WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactivity artificially induced

  1. Artificial radioactivity in Lough Foyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the marine environment of Lough Foyle, situated on the north coast of Ireland, has been affected by artificial radioactivity released from Sellafield. Although traces of plutonium, americium and radiocaesium from Sellafield are detectable in Lough Foyle, the concentrations in various marine media are significantly lower than those found along the NE coast of Ireland and in the western Irish Sea. The minute quantities of artificial radioactivity found in Lough Foyle are of negligible radiological significance

  2. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  3. Artificial radioactivity in Carlingford Lough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this study was to assess whether radioactivity concentrations in a wide range of environmental materials from the Lough were enhanced above general levels found elsewhere along the east and north-east coasts of Ireland. Other objectives included an examination of gamma dose rates in air over inter-tidal sediments throughout the Lough and an examination of coastal soils to determine the extent of sea-to-land transfer of plutonium and , by inference, americium

  4. Artificial radioactivity of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The artificial (technogenic) radioactivity of the Black Sea was studied before and after the Chernobyl event, both during the period of nuclear tests and the moratorium on such tests. Part I describes the forms of artificial radionuclides in seawater. Part II discusses the input into the Black Sea resulting from global fallouts. Part III is devoted to the Chernobyl radioecological consequences. The accumulation of radionuclides in bottom sediments and hydrobionts is considered in Part IV, while Part V is devoted to the modelling of the processes of radionuclide transport in Black Sea waters. 29 tabs., 52 figs., 135 refs

  5. On the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaumont, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire Radiochimie; Trubert, D. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire Radiochimie

    1995-12-31

    A review is presented of the elegant Joliot-Curie physical experiments which showed for the first time the possibility of producing artificial radioactive nuclei. An attempt has been made to explain the results of their equally elegant chemical experiments that unequivocally demonstrated the chemical change of elements by nuclear processes. These experiments are discussed in the light of present-day radiochemistry, keeping in mind the scientific and historical context in which they were originally performed. (orig.)

  6. Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 109 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)

  7. Natural and artificial radioactivity in coastal regions of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and bioaccumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in the coastal regions of UK have been investigated. The magnitude of radionuclide concentration variation throughout the UK coastline has been quantified and where appropriate source terms have been identified. Sites bordering the Irish Sea show the highest levels of artificial radioactivity which are derived from past Sellafield discharges. Enhanced concentrations of natural radioactivity were found in all Whitehaven samples, in sediment at Blackhall Colliery near Hartlepool and in mussels at Aberdeen. Highest radionuclide concentrations were present in Whitehaven mussels - 3124Bqkg-1 dry weight of 210Po. Excluding sites bordering the Irish Sea, levels of natural radionuclides (210Pb, 210Po, 232Th, 238U) were greatly in excess of the artificial radionuclide concentrations in all sample types. The biological preference for accumulation of 210Po relative to its grandparent 210Pb is evident. 210Po/210Pb activity ratios range between 2 and 40 in mussels, winkles and seaweed but only between 0.24 and 1.3 in sediments and sea water. Radiologically, the highest radiation exposure to the public evident from the results would be from the ingestion of Whitehaven mussels (3.2mSv y-1), the greatest single contribution being from technologically enhanced 210Po. (Author)enhanced 210Po. (Author)

  8. Medical imaging was boosted by the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws the history of medical imaging since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. The author reviews the PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies and presents the recent progress in neuro-sciences that have been made possible by using these 2 technologies. Brain imaging has allowed to show: - the impact of emotions on logical mental processes and on mental performances, - the management of memory in the brain of talented quick reckoners, - the degeneration of neurons, and - the link between autism and the presence of structural and functional anomalies in the brain. (A.C.)

  9. Modelling of artificial radioactivity migration in environment: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation and description of models to assess the environmental behaviour and effects of accidental and routine releases of artificial radioactivity from nuclear power facilities. About 60 models are described and a card is given for each one, to indicate in summarized form its features and data content. This collection is intended to help in developing specific personal models by assembling different parts chosen among the most suitable ones of different models of various degrees of sophistication

  10. Natural and artificial radioactivity levels in sediments in Algiers bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural (238U and 232Th series, 40K) and artificial (137Cs) radioactivity levels in the sediments of Algiers bay were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations (Bq kg-1, dry weight) have been observed to range from 10.8 to 25.0 for 238U, from 6.5 to 31.7 for 232Th, from 55.9 to 607.4 for 40K and from 0.95 to 9.5 for 137Cs. These values are discussed in terms of the facies type of the sea bottom. (Author)

  11. Natural and artificial radioactivity in the Svalbard glaciers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and artificial radioactivity in the snow of 10 Svalbard glaciers has been measured from 31 ice core samples, drilled between 1981 and 1993. Of these ice cores, seven exhibit the well-known level arising from the fallout of the 1961-62 atmospheric thermonuclear tests. The second level, due to the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1986), has been detected in all the studied glaciers; the maximum 137Cs fallout reaches 22 Bq kg-1 and shows a high variability. The natural radioactivity, mostly due to 210Pb, shows an in-depth variation which is not governed by its half-life (22.2 years). These measurements serve many glaciological purposes: absolute dating of the snow layers; air-snow transfer and fallout studies; the determination of mean annual mass balances in the accumulation area of glaciers and their associated spatio-temporal variations. (author)

  12. Natural and artificial radioactivity levels in Livingston Island (Antarctic regions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the sea and land is due, on the one hand, to fallout from atmospheric atomic explosions since 1945, and, on the other, to emissions produced by nuclear and radioactive facilities. Given its geographic position far distant from the aforementioned main sources of radioactive contamination, Antarctica should have the lowest levels that can be measured on the Earth of artificial radionuclides in the various receptor media which are characteristic of the trophic chain. In the case of Antarctica, these are melt-water, sea-water, mosses, algae, and lichens. With the aim of contributing basic information on the radiation levels present in the Antarctic ecosystem, we have identified and measured for the first time the radioactive levels of natural emitters (of cosmic and terrestrial origin) and man-made emitters in the aforementioned receptor media, in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Base, Juan Carlos I, situated on Livingston Island in the South Shetland archipelago, Antarctic region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials – a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated 226Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of 40K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point to the limitations of the internal hazard considerations based on only measured 226Ra activity concentrations without direct radon measurements. Our data are compared to those obtained in other countries and they provide a good basis to expand the database of radioactivity of building materials and gives information about the safety and situation of the building material industry in this central region of Europe. -- Highlights: ? Radionuclide content and various hazard indices of 40 building materials are studied. ? Data are compared to each other and to results obtained in other studies. ? Radon hazard portion is defined. ? Seven samples exceed any of the thresholds, but three is considered to be hazardous

  14. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point to the limitations of the internal hazard considerations based on only measured (226)Ra activity concentrations without direct radon measurements. Our data are compared to those obtained in other countries and they provide a good basis to expand the database of radioactivity of building materials and gives information about the safety and situation of the building material industry in this central region of Europe. PMID:23246704

  15. Problem of Induced Radioactivity in Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity induced by irradiation of foods is caused by the interaction of high-energy radiation with nuclei of food elements. The induced activity is a function of the applied energy, the dose, the sample thickness and the chemical composition of the food. A prime condition for a prediction of the radioactivity induced by irradiation is therefore the knowledge of the chemical composition of the sample. Suitable experimental methods of food analysis are described. Electron and gamma rays are equivalent in the production of induced radioactivity. In the energy range of 0.05 to 10 MeV induced radioactivity is due to stimulation of isomers in (?, ?')-reactions. In this range the 107Ag(?, ?') 107mAg-reaction is responsible for the greatest part of the induced activity. Using a new simplified method of calculation the expected induced radioactivity is estimated, and it is concluded that the activity of these isomers presents no health hazard. By the same method the induced radioactivity in the energy range above 10 MeV, where besides ((?, ?') reactions the possibility of (?, n) reactions exists, is calculated for the principal foodstuffs. Methods for experimental verification of calculated activities are discussed. The magnitude of induced radioactivity due to single elements is compared with the total maximal permissible concentration (MPC) of nuclides in foods (10-7 ?Ci/g food). Factors which determine the maximum permissible retermine the maximum permissible radiation energy and dose are discussed. (author)

  16. Nuclear chemistry fifty years after the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1934, the observation and the chemical identification of radiophosphorus as a reaction product in the bombardment of Aluminium by alpha particles have been the first step of a new scientific branch: Nuclear Chemistry. We describe here how this discovery in itself contains the frame of all the development which has followed. It consisted in four stages, each of them being a crucial starting point. The first one is the possibility for a total balance of the nuclear reaction in the exit channels, so that reaction mechanisms can be studied. The second, the most important perhaps, is the opening of nuclear synthesis. Nuclear chemists can now interfere into nuclear matter and instead of staying as observers of the radioactive decays of natural isotopes, they were able to build up a numerous chart of various nuclear species, going step by step further and further away from the nuclear stability conditions. The third aspect of the discovery was the appearance of a new mode of radioactive decay with the production of the first particle an antimater. 50 years later, the instability due to a much larger excess of protons is known to induce the proton emission radioactivity for new species like 109I or 115Cs, in the vicinity of proton unstability. Finally, the last point, so fertile for the future, was the observation of a neutron in the exit channel, so that neutron fluxes could result from alpha induced nuclear reactions and became such a strong tool for the production of transuranium elements and for nuclear fission. In the present survey, the wide interest of the second point, i.e. the nuclear synthesis, is emphasized, as well as the huge change in the technical methods

  17. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 ?Sv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  18. Natural and induced radioactivity in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the first questions often asked about irradiated food is whether it is radioactive. Not many people understand that food and any natural substance contains natural radioactivity which can be measurable. It is therefore important to put the issue on natural radioactivity and possible induced radioactivity in food in perspective. While there is a clear consensus among the scientific community that no radioactivity is induced when food is irradiated by gamma rays from cobalt-60 or cesium-137, electron generated by a machine with energy less than 10 million electron volt (MeV) or X rays produced generated by a machine with energy less than 5 MeV. However, data to this effect were published many years ago and are not easy to find. As food irradiation is gaining wide acceptance in many countries, it was considered timely to compile data on natural and induced radioactivity in food into one document. We are grateful to A. Brynjolfsson, one of the few experts who have the knowledge on this subject as well as wide experience on food irradiation, who collected, compiled and evaluated all data on this subject into one report. This publication provides clear explanations not only why radioactivity cannot be induced in food irradiated by radiation sources mentioned above but to what extent the increase in dose or energy level of radiation sources would induce significantly radioactivity in food. The compilation of such data was prompted by a desire to increase the energy limit and the absorbed dose based on the need to irradiate thicker samples of food and to use sterilizing dose up to 60 kGy. This publication concluded that the increase in radiation background dose from consumption of food irradiated to an average dose up to 60 kGy with gamma rays from cobalt- 60 or cesium-137, with 10 MeV electrons or with 5 MeV X rays is insignificant. In addition, food irradiated with X ray with energy up to 7.5 MeV to a dose of 30 kGy has radioactivity well below natural radioactivity in unirradiated food. There are no adverse effect from consumption of irradiated food which contains radioactivity well below background level. This publication should provide valuable information to anyone who has interest in food irradiation especially regulatory authorities for food safety and radiation applications as well as to consumers who might be interested in scientific matters of irradiated food

  19. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by (?, n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2? gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the ?-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of ?-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from 40K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author)

  20. Prediction of the radioactivity in Hazar Lake (Sivrice, Turkey) by artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for determining the total radioactivity in Hazar Lake (Sivrice, Turkey). In order to cope with complex calculations and experiments required for the determination of total radioactivity. The proposed ANN system employs the individual training strategy with fixed-weight and supervised models. The simulation demonstrate the feasibility of the neural based model. Compared to the classical methods, the proposed ANN-based model makes the processes much easier. (author)

  1. [Does tobacco smoking induce significant artificial irradiation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacques; Rouzaud, Pierre; Payoux, Pierre; Julian, Anne; Gantet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Artificial irradiation due to tobacco smoking is a widely accepted phenomenon, but the possible health implications are controversial. The IAEA has estimated that smoking twenty cigarettes a day induces a total "radiation exposure" of 53 mSv, but several other authors have estimated that the effective dose is only about 0.4 mSv/year. The irradiation associated with smoking results from the use of fertilizers containing a emitters and from tobacco leaf fixation of radon 222 gas of telluric origin. Critical analysis of the literature suggests that irradiation due to smoking is much closer to 0.4 mSv/year than to 53 mSv/year. In order to avoid further confusion and controversy, human exposure to such radiation should be expressed as the annual effective dose. PMID:19718986

  2. The artificial radioactivity in Bechet-Dabuleni area, five years of survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bechet-Dabuleni area is placed in the southern part of Romania, in the Danube zone, near the Nuclear Power Plant from Kozlodui (Bulgaria). Here there is a very important agricultural area, with small and also big farms where for irrigation the Danube water is used. The purpose of the study was was long term surveillance of the artificial radioactivity for the main foodstuffs. It has been investigated the radioactive content of the following foodstuffs from this area: vegetables (potatoes, carrots, onion, etc.), fruits (apples, pears, apricots, peaches) and cereals (wheat, barley). It has also been determined the radioactive content of the irrigating water from the Danube River. (author)

  3. Daily measurements of natural and artificial radioactivity in 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily numerical results of measures concerning ? activity of the air, either from natural, owing to thoron, or from artificial, owing to active aerosols origin, will be found in this statement. The all results are expressed in ??curie / m3 of air. Proceedings of measure and technic of standardization, which were the matter of anterior papers, have not been discussed once more here. (author)

  4. Investigations on natural and artificial radioactivity in Dobrogea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate potential impact of radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP on the environment, preliminary investigations on the radioactivity in the area and surroundings were carried out. Consequently the concentration of H-3 was determined in vine (leaves and sap) and viticulture products (grapes and wine) and the concentrations of K-40, Cs-137 and Sr-90 were measured in soil, surface water and aquatic sediments. The corresponding specific activities are generally characteristic for areas less contaminated by Chernobyl nuclear accident (except the northern area of Dobrogea where the Chernobyl fallout has produced a rather high contamination of the environment). For tritium, the results show values fitted in the range of natural background. (author)

  5. Daily measurements of natural and artificial radioactivity in 1961 (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily numerical results of measures concerning ? activity of the air, either from natural, owing to thorium, or from artificial, owing to active aerosols origin, will be found in this statement. The all results are expressed in pico curie/m3 of air. Proceedings of measure and techniques of standardization, which were the matter of anterior papers, have not been discussed once more here. (author)

  6. Some regularities in artificial radioactivity distribution in rain droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of the sup(210)Po distribution in rain droplets were carried and the methods of the determination of parameters characterizing the rain droplets were described. Conclusions from the material of 9 natural experiments being performed in 1972-1980 were drawn. The ranges of the modal, predominant and effective radii of raindrops were measured and their mean values were calculated. It was shown that by increase of modal, predominant and effective radii the number of raindrops with these radii in comparison with the all raindrops decreased. During a rain the droplets of optimal sizes (r=0.68-1.02 mm) existed; their number, mass and amount of the sup(210)Po washed out by them were maximal. A dependence of raindrops tracer radioactivity on the size and mass of raindrops was described

  7. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Oxana V. Kharissova; Miguel A. Méndez-Rojas; Boris I. Kharisov; Ubaldo Ortiz Méndez; Perla Elizondo Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main application...

  8. Detection of pulmonary aspiration by radioactive measurements of bronchial material in artificially ventilated infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents by radioactive measurements of bronchial material was performed in 13 artificially ventilated infants (14 studies) after ingestion of 99m-technetium sulfure colloide. 10/13 had strong clinical suspicion of recurrent pulmonary aspiration. 10 out of 14 examinations were positive (71%). This technique is more sensitive than scintigraphic methods described in literature and particularly adapted to these patients

  9. Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Basic description of artificial neural networks. ? Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ? Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.

  10. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  11. Application of two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water for analyzing artificial radionuclide release from containers with radioactive waste dumped in Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling of artificial radionuclide transport in sea water is crucial for prognosis of radioecological situation in regions where dumping of radioactive waste had been made and/or accidents with nuclear submarines had taken place. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments can be a detector of radionuclide release from dumped or sunk objects to marine environment. Proper model can determine the dependence between radionuclide distribution in sediments and radionuclide release. Following report describes two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water. It was tested on data from 1994 - 2013 expeditions to Novaya Zemlya bays, where regular dumping of solid radioactive waste was practiced by the former USSR from the early 1960's until 1990. Two-barrier model agrees with experimental data and allows more accurate determination of time and intensity of artificial radionuclide release from dumped containers. (authors)

  12. Artificial neural network application in isotopic characterization of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important aspects to the development of the nuclear technology is the safe management of the radioactive waste arising from several stages of the nuclear fuel cycles, as well as from production and use of radioisotope in the medicine, industry and research centers. The accurate characterization of this waste is not a simple task, given to its diversity in isotopic composition and non homogeneity in the space distribution and mass density. In this work it was developed a methodology for quantification and localization of radionuclides not non homogeneously distributed in a 200 liters drum based in the Monte Carlo Method and Artificial Neural Network (RNA), for application in the isotopic characterization of the stored radioactive waste at IPEN. Theoretical arrangements had been constructed involving the division of the radioactive waste drum in some units or cells and some possible configurations of source intensities. Beyond the determination of the detection positions, the respective detection efficiencies for each position in function of each cell of the drum had been obtained. After the construction and the training of the RNA's for each developed theoretical arrangement, the validation of the method were carried out for the two arrangements that had presented the best performance. The results obtained show that the methodology developed in this study could be an effective tool for isotopic characterization of radioactive wastes contained in many kind of packages. (author)

  13. Man-made radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Productions and types of artificial radioactive materials generated for various applications are discussed in this chapter. Newly discovered radioactive materials deriving from fission products are also included. The following subjects are covered: nuclear reactions- notation of reactions, charge particle induced reaction, neutron induced reaction, neutron generators, reaction mechanism; species of radioisotopes - from (n,?), (n,f), charge particles induced reactions, carrier free radioisotopes, artificial elements - technetium group, transuranium elements; rate of production, radionuclides in environment via nuclear explosion, fuel reprocessing, nuclear reactors and nuclear accident. The radioactive materials found in consumer products which are not cover and control by the acts and regulation are also discussed briefly. (Author)

  14. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial (137Cs) and natural radioactivity (40K, 226Ra, 228Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of 137Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg?1, 40K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg?1, 226Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg?1 and 228Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg?1. 137Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national s established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. - Highlights: ? 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in edible mushroom samples. ? There are very few data about natural radionuclides in mushrooms. ? The radionuclide activities were below the national maximum permissible levels. ? Mushrooms can be consumed by the population without any apparent risks.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency on a single artificial atom

    CERN Document Server

    Abdumalikov, A A; Astafiev, O; Zagoskin, A M; Pashkin, Yu A; Nakamura, Y; Tsai, J -S

    2010-01-01

    We present experimental observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on a single macroscopic artificial "atom" (superconducting quantum system) coupled to open 1D space of a transmission line. Unlike in a optical media with many atoms, the single atom EIT in 1D space is revealed in suppression of reflection of electromagnetic waves, rather than absorption. The observed almost 100 % modulation of the reflection and transmission of propagating microwaves demonstrates full controllability of individual artificial atoms and a possibility to manipulate the atomic states. The system can be used as a switchable mirror of microwaves and opens a good perspective for its applications in photonic quantum information processing and other fields.

  16. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency on a Single Artificial Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdumalikov, A. A., Jr.; Astafiev, O.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Pashkin, Yu. A.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsai, J. S.

    2010-05-01

    We present experimental observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on a single macroscopic artificial “atom” (superconducting quantum system) coupled to open 1D space of a transmission line. Unlike in an optical media with many atoms, the single-atom EIT in 1D space is revealed in suppression of reflection of electromagnetic waves, rather than absorption. The observed almost 100% modulation of the reflection and transmission of propagating microwaves demonstrates full controllability of individual artificial atoms and a possibility to manipulate the atomic states. The system can be used as a switchable mirror of microwaves and opens a good perspective for its applications in photonic quantum information processing and other fields.

  17. Simulation of induced radioactivity for Heavy Ion Medical Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Jun-Kui, Xu; Wu-Yuan, Li; Wang, Mao; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xi-Meng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yan; Chong, Xu

    2013-01-01

    For radiation protection and environmental impact assessment purpose, the radioactivity induced by carbon ion of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) was studied. Radionuclides in accelerator component, cooling water and air at target area which are induced from primary beam and secondary particles are simulated by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. It is found that radioactivity in cooling water and air is not very important at the required beam intensity and energy which is needed for treatment, radionuclides in accelerator component may cause some problem for maintenance work, suitable cooling time is needed after the machine are shut down.

  18. Determination of natural and artificial radioactivity in soil at North Lebanon province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides at 57 sampling locations along the North Province of Lebanon are reported. The samples were collected from uncultivated areas in a region not previously reported. The samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometers with High Purity Germanium detectors of 30% and 40% relative efficiency. The activity concentrations of primordial naturally occurring radionuclides of 238U, 232Th, and 40K varied between 4–73 Bq kg?1, 5–50 Bq kg?1, and 57–554 Bq kg?1 respectively. The surface activity concentrations due to the presence of these radionuclides were calculated and Kriging-geostatistical method was used to plot the obtained data on the Lebanese radioactive map. The results for 238U, 232Th, and 40K ranged from 0.2 kBq m?2 to 9 kBq m?2, from 0.2 kBq m?2 to 3 kBq m?2, and from 3 kBq m?2 to 29 kBq m?2 respectively. For the anthropogenic radionuclides, the activity concentrations of 137Cs founded in soil ranged from 2 Bq kg?1 to 113 Bq kg?1, and the surface activity concentration from 0.1 kBq m?2 to 5 kBq m?2. The total absorbed gamma dose rates in air from natural and artificial radionuclides in these locations were calculated. The minimum value was 6 nGy h?1 and the highest one was 135 nGy h?1 with an average of 55 nGy h?1 in which the natural terrestrial radiation contributes in 99% and the artificial radionuclides mainly 137Cs contributes only in 1%. The total effective dose calculated varied in the range of 7 ?Sv y?1 and 166 ?Sv y?1 while the average value was 69 ?Sv y?1 which is below the permissible limit 1000 ?Sv y?1

  19. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. PMID:25061724

  20. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Kharissova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium, are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  1. Artificial neural networks modeling of radioactive contamination of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For analyzing the anomalously high radioactive contamination of the Techa river in August 2004, when the content of 90Sr in Muslyumovo section line exceeded 50 Bq/l, the dynamics of its concentration in water of the Techa river and the level of the V-11 water body were simulated using artificial neural networks. The conclusion was made about existence of a certain concealed factor actuating in certain time moments and resulting in essential water level decrease in the V-11 water body, which cannot be explained based on the precipitation and evaporation balance. Effect of the factor is closely related to water consumption in the left-bank canal. The assumption is made that concurring anomalously high radioactive contamination of the Techa river water in summer of 2004 and water level decrease in the V-11 water body, unaccountable from the balance of precipitation and evaporation, were due to discharge of contaminated water from the V-11 to the left-bank by-pass canal

  2. Fusion Induced By Medium-Mass Radioactive Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive ion beams in nuclear physics experiments has increased rapidly in recent years. A variety of short-lived nuclei and beam energies are available. With medium-mass, neutron-rich radioactive nuclei, the influence of neutron excess on fusion and compound nucleus survival can be explored. This can improve our understanding on how to synthesize new neutron-rich heavy nuclei. Fusion induced by medium-mass, neutron-rich radioactive nuclei, 38S, 132,134Sn, and 134Te has been measured. Enhanced fusion cross sections were observed in these measurements. However, in most of the cases the enhancement is due to the lowering of the barrier by the larger nuclear sizes except for 134Sn induced fusion. Results from these experiments and future plans are discussed

  3. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results described in this study are relative to the artificial radioactivity of such elements as zirconium-95, niobium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, cerium-141, cerium-144 and praseodymium-144 which were present in the atmospheric fallout between 1962 and 1964, and their incidence in superficial marine waters. Various physical, chemical or biological processes are studied by a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometry technic, using those radioelements as 'tracers'. The change of state in sea water of an important fraction (about 50 per cent) of the radioactive particles going into the soluble phase - this phenomenon was not expected for those radioelements - controls the processes of accumulation in the planktonic biomass and the diffusion towards deeper waters. On the other hand, an 'in situ' spectrometry method is described. It enables the direct measurement in the sea of very low concentrations of some gamma ray emitters. The application of this method has made possible to carry out numerous observations in the surface waters of the Western Mediterranean sea and in the Bay of Biscay. It is shown that the mixing depth is closely connected to the depth of the thermocline. An accumulation process at this level is observed. The diffusion coefficients are similar to the thermal turbulent coefficient. The existence during several months of 'compartments' is established for the surface waters of the Bay of Biscay. From the establishment of the budget of fall-out, a comparative study shows that the rate of radioactive fallout on the maritime zone considered is always two to three times higher than on the neighbouring continental regions. Several explanations of this phenomenon are discussed. (author)

  4. Applicability of artificial intelligence to reservoir induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Pijush; Kim, Dookie

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes to use least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) for prediction of the magnitude ( M) of induced earthquakes based on reservoir parameters. Comprehensive parameter ( E) and maximum reservoir depth ( H) are used as input variables of the LSSVM and RVM. The output of the LSSVM and RVM is M. Equations have been presented based on the developed LSSVM and RVM. The developed RVM also gives variance of the predicted M. A comparative study has been carried out between the developed LSSVM, RVM, artificial neural network (ANN), and linear regression models. Finally, the results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the LSSVM and RVM models.

