists to become engaged in new curriculum and materials development


Teachers' professional development needs and current practices at the Alexander Science Center School (United States)

This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support meetings, classroom coaching/Big Lab co-teaching, summer institutes, and off-campus conferences and seminars. Results indicated that the effectiveness of the six venues was closely tied to the level of collaborative planning that took place between the Alexander Science Center School and the associated California Science Center. Examination of teachers' and stakeholders opinions reflect that after a year-and-a-half of operations, the school's professional development program is perceived as disjointed and ineffective, but that the foundation of a sound program has been established.

Gargus, Gerald Vincent


Science teacher's discourse about reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

Isabel Martins



Teachers’ pastoral role in response to the needs of orphaned learners  


This article discusses a study that explored the way teachers perceive and describe their roles in responding to the needs of orphaned learners. The participants in the study comprised three secondary and two primary school teachers. The data on the teachers’ experiences were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the findings revealed that, although some of the teachers attempted to fulfill some of the orphaned learners’ needs, most were unable to cope with the combined roles ...

Teresa Auma Ogina



The Interplay between EFL High School Teachers' Beliefs and Their Instructional Practices Regarding Reading Strategies  


Previous research has revealed the influential role of teachers’ beliefs in determining their professional behavior; that is, the ways they plan their lessons, the kinds of decision they make, and the methods they apply in their classrooms. The present study aimed, first, to investigate the construct of teachers’ belief systems about reading strategies among EFL high school teachers, then to explore the degree of discrepancies or consistencies between teachers’ beliefs about reading str...

Salimi, Mahin; Khonamri, Fatemeh



Speech content analysis of male and female L2 teachers in Iranian EFL context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the speech content of male and female teachers in the context of Iranian EFL classes. Previous studies on speech content are mainly conducted on European cultures and there is a niche considering investigations of gender differences in Iranian EFL context with regard to speech content. To this end, 74 EFL classes were observed to figure out the quality of speech content in different genders among teachers. After observing the classes and recording teachers’ voices, their speech was transcribed. The content of the transcribed texts was counted based on the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC principles. The data were analyzed according to Newman, Groom, Handelman, and Pennebaker’ (2008 word-count model. Four categories were investigated to find out the gender differences among male and female teachers. The categories are linguistic dimensions, prepositions, psychological processes, and pronouns. The results revealed significant differences among male and female teachers considering various categories of speech content. The Chi-square formula was utilized to investigate the frequencies.

Attaran, Atena



The ESL Teacher as Moral Agent. (United States)

Studies the moral dimension of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching to adults. Analyzes examples of classroom interaction to reveal the moral substrate of the teacher's words and actions. Finds that various features of classroom routines and impromptu exchanges have profound moral significance. Suggests that the moral meanings present in…

Johnston, Bill; Juhasz, Andrea; Marken, James; Ruiz, Beverly Rolfs



Retraining Institute in Teacher Education  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This endeavor was comprised of three companion projects. They are interdependent components which together provide a significant enhancement to the existing programs in the School of Education at Norfolk state University.The primary focus of the project was in instructing regular and special education undergraduate students and teachers. As a result of this endeavor, instruction in science and engineering majors was enhanced.

Byrd, H.B.; Jennings, R.



The effect of self reflections through electronic journals (e-journals) on the self efficacy of pre-service teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aims both to provide information about the self-reflections of pre-service teachers keeping self-reflective e-journals during the practicum period and to determine the relationship between their self-reflection and self-efficacy levels. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed [...] in integration to gain deeper insight into the study. To accommodate the quantitative data, the English for foreign language (EFL) Teacher Efficacy Scale was administered to 40 pre-service English language teachers (ELT), both before and after the practicum period, to measure the differences in their self-efficacy levels. The qualitative data were examined to reveal the most frequently recurring problems among the e-journals and how the data overlapped with the statistical analysis. The results revealed that incorporating reflective e-journals into the field-based experience process helped pre-service teachers become active decision-makers, contributors and efficient, confident teachers.