  5. Radioactivity Induced by Neutrons: a Thermodynamic Approach to Radiative Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    When Enrico Fermi discovered slow neutrons, he accounted for their great efficiency in inducing radioactivity by merely mentioning the well-known scattering cross-section between neutrons and protons. He did not refer to capture cross-section, at that early stage. It is put forward that a thermodynamic approach to neutron-proton radiative capture then widely debated might underlie his early accounts. Fermi had already met with a similar approach, and repeatedly used it.

  6. Assessment of artificial radioactive contamination of Jeju soil through 137Cs concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various artificial radioactive isotopes were distributed to the earth atmosphere due to the nuclear weapon tests in 1950's and 1960's and the NPP accident. Thus these radioactive isotopes are detected even in regions, which are away from nuclear facilities. In order to estimate these effects, this study measured the 137Cs concentrations in Jeju island. 137Cs was chosen as its relatively long half-life of 30.2 years makes the element last longer. Through the literature survey, the characteristics of the soil in Jeju were reviewed and eight sampling sites were selected by regional and soil-color groups. The soil samples were prepared by the standard sampling method. Using the HPGe detector and MCA(Multi-Channel Analyser), the gamma-ray spectrum analyses were carried out and the 137Cs concentrations were determined. Simultaneously, pH and O.M.C.(Organic Matter Content) analyses were performed as they are important factors affecting the 137Cs concentrations. The measured 137Cs concentrations spread 2.333-9.402 Bq/kg and the measurement errors were estimated to be 1.36%. These results seem to be similar to the national 137Cs level and correspond to about 1/2000 of the limiting values described in the Atomic Energy Act Decree, showing that the effects of 137Cs to human and environments are negligible. The 137Cs level correlated with the O.M.C. showed a clear proportionality. Thus the orgowed a clear proportionality. Thus the organic matter in soil absorbs 137Cs, limiting the mobility of 137Cs and resulting high 137Cs level. Also the comparisons of the results with similar study performed by KINS for nuclear facilities sites show the higher 137Cs concentrations of Jeju soil, which again can be explained by the high O.M.C. of Jeju soil as it had been formed by the volcanic activities and the volcanic ashes are less efficient in removing the organic matters

  7. Induced radioactivity in Bevatron concrete radiation shielding blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bevatron accelerated protons up to 6.2 GeV and heavy ions up to 2.1 GeV/amu. It operated from 1954 to 1993. Radioactivity was induced in some concrete radiation shielding blocks by prompt radiation. Prompt radiation is primarily neutrons and protons that were generated by the Bevatron's primary beam interactions with targets and other materials. The goal was to identify the gamma-ray emitting nuclides (t1/2 > 0.5 yr) that could be present in the concrete blocks and estimate the depth at which the maximum radioactivity presently occurs. It is shown that the majority of radioactivity was produced via thermal neutron capture by trace elements present in concrete. The depth of maximum thermal neutron flux, in theory, corresponds with the depth of maximum induced activity. To estimate the depth at which maximum activity occurs in the concrete blocks, the LAHET Code System was used to calculate the depth of maximum thermal neutron flux. The primary beam interactions that generate the neutrons are also modeled by the LAHET Code System

  8. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,?) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 ? gamma array made up of 160 BaF2 detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to ?500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T1/2 = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its 239Pu parent. Since 239Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >1012). Once extracted and purified, the 235mU isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The production of radioactive targets of a few milligrams will be described as well as the containment for safe handling of these targets at the Lujan Center at LANSCE. To avoid any contamination, the targets are electrochemically fixed onto thin Ti foils and two foils are placed back to back to contain the radioactive material within. This target sandwich is placed in a cylinder made of aluminum with thin translucent windows made of Kapton. Actinides targets, such as 234,235,236,238U, 237Np, and 239Pu are prepared by electrodeposition or molecular plating techniques. Target thicknesses of 1-2 mg/cm2 with sizes of 1 cm2 or more have been made. Other targets will be fabricated from separation of irradiated isotopically enriched targets, such as 155Eu from 154Sm,171Tm from 170Er, and 147Pm from 146Nd, which has been irradiated in the high flux reactor at ILL, Grenoble. A radioactive sample isotope separator (RSIS) is in the process of being commissioned for the preparation of other radioactive targets. A brief summary of these experiments and the radioactive target preparation technique will be given.

  9. Medical imaging was boosted by the discovery of artificial radioactivity; L'imagerie medicale revelee par la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarthon, F.; Dupuy-Maury, F.; Donnars, O

    2002-08-01

    This article draws the history of medical imaging since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. The author reviews the PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies and presents the recent progress in neuro-sciences that have been made possible by using these 2 technologies. Brain imaging has allowed to show: - the impact of emotions on logical mental processes and on mental performances, - the management of memory in the brain of talented quick reckoners, - the degeneration of neurons, and - the link between autism and the presence of structural and functional anomalies in the brain. (A.C.)

  10. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by ?-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H50 according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from 40K contained in the samples. (author)

  11. Prediction of radiation induced liver disease using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of predicting radiation induced liver disease (RILD) with an artificial neural network (ANN) model. From August 2000 to November 2004, a total of 93 primary liver carcinoma (PLC) patients with single lesion and associated with hepatic cirrhosis of Child-Pugh grade A, were treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Eight out of 93 patients were diagnosed RILD. Ninety-three patients were randomly divided into two subsets (training set and verification set). In model A, the ratio of patient numbers was 1:1 for training and verification set, and in model B, the ratio was 2:1. The areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.8897 and 0.8831 for model A and B, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive prediction value (PPV) and negative prediction value (NPV) were 0.875 (7/8), 0.882 (75/85), 0.882 (82/93), 0.412 (7/17) and 0.987 (75/76) for model A, and 0.750 (6/8), 0.800 (68/85), 0.796 (74/93), 0.261 (6/23) and 0.971 (68/70) for model B. ANN was proved high accuracy for prediction of RILD. It could be used together with other models and dosimetric parameters to evaluate hepatic irradiation plans. (author)

  12. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, {sup 131}I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the {sup 131}I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of {sup 131}I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with {sup 131}I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  13. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (131I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 131I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of 131I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with 131I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.eatment.

  14. The induced radioactivity of structure and shielding materials at NPPS with reactors of WWER-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induced radioactivity of structural and shielding elements of WWER-type reactors (WWER-440, Unit 2, Armenian NPP) was considered. Taking into account specific reactor characteristics, the main activation reactions were identified. Results obtained from calculations of induced radioactivity are presented. (author)

  15. Artificial radioactivity in the vicinity of St. Marianna University School of Medicine after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, rain water and atomospheric dust were monitored for their possible contamination by artificial radionuclides on the roof of the building of our medical school from April 30 through June 8, 1986. Radiological monitoring was also performed on cabbages obtained from a nearby field, city water, cow's milk produced in Kanagawa Prefecture and human milk obtained from a volunteer living in Kawasaki. Our campus and the nearby area were exposed to 131I from May 2 through 22 by rainfall and from May 1 through 15 by atomospheric dust. In particular, rain water on May 4 and May 5 contained 7600 pCi (282 Bq)/l and 6000 pCi (222 Bq)/l, respectively. The cabbage specimen obtained on May 7 was contaminated by 131I with 808 pCi/kg wet weight, but another specimen obtained on June 6 was not contaminated by any detectable amounts of 131I. No radioactivity was detected in city water during the period monitored. Cow's milk and human milk contained, as a total of ?-radioactivity, 1412 pCi (52 Bq)/l and 915 pCi (34 Bq)/l, respectively. However, parallel determinations on their potassium concentrations revealed that these radioactivities were due entirely to natural 40K. The degree of radiological contamination in and around our campus following the Chernobyl accident was mostly below the action levels above which the governments of several countries involving Japan would take preventive es involving Japan would take preventive measures against possible radiation damages. Although 131I radioactivities contained in the rain water of the first week of May, 1986 significantly exceeded the action level for this radionuclide, their effects on human health were considered negligible and undetectable in the vicinity of our school. (author)

  16. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 104 Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a 137Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  17. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author)

  18. The content of natural radioactive elements and artificial radioisotopes in Moldova's soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of multiyear investigations of natural radionuclide (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, K-40) and artificial isotopes (Sr-90, Cs-137, I-131) content on soil and plants are presented. Six anomalous polluted areas were detected after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. (authors)

  19. Daily measurements of natural and artificial atmospheric radioactivity in 1959 (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily numerical results of measures concerning ? activity of the air, either from natural, owing to thoron, or from artificial, owing to active aerosols origin, will be found in this statement. The all results are expressed in ??Curie/m3 of air. Proceedings of measure and technic of standardization, which were the matter of anterior papers, have not been discussed once more here. (author)

  20. Artificial Intelligence based Solver for Governing Model of Radioactivity Cooling, Self-gravitating Clouds and Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Ali Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a reliable alternate platform is developed based on artificial neural network optimized with soft computing technique for a non-linear singular system that can model complex physical phenomenas of the nature like radioactivity cooling, self-gravitating clouds and clusters of galaxies. The trial solution is mathematically represented by feed-forward neural network. A cost function is defined in an unsupervised manner that is optimized by a probabilistic meta-heuristic global search technique based on annealing in metallurgy. The results of the designed scheme are evaluated by comparing with the desired response of the system. The applicability, stability and reliability of the proposed method is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation hazards for some natural and artificial building materials available in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As building materials are known to be the second source regarding high radon concentrations, it is very important to determine the amounts of natural radionuclides from every building material in use. In the present study the most frequently used Romanian natural (sand, gypsum, limestone) and artificial (portland cement, lime, clinker, electrofilter powder, fly ash, cement-lime plaster mortar, cement plaster mortar) building materials were analyzed. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent rate for people living in dwelling buildings made of these building materials under investigation were also calculated. The analysis was performed with gamma-ray spectrometry, with two hyper-pure germanium detectors. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were in the ranges: 5.2-511.8 Bq kg-21 for 226Ra; 0.6-92.6 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and -1 for 40K, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in the fifty-one (51) samples varied from 9 to 603 Bq kg-1. By calculating all the radioactivity indices (Raeq, Hext, I?, Iyr) it was found that all the building materials under investigation can be used to erect dwelling buildings. Except for sample SA6, SA7 and SA11 among the natural building materials and sample SG1, SG2, FAH1, CLM1, CM1 among the artificial building materials that are considered hazardous materials when are used in large quantities. (author)

  2. Levels of natural and artificial radioactivity in sediments in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea in 1993 from 15 sampling stations of different depths have been analyzed. Natural and artificial radionuclide activity levels in offshore sediment samples from the Eastern Black Sea in Turkey are reported about seven years after the Chernobyl accident. The purpose of this paper is to follow up the earlier study and present results for the distributions of radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Low-energy radioactive ion beam induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy post-accelerated radioactive ion beams have been used to study nuclear reactions addressing important nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics questions. A high-granularity, large-solid-angle silicon strip detector array has been used to account for the low reaction products' yields. First experiments using a 6He beam on thin 12C targets show the feasibility of direct reaction studies with good angular resolution and a detection limit in access of 0.1 mb sr-1 cross sections. The measurement of the six ?-decay channel in a 13N-induced reaction on a 11B target shows the capabilities of this experimental technique even for sophisticated reaction studies. The study of stellar properties in ground-based experiments, in particular break-out reactions from the hot-CNO, i.e. 15O(?, ?)19Ne, can be pursued using these beams. Experiments are being performed to study these reactions by measurement of d(18Ne, p)19Ne*(?)15O and ?(18Ne, p), which might provide an alternative breakout route. (author)

  4. Low-energy radioactive ion beam induced nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, A.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Bradfield-Smith, W.; Laird, A.M.; Pietro, A. di; Davinson, T.; Morrow, S.; Woods, P.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cherubini, S.; Galster, W.; Graulich, J.S.; Leleux, P.; Michel, L.; Ninane, A.; Vervier, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aliotta, M.; Cali, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Spitalieri, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Goerres, J.; Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame (United States); Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaf Laboratory, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hinnefeld, J. [University of Indiana, South Bend (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Low-energy post-accelerated radioactive ion beams have been used to study nuclear reactions addressing important nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics questions. A high-granularity, large-solid-angle silicon strip detector array has been used to account for the low reaction products' yields. First experiments using a {sup 6}He beam on thin {sup 12}C targets show the feasibility of direct reaction studies with good angular resolution and a detection limit in access of 0.1 mb sr{sup -1} cross sections. The measurement of the six {alpha}-decay channel in a {sup 13}N-induced reaction on a {sup 11}B target shows the capabilities of this experimental technique even for sophisticated reaction studies. The study of stellar properties in ground-based experiments, in particular break-out reactions from the hot-CNO, i.e. {sup 15}O({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 19}Ne, can be pursued using these beams. Experiments are being performed to study these reactions by measurement of d({sup 18}Ne, p){sup 19}Ne*({alpha}){sup 15}O and {alpha}({sup 18}Ne, p), which might provide an alternative breakout route. (author)

  5. Calculation of induced radioactivity in the SAD spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is the installation (in design stage) coupled with existing 660MeV proton accelerator (max beam current 3.2?A). The main characteristics of the subcritical core are: MOX fuel, keff=0.95, fission power 27.6kW, Pb reflector. The SAD spallation target consists of one central and 18 hexagonal (36mm pitch) Pb prisms in 2 concentric layers. The main goal of the calculations, the results of which are presented, is the evaluation of the target total induced radioactivity and of its longitudinal and radial distributions in the target. The time evolution for several working scenarios of the total and long-lived isotopes activity are shown as well. The computational tools applied are the MCNPX2.5e code for high-energy particles and FISPACT for low energy ones. The results obtained with some selected nuclear reaction models in the MCNPX calculations are compared. Calculated results of activities for long-lived isotopes produced by the high energy particles are confronted with the measured ones, obtained in the experiment with bare Pb cylindrical target

  6. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BULGARIAN SOILS ALONG THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from gamma-spectrometry analyses of soils and sediments samples taken along the Danube river is presented in the paper. Results about the content of natural and artifi cial radionuclides like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are discussed. The region around the Kozloduj NPP including its exclusion zone is investigated in more details. Data from the last years is compared with such from former investigations of similar samples from the region. The soil is a natural depot and initial reservoir for spreading of all man-made radionuclides and natural radioactivity. The man-made isotopes with the longest half-life time, like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are mainly investigated. Because of their feature to be bioelements, that is to include themselves in human’s metabolism, they are especially dangerous when their concentrations in the nutritious chain increase. That is why the investigation of these nuclides together with the natural once like uranium, thorium and radium started in 1978 with annual determination of their concentrations in soils collected from the region of “Kozloduj” NPP and some places along the Danube river potentially exposed to radioactive contamination. The aim was to make a picture of the radioecological status of the soils along the Danube river. The period after 1986 is concerned as the accident in Chernobyl’s NPP changed basically the radioactive situation in the country.

  7. Designing a program to assess potential induced radioactivity in electron beam sterilization of medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Vrain, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation needs to be engrained in the process. A program was developed such that the induced radioactivity evaluation is imbedded in the development of the irradiation process.

  8. Transport and dispersion of artificial radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean - Model studies and observations -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf regions are subject to growing concern because of increasing environmental problems. The most crucial problem arises probably from the dumping of nuclear waste in the Barents and the Kara Sea. But also the great Siberian rivers Ob and Yenisei which drain huge land areas and industrial zones may contribute to the input of pollutants into the Arctic environment. First results of a joint project are described which combines numerical model studies and experimental field work in order to investigate the potential pathways and dispersion of radioactive contaminants in the Arctic Ocean. (author)

  9. Study on natural and artificial radioactivity of sea water, algae, fish, sea organisms and bottom sediments for the period 1965-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on natural and artificial radioactivity of some fish species, algae, mussels, etc., inhibiting Varna seacoast were carried out in 1965-1974. The samples were radiochemically investigated for total ?-activity, contents of potassium 40, uranium natural, radium 226, strontium 90, and cesium 137. A total of 602 samples are investigated. The results obtained from studying sea water show highest concentration in the village Byala - up to 69,00.10-9 Ci/l, and lowest - in the village of Shabla - up to 32,00.10-9 Ci/l. Radioactivity of some fish varies from 7,10 up to 67,50 pCi (per kg fresh product for strontium 90), and from 14,3 up to 63,50 pCi (per kg fresh product for cesium 137). It is established that scad fish contains the highest radioactivity. Data show that radioactivity in all cases was within the maximum permissible activity level. (author)

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of induced radioactivity for low-energy proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced radionuclides in probe bombarded with proton beam will turn the detector into a typical external irradiation radiation source. It is beneficial for developing radiation protection to calculate the kinds and the activity of induced radionuclides. Here, the induced radioactivity for three types of probe materials (Cu, Ta and W) irradiated by low-energy (below 20 MeV) proton beam are separately simulated the FLUKA Monte-Carlo program. The results show that the energy threshold of induced radioactivity in the copper probe is the lowest (about 4-5 MeV) compared with those in the tungsten and tantalum probes (about 10 MeV). In addition, the total induced radioactivity of the copper probe is always higher than the other two under the same irradiation time with decay time up to 1 hour. (authors)

  11. Natural and artificial radioactivity in milk and dairy products for human consumption (1971-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1971 and 2003, radioactivity analyses were performed in several dairy products (fresh milk, milk in powder, evaporated milk and in mixed-cereal flours) as part of the program of national environmental radiological surveillance developed by the Department of Environment Control of the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. Analytical assays were performed to evaluate Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, K-40, Sr-90 (by gamma spectroscopy) and gross beta activity (by beta counting). The obtained values do not represent radiosanitary risk for the population and confirm the presence of K-40 as the main radionuclide in this type of samples. The application of IAEA dosimetric factors allowed calculating intake doses from dairy products in a much lower level than the limits established by international regulation bodies. (author)

  12. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV electron-irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make clear appreciation to induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods, photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity at energies up to 10 MeV were listed up from elemental compositions of black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H50 according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from 40K contained in the samples. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV electron-irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1993-10-01

    In order to make clear appreciation to induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods, photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity at energies up to 10 MeV were listed up from elemental compositions of black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (J.P.N.).

  14. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 ?Sv/y (average 79.7 ?Sv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 ?Sv/y (average 67.1 ?Sv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 ?Sv/y (average 104.7 ?Sv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 ?Sv/y (average 251.5 ?Sv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  15. Estimation of absorbed gamma dose in air due to natural and artificial radioactivity of soil. Resume of Ph.D thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an extended abstract of the Ph. D. thesis devoted to the measurements of air absorbed gamma doses due to natural and artificial radioactivity in soil. It contains a summary of the four chapters of the thesis. The first chapter presents problems related to the measurement of natural and artificial radioactivity coming from soil contamination due to nuclear explosions or nuclear accidents. The natural and artificial radionuclides which usually contaminate the soil are reviewed. The chapter two presents the original contribution of the author in the field of the methods of soil sampling and NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometry analysis of radioactive samples. Also the results of the measurements carried out in 10 counties in Romania are here reported. The natural radionuclides measured were Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40, while the artificial radionuclides were Cs-137 and Cs-134. In the third chapter the radioactivity levels are reported as absorbed air gamma doses due to presence of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil. Also here the effective dose equivalents estimated for the population of the 10 counties are presented. In the concluding chapter four a discussion is given concerning the dose levels measured following the Chernobyl nuclear accident as function of time elapsed from the accident and of depth of soil sampling and of soil type. It is shown that the dose levels which affected the population in the studied zones are within the values of radioprotection stre within the values of radioprotection standards in Romania. These data were used as input to solve the problem of the biological effects of low doses on the population health. (M.I.C.). 7 Figs., 10 Tabs., 73 Refs

  16. Preliminary results on artificial radioactivity and elemental content of samples from Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results on the concentration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 3H in water samples from 5 locations in NW Black Sea collected in 1999. In sediment samples, 137Cs, and Pu were determined as well as some major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence. For the surface water samples, 137Cs concentration varied between (26.3 ± 3.4) mBq/l and (41.2 ± 5.6) mBq/l. The concentration of 90Sr was of about 11 mBq/l. The concentration of tritium was low between 24 and 7 T.U. Higher radioactive concentrations in sediment were found in the samples collected from the stations located close to Danube river. For 137Cs values up to (128 ± 6) Bq/kg were found, in agreement to results for NW Black Sea in previous years. The measured concentrations of 239+240Pu, 238Pu radioisotopes are within the range of the values reported in earlier research for the Western Black Sea and Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. (author)

  17. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  18. Induced radioactivity in interior beam probe for low-energy proton cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both theoretical analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation on induced radioactivity in the copper measuring probe irradiated by proton beams with energy of 11 MeV and intensity of 50 ?A have been demonstrated. Saturated activities of various kinds of radioactive nuclides obtained by these two methods were compared. The comparison indicates that the Monte-Carlo method conducted by software FLUKA can provide good simulation accuracy and complete consideration in nuclear reaction, and both the direct and indirect radioactivity under different irradiation time can be calculated simultaneously. The method can also provide accurate analysis and prediction on the induced radioactivity in different measuring probes under proton irradiation, which will provide a reference for design, exchange and disposal of the probes. (authors)

  19. Distribution of natural and artificial radioactivity in soils, water and tuber crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Godfred; Faanu, Augustine; Akoto, Osei; Acheampong, Akwasi; Goode, Eric Jude; Gyamfi, Opoku

    2015-06-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil and tuber crops of a major food-producing area in Ghana were investigated. The average gross alpha and beta activities were 0.021 and 0.094 Bq/L, respectively, and are below the guidelines for drinking water and therefore not expected to pose any significant health risk. The average annual effective dose due to ingestion of radionuclide in water ranged from 20.08 to 53.45 ?Sv/year. The average activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil from different farmlands in the study area was 23.19, 31.10, 143.78 and 2.88 Bq/kg, respectively, which is lower than world averages. The determined absorbed dose rate for the farmlands ranged from 23.63 to 50.51 nGy/year, which is within worldwide range of 18 to 93 nGy/year. The activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in cassava ranges from 0.38 to 6.73, 1.82 to 10.32, 17.65 to 41.01 and 0.38 to 1.02 Bq/kg, respectively. Additionally, the activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in yam also ranges from 0.47 to 4.89, 0.93 to 5.03, 14.19 to 35.07 and 0.34 to 0.89 Bq/kg, respectively. The average concentration ratio for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in yam was 0.12, 0.11 and 0.17, respectively, and in cassava was 0.11, 0.12 and 0.2, respectively. None of the radioactivity is expected to cause significant health problems to human beings. PMID:25958087

  20. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy algorithm using weights iteration artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohong; Zheng, Zeke; Zhao, Huafeng; Zhang, Min; Liao, Yanbiao

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to quantitative analysis of heavy metal pollution elements in soil. The artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm is used to the processing of the complicated spectrum lines of soil. In this paper we developed a new algorithm using weight iteration in the artificial neural network, so as to decrease the training epochs remarkably. The spectrum line intensity of some elements, such as Cu, Cd, Al, Fe and Si, were obtained. The limits of detection for trace elements Cu and Cd in soil were determined to be 42 and 5ppm, respectively.

  1. Observation of the effects of artificially released long half-life radionuclides on the global radioactive contamination background in the Atlantic and its adjoining seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the behaviors of artificial and natural radionuclides in ocean, there is similarity. In the surface seawater in northern Atlantic Ocean, the seasonal variation in the concentration of falling strontium-90 was established, and its empirical formula was given. The review of the measured results of strontium-90, cesium-137 and -134 in North Sea and the former two in southern Baltic Sea indicated that the radioactive contamination in North Sea due to the release of the radioactive materials, which are not regulated in London Convention concerning the sea dumping of wastes, is far higher than the peak in 1963. Also by the exchange of water masses, radioactive materials entered Baltic Sea. The inflow of cesium-137 from North Sea into Baltic Sea in 1979 was over 10 times as much as that from rivers. In the sea area adjoining the strait, however, cesium-137 of high concentration was not observed. (J.P.N.)

  2. Studies of Muon-Induced Radioactivity at NuMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HPGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  3. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    CERN Document Server

    Boehnlein, David J

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  4. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1); [gamma]-ray measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by [gamma]-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (author).

  5. A decade of assessment of the natural and artificial radioactivity in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Natural and artificial radionuclides in feedstuff with concentration levels surpassing the brazilian (CNEN-NN 3.05, January 2005) and international (IAEA 115 Safety Series, 1996 and Codex Alimentarius, 2006) limits are harmless to the human health and an effective control is needed in order to only allow consumption of products presenting radiation levels below limits. Since 1988, after the Chernobyl accident, the Environmental Radiometric Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), performs, on a regular basis, analysis of potassium-40, cesium-134 and cesium-137 concentrations in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil. The present work covers mostly a decade of results, from 1996 to 2007, assessed from the measurements of almost 2600 samples. The imported Belgium and the exported ones are originated from 14 Brazilian States and 111 regions. Nearly 90 different kinds of feedstuff and food commodities were measured, including condensed milk, milk powder, soy beans, sugar, raw coffee beans, etc. All samples were analyzed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry and the results, compared with brazilian and international limits, released as a technical report. The radioactivity present in all analyzed products was within the international limits, allowing to conclude that consumption of such goods offers no health risk derived from radiation. Potential relationships between the type and the origin of the products exported and imported by Brazil and the radionuclides concentrations are also approached. Finally, all results will contribute to the establishment of a radiometric database for the radionuclides concentrations in the feedstuff and food commodities produced in Brazil. (author)

  6. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in structural material of Toshiba Training Reactor 'TTR1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning programme for the Toshiba Training Reactor (TTR1), a swimming pool type reactor used for reactor physics experiments and material irradiation, was started in August 2001. As a part of the programme, induced radioactivity in structural material was evaluated using neutron flux data obtained with the three-dimensional Sn code TORT. Induced activity was calculated with the isotope generation code ORIGEN-79 using activation cross section data created from multi-group library based on JENDL-3. The obtained results for radioactivities such as 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 152Eu were compared with measured ones, and the present calculational method was confirmed to have enough accuracy. (authors)

  7. Measurement of radioactivity induced by GeV-protons and spallation neutrons using AGS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of radioactivity induced by high-energy protons with energy of 2.83 and 24 GeV and spallation neutrons produced by bombarding a mercury target with the high-energy protons were performed by using the AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The samples of boron, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, niobium, mercury-oxide, lead, bismuth, acrylic resin, SS-316, Inconel-625 and Inconel-718 were irradiated around the mercury target. After the irradiation, the radioactivity of each sample was measured by using HPGe detectors at the cooling time between 2 h and 200 d. In the processing of the measured ?-ray spectra, more than 90 radioactive nucleus were identified, and the radioactivity production data were obtained. This report gives the experimental procedure, the data processing and the experimental results. (author)

  8. IRACM : A code system to calculate induced radioactivity produced by ions and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to estimate of radioactivity induced in accelerator components and samples bombarded by energetic ion beams and the secondary neutrons of high-energy accelerator facilities in order to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. A computer code system IRACM has been developed to estimate product nuclides and induced radioactivity in various radiation environments of accelerator facilities. Nuclide transmutation with incident particles of neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne and 40Ar can be computed for arbitrary multi-layer target system in a one-dimensional geometry. The code system consists of calculation modules and libraries including activation cross sections, decay data and photon emission data. The system can be executed in both FACOM-M780 mainframe and DEC workstations. (author)

  9. Structure effects on reaction mechanisms in collisions induced by radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper concerns the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams of halo and weakly bound nuclei at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The results obtained for the reaction induced by the halo nucleus 6He on 64Zn have been compared with the results for the reaction induced by 4He on the same target. The results of the reaction induced by the weakly bound unstable 13N on the weakly bound 9Be have been compared with those for the reaction 10B + 12C

  10. Induced internal noise in perceptual artificial scotomas created by surrounding dynamic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Petar; Manahilov, Velitchko; Simpson, William A; Strang, Niall C

    2007-05-01

    Research has shown that exposure to a homogeneous gray patch surrounded by a dynamic noise background causes filling-in of the artificial scotoma by the twinkling noise from the surround. When the background is switched off, observers report perception of a prolonged patch of twinkling noise in the unstimulated area. We studied the effects of exposure to a centrally presented artificial scotoma and the twinkling aftereffect on the threshold for detecting a foveal Gabor patch embedded in external scotoma noise. The detection thresholds were mainly elevated in the absence of scotoma noise and less affected at higher levels of scotoma noise. The analysis of the experimental data using the equivalent input noise approach revealed that the reduced contrast sensitivity is due to induced internal noise whose variance is proportional to the strength of the surrounding noise. We did not find significant effects on the internal noise in a control experiment using flickering Gaussian noise samples of 1.6 Hz which did not cause filling-in and dynamic afterimage. These findings suggest that the perceptual phenomena caused by artificial scotomas may reflect increased variability of neural activity due to long-range interactions between the surrounding noise and unstimulated region of the artificial scotoma. PMID:17416398

  11. Sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers in human skin fibroblasts in comparison with dimerization after artificial UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared artificial UV-sources such as germicidal- or sun-lamps with summer noon sunlight in Switzerland for selective efficiency in the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of human cells. In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer densities (T-T) by high pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group A. Using far-UV light from a germicidal lamp, we found a rate of formation per Jm-2 for C-T and T-T of 0.0019% and 0.0024%, respectively, of the total thymine radioactivity in hydrolysates of [3H]thymidine labeled cells. After irradiation with an unfiltered sunlamp, we measured a rate of formation of 0.0005% per Jm-2 both for C-T and T-T, based on the sunlamp emission of 297 ± 4 nm wavelength. Utilization of Kodacel- or Mylar-filters lowered the rate of dimerization by a factor of 2 and 60, respectively. One hour of irradiation with noon summer sunlight induced 0.038 ± 0.012% C-T and 0.036 ± 0.011% T-T. This extent of dimer production is equivalent to 15 Jm-2 of far-UV exposure at 254 nm. (author)

  12. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  13. Application of induced seismicity to radioactive waste management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced seismicity can make a unique contribution to our understanding of rock mass response due to excavation and thermal-induced loads, during the site characterization and performance monitoring of a nuclear waste repository. Field data, with supplementary laboratory studies, are presented to show how induced high-frequency acoustic emission/microseismicity (AE/MS) can be used as a tool for passive volumetric remote sensing of failure processes. Case studies are described using results from experiments carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL). This site has been operated for the last ten years to investigate the concept of safe disposal of nuclear waste fuel in a granitic rock mass at 420 m depth. (Author)

  14. Laser light induced drift for atoms of radioactive isotopes 22 Na and 24 Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser light induced drift for atoms of radioactive isotopes 22 Na and 24 Na in the buffer gas Kr was studied. D2-line resonance frequency for drift of 22 Na and 24 Na in the opposite directions was determined. The distribution of concentration for both isotopes along the drift tube was measured at the temperature 300 and 1000 K. The detection of ?-radiation of radioactive isotopes was used for these measurements. The isotope separation factor up to 20 at the efficiency 50% and drift velocity 1.1 m/s was reached. (author). 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Monte-Carlo study of induced radioactivity in probe for low-energy proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We apply both the theoretical analysis and Monte-Carlo method simulation on the induced radioactivity in copper probe irradiated by proton beam. ? The total activities of different materials on different energy are compared. ? The total activities of different materials on different cooling time are compared. - Abstract: Induced radionuclides generated from the probe which is bombarded by proton beam will turn the detector into a typical external irradiation radiation source. Thus, it is beneficial for developing radiation protection to calculate the types and the activities of radionuclides. Here we applied both a theoretical analysis and a Monte-Carlo method to compute the induced radioactivity in a copper probe irradiated by proton beam. Various kinds of radionuclides saturation activity obtained by these two different methods were compared. The comparisons of the results cast by the two methods show the similar saturation activities for 63Zn and 65Zn. However, the Monte-Carlo method conducted by the software FLUKA is able to provide a more complete consideration on nuclear reaction, and to calculate both the direct and indirect radioactivity under different irradiation time. Furthermore, by employing the FLUKA Monte-Carlo program, the induced radioactivity of three types of probe materials (Cu, Ta and W) under low-energy (below 20 MeV) proton beam irradiated were also separately simulated and tantalum is considered as the d and tantalum is considered as the best material for low-energy proton interceptive diagnostics probe due to the higher energy threshold of nuclear reaction and the lower radioactivity.

  16. Induced radioactivity evaluation for reference materials by European scientific cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global objective of this research is to apply the latest theoretical achievements for calculation of nuclear quantities on the request lists of the current EC projects related to activation (European Activation File) and fusion (European Fusion File, Joint Evaluation File and Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). The main goal has concerned the (n,p) and (n,?) reaction cross sections, of first importance for prediction of radiation damage in fusion reactor stainless steel. The required development of adequate activation computer codes and data libraries are expected to provide improvement of the following types of nuclear data: - threshold and capture reactions leading to long-lived radionuclides; - other neutron-induced reactions producing the most critical activities in elements ranging from boron to bismuth; - charged-particle emission spectra of neutron-induced reactions and charged-particle induced reactions needed to treat the important sequential (x,n) reactions; - detailed error estimates of critical nuclear data, in order to specify the uncertainty levels of current predictions for radiological properties of potential low-activation materials

  17. Five new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cai, Cai-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wang, Hao; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Dong, Wen-Hua; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Five new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids (1-5), along with six known ones (6-11), were isolated from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (Thymelaeaceae). The structures of the new sesquiterpenoids were established by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1, 3, 6 and 7 exhibited antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Ralstonia solanacearum, and compound 5 only showed an inhibitory activity towards S. aureus. Compounds 1, 6, 7 and 10 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:25447164

  18. Induced radioactivity in air and water at medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of air and water has been evaluated at the 10 and 15 MeV linear electron accelerator facilities. At 15 MeV irradiation, the activity of 10-min-half-life 13N was observed in the case of the air in the glove box. Air and water samples were also bombarded by 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon, and the irradiation dose was 10 Gy at the isocenter. Upon the ion-chamber monitoring of the air sampled from the glove box, 15O, 13N, and 11C activities were mainly observed. At the end of proton and carbon irradiation, the activity of the water was found to be about 10 kBq·cm-3 and several kBq·cm-3, respectively. From the decay analysis of the induced activity in water, 15O, 13N, and 11C were detected. (author)

  19. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ? We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ? We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ? We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ? Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced

  20. Differences in gene expression between natural and artificially induced leaf senescence in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Armin; Acker, Georg; Bartsch, Sandra; Bauerschmitt, Heike; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-03-15

    Senescence is the last step of leaf development in the life span of an annual plant. Senescence can be induced prematurely by treating leaf tissues with jasmonic acid methyl ester (methyl jasmonate, MeJA). During both senescence programmes, drastic changes occur at the biochemical, cellular and ultra-structural levels that were compared here for primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Our findings indicate that both types of senescence are similar with respect to the morphological changes including the loss of chlorophyll, disintegration of thylakoids, and formation of plastoglobules. However, the time elapsed for reaching senescence completion was different and ranged from 7 to 8 days for artificially senescing, MeJA-treated plants to 7-8 weeks for naturally senescing plants. Pulse-labelling studies along with RNA and protein gel blot analyses showed differential changes in the expression of both plastid and nuclear genes coding for photosynthetic proteins. Several unique messenger products accumulated in naturally and artificially senescing, MeJA-treated leaves. Detailed expression and crosslinking studies revealed that pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), a previously implicated key enzyme of chlorophyll breakdown, is most likely not rate-limiting for chlorophyll destruction under both senescence conditions. Metabolite profiling identified differential changes in the composition of carotenoid derivatives and prenyl-lipids to occur in naturally senescing and artificially senescing plants that underscored the differences between both senescence programmes. PMID:25637827

  1. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Villot-Kadri, M.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Michel, K.; Bruyère, D.; Laperche, V. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ? We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ? We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ? We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ? Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced.

  2. Induced radioactivity of commercial isotropic graphites for high heat flux tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If used as the plasma-facing material in the next-generation fusion devices, graphite will induce radioactivity in impurities in the grahite. This study was carried out to evaluate the amount of radiologically significant impurities in commercial isotropic graphite tiles. Special attention is given to the benefits of purification by halogen treatment. Grahite tiles from seven Japanese companies were irradiated in JMTR to neutron fluences up to 7.7x1024 n/m2 fast (E > 0.1 MeV) and 1x1025 n/m2 thermal (E < 0.683 eV) at about 450 K. Subsequent ?-ray spectroscopy revealed that major impurities contributing to the induced radioactivity are the IIId, IVa, Va elements and rare earth elements. The origins of these impurities are suggested and the effects of halogen treatment on the reduction of these impurities are analyzed. (orig.)

  3. Manifestation of the influence of releases of artificial long-lived radionuclides seen against the background of global radioactive contamination of the Atlantic Ocean and related seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors note an analogy in the behaviour of artificial and natural radionuclides in the ocean. A seasonal tendency is observed in the variations of 90Sr concentrations due to global fall-out in surface waters of the North Atlantic (200N-700N latitude), and an empirical formula is suggested to describe the observed seasonality. The results are given of 90Sr, 137Cs and 134Cs determinations carried out by the authors in the surface waters of the North Sea, and of 90Sr and 137Cs determinations made in surface waters of the southern part of the Baltic Sea. A comparison with data from the literature shows that the release of radioactive materials beyond the norms laid down in the London Dumping Convention of 1952 led to serious contamination of the North Sea, to levels in fact which were considerably in excess of the global radioactive contamination for 1963. Through the normal processes of turnover and interchange of water masses, the resultant radioactive impurities entered the Baltic Sea. In 1979 the influx of 137Cs from the North Sea into the Baltic was ten times greater than the influx through river discharge. However, in surface waters near the straits in the south and south-west part of the Baltic no increased concentration of 137Cs was found in 1979. (author)

  4. A radiation-induced breast cancer following artificial pneumothorax therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radiation-induced breast cancer in a woman who had been fluoroscopied repeatedly for control of pneumothorax for pulmonary tuberculosis 35 years before is reported. The breast tissue presumably received about 136 rads or less in three and a half years. In Japan, both prospective and retrospective surveies following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax collaps therapy have failed to show an increase in the risk of subsequent development of primary breast cancer. The dose given to breast tissues in Japanese patients was generally far less than that in the MacKenzie's series. A radiation-induced breast cancer in Japanese literature has not yet been reported. It seems that the lesser doses may explain the reason of this fact. (auth.)

  5. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection via an Artificially Induced Right Hydrothorax for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Hepatic Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of sonographically (US) guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) via an artificially induced right hydrothorax (transthoracic PEI) to treat US-invisible hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the hepatic dome. Five cirrhotic patients with US-invisible HCC in the hepatic dome, who were poor surgical candidates, underwent transthoracic PEI. An artificial right hydrothorax was created by instilling 500 ml saline, and absolute ethanol was injected transhydrothoracically into the hepatic dome lesion under local anesthesia. The success and complications were assessed radiologically. The patients were followed up serologically and radiologically for 12-44 (mean 28.4) months. Twenty-five hydrothoraces were induced. All hydrothoraces enabled US visualization of the entire hepatic dome. Eight of the nine small lesions were treated successfully by the treatment. Two of the three local recurrences were eradicated by repeat transthoracic PEI. One large lesion was treated by a combination of transthoracic and regular PEI. The only complication was one clinically insignificant pneumothorax. Induction of a right hydrothorax is feasible and safe. The hydrothorax enables US visualization of the entire hepatic dome and permits US-guided PEI for HCC in the hepatic dome that otherwise would not be possible

  6. DCHAIN-SP 2001: High energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of contribution to safety design calculations for induced radioactivities in the JAERI/KEK high-intensity proton accelerator project facilities, the DCHAIN-SP which calculates the high energy particle induced radioactivity has been updated to DCHAIN-SP 2001. The following three items were improved: (1) Fission yield data are included to apply the code to experimental facility design for nuclear transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste where fissionable materials are treated. (2) Activation cross section data below 20 MeV are revised. In particular, attentions are paid to cross section data of materials which have close relation to the facilities, i.e., mercury, lead and bismuth, and to tritium production cross sections which are important in terms of safety of the facilities. (3) User-interface for input/output data is sophisticated to perform calculations more efficiently than that in the previous version. Information needed for use of the code is attached in Appendices; the DCHAIN-SP 2001 manual, the procedures of installation and execution of DCHAIN-SP, and sample problems. (author)

  7. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais na caracterizacao de tambores de rejeito radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: apotiens@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  8. Thallium-201 radioactive implant induced x-ray emission scanning of stable iodine distribution in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed for imaging the thyroid gland by the use of 201Tl radioactive implant induced X-ray emission (RIXE). The thyroid phantom was made from two cylindrical tubes embedded in plastic neck phantom. Each tube consisted of stable iodine and 201Tl radioactive source in 10 ml water solution. Some photopeaks in the energy range from 20 to 200 keV were scanned along a horizontal axis by the collimated Ge detector with high energy resolution. The distribution on the horizontal axis was obtained for the generated I K?-ray and some primary 201Tl radiations. The 201Tl RIXE scanning can provide information about the distribution of iodine with 201Tl as well as 201Tl distribution in the thyroid gland. The effectiveness of the 201Tl RIXE technique as a thyroid scanning method is discussed. (author)

  9. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  10. Earthquake-induced landslide-susceptibility mapping using an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply and verify landslide-susceptibility analysis techniques using an artificial neural network and a Geographic Information System (GIS applied to Baguio City, Philippines. The 16 July 1990 earthquake-induced landslides were studied. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology, land cover and terrain mapping units. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage were calculated from the topographic database. Lithology and distance from faults were derived from the geology database. Land cover was identified from the topographic database. Terrain map units were interpreted from aerial photographs. These factors were used with an artificial neural network to analyze landslide susceptibility. Each factor weight was determined by a back-propagation exercise. Landslide-susceptibility indices were calculated using the back-propagation weights, and susceptibility maps were constructed from GIS data. The susceptibility map was compared with known landslide locations and verified. The demonstrated prediction accuracy was 93.20%.

  11. Selection and investigation of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced subsurface fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 103 ?Ci/mL, consisting mainly of radionuclides, such as strontium and cesium, having half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement into a thick shale formation is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide-adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide-retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation, and therefore the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion and dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are (1) the potential for inducing vertical fractures, (2) phase separation during and after the injections, (3) the reliability of methods for determining the orientation of induced fractures, (4) the possibility of triggering earthquakes, and (5) radionuclides being leached and transported by ground water. Theoretical considerations about inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale are discussed, as are field procedures for site selection, safety, and the monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the application of the theory and techniques of field operations and techniques of field operations

  12. Identification of polymer materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueri, Myriam; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Lei, Wen-Qi; Ma, Qain-Li; Zheng, Li-Juan; Zeng, He-Ping; Yu, Jin

    2011-03-01

    A combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been used for the identification of polymer materials, including polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethylene (PE), polyamide or nylon (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). After optimization of the experimental setup and the spectrum acquisition protocol, successful identification rates between 81 and 100% were achieved using spectral features gathered from single spectra without averaging (1 second acquisition time) over a wide spectral range (240-820 nm). Furthermore, ten different materials based on PVC were tested using the identification procedure. Correct identifications were obtained as well. Sorting of the materials into sub-categories of PVC materials according to their charges (concentration in trace elements such as Ca) was performed. The demonstrated capacities fit, in practice, the needs of plastic-waste sorting and of producing high-grade recycled plastic materials. PMID:21352651

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency and coherent population trapping with a superconducting artificial atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergey; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Robinson, J. E.; Suri, Baladitya; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2015-03-01

    We embed a superconducting Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubit that acts as an artificial atom in a three-dimensional copper microwave cavity at a temperature of 22 mK. By addressing the hybridized qubit-cavity levels with two microwave drives (probe and coupler), we are able to create a ?-like system with highly asymmetric decay rates. We observe electromagnetically induced transparency, and use this feature to achieve coherent population trapping (CPT) by creating a superposition state with the two drives whose duration is much longer than any coherence times in the system. After the drives are turned off, the resultant CPT dark state is coherent for TCPT ~T2* = 7 . 4 ?s . We estimate the minimum fidelity of the dark state achievable in this system to be 60%. These results present a way of superposition and entanglement generation with CW tones in a superconducting system.

  14. Site selection and investigation for subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection into a thick shale formation of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 103 ?Ci/ml consisting mainly of radionuclides such as strontium and cesium with half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation and thus the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion or dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are: (1) potential of inducing vertical fractures; (2) phase separation during and after injections; (3) reliability of methods for determining orientation of induced fractures; (4) possibility of triggering earthquakes; and (5) radionuclides leaching and transporting by ground water. Waste injections are made in multiple-layer injection stages in an injection well. After the first series of injections are made at the greatest depth, the well is plugged by cement at the injection depth. The depth of the second series of injections is located at a suitable distance above the first injection depth. The repeated use of the injection well distributes the cost of e injection well distributes the cost of construction of injection and monitoring wells over many injections, thereby making hydraulic fracturing and grout injection economically attractive as a method for disposal of radioactive wastes. Theoretical considerations of inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale and field procedures for site selection, safety, monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the theoretical applications and field operations

  15. High energy proton-induced radioactivity in HgI2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, E.; Carter, T.; Perez, J. M.; Ferrero, J. L.; Sanchez, F.; Ruiz, J. A.; Schutz, Y.; Lei, F.; Dean, A. J.; Reglero, V.

    1995-03-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) semiconductor crystals are generating a lot of interest as room temperature solid state detectors for hard X-ray astronomy observations. For these applications one of the most important background sources is the cosmic proton induced radioactivity in the detector material. In order to study this background noise contribution a 1 x 1 x 1 cm HgI2 crystal was irradiated with high energy protons. The resulting long-lived unstable isotopes and their production rates have been identified and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Change in radioactivity of the nuclides induced in iron and nickel by laboratory ablation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of estimating the degree of evaporation loss of cosmogenic nuclides in the ablation products of materials by atmospheric heatings, a few laboratory ablation experiments were performed. Small Fe and Ni metal chips in which radioactive 54Mn, 51Cr and 58Co were induced by fast neutron irradiation, were heated to 10 - 20 0C above the melting point under 40 mtorr air pressure. Gamma ray activities of the radionuclides measured before and after the heating show that 54Mn evaporates much faster than Fe, 51Cr and 58Co evaporate much slower than 54 Mn, but faster than the major elements, Fe and Ni. (author)

  17. Measurement of fertilizers induced radioactivity in tobacco plants and elemental analysis using ICAP–AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that tobacco smoke is the leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. The alpha radioactive content present in tobacco smoke and increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of investigation. The use of different fertilizers may cause alteration in the metabolism of plants causing different response towards uptake of different element and radionuclides. In the present study, the estimation of alpha radioactivity induced by use of different fertilizers in tobacco leaves was made using solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115) to identify the relative presence of radionuclides in the plants. The radon exhalation rates from the tobacco plant were carried out to confirm the presence of radium or emission of radon from plant. The elemental analysis of tobacco plant by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry provides a way to understand the difference occurred in metabolism caused by the use of fertilizers. The alpha track densities were found to vary with nature of fertilizers added to the soil and an increase was also observed with time. The radon mass exhalation rates in various tobacco plants were found to vary with type of fertilizers used. - Highlights: • The study is related to alpha radioactivity measurements in tobacco plants. • The radon mass exhalation rates in various tobacco plants were also measured. • Study is related to analysis of chemical elements in different fertilized tobacco samples

  18. Artificial ladder-shaped polyethers that inhibit maitotoxin-induced Ca2+ influx in rat glioma C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tohru; Konoki, Keiichi; Tamate, Rie; Torikai, Kohei; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio

    2012-06-01

    Maitotoxin (MTX) is a ladder-shaped polyether produced by the epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. It is known to elicit potent toxicity against mammals and induce influx of Ca(2+) into cells. An artificial ladder-shaped polyether possessing a 6/7/6/6/7/6/6 heptacyclic ring system, which was designed for elucidating interactions with transmembrane proteins, was found to be the most potent inhibitor against MTX-induced Ca(2+) influx that has ever been reported. PMID:22560474

  19. Calculation of radioactivity induced in gamma-ray spectrometers during spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity induced in detector materials by cosmic rays, trapped protons and secondary neutrons is a major source of background in gamma-ray astronomy and remote sensing spectroscopy of the moon and the planets. A calculation scheme for assessing this component has been developed based on semi-empirical cross-sections and stochastic calculations of energy-loss spectra of radioactive nuclides. In addition, predictive methods are available based on experimental data obtained from monoenergetic proton beam irradiations of scintillators at energies of 155, 600, 800 MeV and 6 GeV. Application of these methods to in-flight results from scintillator detectors carried on lightweight OSO spacecraft, for which trapped protons of 20-200 MeV dominate, shows that the induced radiactivity at lower photon energies can be well explained by spallation interactions of primary protons in the central crystal detector elements. The contributions to the induced activity due to collimators, materials surrounding the detector, and the spacecraft become increasingly important at higher proton energies. For such detectors carried on the Apollo missions, the more energetic (> 300 MeV) cosmic-ray flux dominates. The library of isotopes presently used can predict only about half the induced radiactivity, and corrections for missing radionuclides must be based on the experimental irradiation results. Results from crystals returned to Earth from Apollo 17 and Apollo-Soyuz show that, for heavy sp7 and Apollo-Soyuz show that, for heavy spacecraft, secondary neutrons can significantly enchance the background. Preliminary estimates have been made of the important gamma-ray line features to be expected from cosmic-ray and trapped proton induced spallation products in germanium detectors. (orig.)