Zekiye Müge, Tavil.



What Do Teachers Need to Support English Learners?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored K-8 teachers’ perceptions of their preparation and the challenges they encountered in delivering instruction to culturally and linguistically diverse learners. Using a mixed method research design, data were collected through a web-based survey from teachers in the state of Michigan. Researchers used chi-square tests to investigate the relationship between teachers’ preparation and their knowledge of their diverse learners’ learning needs. Qualitative comments were examined, organized, and summarized to illustrate key themes in each question under study. Findings revealed that teachers’ perceptions of their preparation to teach linguistically and culturally diverse students were correlated with cultural diversity or lack of cultural diversity in their classrooms. Whereas teachers stated they felt prepared to teach heterogeneous classes, they encountered challenges in delivering instruction to English learners. In addition, teachers stated that cultural awareness training did not adequately prepare them to integrate cultural elements in their daily instructional practices.

Marjorie N. Gomez



Teacher Stress Questionnaire: validity and reliability study in Italy. (United States)

This study analyses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire elaborated in England by Travers and Cooper in 1996. This Italian survey was completed by 863 teachers randomly drawn from a cross-section of Italian school levels. The construct validity of the questionnaire was verified by factor analysis and by measuring the internal consistency of the single scales. All dimensions measured by the Teacher Stress Questionnaire were compared for sample subgroups of all teacher levels. Several meaningful and reliable factors emerged from the factor analysis of the scales. The internal consistency of each scale (Cronbach's alpha) revealed satisfactory values. Teachers' age and school level were determining factors for all dimensions of stress explored. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire showed satisfactory psychometric properties and constitutes a useful and reliable measure to analyse stress in Italian schools. PMID:24597443

Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto



A Comparison between Experienced and Novice Teachers in Using Incidental Focus on Form Techniques in EFL Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that explored whether EFL teachers’ use of incidental focus-on-form techniques was influenced by their level of experience. Also, it investigated the distribution of incidental focus on form types at intermediate level and they were coded based on Lyster and Ranta (1997 and Panova and Lyster (2002 models. Incidental focus on form occurs spontaneously, without prior intention during meaning-focused activities and targets a variety of linguistic items. Here specific forms are not intentionally focused on, but are attended to spontaneously by teachers and other learners within meaning-driven contexts. Six teachers (three experienced and three novice participated in this study. The data was drawn from transcripts of oral corrective feedback moves of six intact classes which were audio and video-recorded totaling 9 hours. A descriptive design which employed qualitative and quantitative data collection procedure was adopted. The results revealed that experienced teachers used incidental focus on form techniques more frequently than novice teachers. This study supports the notion that integrative activities which can integrate a focus on form into L2 communicative activities can contribute to learning a foreign language in terms of both accuracy and fluency.Keywords: Corrective feedback- Incidental focus on form- Teacher experience

Yassamin Pouriran



Investigation of Science Teacher Candidates’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Science Teaching with Respect to Some Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “The purpose of this study was to investigate science-teacher candidates’ science teaching self-efficacy beliefs according to grade level and gender. A survey approach was used in the study. The sample consisted of 192 first and fourth grade pre-service science teachers enrolled in the department of Science Teacher Training in the Education Faculty at Bayburt University. Data was collected using a likert type test, “science teaching self-efficacy belief scale” with 23 items, adapted to Turkish by the researcher, and originally developed by Enochs-Riggs (1990. The coefficient of Cronbach alpha for the Turkish version of the test was found to be 0.81. Variance analysis (two-way ANOVA was performed on the collected data to reveal whether there are significant differences in science teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching according to grade level and gender. The results of the analysis showed that science-teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching are considerably high. In addition, the same findings indicated that there were statistically significant differences in science-teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of science teaching with respect to both grade level and gender, in favors of female.