  20. The use of an experimental device for the determination of the concentration of artificial radioactive aerosols at high altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of measurements with a Geiger counter on january, the 27th, in 1959 at an altitude reaching 65 km approximately, and following comparison with similar measurements made by Gangnes, Jenkins and Van Allen in 1949 at the same geomagnetic latitude (41 deg. North), it is concluded that radioactive aerosols above Southern France tropopause had a concentration less than 100.10-12 curies/m3 at that time. The missile used for this purpose and its performance are quickly described in this paper. (author)

  1. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the CERN Large Electron Positron collider for its decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The future installation of the Large Hadron Collider in the tunnel formerly housing the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) required the dismantling of the latter after 11-year operation. As required by the French legislation, an extensive theoretical study was conducted before decommissioning to establish the possible activation paths both in the accelerator and in the four experiments (L3, ALEPH, OPAL and DELPHI) installed around the ring. The aim was to define which areas may contain activated material and which ones would be completely free of activation. The four major sources of activation in LEP, i.e., distributed and localized beam losses, synchrotron radiation and the super-conducting RF cavities, were investigated. Conversion coefficients from unit lost beam power to induced specific activity were established for a number of materials. A similar study was conducted for the four experiments, evaluating the four potential sources of induced radioactivity, namely e**+e **- annihilation events, two-p...

  2. Alternatives of applications in the information taking with artificial radioactive tools in the mature fields of the South region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is widely described the application of the saturation control tool (RST) used in the campo Rodador (Mexico), and shortly the registration tools of location monitoring (RMT) and the Monitor tool of the location operation (RPM) used for the evaluation in site of the mature wells, had being at the present time these three tools with nuclear reaction mechanisms to obtain the water saturation and of hydrocarbon by means of the Neutron capture (PNC) and Inelastic scattering (IS). Both tools have been designed to help to the evaluation of the mature wells in the locations. Starting from measurements made through the lining pipe applying nuclear techniques used by these tools of registrations to derive the water saturation and of hydrocarbon. In this work the basic principles of radioactivity and their application in the radioactive tools are described as well as the operative aspects of the tools before mentioned, some practical applications of the saturation control tool are presented and a technical study of cost-benefit and it is shown as the technology advances have allowed to carry out considerable progresses in the taking of information of the mature wells helping by this way, to build better geological models in the locations that help to increase the hydrocarbon production in wells that have many years of exploitation. (Author)

  3. Plant height reduction in populations of triticale (X triticosecale Wittmack) by induced mutations and artificial crosses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Pandini; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; José Fernandes, Barbosa Neto.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutações induzidas pelo uso das doses de radiação gama 0, 5, 10, 20 e 40 kR e cruzamentos artificiais recíprocos foram testados como mecanismos para aumentar a variabilidade genética em duas cultivares de triticale, BR4 e EMBRAPA18. Os tratamentos empregados provocaram amplitudes similares de variab [...] ilidade genética, com alterações nas médias e variâncias, podendo favorecer o emprego da seleção na obtenção de genótipos superiores. As respostas dos genótipos foram diferenciadas, sendo mais acentuadas quando submetidos a doses superiores do tratamento mutagênico, determinando uma redução na estatura. Em relação ao nível de variabilidade genética obtida, os tratamentos mutagênicos foram tão eficientes quanto as hibridações artificiais. A decisão do método a ser utilizado deve ser adequada aos recursos disponíveis, assim como o mecanismo mais eficiente de seleção para os caracteres de interesse Abstract in english Induced mutations by gamma radiation (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kR doses) and reciprocal crosses were tested as mechanisms of enhancing genetic variability for plant height in two triticale cultivars, BR4 and EMBRAPA18. The reciprocal crosses and all doses of radiation showed similar increase in genetic a [...] mplitude for this trait, being suitable for increasing variability in breeding programs. Genotypes showed different responses as the gamma ray doses were increased, expressing shorter plant height. The decision of using induced mutations or artificial crosses depends on the resources available and the selection method to be used

  4. Plant height reduction in populations of triticale (X triticosecale Wittmack by induced mutations and artificial crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pandini

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Induced mutations by gamma radiation (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kR doses and reciprocal crosses were tested as mechanisms of enhancing genetic variability for plant height in two triticale cultivars, BR4 and EMBRAPA18. The reciprocal crosses and all doses of radiation showed similar increase in genetic amplitude for this trait, being suitable for increasing variability in breeding programs. Genotypes showed different responses as the gamma ray doses were increased, expressing shorter plant height. The decision of using induced mutations or artificial crosses depends on the resources available and the selection method to be usedMutações induzidas pelo uso das doses de radiação gama 0, 5, 10, 20 e 40 kR e cruzamentos artificiais recíprocos foram testados como mecanismos para aumentar a variabilidade genética em duas cultivares de triticale, BR4 e EMBRAPA18. Os tratamentos empregados provocaram amplitudes similares de variabilidade genética, com alterações nas médias e variâncias, podendo favorecer o emprego da seleção na obtenção de genótipos superiores. As respostas dos genótipos foram diferenciadas, sendo mais acentuadas quando submetidos a doses superiores do tratamento mutagênico, determinando uma redução na estatura. Em relação ao nível de variabilidade genética obtida, os tratamentos mutagênicos foram tão eficientes quanto as hibridações artificiais. A decisão do método a ser utilizado deve ser adequada aos recursos disponíveis, assim como o mecanismo mais eficiente de seleção para os caracteres de interesse

  5. Rainfall and earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility assessment using GIS and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A GIS-based method for the assessment of landslide susceptibility in a selected area of Qingchuan County in China is proposed by using the back-propagation Artificial Neural Network model (ANN. Landslide inventory was derived from field investigation and aerial photo interpretation. 473 landslides occurred before the Wenchuan earthquake (which were thought as rainfall-induced landslides (RIL in this study, and 885 earthquake-induced landslides (EIL were recorded into the landslide inventory map. To understand the different impacts of rainfall and earthquake on landslide occurrence, we first compared the variations between landslide spatial distribution and conditioning factors. Then, we compared the weight variation of each conditioning factor derived by adjusting ANN structure and factors combination respectively. Last, the weight of each factor derived from the best prediction model was applied to the entire study area to produce landslide susceptibility maps.

    Results show that slope gradient has the highest weight for landslide susceptibility mapping for both RIL and EIL. The RIL model built with four different factors (slope gradient, elevation, slope height and distance to the stream shows the best success rate of 93%; the EIL model built with five different factors (slope gradient, elevation, slope height, distance to the stream and distance to the fault has the best success rate of 98%. Furthermore, the EIL data was used to verify the RIL model and the success rate is 92%; the RIL data was used to verify the EIL model and the success rate is 53%.

  6. Induced radioactivity analysis for the NSRL Linac in China using Monte Carlo simulations and gamma-spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    He, Lijuan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Yukai; Ren, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The 200-MeV electron linac of the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located in Hefei is one of the earliest high-energy electron linear accelerators in China. The electrons are accelerated to 200 MeV by five acceleration tubes and are collimated by scrapers. The scraper aperture is smaller than the acceleration tube one, so some electrons hit the materials when passing through them. These lost electrons cause induced radioactivity mainly due to bremsstrahlung and photonuclear reaction. This paper describes a study of induced radioactivity for the NSRL Linac using FLUKA simulations and gamma-spectroscopy. The measurements showed that electrons were lost mainly at the scraper. So the induced radioactivity of the NSRL Linac is mainly produced here. The radionuclide types were simulated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and the results were compared against measurements made with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. The NSRL linac had been retired because of upgrading last year. The re...

  7. The extreme Rhone River flood of December 2003 (south east France) - Consequences on the translocation of artificial radioactive contaminants onto the flooded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, great progress has been made in reducing the direct emission of artificial radioactivity and other contaminants into the environment from industrial sources. However the transport and fate of previously-released pollutants is still of great concern. In particular, it is now recognized that certain natural sinks, such as soils and deposits of sediment in streams, rivers and oceans, can entrain the contaminants for long periods of time, only to serve as sources of contamination at some later date. Such a phenomenon was first observed in the Irish Sea after sharp decreases in releases from the spent fuel reprocessing plant in Sellafield. In rivers, one of the primary mechanisms for the remobilization of contaminated deposits is thought to be major flood events. As a result of climate change, floods have become more abundant and more destructive in many regions of the globe including Europe. Then substantial changes in risk of translocation of sediments and associated contaminants onto flooded areas is expected. At the beginning of December 2003 an exceptional meteo climatic event led to an extreme Rhone River flood that flooded almost 500 km2 of the low Rhone valley. Flooding waters entrained a large amount of sediments that have deposited on agricultural soils and urban areas. Therefore particle reactive contaminants such as radionuclides may have been partly translocated from the River onto a large terrestrial area through remobilo a large terrestrial area through remobilisation of contaminated fluvial sediments. The soils of the low Rhone valley are labelled with 2000 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 50 Bq m-2 for 239+240Pu and 1.5 Bq m-2 for 238Pu as mean values. Based on our previous studies we estimate than radioactive inputs onto flooded areas might reach about 500 Bq m-2 for 137Cs. Nevertheless, a great spatial heterogeneity is expected depending on both the mass and nature of the sedimentary deposits. Several field cruises were performed until February 2004 to estimate the spatial spreading of sedimentary deposits. The deposit thinness were measured at almost 140 reference points within 3 main flooded areas whom one includes the Arles city. 87 samples were collected and are analysed for their sedimentary nature and organic matter content. About fifty percent of these samples are analysed regarding artificial radionuclides (gamma-emitters), organic contaminants and trace metals. Finally, a map of additional contamination of flooded areas during December 2003 is expected together with an evaluation of the consequences of such extreme flood events. (author)

  8. The extreme Rhone River flood of December 2003 (South East France) - Consequences on the translocation of artificial radioactive contaminants onto the flooded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, great progress has been made in reducing the direct emission of artificial radioactivity and other contaminants into the environment from industrial sources. However the transport and fate of previously-released pollutants is still of great concern. In particular, it is now recognized that certain natural sinks, such as soils and deposits of sediment in streams, rivers and oceans, can entrain the contaminants for long periods of time, only to serve as sources of contamination at some later date. Such a phenomenon was first observed in the Irish Sea after sharp decreases in releases from the spent fuel reprocessing plant in Sellafield. In rivers, one of the primary mechanisms for the remobilization of contaminated deposits is thought to be major flood events. As a result of climate change, floods have become more abundant and more destructive in many regions of the globe including Europe. Then substantial changes in risk of translocation of sediments and associated contaminants onto flooded areas is expected. At the beginning of December 2003 an exceptional meteo climatic event led to an extreme Rhone River flood that flooded almost 500 km2 of the low Rhone valley. Flooding waters entrained a large amount of sediments that have deposited on agricultural soils and urban areas. Therefore particle reactive contaminants such as radionuclides may have been partly translocated from the River onto a large terrestrial area through remobilo a large terrestrial area through remobilisation of contaminated fluvial sediments. The soils of the low Rhone valley are labelled with 2000 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 50 Bq m-2 for 239+240Pu and 1.5 Bq m-2 for 238Pu as mean values. Based on our previous studies we estimate than radioactive inputs onto flooded areas might reach about 500 Bq m-2 for 137Cs. Nevertheless, a great spatial heterogeneity is expected depending on both the mass and nature of the sedimentary deposits. Several field cruises were performed until February 2004 to estimate the spatial spreading of sedimentary deposits. The deposit thinness were measured at almost 140 reference points within 3 main flooded areas whom one includes the Arles city. 87 samples were collected and are analysed for their sedimentary nature and organic matter content. About fifty percent of these samples are analysed regarding artificial radionuclides (gamma-emitters), organic contaminants and trace metals. Finally, a map of additional contamination of flooded areas during December 2003 is expected together with an evaluation of the consequences of such extreme flood events. (author)

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of Risk Communication for Maintenance Workers Who Deal With Induced Radioactivity Management of Medical Linear Accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Koizumi, Mitsue; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kida, Tetsuo; Ooyama, Masaya; Horitsugi, Genki; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Itami, Jyun

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, an amended law that mandates levels of unintended induced radioactivity has been in effect since 1 April 2012. According to the new regulation, if the concentration of induced radioactivity in affected parts is above the clearance level, the parts must be regarded as radioactive even if they weigh less than 1 kg. This regulation reform raises several new issues concerning medical linear accelerators, including how to determine the decay period for induced radioactivity before maintenance can be performed and how to identify what parts should be considered radioactive waste. The authors performed several risk communication (RC) activities aimed at improving the understanding of maintenance workers at medical accelerator manufacturers and establishing good guidelines by involving stakeholders. For this purpose, a working group was established and conducted RC activities, such as holding opinion exchange meetings between medical staff and maintenance workers and creating a booklet to answer questions from maintenance workers. To evaluate these activities, three questionnaire surveys were conducted between 2011 and 2014. According to the results of this study, the ratio of maintenance workers who accepted "The decay period is within one week" was approximately 60% at the third survey and significantly increased (P < 0.0001) during the survey period. Approximately 25% of the maintenance workers felt that not enough information was provided about the decay period, and approximately 63% thought that the information provided on the health effects of radiation was sufficient. These results suggest that the present RC was successful. PMID:26107435

  10. Measurement of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity in Soil at Some Selected Thanas around the TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawpan C. Sarkar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentration of natural and fallout radionuclides in the soil at some selected Thanas around the TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE, Savar, Dhaka were measured by using a high purity germanium detector (HPGe. The study revealed that only natural radionuclides were present in the samples and no trace of any artificial radionuclide was found. The average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 37.8 ± 5.6 Bq.kg-1, 58.2 ± 11.0 Bq.kg-1 and 790.8 ± 153.4 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Req, absorbed dose rate (D, external radiation hazard index (Hex and internal radiation hazard index (Hin were also calculated to find out the probable radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity.

  11. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  12. Radiological considerations on multi-MW targets Part I Induced radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2005.02.018

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to provide a 2.2GeV, 4MW proton beam to feed facilities like, for example, a future Neutrino Factory or a Neutrino SuperBeam. The material activation in such facilities is an important aspect that has to be taken into account at an early design stage. In particular, the choice of the target has consequences on the induced radioactivity and dose rates in the target itself and in its surroundings. In the present work, the radiological aspects of a stationary target made up of small tantalum pellets are compared to those of a free-surface jet of mercury. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump were performed for both targets by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which...

  13. Interplay between artificially induced and intrinsic anisotropies in 123 superconducting superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jose L.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Martin, J. I.; Velez, M.

    1998-12-01

    We report on the behavior of 123 superconducting superlattices grown on cubic substrates, with the CuO2 planes perpendicular to the substrate. These multilayers are the ideal system to study the competition between the intrinsic anisotropy, due to the natural anisotropy and the artificially induced anisotropy. The samples are grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique. The superlattices are characterized by the refinement of the structure from x-ray diffraction spectra. The angular dependence of the resistivity and critical current, in the mixed state, are used to study the anisotropy of this system. Two different regimes have been observed, with a crossover from one to another driven by the direction of the applied magnetic field. One of them occurs with the applied magnetic field close to the CuO2 planes and another with the applied magnetic field close to the substrate. In the former regime, the anisotropy behavior could not be explained taking into account only the intrinsic pinning mechanisms, In this regime,the critical current and the resistivity follow scaling laws, using reduced magnetic field, due to the Hc2 2D and 3D anisotropy models. In the latter regimen, the insulating layers act as strong pinning centers and a break- down of the Hc2 scaling laws is observed.

  14. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cai, Cai-Hong; Dong, Wen-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wang, Hao; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2014-10-01

    Three new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives (1-3), together with thirteen known ones (4-16), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing, originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (Thymelaeaceae). The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1, 6, 15 and 16 exhibited inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, and compounds 15 and 16 showed inhibitory effects on Ralstonia solanacearum. Compounds 1-3, 7, 9, 11, 12, 15 and 16 exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1-16 was proposed to show the relationships between diepoxy-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, epoxy-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones, tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, and 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of the flidersia type, the four main types of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones found in agarwood, on the basis of their appearances in different stage of agarwood formation. PMID:25068202

  15. Measurement of induced radioactivity in a spallation neutron field of a mercury target for GeV-proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral experiment on radioactivity induced in spallation neutron fields was carried out under the ASTE (AGS-Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory). The spallation neutrons were produced by bombarding a mercury target with protons of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. The number of protons was 3 - 4 x 1013 for each irradiation. The irradiated materials were titanium, nickel, cobalt, yttrium, and bismuth, and placed on the cylindrical surface of the mercury target at the distance of 15 - 16 cm from the beam-incident-surface of the target. Disintegration rates of induced radioactivities were measured at several cooling-time ranging from hours to months. The principal nuclides contributing to the radioactivity were pointed out for each material. The experimental results for bismuth were compared with the calculations with DCAHIN-SP code. (author)

  16. Artificial radioactivity in the lower Rhone river. Consequences of floods on activity levels and flow toward the mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite analytical strategies that today measure ultra-trace levels (i.e., -5 Bq.L-1) of artificial radionuclides, gamma spectrometry of Rhone River samples taken downstream from the nuclear installations located along the Rhone valley regularly detects only 137Cs, 60Co and 241Am. Since dismantlement of the Marcoule-COGEMA reprocessing plant began in 1997, lists of radionuclides in its effluent include 51Cr, 54Mn, 63Ni, 110mAg and 65Zn, released however at levels 10 to 1,000-fold lower than those of 137Cs or 60Co. Today Marcoule effluent is no longer the principal source of 137Cs in the Rhone River basin, as it was in the 1990's. Significant quantities of 137Cs now come from the Rhone watershed itself, from the drainage of soils exposed to atmospheric fallout from the past nuclear tests and from the accident at Chernobyl, and second, from remobilization of previously formed sediment. Our recent research shows that flood events may generate an increase of more than two orders of magnitude in 137Cs activity in downstream Rhone water, because of the input of contaminated particles from both watershed erosion and sediment remobilization. Flood events also generate the flow of high levels of particulate and associated contaminants towards the Mediterranean Sea. Of the 173±22 GBq of 137Cs transfere 173±22 GBq of 137Cs transferred from the Rhone to the Mediterranean from August 2002 through August 2003, 111±9 GBq went during two floods in September and November 2002: 60% of the annual transfer took place in only 15 days and included almost ten times as much 137Cs activity as is released annually by the reprocessing plant today. The contribution to these flows of re-mobilized Rhone basin sediment inventories contaminated over the past 40 years is under study today. (authors)

  17. Integral experiment on induced radioactivity and decay-heat of mercury with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spallation neuron target design, an accurate estimation of induced activity is strongly requested. Mercury is the most promising material for the high-power spallation target. An integral experiment on induced radioactivity and decay-heat was carried out using a small mercury assembly and a D-T neutron source (Fusion Neutronics Source) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Mercury-oxide (HgO) powder wrapped with a plastic sheet was irradiated in the mercury assembly for 6.7 hours. After the irradiation, the induced activities were measured with HPGe (High-Purity Germanium) detectors. The radioactive products of 197m,gHg, 199mHg, 203Hg, 198gAu and 199Au were identified in the measured gamma-ray spectra. For the decay-heat measurement, a whole-energy absorption detector, which consisted with a pair of BGO (Bismuth-Germanate) scintillators, was used. The measurements were performed at various cooling times from 2.5 hours to 110 days. Experimental results of the radioactivity and the decay heat were compared with the calculation with DCHAIN-SP (High-Energy Particle Induced Radioactivity Calculation Code) 2001. It was shown that the calculation reproduced the experiment within the accuracy of 20% by using the activation cross section curves evaluated on the basis of our experimental cross section data. (author)

  18. Artificial Abelian gauge potentials induced by dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, A.; Martin, J.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the influence of dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms on the generation of Abelian artificial gauge potentials and fields. When two Rydberg atoms are driven by a uniform laser field, we show that the combined atom-atom and atom-field interactions give rise to nonuniform, artificial gauge potentials. We identify the mechanism responsible for the emergence of these gauge potentials. Analytical expressions for the latter indicate that the strongest artificial magnetic fields are reached in the regime intermediate between the dipole blockade regime and the regime in which the atoms are sufficiently far apart such that atom-light interaction dominates over atom-atom interactions. We discuss the differences and similarities of artificial gauge fields originating from resonant dipole-dipole and van der Waals interactions. We also give an estimation of experimentally attainable artificial magnetic fields resulting from this mechanism and we discuss their detection through the deflection of the atomic motion.

  19. Radioactive ion beams produced by neutron-induced fission at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Gilardoni, S S; Köster, U

    2003-01-01

    The production rates of neutron-rich fission products for the next-generation radioactive beam facility EURISOL are mainly limited by the maximum amount of power deposited by protons in the target. An alternative approach is to use neutron beams to induce fission in actinide targets. This has the advantage of reducing: the energy deposited by the proton beam in the target; contamination from neutron-deficient isobars that would be produced by spallation; and mechanical stress on the target. At ISOLDE CERN, tests have been made on standard ISOLDE actinide targets using fast neutron bunches produced by bombarding thick, high-Z metal converters with 1 and 1.4 GeV proton pulses. This paper reviews the first applications of converters used at ISOLDE. It highlights the different geometries and the techniques used to compare fission yields produced by the proton beam directly on the target with neutron-induced fission. Results from the six targets already tested, namely UC2/graphite and ThO2 targets with tungsten an...

  20. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  1. Dependence of Characteristics of SURA Induced Artificial ULF/VLF Signals on Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, D. S.; Ryabov, A. V.; Ermakova, E. N.; Pershin, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive study of artificial ionospheric signal generation in the ULF/VLF bands at SURA facility in Russia was conducted during the past 4 years. We investigated the influence of geomagnetic activity on the characteristics of artificial low-frequency signals under the background of increasing solar activity. No correlation of artificial ULF signals with variations of Earth's magnetic field was observed for weak geomagnetic disturbances (Kp ? 3) while the VLF signals increased in the growth phase of the geomagnetic perturbation. In case of strong magnetic storm (Kp ? 5+) a tendency of the amplitude of the ULF/VLF signals decrease with increasing magnetic disturbance was observed. Sometimes, the modulation of artificial ULF signals with a period of 15-30 s was detected in the decay phase of magnetic storms. During storm time, a change in the polarization of artificial VLF emissions was detected. The right polarization becomes predominant. Interpretation of observed peculiarities of artificial VLF signals is given in the context of the physical mechanism of ionospheric current drive by RF pumping.

  2. Artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogs retails the list of the artificial radioelements obtained at the Zoe reactor. A certain number of methods of concentration and separation has been finalized. The targets are submitted to irradiation in a thermal neutron flux in order to get by neutron reaction the wanted radioelements. In the case of the reaction (n,p), the radioactive element separated chemically in order to produce some radioelements 'without trainer'. For the radioelements obtained from the reaction (n, ?) one uses the effect of Szilard and Chalmers to separate the active and inactive atoms in order to increase the specific activity of the radioelement of interest. (M.B.)

  3. Characteristics of radioactivities induced in aluminum alloys and the effects due to those major and minor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to search the usefulness of aluminum alloys as a material for an accelerator and its surrounding apparatus, the characteristics of radioactivities induced in several aluminum alloys (AA 1230, AA 2219, JIS 5052, AA 6063 and AA 7079) and stainless steel (SUS 304) irradiated for a long time with high energy bremsstrahlung have been studied fundamentally and compared with each other. After the concentrations of major alloying elements and impurities in the above samples were determined by means of photon-activation, proton-activation and emission spectrochemical analyses, they were irradiated with 30 and 200 MeV bremsstrahlung. As the results, it was proved that the intensities of radioactivities induced in the aluminum alloys are greatly affected by those major and minor components, but are remarkably lower than that in the stainless steel. (author)

  4. Analysis of Correlation Between Urinal Excretion Ratio of Radioactive Iodine and Daily Urinal Excretion Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal exposure to radionuclide results from depositing of radioactive substance within human body and is called intra-body exposure as well. Radioactive substance may find its way into human body via nose, mouth or skin and internal exposure to radionuclide is rarely ascribable to radioactive substance deposited through skin. Radioactive substances deposited in human tissues or organs do not stay there for good. Instead, they are transferred to other tissues, organs or excreted by sweat, excrements, urine and breath. However, natural excretion has its limits in terms of safeguarding human body actively against radioactive exposure. When radionuclide is deposited in human organs or tissues, diuretic or evacuant is used to induce excrements or urine to increase removal and discharging of radionuclide artificially, thereby reducing internal exposure. Therefore, we have attempted to propose an optimum approach to removing and excreting radioactive iodine by analyzing the correlation among the radioactive iodine intake ratio, daily urinal excretion ratio and volume

  5. Isolation and Characterization of BoHV-1 from Seropositive Cows after Inducing Artificial Stress in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amaresh Chatterjee; Ujjwal Biswas; Biplab Pal; Dhruba Chakraborty; Chanchal Guha; Tapabrata Saha; Patricia Koenig; Martin Beer

    2013-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India. With an aim to reactivate BoHV-1 from latently infected sero-positive cattle for molecular characteristics of the isolates prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India and further epidemiological investigations on IBR infections this study had been conducted. Artificial stress with dexamethasone at the dose rate of 0.1 mg kg-1 body weight for 5 consecutive days was induced in B...

  6. Interactive system for calculating the isotope composition and induced radioactivity of irradiated materials on nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interactive system for calculations of the isotope composition and induced radioactivity of irradiated materials in projected nuclear power facilities is described. The proposed system includes preparation of data for calculations, computational module, and intuitively clear graphical interface. Application of the system is illustrated by calculations of the activity of nuclides formed upon irradiation of a lead-bismuth target in an accelerator with the beam current varying in the course of exposure

  7. A Historical Note about how the Property was Discovered that Hydrogenated Substances Increase the Radioactivity Induced by Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    At the "Domus Galilaeana" in Pisa, many original documents and records are kept, which belong to the scientific activity carried out by Enrico Fermi until 1938. I compared those documentary sources with the supported evidences, the personal recollections, concerning the discovery that hydrogenated substances increase the radioactivity induced by neutrons: such a comparison leads to the conclusion that the discovery occurred on October 20th 1934, i.e., two days before the dat...

  8. Evaluation of a risk communication approach for maintenance staff working with induced radioactivity in medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote consensus building on decommissioning operation rules for medical linear accelerators in Japan, we carried out a risk communication (RC) approach mainly providing knowledge for maintenance staff regarding induced radioactivity. In February 2012, we created a booklet (26 pages) to present an overview of the amended law, the mechanism and the distribution of induced radioactivity showing the actual radiation dose rate around a linear accelerator and actual exposure doses to staff. In addition, we co-sponsored a seminar for workers in this field organized by the Japan Medical Imaging and Radiological Systems Industries Association to explain the contents of this booklet, and answer questions regarding induced radioactivity of linear accelerators as an RC program. As a result, the understanding of staff regarding the regulations on maximum X-ray energy on linear accelerators (P<0.05), and the outline of clearance systems (P<0.01), were facilitated by RC. In addition, we found that about 70% of maintenance staff considered that the cooling time for decommissioning operation depended on the situation. Our RC approach suggests that consensus building should be used to make rules on decommissioning operations for linear medical accelerators. (author)

  9. Response of natural populations of predators and parasitoids to artificially induced volatile emissions in maize plants (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernasconi Ockroy, Marco L.; Turlings, Ted C. J.; Edwards, Peter J.; Fritzsche-Hoballah; Ambrosetti, Lara; Bassetti, Paolo; Dorn, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    1 In response to herbivore attack, maize plants (Zea mays L.) emit a specific blend of induced volatiles. Artificial damage and subsequent treatment of the damaged site with caterpillar regurgitant induces the same response. The induced volatile chemicals are known to be highly attractive to several parasitoids of herbivores in laboratory bioassays, but very limited information is available on how the plant odours affect entomophagous insects in the field. 2 Experiments were conducted to de...

  10. Analysis of micro-composition of biological tissue by means of induced radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Dunn, R.W.

    1948-05-24

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers promises a wealth of information regarding the biochemical role of most elements and their components. Usually a radioactive sample of the element to be studied is administered to the plant or animal in a convenient form, and its distribution and rate of exchange are determined in later assays. This technique has, however, certain limitations, two of which will be discussed here: (1) radioactive isotopes are not generally useful for measurements of the concentration of elements in the body or its parts. They can be used only to give a measure of the rate of exchange of the elements and (2) the use of radioactive isotopes for tracer experiments requires that the radiation dose delivered to the tissue should be small in order not to disturb normal biological function.

  11. Rapid determination of small amount of plutonium in highly radioactive solution for safeguards assay by laser induced photoacoustic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Tokai Works is progressing a development of laser induced photoacoustic spectrometry (LIPAS) to determine the plutonium level of the solutions from nuclear fuel for operation management and nuclear material control as well as safeguards. The development of LIPAS is under way as a part of JASPAS, a supporting plan to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A considerable attention has been paid to LIPAS as a highly sensitive method following the development of highly luminant laser instruments. Pu(6) was chosen as the form to be assayed because Pu(6) was not affected by the presence of other elements in a highly radioactive solution. Since Pu in the solution ordinarily contains Pu(4), Pu determination was carried out after the conversion to Pu(6) by adding an oxidant. Both fundamental and practical investigations with highly radioactive solution by LIPS were presented in this report. (M.N.)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is concerned with the principles underlying the treatment and disposal of low-level wastes of the type commonly found in medical establishments. The subject is dealt with under the headings: introduction; stable and unstable nuclei; radioactive decay; rate of decay; artificial isotopes; intensity of radioactive sources; the interaction of radiation with matter (physical interactions; chemical changes; biological effects); measuring the effect of radiation; doses of radiation; disposal of radioactive waste; conclusion; references; note on impending legislation on radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  13. Studies of ionising radiation induced bystander effects in 3D artificial tissue system and applications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. The bystander effect cannot be comprehensively explained on the basis of a single cell reaction. It is well known that an organism is composed of different cell types that interact as functional units in a way to maintain normal tissue function. Therefore the radiation response is not simply the sum of cellular responses as assumed in classical radiobiology, predominantly from studies using cell cultures. Experimental models, which maintain tissue-like intercellular cell signalling and 3D structure, are essential for proper understanding of the bystander effect. Our work relates to experimentation with novel 3D artificial human tissue systems available from MatTek Corporation (Boston, USA). Air-liquid interface culture technique is used to grow artificial tissues, which allow to model conditions present in vivo. The Gray Cancer Institute (Northwood, UK) charged particle microbeam was used to irradiate tissue samples in a known pattern with a known number of 3He2+ particles or protons. After irradiation, the tissues models were incubated for 3 days, fixed in 10 % NBF, paraffin embedded and then sliced into 5 ?m histological sections located at varying distances from the plane of the irradiated cells. We studied in situ apoptosis and markers of differentiation. Significantly elevated bystander induced apoptosis was observed with 3'-OH DNA end-labelling based technique in 3D artificial tissue systems. Our results also suggested an importance of proliferation and differentiation status for bystander effect induction. A single 2 ?m location on tissue section was pre-irradiated with 1-10 3He2+ particles (5 MeV; LET 75 keV/?m) using microbeam system. Even although only a single region of the tissue section was targeted, thousands of additional cells were found to undergo bystander induced differentiation. This resulted in an overall increase in the fraction of differentiated cells for approximately 10-15 %, which are much greater than that observed for the induction of damage (not more than 1-2 % of apoptotic cells). Our theory is that the main functions of bystander effect are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multi cultural organism exposed to radiation by removing a group of potentially damaged cells via apoptosis and increased differentiation. (author)

  14. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrati, F; Sachser, R; Strauss, M; Andrusenko, I; Gorelik, T; Kolb, U; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Huth, M

    2010-09-17

    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO)(6) precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm(-1) associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm(-1), which is associated with sp(3) carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm(-1), associated with the vibration modes of the sp(2) carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon. PMID:20720292

  15. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO)6 precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm-1 associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm-1, which is associated with sp3 carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm-1, associated with the vibration modes of the sp2 carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix isests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

  16. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F; Sachser, R; Huth, M [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Strauss, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysik, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Andrusenko, I; Gorelik, T; Kolb, U [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Welderweg 11, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Goethe-Universitaet, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-17

    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO){sub 6} precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm{sup -1} associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm{sup -1}, which is associated with sp{sup 3} carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm{sup -1}, associated with the vibration modes of the sp{sup 2} carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

  17. Investigation of induced radioactivity in different target materials for on-line isotope separator target-source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of the induced radioactivity and gamma ray intensity with time for the irradiated target materials of on-line isotope separator target-source system by a proton beam with energy of 100 MeV and intensity 200 ?A were calculated by LCS + CBURN code. This work will provide a reference to the design, exchange and disposal of target. The tritium was produced after irradiation by proton beams for all target materials, especially there is 131I in lead target material. (authors)

  18. Can a radioactive implant induced x-ray emission (RIXE) technique be used to in vivo measurement of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive implant induced x-ray emission (RIXE) technique was examined for the in vivo determination of heavy elements. By the use of 67Ga, 99mTc, 123I, 133Xe and 201Tl implant excitation sources, the excitation efficiency and x-ray attenuation were measured to reveal the potential pairs of source-heavy element of interest for in vivo elemental analysis by the RIXE technique. Detection limits for the RIXE in vivo analysis were evaluated according to Currie's criterion. Four pairs, 99mTc - Pb, 201Tl - I, 133Xe - Cd and 123I -Cd are potential. (author) 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Comparison of thermally induced and naturally occurring water-borne leakages from hard rock depositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative importance of thermally induced and naturally occurring flows of water as causes of leakage from hard rock depositories for radioactive wastes is assessed. Separate analyses are presented for involatile, high level waste from reprocessing of fuel and for plutonium contaminated waste from fabrication of fuel. The effects of varying the quantities of wastes, pre-burial storage and the shapes and depths of depositories are considered. It is concluded that for representative values of these variables, thermal flow will remain the major cause of leakage for long times after the burial of both types of waste. (Auth.)

  20. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J. [USDA Forest Service; Vukovich, Mark A. [USDA Forest Service; Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service; Blake, John I. [USDA Forest Service

    2013-06-10

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (?25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  1. 5. Chemistry of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the individual radioactive elements and artificial cisuranium and transuranium elements. The discovery, isotopes, chemical characteristics and compounds are shown for each. (M.D.)

  2. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  3. Artificial neural network model of the strength of thin rectangular plates with weld induced initial imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic assessment of post-buckling strength of thin plate is a difficult problem because of computational effort needed to evaluate single collapse load. The difficulties arise from the nonlinear behaviour of an in-plane loaded plate showing up multiple equilibrium states with possible bifurcations, snap-through or smooth transitions of states. The plate strength depends heavily on the shape of geometrical imperfection of the plate mid-surface. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to approximate the collapse strength of plates as a function of the geometrical imperfections. For the training set, mainly theoretical imperfections with the corresponding collapse loads of plate calculated by FEM are considered. The ANN validation is based on the measured imperfections of ship plating and FEM strength.

  4. Dynamics of presynaptic protein recruitment induced by local presentation of artificial adhesive contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Fernando; Thostrup, Peter; Colman, David; Grutter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel approach to induce and observe the formation of presynaptic compartments in axons through a combination of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy. First, we use a poly-D-lysine coated bead attached to an AFM tip to induce the recruitment of two synaptic proteins, bassoon and synaptophysin, and measure their absolute arrival times to the presynaptic department. We find that bassoon arrives before synaptophysin. Second, we observed the formation of v...

  5. Force induced and electron stimulated STM manipulations: routes to artificial nanostructures as well as to molecular contacts, engines and switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Karl-Heinz [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Meyer, Gerhard [IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Moresco, Francesca [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2005-01-01

    Initially invented to image surfaces down to atomic scale, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been further developed in the last few years to an operative tool, with which atoms and molecules can be manipulated at low substrate temperatures at will with atomic precision in different manners by using solely the tip-adparticle forces. In this way various artificial structures on nanoscale have been created and in situ characterized with the STM. Such structures as well as single molecules can be investigated by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) both with respect to their local electronic and even vibrational properties. Modifications of single molecules can be induced by using the tunnelling electron current: Rotations, diffusional jumps, vibrational excitations, desorption, dissociation and even association can be induced in individual molecules, often in a rather precise way by tuning the voltage into the energy levels of specific vibrations or electronic levels. These possibilities give rise to startling new opportunities for physical and chemical experiments on the single atom and single molecule level. Here a brief overview on results obtained with these new techniques is given.

  6. Artificial neural network for Cu quantitative determination in soil using a portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an advanced analytical technique for elemental determination based on direct measurement of optical emission of excited species on a laser induced plasma. In the realm of elemental analysis, LIBS has great potential to accomplish direct analysis independently of physical sample state (solid, liquid or gas). Presently, LIBS has been easily employed for qualitative analysis, nevertheless, in order to perform quantitative analysis, some effort is still required since calibration represents a difficult issue. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a machine learning paradigm inspired on biological nervous systems. Recently, ANNs have been used in many applications and its classification and prediction capabilities are especially useful for spectral analysis. In this paper an ANN was used as calibration strategy for LIBS, aiming Cu determination in soil samples. Spectra of 59 samples from a heterogenic set of reference soil samples and their respective Cu concentration were used for calibration and validation. Simple linear regression (SLR) and wrapper approach were the two strategies employed to select a set of wavelengths for ANN learning. Cross validation was applied, following ANN training, for verification of prediction accuracy. The ANN showed good efficiency for Cu predictions although the features of portable instrumentation employed. The proposed method presented a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 mg dm-3 of Cu ion (LOD) of 2.3 mg dm-3 of Cu and a mean squared error (MSE) of 0.5 for the predictions

  7. Artificial neural network for Cu quantitative determination in soil using a portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edilene C.; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Ferreira, Ednaldo J.; Da Silva, Robson M.; Martin-Neto, Ladislau

    2008-10-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an advanced analytical technique for elemental determination based on direct measurement of optical emission of excited species on a laser induced plasma. In the realm of elemental analysis, LIBS has great potential to accomplish direct analysis independently of physical sample state (solid, liquid or gas). Presently, LIBS has been easily employed for qualitative analysis, nevertheless, in order to perform quantitative analysis, some effort is still required since calibration represents a difficult issue. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a machine learning paradigm inspired on biological nervous systems. Recently, ANNs have been used in many applications and its classification and prediction capabilities are especially useful for spectral analysis. In this paper an ANN was used as calibration strategy for LIBS, aiming Cu determination in soil samples. Spectra of 59 samples from a heterogenic set of reference soil samples and their respective Cu concentration were used for calibration and validation. Simple linear regression (SLR) and wrapper approach were the two strategies employed to select a set of wavelengths for ANN learning. Cross validation was applied, following ANN training, for verification of prediction accuracy. The ANN showed good efficiency for Cu predictions although the features of portable instrumentation employed. The proposed method presented a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 mg dm - 3 of Cu and a mean squared error (MSE) of 0.5 for the predictions.

  8. Force induced and electron stimulated STM manipulations: routes to artificial nanostructures as well as to molecular contacts, engines and switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially invented to image surfaces down to atomic scale, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been further developed in the last few years to an operative tool, with which atoms and molecules can be manipulated at low substrate temperatures at will with atomic precision in different manners by using solely the tip-adparticle forces. In this way various artificial structures on nanoscale have been created and in situ characterized with the STM. Such structures as well as single molecules can be investigated by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) both with respect to their local electronic and even vibrational properties. Modifications of single molecules can be induced by using the tunnelling electron current: Rotations, diffusional jumps, vibrational excitations, desorption, dissociation and even association can be induced in individual molecules, often in a rather precise way by tuning the voltage into the energy levels of specific vibrations or electronic levels. These possibilities give rise to startling new opportunities for physical and chemical experiments on the single atom and single molecule level. Here a brief overview on results obtained with these new techniques is given

  9. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (131I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 13...

  10. Response of native flora to inducible genotoxic damage from increased radioactivity around NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not generally known that the first serious failure of nuclear power plant (NPP) technology with loss of human lives occurred in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) in January 1976. A year later the second accident finally broken reactor A1 with large radioactive contamination. This material was later (in 1980) washed into the nearby drainage by the heavy rain. In cleaning procedure, the contaminated soil particles contaminated the slopes of the drainage. These spots have the shape of 'blurs' about 15 cm wide with a scale of contamination from 0,067; 0,15; 2,38; 9,5; 45.5 up to 322 kBq/kg 137Cs. The research was done in cooperation with the Institute of Tumorbiology, University of Vienna, within the grant Action Austria - Slovak Republic. Details of radioactivity at the area were obtained thanks to the Research Institute of the Nuclear Energy in Trnava, Slovakia. In our ten years long-term study of contaminated soil around nuclear power plant (NPP) Jaslovske Bohunice 24 species of local flora were used to show impact of these accidents. The 19 km long banks of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP waste water recipient has been identified as contaminated by 137Cs. In total, more than 67,000 m2 of river banks have been found as being contaminated at levels exceeding 1 Bq 137Cs/g of soil. Used phytotoxic and cytogenetic -in situ' tests were extended by analyses of pollen grains. Although the dose of some samples of radioactive s the dose of some samples of radioactive soil was relatively high (322 kBq kg-1) no any significant impact on the biological level of tested wild plant species was observed. Possible explanation (such as adaptation and resistance) is discussed. (author)

  11. First observations of SPEAR-induced artificial backscatter from CUTLASS and the EISCAT Svalbard radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from the first two active experimental campaigns undertaken by the new SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar high-power system that has recently become operational on Spitzbergen, in the Svalbard archipelago. SPEAR's high-power beam was used to excite artificial enhancements in the backscatter detected by the ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar parallel to the geomagnetic field, as well as coherent backscatter detected by both of the CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System coherent radars, in directions orthogonal to the geomagnetic field. The ESR detected both enhanced ion-lines as well as enhanced plasma-lines, that were sustained for the whole period when SPEAR was transmitting ordinary mode radio waves, at frequencies below the maximum F-region plasma frequency. On a number of occasions, coherent backscatter was also observed in one or in both of the CUTLASS radars, in beams that intersected the heated volume. Although the levels of enhanced backscatter varied considerably in time, it appeared that ion-line, plasma-line and coherent backscatter were all excited simultaneously, in contrast to what has typically been reported at Tromsø, during EISCAT heater operations. A description of the technical and operational aspects of the new SPEAR system is also included.

  12. A comparative study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis for element concentrations in aluminum alloy using artificial neural networks and calibration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of analysis methods (traditional calibration method and artificial neural networks (ANN) prediction method) for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data of different Al alloy samples was performed. In the calibration method, the intensity of the analyte lines obtained from different samples are plotted against their concentration to form calibration curves for different elements from which the concentrations of unknown elements were deduced by comparing its LIBS signal with the calibration curves. Using ANN, an artificial neural network model is trained with a set of input data of known composition samples. The trained neural network is then used to predict the elemental concentration from the test spectra. The present results reveal that artificial neural networks are capable of predicting values better than traditional method in most cases

  13. Experimentally induced gluten enteropathy in artificially fed neonatal rats. Protective effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Št?pánková, Renata; Kofro?ová, Olga; Tu?ková, Ludmila; Kozáková, Hana; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Pa?íž, 2002. s. 51. [International Symposium On Coeliac Disease /10./. 02.06.2002-05.06.2002, Pa?íž] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/00/1370 Grant ostatní: OLGI1999-000(FR) 50 Keywords : induced gluten * epidermal * growth factor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. A new possible biological interface model useful to narrate the artificial negative events by the radioactive contaminations and heavy-metals pollution of the soil and the atmosphere in different areas of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of environmental negative effects are associated to the pollution and radioactive contaminations of the soil and the atmosphere. Actually the C.I.S.A.M. (Interforces Centre for Studies and Military Applications) receives increasing commitments to control and to knowledge about the risks of the population and soldiers employed as stabilization or keeping peace force in large areas of different territories of Europe and other sites of the Planet. The aim of this work is focused to compare the contents of radionuclides on specific natural interfaces in different areas as residual radioactive contamination in addition to the other possible heavy-metals pollution. We used barks, lichens and symbiontic microalgae as interfaces with the atmospheric events of the Chernobyl, Balkan, and the Italian areas. The qualitative analysis of these biological matters showed the constant presence of Radiocesium, along with other radionuclides, of which we report the concentrations. Even if these observations are not completely new, nevertheless we can suppose that this approach could be a new possible interface model useful to narrate the sequence of the the artificial negative events due to the human activities and contemporarely an indirect valuation of different risks pointed to the protection of the exposed population

  15. Artificially induced polyploidization in Humulus lupulus L. and its effect on morphological and chemical traits

    OpenAIRE

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Skomra, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Chemically induced polyploids were obtained by the colchicine treatment of shoot tips of Humulus lupulus L. ‘Sybilla’. Flow cytometry revealed that most of the treatments resulted in the production of tetraploids. The highest number of tetraploids was obtained when explants were immersed in 0.05% colchicine for 48 h. A field experiment was conducted to compare diploid and tetraploid plants and assess the effect of genome polyploidization on the morphological and chemical characteristics. ...

  16. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the LCM with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of LCM with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC

  17. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xie Jie [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Jingquan [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: zhaojq@iccas.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the L{sub CM} with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of L{sub CM} with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC.

  18. Integral experiment of induced radioactivity in D-T fusion neutron environment and validation of activation cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under ITER/EDA R and D Task T-218, an integral experiment on the induced radioactivity was conducted at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAERI. The objective was to provide experimental data for validating the inventory calculation codes and relevant activation cross section libraries to be used in the ITER nuclear design. Sample materials investigated were Al, Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, SS-316LN, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, Hf, Ta, W and Pb. The corresponding neutron spectra at two locations were calculated by MCNP4A with JENDL-Fusion File based nuclear data library by modeling the experimental assembly precisely. The calculations with currently updated activation cross sections, JENDL-ACT96 FENDL-A1 and FENDL-A2, were carried out to compare the results with the experiment. The results for the comparison between the measurement and calculation of radioactivity are discussed in terms of the adequacy of calculation as far as the D-T neutron dominated neutron field is concerned. (orig.)

  19. Artificial radioactivity and marine environment: study of the transuranium elements 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both analytical and in situ measurements are discussed. The analytical part deals with the development of methods for the different radioelements studied, and stresses the quality obtained, particularly by participation in the intercalibration program organized by the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity (Monaco Oceanographic Museum) of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Chapter III concerns the different results of measurements on the distribution and behavior of the transuranium elements in the Mediterranean. Recommendations for future research directions are given

  20. Prompt radiation, shielding and induced radioactivity in a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERN is designing a 160 MeV proton linear accelerator, both for a future intensity upgrade of the LHC and as a possible first stage of a 2.2 GeV superconducting proton linac. A first estimate of the required shielding was obtained by means of a simple analytical model. The source terms and the attenuation lengths used in the present study were calculated with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. Detailed FLUKA simulations were performed to investigate the contribution of neutron skyshine and backscattering to the expected dose rate in the areas around the linac tunnel. An estimate of the induced radioactivity in the magnets, vacuum chamber, the cooling system and the concrete shield was performed. A preliminary thermal study of the beam dump is also discussed

  1. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying

  2. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  3. New radioactivities: exotic radioactivity or magic radioactivity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity by Becquerel, various radioactive decay modes have been observed: leptonic decay modes which include ?± and Ec decays as well as the double ? decay, and hadronic decay modes well represented by ? decay or spontaneous fission and the more rare process of proton decay. Between 1979 and 1985, Poenaru and coworkers tentatively reinterpreted ? decay as an extremely asymmetric fission process and were then induced to predict new hadronic-decay modes of heavy atomic nuclei, leading to cluster emission in the mass range A2 between 5 and ? 70, intermediate between those of lighter spontaneous-fission fragments (Poenaru et al, 1985). These spontaneous decay modes are called heavy-ion emission or exotic radioactivity. From experiments with three radium isotopes and using a high resolution alpha particle spectrometer and a magnetic superconducting spectrometer it was concluded that heavy-ion emission, the so-called exotic decay, behaves more like alpha decay than the spontaneous-fission decay process. (author)

  4. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  5. Piezomagnetic effects induced by artificial sources at Mt. Vesuvius (Italy: preliminary results of an experimental survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Napoli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to put new constrains on magnetic effects associated with mechanical stresses, high frequency monitoring of the geomagnetic field was carried out during a seismic tomography experiment (TOMOVES'96 project at Mt. Vesuvius. Eight proton precession and one Cesium magnetometers were installed along a profile on the SW flank of the volcano to observe possible magnetic changes induced by explosions. Measurements were performed at different sampling frequencies (10 Hz, 0.5 Hz and 0.1 Hz. A remarkable change in the intensity of the magnetic field was observed in only one case. The magnetic transient lasted 12-13 min, reaching the maximum amplitude of slightly less than 15 nT.

  6. Fusion probability for neutron-rich radioactive-Sn-induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J. F.; Gross, C. J.; Kohley, Z.; Shapira, D.; Varner, R. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Caraley, A. L.; Lagergren, K.; Mueller, P. E.

    2012-03-01

    Evaporation residue cross sections for 124,126,127,128Sn+64Ni and 132Sn+58Ni have been measured to study the effects of neutron excess in neutron-rich radioactive nuclei on the fusion probability. A comparison of the reduced evaporation residue cross sections for 126Sn+64Ni and 132Sn+58Ni, which make the same compound nucleus, shows that the fusion probability is indistinguishable for reactions involving the same atomic elements, Sn and Ni, but different isotope combinations. For the reactions with 64Ni, the fusion probability does not decrease with increasing neutron excess in Sn, contrary to the result of the stable beam Sn+Zr measurement.

  7. Induced structural radioactivity inventory analysis of the base case aqueous ATW reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of this country's long-lived high-level radioactive waste in a safe and energy efficient manner. An evaluation of the Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste concept has four aspects; material balance, energy balance, performance and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount of long-lived high-level waste transmuted with the amount and type of waste created in the process. One component of the material balance is the activation of structural materials over the lifetime of the transmutation reactor. An activation analysis has been performed on four structure regions of the reaction vessel: the tungsten target; the lead target and annulus; the Zircalloy and aluminum tubing carrying the actinide slurry and; the stainless steel tank

  8. Artificial regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Russell; Mackinnon, James

    2001-01-01

    Associated with every popular nonlinear estimation method is at least one 'artificial' linear regression. We define an artificial regression in terms of three conditions that it must satisfy. Then we show how artificial regressions can be useful for numerical optimization, testing hypotheses, and computing parameter estimates. Several existing artificial regressions are discussed and are shown to satisfy the defining conditions, and a new artificial regression for regression models with heter...

  9. Artificially induced polyploidization in Humulus lupulus L. and its effect on morphological and chemical traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Skomra, Urszula

    2013-12-01

    Chemically induced polyploids were obtained by the colchicine treatment of shoot tips of Humulus lupulus L. 'Sybilla'. Flow cytometry revealed that most of the treatments resulted in the production of tetraploids. The highest number of tetraploids was obtained when explants were immersed in 0.05% colchicine for 48 h. A field experiment was conducted to compare diploid and tetraploid plants and assess the effect of genome polyploidization on the morphological and chemical characteristics. Tetraploids showed significant differences in relation to diploids. They had thinner and shorter shoots. The influence of chromosome doubling was also reflected in the length, width and area of leaves. The length of female flowers in the tetraploids was significantly shorter than that observed in diploids. Tetraploids produced a diverse number of lupuline glands that were almost twice as large as those observed in diploids. The most distinct effect of genome polyploidization was a significant increase in the weight of cones and spindles. Contents of major chemical constituents of hop cones was little affected by ploidy level. Total essential oils were significantly lower than those in diploids. However there was a significant increase in the proportion of humulene, caryophyllene and farnesene, oils desired by the brewing industry. PMID:24399911

  10. Artificially induced polyploidization in Humulus lupulus L. and its effect on morphological and chemical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Skomra, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Chemically induced polyploids were obtained by the colchicine treatment of shoot tips of Humulus lupulus L. ‘Sybilla’. Flow cytometry revealed that most of the treatments resulted in the production of tetraploids. The highest number of tetraploids was obtained when explants were immersed in 0.05% colchicine for 48 h. A field experiment was conducted to compare diploid and tetraploid plants and assess the effect of genome polyploidization on the morphological and chemical characteristics. Tetraploids showed significant differences in relation to diploids. They had thinner and shorter shoots. The influence of chromosome doubling was also reflected in the length, width and area of leaves. The length of female flowers in the tetraploids was significantly shorter than that observed in diploids. Tetraploids produced a diverse number of lupuline glands that were almost twice as large as those observed in diploids. The most distinct effect of genome polyploidization was a significant increase in the weight of cones and spindles. Contents of major chemical constituents of hop cones was little affected by ploidy level. Total essential oils were significantly lower than those in diploids. However there was a significant increase in the proportion of humulene, caryophyllene and farnesene, oils desired by the brewing industry. PMID:24399911

  11. Effect of atropine and gammahydroxybutyrate on ischemically induced changes in the level of radioactivity in [3H]inositol phosphates in gerbil brain in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain ischemia in gerbils was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries for 1 min or 10 min. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Intracerebral injection of [3H]inositol into gerbil brain 16 hr before ischemic insult resulted in equilibration of the label between inositol lipids and water-soluble inositol phosphate. A short ischemic period (1 min) resulted in a statistically significant increase in the radioactivity of inositol triphosphate (IP3) and inositol monophosphate (IP), by about 48% and 79%, respectively, with little change in that of the intermediate inositol biphosphate (IP2), which increased by about 16%. When the ischemic period was prolonged (10 min), an increase in the radioactivity of inositol monophosphate exclusively, by about 84%, was observed. The level of radioactivity in inositol phosphates IP2 and IP3 decreased by about 50%, probably as a consequence of phosphatase activation by the ischemic insult. The agonist of the cholinergic receptor, carbachol, injected intracerebrally (40 micrograms per animal) increased accumulation of radioactivity in all inositol phosphates. The level of radioactivity in IP3, IP2, and IP was elevated by about 40, 23, and 147%, respectively. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine, injected intraperitoneally in doses of 100 mg/kg body wt. depressed phosphoinositide metabolism in control animals. The level of radioactivity in water-soluble inositol metabolites in the brain of animals pretreated wittes in the brain of animals pretreated with atropine was evidently about 32% lower than in untreated animals. Pretreatment with atropine decreased the radioactivity of all inositol phosphates in the brain of animals subjected to 1-min ischemia and the radioactivity of IP in the case of 10-min brain ischemia

  12. Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, part I: Specific activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of materials which will be used in the LHC machine for shielding and construction components were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. After irradiation, the specific activities induced in the various samples were analysed with a high-precision gamma spectrometer at various cooling times, allowing identification of isotopes with a wide range of half-lives. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated in detail with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comparison of measured and calculated specific activities shows good agreement, supporting the use of FLUKA for estimating the level of induced activity in the LHC. (authors)

  13. Induced polarisation and the assessment of sorption/diffusion at radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced polarisation is a geophysical technique used in mineral exploration in search of metallic ore deposits. Clay minerals also polarise when subjected to an electric current, although the mechanism differs from that of metallic bodies, and involves, amongst other properties, the clay mineral species, the interlayer spacing of the clay, and the nature and abundance of mobile ions in the pore fluid. As a result, it was proposed that induced polarisation of clays could be used as a method for determining their permeability and diffusivity. The work carried out in developing experimental procedures, and evaluating the feasibility of the proposal is presented in this report. (author)

  14. Cardiomyopathy induced by artificial cardiac pacing: myth or reality sustained by evidence? / Miocardiopatia dilatada induzida por estimulação cardíaca artificial: mito ou realidade sustentada pelas evidências?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés Di Leoni, Ferrari; Anibal Pires, Borges; Luciano Cabral, Albuquerque; Carolina Pelzer, Sussenbach; Priscila Raupp da, Rosa; Ricardo Medeiros, Piantá; Mario, Wiehe; Marco Antônio, Goldani.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação cardíaca artificial (ECA) é o tratamento mais seguro e eficaz para a bradicardia sintomática irreversível. Nas indicações propícias, pode trazer grande benefício clínico. Contudo, as evidências mostram que a ação da ECA geraria, em alguns casos, efeitos deletérios à estrutura e fisiolo [...] gia cardíacas. Este potencial efeito negativo da ECA convencional poderia ser mais acentuado principalmente em pacientes com comprometimento prévio da função ventricular esquerda e, sobretudo, quando o eletrodo é colocado em posição apical do ventrículo direito (VD). Intrigante é, contudo, que após quase 6 décadas de ECA do VD, apenas uma reduzida parcela de pacientes apresenta esta condição clinicamente manifesta. Os determinantes do surgimento ou não da cardiopatia por ECA não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Ainda é motivo de debate a existência de uma relação de causalidade entre o padrão de BRE artificial secundário à ativação antifisiológica ventricular, alterações da dinâmica contrátil ventricular, e condições clínicas (disfunção sistólica prévia, cardiopatia estrutural preexistente, tempo desde o implante) ou elétricas (duração do intervalo QRS, dose percentual de estimulação ventricular). Esta revisão aborda dados contemporâneos sobre esta nova entidade e discute alternativas de como utilizar a ECA neste contexto, com ênfase na terapia de ressincronização cardíaca. Abstract in english Implantable cardiac pacing systems are a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic irreversible bradycardia. Under the proper indications, cardiac pacing might bring significant clinical benefit. Evidences from literature state that the action of the artificial pacing system, mainly when the vent [...] ricular lead is located at the apex of the right ventricle, produces negative effects to cardiac structure (remodeling, dilatation) and function (dissinchrony). Patients with previously compromised left ventricular function would benefit the least with conventional right ventricle apical pacing, and are exposed to the risk of developing higher incidence of morbidity and mortality for heart failure. However, after almost 6 decades of cardiac pacing, just a reduced portion of patients in general would develop these alterations. In this context, there are not completely clear some issues related to cardiac pacing and the development of this cardiomyopathy. Causality relationships among QRS widening with a left bundle branch block morphology, contractility alterations within the left ventricle, and certain substrates or clinical (previous systolic dysfunction, structural heart disease, time from implant) or electrical conditions (QRS duration, percentage of ventricular stimulation) are still subjecte of debate. This review analyses contemporary data regarding this new entity, and discusses alternatives of how to use cardiac pacing in this context, emphasizing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  15. Viability study of using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique for radioactive waste detection at IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunes, Matheus A.; Schon, Claudio G., E-mail: matheus.tunes@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalugica e de Materiais. Escola Politecnica; Wetter, Niklaus U., E-mail: nuwetter@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    this work a viability study to apply the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for radioactive waste characterization was developed using a high power q-switched Nd:YAG rod-Laser, operating at 1064 nm with 9 ns of pulse-width and pulse-to-pulse energy around 10 to 20 mJ. When applied in a non-radioactive deionized water sample, our methodology exhibits a good potential to spectroscopy detection of Hydrogen species with resolution around 0.035 nm at full width at half maximum (FWHM). (author)

  16. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically. PMID:25233912

  17. Induced radioactivity in a patient-specific collimator used in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the activation of a patient-specific collimator, calculating dose rates, total activities and activities per unit mass of the mixture of radionuclides generated by proton irradiation in the energy range 100-250 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were first performed for a generic case, using an approximate geometry and on the basis of assumptions on beam intensity and irradiation profile. A collimator used for a prostate cancer treatment was obtained from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), Houston, USA, from which a number of samples were cut and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The results of the gamma spectrometry are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations performed using geometrical and irradiation data specific to the unit. The assumptions made for the simulations and their impact on the results are discussed. Dose rate measurements performed in a low-background area at CERN and routine radiation protection measurements at the MDACC are also reported. It is shown that it should generally be possible to demonstrate that the material can be regarded as non-radioactive after allowing a sufficient decay-time, typically of the order of a few months.

  18. Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, I.; Mendes, N. F. C.; Nevin, A.; Gil, Francisco P. S. C.; Becucci, M.; Castellucci, E.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy were performed using a novel laboratory setup employing the same Nd:YAG laser emission at 532 nm for the analysis of five commercially available pigments collectively known as "ultramarine blue", a sodium silicate material of either mineral origin or an artificially produced glass. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy have provided information regarding the elemental and molecular composition of the samples; additionally, an analytical protocol for the differentiation between natural (lapis lazuli) and artificial ultramarine blue pigments is proposed. In particular LIBS analysis has allowed the discrimination between pigments on the basis of peaks ascribed to calcium. The presence of calcite in the natural blue pigments has been confirmed following Raman spectroscopy in specific areas of the samples, and micro-Raman and optical microscopy have further corroborated the presence of calcite inclusions in the samples of natural origin. Finally multivariate analysis of Laser induced breakdown spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) further enhanced the differentiation between natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments.

  19. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  20. Thermally induced motion of marine sediments resulting from disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled creep and heat transfer calculations have been performed to assess the sensitivity of heat load, viscosity, and canister density on the motion of waste canisters buried in marine sediments. Results indicate that no upward movement is predicted for heat loads remaining within the metallurgical and geochemical constraints placed on the temperature of sediments near the canister for the times analyzed. Upward movement of the canister is again not observed in calculations involving reasonable variations of the sediment viscosity and canister density. Maximum effective deviatoric stress levels due to thermally induced differential body forces are significantly less than the sediment's short term peak strength

  1. Study of a method of detection for natural carbon-14 using a liquid scintillator, recent variations in the natural radio-activity due to artificial carbon-14 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various natural isotopes of carbon, a radioactive isotope, carbon-14, is formed by the action of secondary neutrons from cosmic rays on nitrogen in the air. Until 1950, the concentration of this isotope in ordinary carbon underwent weak fluctuations of about 2-3 per cent. The exact measurement of this concentration 6 X 1012 Ci/gm of carbon, and of its fluctuations, are difficult and in the first part of this report a highly sensitive method is given using a liquid scintillator. Since 1950 this natural activity has shown large fluctuations because of the carbon-14 formed during nuclear explosions, and in the second part, the evolution in France of this specific activity of carbon in the atmosphere and biosphere is examined. In the last part is studied the local increase in carbon activity in the atmosphere around the Saclay site, an increase caused by the carbon-14 given off as C14O2, by the reactors cooled partially with exterior air. (author)

  2. New approach to neutron-induced transmutation, radioactivity and afterheat calculations and its application to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method and an accompanying computer code CINAC have been developed for the calculation of neutron-induced transmutation, radioactivity and afterheat. In the method, the generation and depletion of nuclides during and after reactor operation are described in a matrix form in which the arrangement of nuclides is determined systematically. The solutions are obtained by an eigenvalue analysis of the matrix without any time steps or iterative schemes which would increase the computational time. The method can treat any type of activation chains equally, and it gives analytical solutions for linear chains. The CINAC code, coupled with the radiation transport codes ANISN and DOT3.5, can also calculate the dose distribution at any time after shutdown in a one- or two-dimensional geometry of fusion reactors. Two calculations were carried out using CINAC to confirm its validity. The results were compared to those calculated by the THIDA code system which is based on a matrix exponential method. The new method was 50 times faster than the latter, while the discrepancy between them was 4 % at the most. (author)

  3. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  4. Analysis of induced-radioactivity using DCHAIN-SP for Pb and Hg at a mercury target irradiated by 2.8 and 24 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code system consisting PHITS, MCNP4C and DCHAIN-SP 2001 was validated for mercury and lead samples by the experimental activation data obtained using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotrons) accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. As a result, we found that the calculation is consistent with the experimental data within a factor of 2 on the average. Mass yield curves of the spallation reactions were approximately deduced using the experimental activation data. (author)

  5. An active artificial cornea with the function of inducing new corneal tissue generation in vivo-a new approach to corneal tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active artificial cornea which can perform the function of inducing new cornea generation in vivo but does not need culture cells in vitro and which has similar optical and mechanical properties to those of the human cornea was constructed. An animal keratoplasty experiment using the artificial cornea as the implant showed that the animals' corneas could keep smooth surface and clear stroma postoperatively, and that the repopulation of the host's keratocytes, the degradation of the implant and new corneal tissue generation were completed at 5-6 months after surgery. Such an artificial cornea has several advantages over other corneal equivalents constructed in the typical way of tissue engineering: in having similar mechanical and optical properties to those of the human cornea and with no exogenetic cells, it can be used universally in different implantation surgeries without immunoreaction; it is easy to prepare and process into different shapes and sizes on a large scale, and suitable for long-distance transportation and long-term storage. All these characteristics make it a new approach to cornea tissue engineering having potential in many clinical applications

  6. Radioactive surveillance in peruvian foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of radionuclides in some Peruvian foodstuffs have been measured. The results of this study can be considered as a first step towards calculating the baseline levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs from Peru. The overall intake of Cs-137 is quite low and no significant radionuclide contamination was found. Therefore the results shows that, between 1990 and 2006, consumers' exposure to artificially produced radioactivity via the food chain, is below the peruvian annual dose limit to members of the public of 1 mSv (millisievert) for all artificial sources of radiation. (author)

  7. THE INTEGRAL ESTIMATION OF PERCEIVED DISCOMFORT CONDITION OF THE URANIUM PROCESSING ENTERPRISE EMPLOYEES AND CITY RESIDENTS WITH ARTIFICIALLY INCREASED NATURAL SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko ?. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. After the Chernobyl accident radio-anxiety of the population remains one of the most acute psychosocial problems in Ukraine, especially in the regions where uranium is extracted and processed. Uranium raw material – basis of nuclear fuel for nuclear energy – has been processed in Zhovti Vody of Dnipropetrovsk region since 1950s. Zhovti Vody is a unique place. The city is surrounded with the uranium production facilities: the hydrometallurgical factory and the uranium waste tailing damp. Purpose. Our aim was to estimate perceived health status of Zhovti Vody citizens (population category «?» and the employees of the industrial complex «Eastern Mining Processing Plant» (MPP, who work with radiation sources daily (categories «A» and «B». Materials and Methods. We checked the health status of average Zhovti Vody citizens (102 and industrial complex employees (104, who work with radiation sources daily. The samplings deferred only by the place of employment of respondents. The average age of respondents (M ± m was 41.6 ± 0.9 years. The gender (? > 0.9 and age (? > 0.7 characteristics were similar for both groups. The applied research methods were developed and tested by the specialists of V. M. Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute (Saint Petersburg. Discussion 1. According to the integral estimation of the perceived discomfort condition: the employees complained less of pain, but citizens who did not work in the industrial complex complained more. 2. Mental health of the population corresponds to the low (by anxiety and frustration indices and middle assessment levels (on the constriction and aggressiveness scales. However, the employees of the industrial complex showed the lower degree of symptom expression. 3. The majority of population (88.3 % showed the low level of social frustration regardless to the place of employment. 4. The correlation between physical and mental health statuses (anxiety, constriction, psychological and social frustration confirmed interaction between pain and psychological symptoms. The employees of the industrial complex showed better estimation of perceived health status comparing with citizens, who work in other institutions. Thus, the employees of any industrial complexes normally express less radio-anxiety, because they work with radioactive sources daily.

  8. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between

  9. Measurement of induced radioactivity in air and water for medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of air and water has been evaluated at the 10 and 15 MeV linear electron accelerator facilities. The air present in a glovebox and the water present in the phantom were directly irradiated in front of the beam exit window. The typical irradiation condition was 50 Gy at the isocenter. No activity could be observed at 10 MeV irradiation. At 15 MeV irradiation, the activity of 10-min-half-life 13N was observed in the case of the air in the glovebox, but no activity could be observed in the air sampled from the irradiation room and the maze. Aerosol was also sampled in the irradiation room and the maze by the dust sampler during irradiation and the activity deposited on the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter was measured using a GM-survey meter. Activity of 13N was observed on the filters for 15 MeV irradiation. Air and water samples were also bombarded by 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon, and the irradiation dose was 10 Gy at the isocenter. Upon the ion-chamber monitoring of the air sampled from the glovebox, 15O, 13N, and 11C activities were mainly observed. Upon the dust sampling of the irradiation room and the maze, low activity of 13N was observed on the HEPA filter. At the end of proton and carbon irradiation, the activity of the water was found to be about 10 kBq.cm-3 and several kilobecquerels per cubic centimetre, respectively. From the decay analysis of the indtively. From the decay analysis of the induced activity in water, 15O, 13N, and 11C were detected. The obtained results of air and water activation were then compared with data calculated by MCNP or PHITS code, coupled with DCHAIN-SP2001. At the 15 MeV linear accelerator, the observed activity of 13N was higher than the calculated activity. A similar trend was observed in the case of proton and carbon irradiation. The reason why the calculated activity was lower than the experimental results needs to be investigated. (authors)

  10. Artificial heart

    OpenAIRE

    Nishta, B.V.

    2014-01-01

    An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case heart transplantation is impossible. Although other similar inventions preceded it are going back to the late 1940s, the first artificial heart to be successfully implanted in a human was the Jarvik-7, designed by Robert Jarvik and implemented in 1982. When you are citing the document, use the following link h...

  11. Artificial heart

    OpenAIRE

    Nishta, B. V.

    2006-01-01

    An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case heart transplantation is impossible. Although other similar inventions preceded it are going back to the late 1940s, the first artificial heart to be successfully implanted in a human was the Jarvik-7, designed by Robert Jarvik and implemented in 1982. When you are citing the document, use the following link h...

  12. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  13. Radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the radioactive decay which plays a significant role in most chemical applications of isotopes is presented. First the kinetics, then the different kinds and mechanisms of radioactive processes are dealt with (disintegration of radioactive mixtures, branching decays, radioactive equilibrium, isotope dating techniques, alpha, beta, and photon and neutron decay, electron capture, spontaneous fission, isomeric transitions, etc.)

  14. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be followed only if these actions are considered reasonable and practical in the individual clinics. Therapists working with proton beam and neutron beam units handle treatment devices that do become radioactive, and they should wear extremity monitors and make handling apertures and boluses their last task upon entering the room following treatment. Personnel doses from neutron-beam units can approach regulatory limits depending on the number of patients and beams, and strategies to reduce doses should be followed. PMID:25271934

  15. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2012; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbreicht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The annual report 2012 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: General information: natural environmental radioactivity; artificial radioactivity in the environment; occupational radiation exposure; radiation exposures from medical applications; the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation; non-ionizing radiation. Part B: Current data and their evaluation: natural environmental radioactivity; artificial radioactivity in the environment; occupational radiation exposures; radiation exposures from medical applications; the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation; non-ionizing radiation. The report includes data on the stock of radioactive waste, radiation accidents and unusual events.

  16. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of radioactive cesium from the agricultural soil was attempted by extraction method using potassium solution. The result of experiments using the soil artificially contaminated with 137Cs showed that radioactive cesium was extracted by potassium solution. However, the extraction rate decreased when time after contamination passed. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in the antarctic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study about environmental radioactivity in the Peruvian antarctic station Machu Pichu they were carried out during the last three periods to the southern summer. The objective of the project it is to evaluate environmental component in order to elaborate a study it base on the levels background radioactivity and artificial in the antarctic region

  18. Customs control of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Customs officers take part in the combat against illicit traffic od radioactive materials by means of different regulations dealing with nuclear materials, artificial radiation sources or radioactive wastes. The capability of customs officers is frequently incomplete and difficult to apply due to incompatibility of the intervention basis. In case of contaminated materials, it seems that the customs is not authorised directly and can only perform incidental control. In order to fulfil better its mission of fighting against illicit traffic of radioactive materials customs established partnership with CEA which actually includes practical and theoretical training meant to augment the capabilities of customs officers

  19. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soil containing radioactive cesium was decontaminated using an extraction method involving aqueous potassium solutions. Results demonstrated that the potassium solution could extract radioactive cesium from soil artificially contaminated with 137Cs, although extraction rate decreased as time after contamination increased. However, visual examination of radioactivity distribution in soil samples significantly contaminated by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant showed that radioactive cesium also existed as insoluble particles. Therefore, reducing the volume of radioactive wastes generated from soil decontamination requires a physical decontamination method combined with chemical treatment. (author)

  20. Artificial neural network modeling of healthy risk level induced by aircraft pollutant impacts around Soekarno Hatta International Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Khardi; Jermanto Setia Kurniawan; Irwan Katili; Setyo Moersidik

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important part of sources of pollution that directly or indirectly affect human health and ecosystems. This research suggests an Artificial Neural Network model to determine the healthy risk level around Soekarno Hatta International Airport-Cengkareng Indonesia. This ANN modeling is a flexible method, which enables to recognize highly complex non-linear correlations. The network was trained with real measurement data and updated with new measurements, enha...

  1. Ablation from artificial or laser-induced crater surfaces of silver by laser irradiation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, JØrgen

    1999-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated particles from silver irradiated at 355 nm has been studied. The angular distribution from craters prepared by more than 10(4) shots exhibits only minor changes compared with that from a nonirradiated target. The distribution from artificial cylindrical craters of a depth comparable to the laser spot dimensions is about one order of magnitude smaller at large exit angles than that from a flat target.

  2. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marieen, A., E-mail: amarien@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mokni, N., E-mail: Nadia.mokni@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Valcke, E. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olivella, S. [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Smets, S. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Li, X., E-mail: xli@sckcen.be [EIG EURIDICE, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The water uptake by Eurobitum is studied to judge the safety of geological disposal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High pressures of up to 20 MPa are measured in constant volume water uptake tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of leached Eurobitum samples is studied with {mu}CT and ESEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observations are reproduced by an existing CHM formulation for Eurobitum. - Abstract: The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluna, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography ({mu}CT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO{sub 3} solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from {mu}CT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO{sub 3} content was released by the samples. In the studied test conditions, the rates of water uptake and NaNO{sub 3} leaching are low because of the low porosity, and thus low permeability, of the hydrated BW samples in combination with a highly efficient semi-permeable bitumen membrane. In contrast to the hydration in free swelling conditions, the increase in porosity is limited by the high pressures in the nearly constant volume tests. Furthermore, at the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer is formed, as observed on the ESEM images. The experimental results of pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching, as well as observations on {mu}CT and ESEM images (e.g. compression of leached layers, high dissolved NaNO{sub 3} concentration in hydrated BW after about four years), were reproduced rather successfully by the coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum BW. A long-term model prediction of the evolution of the osmosis-induced pressure in the nearly constant volume tests shows that the pressure would reach a maximal value of about 20 MPa after about 5.5 years, after which the pressure would start to decrease. After 10,000 days ({approx}27 years) the pressure would have decreased to a value of {approx}2 MPa.

  3. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  4. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: a distribution-free approach to inducing rank correlation among input variables for simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for inducing a desired rank correlation matrix on a multivariate input random variable is introduced in this paper. This method is simple to use, is distribution free, preserves the exact form of the marginal distributions on the input variables, and may be used with any type of sampling scheme for which correlation of input variables is a meaningful concept. A small simulation study provides an estimate of the bias and variability involved in the method. Input variables used in a model for study of geologic disposal of radioactive waste provide an example of the usefulness of this procedure

  5. Use of artificial tracers in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has convened an Advisory Group Meeting with the following objectives: To define the role of artificial radioactive tracers for water tracing in comparison with other non-radioactive tracers. To evaluate the real needs of artificial radioactive tracers in hydrology. To identify the fields for which artificial radioactive tracers are useful as well as those in which they can be substituted by other tracers. To discuss the strategy to be adopted to overcome the difficulties derived from the restrictions on the use of radioactive tracers in hydrology. The meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters from 19 to 22 March 1990, and was attended by 30 participants from 15 Member States. The conclusions and recommendations are that the use of artificial radioactive tracers should be restricted to cases where other tracers cannot be used or do not provide the same quality of information. Tritium, iodine-131, bromine-82, chromium-51 in the form of Cr-EDTA, technetium-99m obtained from 99Mo-generators and gold-198 as an adsorbable tracer are, practically, the only radionuclides used for water tracing. The use of other radionuclides for this purpose does not appear to be necessary, possible and/or convenient. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. From meandering to straight grain boundaries: Improving the structures of artificially-induced grain boundaries in superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy bicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents several key aspects of the successful approach to preparing artificially-induced [001] tilt YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) grain boundaries (GBs) with uniform, well-defined structures. The authors have compared the structure of GBs produced in thin film bicrystals and bulk bicrystals, respectively. In the YBCO thin film bicrystals prepared by off-axis magnetron sputtering, meandering rather than planar GBs were generally formed due to the three-dimensional island-shaped nucleation and growth of the thin films. Experimentally, using a low film deposition rate has been demonstrated to reduce the magnitude of meander. However, complete elimination of the meandering configuration has not yet been accomplished due to the film growth mechanism. Thus, the authors have developed a dual-seeded-melt-texture process to produce uniform, planar GBs in [001] tilt YBCO bulk bicrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed GBs with a remarkably planar configuration on both micro and nano-meter scales, demonstrating that simpler, meander-free GB microstructures with well defined [001] tilt angle have been successfully produced compared to those formed in bicrystal thin films. The high reproducibility, excellent stability and well controlled GB orientations have established the dual-seeded-melt-texture process as a reliable technique for engineering artificial GBs for the purpose of systematic studies of GB properties and allow for more insightful measurements of transport properties across individual GBs

  7. Using Gold Nanoparticles as Artificial Defects in Thin Films: What Have We Learned About Laser-Induced Damage Driven by Localized Absorbers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is general agreement that localized absorbing defects are a major factor affecting thin-film performance, and laser-induced damage in films designed for UV, nanosecond-scale, pulsed-laser applications is driven by nanoscale absorbers. Low number densities and size (few nanometer), however, prevent any characterization of these defects and, consequently, deterministic film improvement. This situation also hampers further development of localized defect-driven damage theory, since initial conditions for modeling remain uncertain. Recently, a new approach for studying laser interaction with thin-film nanoscale defects was implemented in which well-characterized, isolated artificial absorbing defects (gold nanoparticles) were introduced inside the thin film. This work is a review in which we discuss main findings from experiments with gold nanoparticles, such as delocalization of absorption during the laser pulse, importance of the defect boundary conditions (contact with the matrix), and competition of pure thermal and stress-driven mechanisms of damage-crater formation. These experimental results will be compared with theoretical results of damage-crater formation in such model thin films using both phenomenological modeling and detailed calculations of the kinetics of the damage process. An outlook on future thin-film-damage studies using model systems with artificial defects is also presented

  8. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  9. Natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the types of natural radioactive materials in the environment that include primordial natural radioactive materials such as K-40, U and Th, and daughters of their decay series. The discussion also includes secondary natural radioactive material generated through cosmic radiation interaction with nucleus of materials in the atmosphere. The dispersion of these radioactive materials to environment will also be part of the discussion. (Author)

  10. Analysis of induced-radioactivity using DCHAIN-SP for iron, copper and niobium at a mercury target irradiated by 2.83 and 24 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability estimation was carried out on a radioactivity calculation code system consisting of PHITS, MCNP/4C and DCHAIN-SP 2001 by analyzing an activation experiment performed by using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. For induced radioactivity in iron, copper and niobium samples, calculations and experiments were compared indicating that both agreed by a factor of 2 on the average over produced nuclides although the calculation had a tendency to underestimate. (author)

  11. Preliminary analysis of the induced structural radioactivity inventory of the base-case aqueous accelerator transmutation of waste reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of long-lived high-level radioactive waste of the US in a safe and energy-efficient manner. An evaluation of the ATW concept has four aspects: material balance, energy balance, performance, and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount of long-lived high-level waste transmuted with the amount and type, of waste created in the process. One component of the material balance is the activation of structural materials over the lifetime of the transmutation reactor. A preliminary radioactivity and radioactive mass balance analysis has been performed on four structure regions of the reaction chamber: the tungsten target, the lead annulus, six tubing materials carrying the actinide slurry, and five reaction vessel structural materials. The amount of radioactive material remaining after a 100-yr cooling period for the base-case ATW was found to be 338 kg of radionuclides. The bulk of this material (313 kg) was generated in the zirconium-niobium (Zr-Nb) actinide tubing material. Replacement of the Zr-Nb tubing material with one of the alternative tubing materials analyzed would significantly reduce the short- and long-term radioactive mass produced. The alternative vessel material Al-6061 alloys, Tenelon, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and the alternative actinide tubing materials Al-6061 alloy, carbon-carbon matrix, ials Al-6061 alloy, carbon-carbon matrix, silicon carbide, and Ti-6 Al-4 V qualify for shallow land burial. Alternative disposal options for the base-case structural material Type 304L stainless steel and the actinide tubing material Zr-Nb will need to be considered as neither qualifies for shallow land burial

  12. Immunostimulatory response induced by supplementation of Ficus benghalensis root powder, in the artificial feed the Indian freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2012-09-01

    Methanol extract from the dried aerial root of Ficus benghalensis, was used to evaluate antibacterial activity on the bacterial strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli, by disc diffusion method. In order to study, if there is any immunostimulatory response of F. benghalensis, immunized fish were fed with supplementary artificial feed containing 5% F. benghalensis dried root powder. There was no marked difference in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in control and treated fish, suggesting that the supplementary feed had no adverse effect on liver or kidney. Serum lysozyme, tissue super oxide dismutase (SOD), percentage phagocytosis, phagocytotic index, nitric oxide (NO), total serum protein and immunoglobulin increased significantly in the treated fish compared to control fish. Serum immunoglobulin levels were estimated by development of a sandwich ELISA, and levels were found to increase with successive immunizations of BSA. PMID:22789713

  13. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery; Radioactivite. Centenaire de la decouverte de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Tubiana, M. [Academie de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Bimbot, R. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  14. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  15. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP)

  16. A case of propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis successfully treated with radioactive iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis is one of the rare complications of propylthiouracil treatment. Having a variable clinical spectrum, it may be presented with both skin limited vasculitis and life-threatening systemic vasculitis. In this study, we present a case that developed ANCA-positive vasculitis with skin and kidney involvement (hematuria and proteinuria six months after propylthiouracil treatment was initiated for toxic nodular goiter. Proteinuria recovered dramatically subsequent to radioactive iodine treatment following ceasing the drug.

  17. Resistance of Mutants of Sweet Orange Induced by Gamma-rays to Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) Under Artificial Inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sweet orange holds great economic and social importance for Brazil, but it is susceptible to citrus canker as is the majority of citrus species. In cases of high incidence, this disease caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri can result in great economic damage. More resistant cultivars are the best long-term solution for management of citrus canker and one of the approaches can be the production of mutant plants. In a previous work, several induced mutant clones of sweet orange cv. Pera were selected. They showed a lower intensity of symptoms of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in evaluations under natural incidence of the disease, in the field. The objective of this study is to assess the resistance to citrus canker of six mutant clones of cultivar Pera and control plants (three different varieties), in experiments of artificial inoculation. The parameters evaluated were: incubation period, diameter of the lesions and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), in evaluations every 15 days, until the 147th day. Only the clones 9-1, 9-2 and 9-3 showed lower incidence of disease, represented by the longest period of incubation of the disease, smaller diameter of lesion and lower AUDPC, using average data of the three experiments. This study is one of the first reports of success in citrus-induced mutations aimed to obtaining greater resistance to diseases. (author)

  18. Resistance of mutants of sweet orange induced by gamma-rays to citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) under artificial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sweet oranges have great economic and social importance for Brazil. However, it is susceptible to citrus canker as the majority of citrus species. This disease is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, bacteria that in case of high incidence can result in great economic damage. More resistant cultivars are the best long-term solution for management of citrus canker and one of the approaches can be the production of mutant plants. In a previous work, several induced mutant clones of sweet orange cv. Pera were selected. They showed lower intensity of symptoms of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in evaluations under natural incidence of the disease, in the field. The objective of this study is to assess the resistance to citrus canker of six mutant clones of cultivar Pera and control plants (three different varieties), in experiments of artificial inoculation. The parameters evaluated were: incubation period, diameter of the lesions and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), in evaluations every 15 days, until the 147th day. Only the clones 9-1, 9-2 and 9-3 showed lower incidence of disease, represented by the longest period of incubation of the disease, smaller diameter of lesion and lower AUDPC, in all experiment and using average data of the three experiments. This study is one of the first reports of success in citrus induced mutations aimed to obtaining greater resistance to diseases. (author)

  19. Radioactivity and food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation are used to destroy microorganisms and insects or to prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity are produced in the irradiated food

  20. Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Healthy Risk Level Induced by Aircraft Pollutant Impacts around Soekarno Hatta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Khardi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important part of sources of pollution that directly or indirectly affect human health and ecosystems. This research suggests an Artificial Neural Network model to determine the healthy risk level around Soekarno Hatta International Airport-Cengkareng Indonesia. This ANN modeling is a flexible method, which enables to recognize highly complex non-linear correlations. The network was trained with real measurement data and updated with new measurements, enhancing its quality and making it the ideal method for this research. Measurements of aircraft pollutant emissions are carried out with the aim to be used as input data and to validate the developed model. The obtained results concerned the improved ANN architecture model based on pollutant emissions as input variables. ANN model processes variables—hidden layers—and gives an output variable corresponding to a healthy risk level. This model is characterized by a 4-10-1 scheme. Based on ANN criteria, the best validation performance is achieved at epoch 28 from 34 epochs with the Mean Squared Error (MSE of 9 × 10-3. The correlation between targets and outputs is confirmed. It validated a close relationship between targets and outputs. The network output errors value approaches zero. Further research is needed with the aim to enlarge the scheme of the ANN model by increasing its input variables. This is one of the major key defining environmental capacities of an airport that should be applied by Indonesian airport authorities. These would institute policies to manage or reduce pollutant emissions considering population and income growth to be socially positive.

  1. Predicting typhoon-induced storm surge tide with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and artificial neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-B. Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.

  2. Predicting typhoon-induced storm surge tide with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and artificial neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.-B.; Liu, W.-C.; Hsu, M.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN) model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.

  3. Reliability assessment of high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 by analysis of integral activation experiments with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability assessment for the high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 was carried out through analysis of integral activation experiments with 14-MeV neutrons aiming at validating the cross section and decay data revised from previous version. The following three kinds of experiments conducted at the D-T neutron source facility, FNS, in JAERI were employed: (1) the decay gamma-ray measurement experiment for fusion reactor materials, (2) the decay heat measurement experiment for 32 fusion reactor materials, and (3) the integral activation experiment on mercury. It was found that the calculations with DCHAIN-SP 2001 predicted the experimental data for (1) - (3) within several tens of percent. It was concluded that the cross section data below 20 MeV and the associated decay data as well as the calculation algorithm for solving the Beteman equation that was the master equation of DCHAIN-SP were adequate. (author)

  4. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report 2011 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B; Current data and their evaluation: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. The Appendix includes Explanations of terms, radiation doses and related units, external and internal radiation exposure, stochastic and deterministic radiation effects, genetic radiation effects, induction of malignant neoplasm, risk assessment, physical units and glossary, laws, ordinances, guidelines, recommendations and other regulations concerning radiation protection, list of selected radionuclides.

  5. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report 2010 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following topics in two parts: Part (A) General information: (I) Natural environmental radioactivity. (II) Artificial radioactivity in the environment. (III) Occupational radiation exposure. (IV) Radiation exposures from medical applications. (V) The handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation. (VI) Non-ionizing radiation. Part (B) Current data and their evaluation: (I) Natural environmental radioactivity. (II) Artificial radioactivity in the environment. (III) Occupational radiation exposure. (IV) Radiation exposures from medical applications. (V) The handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation. (VI) Non-ionizing radiation (electromagnetic fields, optical radiation). The Annex covers explanation on terms, physical units, glossary, list of abbreviations, radiation protection laws, regulations etc. and a list of selected radionuclides.

  6. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.)

  7. Environmental radioactivity annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial radioactivity in the environment in New Zealand and Rarotonga during 1988 continued to be at a trace level only, typical of recent years. Average levels were: total beta activity in air, 0.08 mBq/m3; strontium-90 deposition, 0.1 MBq/km2; caesium-137 in milk, 0.18 Bq/gK; strontium-90 in milk, 0.041 Bq/gCa. No artificial radionuclides were detected on high-volume air filters. Total beta activity deposition at Hokitika was higher than usual at 336 MBq/km2, and this is thought to be due to heavy deposition of natural radioactivity during heavy spring rains. Strontium-90 deposition was the lowest since measurements began in 1960, and was virtually undetectable. The report includes monitoring data for natural beryllium-7 including plots of variations in atmospheric concentration during 1987 and 1988. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Transmutation of radioactive wastes: how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the natural or spontaneous transmutation of natural or artificial radioactive atoms, the author describes how this transmutation is technically obtained, indicates the two main families of atoms present in a used nuclear fuel and for which transmutation is to be investigated (long-lived fission residues or products, and transuranium elements) and of which the behaviour in neutron fluxes must be explored. He discusses the industrial means required for artificial transmutation. He discusses the interest of performing such a transmutation

  9. Fast identification of biominerals by means of stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitkova, Gabriela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotny, Karel, E-mail: codl@sci.muni.cz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokes, Lubomir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Hrdlicka, Ales [Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC MU, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotny, Jan [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Malina, Radomir; Prochazka, David [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this paper is to compare two selected statistical techniques used for identification of archeological materials merely on the base of their spectra obtained by stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (stand-off LIBS). Data processing using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied on spectra of 18 different samples, some of them archeological and some recent, containing 7 types of material (i.e. shells, mortar, bricks, soil pellets, ceramic, teeth and bones). As the input data PCA scores were taken. The intended aim of this work is to create a database for simple and fast identification of archeological or paleontological materials in situ. This approach can speed up and simplify the sampling process during archeological excavations that nowadays tend to be quite damaging and time-consuming. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use statistical techniques for identification of archeological materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Input data for LDA and ANN are PC scores counted from stand-off LIBS spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method used for identification of archeological materials provides good results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After recording more spectra we can get useful tool for rapid analysis in situ.

  10. High-energy proton irradiation and induced radioactivity analysis for some construction materials for the CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose rate to personnel due to remnant radioactivity during maintenance periods will be an important issue at the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the most abundant construction materials are aluminum, steel, copper and lead. In order to obtain more reliable estimates on the radioisotope production in a high-energy hadron environment, small samples of these materials behind the beam-stop of the CERN 24 GeV/c proton synchrotron were irradiated. This environment is characterized by high spallation neutron flux and a non-negligible contribution of protons and pions up to the total beam momentum. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were measured and analyzed with the SAMPO program and detailed nuclide identification was carried out with the SHAMAN program. The total energy emission and results of the spectrum analyses were compared to predictions of the FLUKA hadron cascade simulation package. (author)

  11. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2008. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2008 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s and releases from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. Milk, because it is an important foodstuff for infants and children and is known to concentrate long lived radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90, is an important indicator of levels of artificial radioactivity in the terrestrial food chain. The estimated dose due to strontium-90 activity in milk was estimated to be 0.55 ?Sv for 2008. This was for the most exposed group, assessed to be infants, children under the age of one year. It is very small compared to the background radiation. Radioactivity measurements on other foodstuffs confirm the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish food-chain remain very low and that Irish foodstuffs are free from harmful levels of radioactivity. The RPII monitors radioactivity in drinking water supplies in rotation so that major supplies from each county are sampled at least once every four years. During 2008 supplies from Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal and Dublin were tested. Drinking water samples are assessed for compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. All drinking water samples tested during 2008 were found to be in compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The RPII programme also monitors airborne radioactivity through its network of on- and off-line samplers. External gamma dose rates are also monitored. No exceptional activity was detected in outdoor air during 2008. The levels were consistent with those recorded in previous years. For 2008 the average annual dose from inhalation of caesium-137 was estimated at 8.0 x 10?? ?Sv. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable they are low and are continuing to decrease. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements made in recent years. Radioactivity level

  12. First artificial radionuclides for Czechoslovakia after Word War II. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first contribution in the 2-part series describes the following topics: Discovery of artificial radioactivity and first artificial radionuclides; Czechoslovak reflection of the development over the world; Opportunities for obtaining artificial radioisotopes from the USA; Response to the US offer by Czechoslovak physicians; and Steps taken by the Ministry of Health. (orig.)

  13. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2009. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2009 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s and releases from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. Milk, because it is an important foodstuff for infants and children and is known to concentrate long lived radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90, is an important indicator of levels of artificial radioactivity in the terrestrial food chain. The estimated dose due to strontium-90 activity in milk was estimated to be 0.97 ?Sv for 2009. This was for the most exposed group, assessed to be infants, children under the age of one year. It is very small compared to the background radiation. Radioactivity measurements on other foodstuffs confirm the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish food-chain remain very low and that Irish foodstuffs are free from harmful levels of radioactivity. The RPII monitors radioactivity in drinking water supplies in rotation so that major supplies from each county are sampled at least once every four years. During 2009 supplies from Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Leitrim, Longford, Limerick and Laois were tested. Drinking water samples are assessed for compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. All drinking water samples tested during 2009 were found to be in compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The RPII programme also monitors airborne radioactivity through its network of on- and off-line samplers. External gamma dose rates are also monitored. No exceptional activity was detected in outdoor air during 2009. The levels were consistent with those recorded in previous years. For 2009 the average annual dose from inhalation of caesium-137 was estimated at 9.0 x 10?? ?Sv. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable they are low and are continuing to decrease. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements made in recent y

  14. Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine the activity of the intact thyroid gland (Thyroid scan and Radioactive Iodine uptake, RAIu), since it is ... no special radiation precautions are necessary after a thyroid scan or RAIu with I-123. When is rai ...

  15. The radioactivity of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in the world's surface sea water averages 13.6 Bq/kg of water. Over 88% of this activity arises from a single natural radionuclide, 40K, and 7% of the remainder results from nuclear weapon test fallout. Variations in the radioactivity occur due to changes in salinity, weapon test fallout and discharges of artificial radionuclides, and are examined here on the basis of published measurements. The most radioactive sea identified by these measurements is the Dead Sea, which averages 178 Bq/kg due to its high salinity. Other enclosed, highly saline waters can be expected to have similar levels. The radioactivity in open seas varies within a much narrower range, generally within 20% of the world average. The highest averages are found in the Persian Gulf (22 Bq/kg), the Red Sea (15 Bq/kg) and the Eastern Mediterranean (14.6 Bq/kg). The Irish Sea averaged 13.7 Bq/kg in 1987, with the effect of the Sellafield discharges being partly offset by lower than average salinity. Although higher levels occurred in the Irish Sea during the 1970s when the Sellafield discharges were higher, the average level has always been much less than that in the Dead Sea, so that the Irish Sea has never been the most radioactive sea in the world. Exceptionally low levels of radioactivity (4 Bq/kg) occur in the Baltic Sea due to dilution by fresh water. (author)

  16. Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertling, Sofia; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Leygraf, Christofer

    2006-03-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to present an extensive set of data for corrosion-induced copper dispersion and its environmental interaction with solid surfaces in the near vicinity of buildings. Copper dispersion is discussed in terms of total copper flows, copper speciation and bioavailability at the immediate release situation, and its changes during transport from source to recipient. Presented results are based on extensive field exposures (eight years) at an urban site, laboratory investigations of the runoff process, published field data, generated predictive site-specific runoff rate models, and reactivity investigations toward various natural and manmade surfaces, such as those in soil, limestone, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of copper-containing runoff water with different soil systems through long-term laboratory column investigations. The fate of copper is discussed in terms of copper retention, copper chemical speciation, breakthrough capacities, and future mobilization based on changes in copper concentrations in the percolate water, computer modeling using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, and sequential extractions. The results illustrate that, for scenarios where copper comes in extensive contact with solid surfaces, such as soil and limestone, a large fraction of released copper is retained already in the immediate vicinity of the building. In all, both the total copper concentration in runoff water and its bioavailable part undergo a significant and rapid reduction. PMID:16566176

  17. Measurement of radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even after the control of scrap deliveries, there remains a small risk that the radioactive contaminated scrap passes the detecting devices. Therefore, the chemical laboratory takes a role to measure each heat for the absence of artificial radioactive nuclides with a gamma spectrometer equipped with NaI-detector. As the measurement must be performed in sequence with the steel production process, the allowable time for the measurement is quite limited. On the other hand, there could be still some possibility that background radiation might be present as the samples may contain some natural radioactivity. The task is how to differentiate the nature of radioactivity between naturally remaining radioactivity within safe limit and artificial nuclides present in the sample at a low level even though a very small amount of radioactivity could be detected in short time in both cases. We have set the alarm limit to 0.1 Bq/g for Co-60 as indicating nuclide. This limit is set more than 4 s (s = standard deviation) from the average background radiation. Therefore, false alarms are quite improbable. Strategy: The NaI gamma spectrometer performs a gross gamma measurement but it can not differentiate the nature of the nuclides present. If the alarm limit is hurt, the sample is measured on a high resolution gamma spectrometer with Ge-detector for identification of the gamma emitting nuclides. Calibration: Even though no appropriate international standards are adapted and no commercial measuring equipment is commercially available, the desired standard should contain Co-60 in the order of 1 to 100 Bq/g. The presence of other gamma emitting nuclides is desirable. In the Workshop we will present how to surmount this difficulty. (author)

  18. The puzzle of nuclear wastes. Radioactive threat to your health..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on what is radioactivity, the radioactive materials as a risk for living organisms, nuclear wastes all over France (list and map of the storage sites, power plants and fuel cycle centers), nuclear wastes at every step of the nuclear connection, the insolvable problem of high activity wastes, burying nuclear wastes in order to better forget them, radioactivity as a time bomb for our health, radioactive effluents as an under-estimated risk, artificial radioactivity already responsible for the death of 61 million people in the world, and so on

  19. Artificial long days and daily contact with bucks induce ovarian but not oestrous activity during the non-breeding season in Mediterranean goat females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazaga, L A; Gatica, M C; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a treatment of 3 mo of artificial long days and daily contact with bucks can stimulate reproductive activity during the normal seasonal anoestrous in female goats, and whether such treatment modifies the onset of the normal breeding season. Thirty-nine adult, open does were assigned to two treatments of similar mean body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). One treatment (LD; n=18) was housed in a light-proof building and exposed to long days (16 h of light/d) from 17 November to 5 February, and then exposed to the natural photoperiod in an open shed. The remaining females were housed in an open shed under natural photoperiod conditions throughout the experiment (control [C]; n=21). Plasma samples for progesterone, BW and BCS were recorded every wk. Oestrous activity was checked daily using aproned bucks. Bucks were housed close to females in a separate barn from the onset of the experiment. Ovulation rate was determined by laparoscopy 7 d after positive identification of oestrus. The interaction of treatment by time for temporal concentrations patterns of progesterone concentrations indicated that luteal activity in LD does were greater (P0.05) in the subsequent breeding season between treatments. In conclusion, 3 mo of exposing does to long days and daily contact with bucks during the breeding season appears to stimulate reproductive processes that normal would not occur during the anoestrous season. However, this treatment does not induce oestrus is adequate numbers of does to be of practical value. Finally, this treatment does not modify the onset of the subsequent natural breeding season. PMID:21441005

  20. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1990 - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1990-1993, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued its programme of measuring radioactivity levels in airborne dust, rainwater, total fallout, drinking water supplies and milk. The levels of artificially produced radionuclides continue to be insignificant from a radiological safety point of view

  1. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The proposed experiment [1] at the HIE-ISOLDE, using the ACTAR TPC, will thus provide the experimental information, which is not available at the moment and which is highly interesting for nuclear theory.

  2. History of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the historical development of the physics of atoms and nuclei. After a consideration of the ancient Greek philosophy concerning atoms the behaviour of gases is discussed with regards to statistical mechanics. Then the developement of chemistry from alchemy is described. Thereafter the early studies of gas discharges are described with regards to the electronic structure of atoms. In this connection the periodic system of elements is considered. Then the detection of the ?-radiation of Uranium by Becquerel and the detections of M. and P. Curie are described. Thereafter the radiactive decay of nuclei is discussed. Then a popular introduction into nuclear structure is given with special regards to artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission. Finally nuclear reactors, the atomic bombs, applications of radionuclides, and problems of radiation protection are described. (HSI)

  3. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  4. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity measurement in this chapter refers to nuclear analytical technique for the assessment of radioactivity in various type and form samples particularly the environmental and food samples. The following subjects are discussed: radionuclide measurement, sampling, radiochemical separation, sample preparation, radionuclide separation, source preparation, detection method - alpha counting, low background ?/? counting system, scintillation counter, alpha spectrometry, beta counting, photon counting, activity determination, statistical considerations, and quality assurance. The topic titled detection method, covers the principle, instrumentation, operational procedure and application for each method discussed

  5. Gamma-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in targeted and bystander human artificial skin models and peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Christophe; Dickey, Jennifer; Bonner, William; Sedelnikova, Olga

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable. In addition to exposure from cosmic rays, the sun and radioactive substances, modern society has created new sources of radiation exposure such as space and high altitude journeys, X-ray diagnostics, radiological treatments and the increasing threat of radiobiological terrorism. For these reasons, a reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of dose and time exposure to IR is essential. We developed a minimally invasive diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of a phosphorylated variant of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules forms a gamma-H2AX focus in the chromatin flanking the DSB site that can be detected in situ. We analyzed gamma- H2AX focus formation in both directly irradiated cells as well as in un-irradiated "bystanders" in close contact with irradiated cells. In order to insure minimal invasiveness, we examined commercially available artificial skin models as a surrogate for human skin biopsies as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes. In human skin models, cells in a thin plane were microbeamirradiated and gamma-H2AX formation was measured both in irradiated and in distal bystander cells over time. In irradiated cells DSB formation reached a maximum at 15-30 minutes post- IR and then declined within several hours; all cells were affected. In marked contrast, the incidence of DSBs in bystander cells reached a maximum by 12-48 hours post-irradiation, gradually decreasing over the 7 day time course. At the maxima, 40-60% of bystander cells were affected. Similarly, we analyzed blood samples exposed to IR ex vivo at doses ranging from 0.02 to 3 Gy. The amount of DNA damage was linear in respect to radiation dose and independent of the age or sex of the blood donor. The method is highly reproducible and highly sensitive. In directly irradiated cells, the number of gamma-H2AX foci peaked 30 min after irradiation and then declined at a relatively steady pace as the cell repaired the DNA damage. Radiation effects were still detectable after 48 hrs for doses greater than 1 Gy and remained linear to initial dose. Activated bystander lymphocytes cultured with media from irradiated lymphocytes exhibited a two-fold increased damage response as seen by gamma- H2AX formation. The effect reached a maximum 3 hrs post-exposure and was retained for over 24 hrs. Thus, detection of gamma-H2AX formation to determine DNA damage in a minimally invasive skin test and a non-invasive blood test could be useful and promising tools to analyze direct and indirect effects of radiation exposure.

  6. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2006. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the environment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England, which are licensed by the UK Environment Agency, continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2006 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. During 2006, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at fifteen stations. No abnormal levels were observed. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, a number of water supplies from Cork, Dublin, Galway and Limerick were tested and found to be within the requirements for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and various other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables. These measurements show that levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. In the region of 170 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were analysed for a range of radionuclides. Along the Irish coastline the highest radioactivity concentrations observed were in the north-east. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to artificial radioactivity from the marine environment is the consumption of seafood. Caesium-137 continues to be the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 70% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population due to caesium-137 has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges of this radionuclide from Sellafield. The annual doses incurred by the Irish public as a result of artificial radioactivity in the environment do not constitute a significant health risk and are small compared with the dose received as a result of natural radiation

  7. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of ?-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K natural radionuclides and product of 137Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40K have most specific activity and 137Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40K > 232Th > 226Ra > 137Cs

  8. Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Smith

    Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, the user should be able to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

  9. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  10. Optimization of beam and target combinations for hybrid reactor systems and for the fission-induced production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis work consists of two parts: a) theoretical, and b) experimental. We combine and use the high energy transport code LAHET, the low energy transport code MCNP, and the activation code CINDER. Our benchmarking calculations show that LAHET neglects the Coulomb dissociation for deuterons. By adding this missing term, we obtain a good agreement with the available data. We also conclude that LAHET describes well the data for isotope production yields if the ORNL fission model is employed for nuclei with Z>90. The 'default' RAL fission model gives too broad isotopic distributions and fails to reproduce the data in absolute value. We examine different combinations of beams, beam energies, spallation target and multiplying medium materials in order to optimize the neutron production, energy amplification and isotope production via neutron induced fissions. We show that the (d,xn) reactions could bring a number of important advantages when compared to the (p,xn) reactions. We conclude that the use of deuterons instead of protons should result in higher primary beam intensities, lower costs of the system and facilitate radioprotection problems. Within the SPIRAL Phase-II project at GANIL, we propose d(100 MeV)+Be?xn+U as an optimum combination for the production of neutron rich nuclei in the mass region 75?A?160. However, the production of tritium gas in the target-converter should be considered carefully. The use of heavier metal targets-converters may cause moetal targets-converters may cause more severe problems of radioprotection.Our experimental work is closely related to the theoretical investigations. We measure the complete proton spectra for 1.00 and 200 MeV deuteron induced reactions on 8 thin targets (Be, C, Al, Ni, Nb, Ta,, Pb and U) and in the angular region 8 deg C ? ?p ? 120 deg C. The experiments were carried at LNS (Saclay, France) and at NAC (Faure, South Africa). Good quality data (within 10% in absolute value and with 4-8 MeV energy threshold) support our improved LAHET physics modelling for (d,xp) and, consequently, for (d,xn) reactions. (author)

  11. Study of Proton Induced Reactions in a Radioactive 129-I Target at Ep=660 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, V S; Balabekyan, A R; Barashenkov, V S; Dzhelepov, V P; Gustov, S A; Filinova, V P; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Mirokhin, I V; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Mrazek, J; Brandt, R; Westmeier, W; Odoj, R; Mashnik, S G; Sierk, A J; Prael, R E; Gudima, K K; Baznat, M I

    2004-01-01

    Two NaI (85% 129-I and 15% 127-I) targets were exposed to a beam of 660-MeV protons. Cross sections for formation of 76 residual nuclei were obtained by the induced activity method. The results are compared with other experimental data on 127-I and theoretical calculations by eleven models contained in the codes LAHET3 (using the Bertini+Dresner, ISABEL+Dresner, INCL+Dresner, and INCL+ABLA options), CASCADE, CEM95, CEM2K, LAQGSM+GEM2, CEM2k+GEM2, LAQGSM+GEMINI, and CEM2k+GEMINI. Most of the models describe spallation products with masses close to the target reasonably well while the reliability of the codes differs greatly in the deep spallation and fission/fragmentation regions. The difficulties in describing products with A=40-80 by all of the codes tested here except for CEM2k+GEMINI and LAQGSM+GEMINI is related to the neglect of fission (and fragmentation) processes for targets as light as 129-I.

  12. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2007. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the envorinment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. In additiopn, some natural radioactivity exposure pathways are included in the programme including radioactivity in surface and ground drinking water. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural oprocesses, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in the Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2007 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at twelve stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows background concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarity as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. During 2007, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at fifteen stations. No abnormal levels were observed. A major upgrade of the aerosol sampling equipment began in 2007 when three on-line low volume systems and seven upgraded off-line low volume systems were installed and commissioned. Two additional on-line sites will be added in 2008. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, a number of major water supplies from Cork, Dublin, Galway and Limerick were tested and found to be within the requirements for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. In addition, groundwater supplies were tested in nine countries as a pilot for a national survey of ground water scheduled for 2008 to 2010. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and various other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb and poultry. These measurements show that the levels of artificual radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. One hundred and ninety samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were analysed for a range of radionuclides. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed were in the north-east. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to artificial radioactivity from the marine environment is the consumption of seafood. Caesium-137 continues to be the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 84% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population from consumption of seafood landed at north-east ports has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges from Sellafield. The annual doses incurred by the Irish public as a result of artificial radioactivity in the environment do not constitute a significant he

  13. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, J.; Bruyère, D.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G.; Laperche, V.; Michel, K.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis.

  14. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  15. Radioactive alchemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  16. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  17. The natural radioactivity of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the approximately 1200 isotopes presently known more than 900 are radioactive. The nuclei of these isotopes are unstable and decay spontaneously emitting ionizing gamma-, alpha- or beta-radiation. The overwhelming majority of known radioactive isotopes have been obtained artificially; only a few are natural. Numerous investigations have shown that many of the natural radioactive isotopes can be grouped into three radioactive families. Each such family is characterized by the existence of one long-lived isotope - the family parent, one gaseous isotope of radon, intermediate radioactive decay products and final stable isotopes of atomic weights 206, 207 and 208. No such generic relationship has been established among the remaining natural radioactive isotopes. The purpose of the book, in contrast to some recent review works, is to present, in addition to a summary of reference data characterizing the radioactivity levels of various components of the biosphere, a description of those phenomena and regularities which will apparently make it possible to understand more completely the basic dynamics of the natural radioactivity of the biosphere and, consequently, contribute to a more correct interpretation of radiation-hygiene in each specific case

  18. The puzzling units of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the different units used in radioprotection and dosimetry: Becquerel (Bq), Gray (Gy) and Sievert (Sv). Their definitions and their domains of use are clarified. 2 examples are given: Cs137, an artificial nuclide released in nuclear accidents and uranium and its decay products that contribute to natural radioactivity. It is recalled that each year the Rhone river carries 100 tonnes of natural uranium that comes mostly from rainwater runoff and yet an incident at the Tricastin plant that led to the release of 74 kg of uranium in the environment for 2 days triggered a large anxiety among the population. (A.C.)

  19. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the sealing of the fractures. The hydration was stopped after one year and cross-hole hydraulic tests were performed to determine more accurately the specific storage as well as the hydraulic conductivity at a meter-scale. All hydraulic conductivity values measured at the injection interval and at the observation intervals were all below 10-10 m/s. Moreover, the preferential inter-connectivity along the drift disappeared. Specific storage values at the observation and injection intervals were similar. Furthermore they were in agreement with the value obtained at the injection interval within the second hydration phase (60 days after starting hydration). The graphical abstract synthesizes the evolution of the hydraulic/gas conductivity for 8 intervals since the beginning of the CDZ experiment. The conductivity limit of 10-10 m/s corresponds to the lower bound hydraulic definition of the EDZ and it is demonstrated that EDZ can be sealed. This is a significant result in the demonstration of the long-term safety of a repository.

  20. Ensuring radioactivity monitoring in the French Polynesia environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory of Environmental Study and Monitoring (LESE) of the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) at Vairao (Tahiti, French Polynesia), has been performing a permanent monitoring of radioactivity in French Polynesia for more than 40 years. This mission has two objectives: - the follow up of radioactivity levels of artificial origin in all environments where Polynesian populations are living, as well as the radioactivity of the food products they consume; - the estimate of the doses received by the Polynesian populations exposed to this radioactivity. This plaquette briefly presents these two missions

  1. Artificial Radiotracer Applications in Aquatic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of artificial radiotracers in the environment is analogous to their use in the human body. In both domains they provide data on flow rates and pathways, on exchange with materials and on their final discharge from the studied system. Artificially injected radiotracers have been used to investigate flow in natural waters since the 1950's. Identification of flow paths, diagnosis of blockages or leakage, measurement of flow rates, dispersion and exchange processes, such as biological uptake or sorption, are all aspects to which a wide range of artificial radioactive tracers have been applied. Increasingly radiotracers are used in combination with numerical modelling to improve confidence in the predictive capacity of models used in the management of our water resources and to extend their spatial applicability. In turn this allows us to use less and less tracer and demonstrate that the human and environmental impact of modern radiotracer studies is minimal. (author)

  2. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of cou...

  3. Uranium and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives results of investigations on uranium content and the proportion of induced and natural radioactivity in wines of different vines and regions. The ecological chain of ground, vine, grape, grape-juice, and wine is described, and the author shows that 14C and T measurements can be used to determine the age of wines with the aim of detecting adulterated vintages and blends of different years. The 14C and T content also indicates a direct connection with nuclear explosions. (RB/AK)

  4. Radioactivity telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an assembly which aims at radio-transmitting from mobile stations information on radioactivity. It comprises 20 mobile stations which can be located within the Cadarache Centre or outside of it within a 10 km radius, and a central station which centralises information. The report proposes a general presentation of these stations, their characteristics and principles of operation. It describes operation sequences, central station functions (call programmer, address and memory management, recording, peripherals) and its energy supply, and mobile station functions. The last part presents the installation, its start-up and exploitation, its threshold devices and its safety device

  5. Radioactive food

    OpenAIRE

    Barybina, A.; ???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is a lot of information about importance of eating healthy. And many of us try to look after number of calories, fat and carbohydrate they eat during the day. But there is also very dangerous problem, which is not so familiar to everybody. This problem lies in radioactive food. According to the scientific researches more than 70 % of radiation people cumulate contains in food and water. That`s why we should minimize negative influence on our bodies by choosing organic food. ...

  6. Cluster Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Greiner, Walter

    One of the rare examples of phenomena predicted before experimental discovery, offers the opportunity to introduce fission theory based on the asymmetric two center shell model. The valleys within the potential energy surfaces are due to the shell effects and are clearly showing why cluster radioactivity was mostly detected in parent nuclei leading to a doubly magic lead daughter. Saddle point shapes can be determined by solving an integro-differential equation. Nuclear dynamics allows us to calculate the half-lives. The following cluster decay modes (or heavy particle radioactivities) have been experimentally confirmed: 14C, 20O, 23F, 22,24-26Ne, 28,30Mg, 32,34Si with half-lives in good agreement with predicted values within our analytical superasymmetric fission model. The preformation probability is calculated as the internal barrier penetrability. An universal curve is described and used as an alternative for the estimation of the half-lives. The macroscopic-microscopic method was extended to investigate two-alpha accompanied fission and true ternary fission. The methods developed in nuclear physics are also adapted to study the stability of deposited atomic clusters on the planar surfaces.

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226Ra, 224Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234Th, 60Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and activation products 65Zr, 59Fe, and 95Zr

  8. Radioactivity of some alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in surface marine sediments of different bays in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface (0-15) cm marine sediments of different grain sizes, namely sand, muddy and fine sand, were collected in the western, central and east coast of Algeria, to measure concentrations of natural and artificial radioactivity. The aim of this study is to detect any radioactive contamination, its origin and also to determine the uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Wittgenstein

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Gerard

    1988-01-01

    The association of Wittgenstein’s name with the notion of artificial intelligence is bound to cause some surprise both to Wittgensteinians and to people interested in artificial intelligence. After all, Wittgenstein died in 1951 and the term artificial intelligence didn’t come into use until 1956 so that it seems unlikely that one could have anything to do with the other. However, establishing a connection between Wittgenstein and artificial intelligence is not as insuperab...

  10. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  11. Radioactivity under supervision and other notions in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a book which aims at describing the work of professionals in radiation protection and at a better understanding of radioactivity without fear. The author addresses the various definitions, values and units in radiation protection, the effects of radiation on the human being, the detection and measurement of radiation, the history of radiation protection and its objectives (protection of workers, of population and of the environment), the protection against extreme radiation, the protection against contamination, the notions in relationship with regulation, the natural radiation sources, the first artificial radiation sources (radium), the artificial sources of medical origin, the industrial radioactive sources, the radioactive sources of nuclear origin, and the radioactive wastes

  12. Present status and prospects of ultralow level radioactivity measurements (8). Summary of ultralow level radioactivity measurements series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the ultralow level radioactivity measurements series from one to seven. High quality measurement data of environmental radioactivity is obtained by the ultralow level radioactivity measurements techniques. Therefore, the static treatment of the data becomes easy work. Non-proliferation monitoring is able to measure the trace artificial radioactivity nucleus by a small amount of sample using this method. Geochemistry, marine chemistry and space science is able to use radioactive nucleus as tracers by this method. An ultralow level background detector, data acquisition by list mode, sun peak problem, decrease of the background of liquid scintillation by the underground measurement, use of spent shielding materials, and future researches using ultralow level radioactivity measurements are stated. (S.Y.)

  13. An Assessment of Radioactivity of Selected Industrial Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    phosphogypsum (phph) is a by-product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid for the artificial fertilizer industry. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative radioactive analysis are carried for phph of National Company of Abuzabal for chemical fertilizers. Gamma ray spectroscopy techniques are applied. The present study reveals that the radioactivity resulted from these wastes is out of the international standards, and it is strongly not recommended to be used as a construction material or for dwellings

  14. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.)

  15. A study of marine zoo-benthos of OM attouyour (systematic, ecology and radioactivity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a survey of marine zoo-Benthos found in the littoral zone of Om Attouyour. Measuring natural and artificial radioactivity. Likewise, artificial radionuclides levels and Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations were low or within the range measured for similar samples in other coasts of the Mediterranean. (author)

  16. Radiation protection. Radioactivity and health. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet makes an attempt at elucidating the mutual influence of radioactivity and health in a way which is understandable to the non-expert. The basics of radioactivity are briefly explained by way of introduction, the next item to be described is exposure of man to natural and artificial radiation. Somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are subsequently discussed. The whole area of radioecology - starting with radioactive discharge from nuclear plants and going on to the determination of man's exposure to radiation - is covered and supplemented by a description of the risks of radiation therapy. All this serves to describe the results of long-term research on questions of the radiobiological risks in an understandable way and provide useful information about this eminently important area. (orig.)

  17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Issues in Science Fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are presented and reviewed science fiction narratives, films and comics that exploit radioactivity and nuclear issues. These topics to some science fiction authors serve as metaphor of evil and holocaust as well as nice instrument for elaborating various manipulations and conspiracy theories. In that context are of special interest science fiction works depicting apocalyptic post-nuclear worlds and societies, such works being closely connected with cyberpunk genre. However, other more technologically optimistic authors nuclear energy and research regarding nuclear technology and radioactivity consider as eligible and inevitable solution for world peace and prosperity Nowadays, public interest and global fears are shifted from radioactivity and nuclear issues to other catastrophic scenarios threatening future of the mankind, these for example being climate changes and global warming, asteroid impact, collapse of information infrastructure, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence etc. Consequently, these issues are as well increasingly reflected in contemporary science fiction stories.(author)

  18. Radioactive waste and transport. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief definition of the nature of radioactive waste is followed by a more detailed discussion of high level waste, its composition the amounts involved, storage in liquid and in solid form and the storage of non-reprocessed spent fuel. The final disposal of high level waste in deep geological structures is then described, based on the Swedish KBS study. The effectiveness of the artificial and natural barriers in preventing the radioactive substances from reaching the biosphere is discussed. American and Swedish risk analyses are briefly discussed, and practical experience presented. Low and medium level wastes are thereafter treated in a similar, though briefer manner. Transport of radioactive materials, fresh fuel, spent fuel and waste is then dealt with. Regulations for the containers and their tests are briefly presented and the risk of accidents, theft and sabotage during transport are discussed. (JIW)

  19. Electric decontamination of soils from radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many possible methods for controlling accumulation in soils of long-lived residues of radioactive decay, we consider briefly one of the most effective measures. This is the electrical method of deactivating soils by artificial acceleration of cations toward the cathode by a direct electric current with their subsequent extraction from the cathode region. Electric decontamination of soils from radioactive substances is based on electrical transfer of ions, which should be regarded as a process of ion diffusion due to an electrical field. In this paper, we give a short description of a reliable quantitative model of electromigration in soil, in estimating the effective values of cation mobility and constructing a theoretical model as a basis for practical method of soil decontamination from radioactive substances. (authors)

  20. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Moreira Xavier; André Gomes de Lima; Camila Rosa Moraes Vigna; Fabíola Manhas Verbi; Gisele Gonçalves Bortoleto; Karen Goraieb; Carol Hollingworth Collins; Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira Bueno

    2007-01-01

    The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medi...

  1. Radiation and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subject related to ionising radiations including its types and characteristic, way of interaction with matters and how it emitted from the nuclear disintegration profoundly discussed. Atomic structure, formation of radioactive material , types of radioactive material, mode and rate of radioactive decay of radioactive material leading to emission of various types of ionising radiations as well as how to predict radioactive decay using chart of radionuclide also discussed in detail in introductory chapter of this book

  2. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik.; Noh, Hyung Ah [Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2000. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  8. Radioactive characterization of sand samples from Failaka Island in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand samples were collected from Failaka Island in the state of Kuwait for radioactive characterization. The activity concentrations of both natural and artificial radionuclides were determined using gamma (?)-ray spectrometry. From the measured ?-spectra, radioactivity concentrations were determined for Uranium-238 (238U), Thorium-232 (232Th), Radium-226 (226Ra), Potassium-40 (40K), and Cesium-137 (137Cs). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity on Failaka Island, the radium equivalent activity, the representative level index, the external hazard index, the internal hazard index, the absorbed dose, and the effective dose rate were calculated and compared with international approved values. (author)

  9. Six-year experiences in the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An islandwide network for environmental radioactivity monitoring established in 1974 is described with reference to (1) measurement of radioactive fallout from nuclear testings, (2) environmental monitoring for nuclear power plants and a radioactive waste disposal site, (3) a site specially designated by the government, and (4) installations involving radiation. Naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides are equally emphasized. All significant results are reported and discussed. (H.K.)

  10. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  11. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figure 1. Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a device that is implanted into the ... carry load and allow motion). There are many artificial disc designs classified into two general types: total ...

  12. Development and application of artificial rainfall device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An artificial sprinkling simulation device was designed and developed to be used for radioactive nuclides migration tests. In this device water drops are sprinkled through medical syringe needles which vibrate along a circle. After several year operation at the field test site, it was demonstrated that this device is stable and sprinkling homogeneous, with the rainfall intensity from 2 mm/h to 100 mm/h and the low limit of 2 mm/h. Compared with spraying nozzle, it is easy to control the rainfall quantity and sprinkling area, and the evaporation loss is small. The device can meet the requirement of radioactive nuclide migration test and may also be used for other purpose

  13. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 ?m; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 ?N at 1000 V.

  14. Radioactivity measurements as tool for physics dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general people associate environmental radioactivity with the artificial radioactivity and knows very little about natural radioactivity. Thus there is a critical need to improve nuclear physics public education. From 2005 in Italy two programs were promoted from Ministry of Education and University and National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) for scientific dissemination in the field of environmental radioactivity. High school students in many Italian regions were involved in particular in indoor radon measurements. With this program students acquired awareness about the risks of inhalation of radon and its progeny and at the same time contributed to carry out radon monitoring, participating to all the experimental phases, from detectors set-up to data analysis. In particular we report about the activities carried out at Catania University and INFN division regarding a survey in the eastern Sicily. The overall monitoring, spanned over a period of 5 years, was carried out using passive nuclear track detection technique, through CR-39 dosimeters. In total about 500 detectors were placed in dwellings and schools in 57 locations. The investigated area have shown medium-high indoor radon concentrations, higher than the Italian average (70 Bq/m3). From the evaluation of the participating teachers and students, this kind of activities represents a successful strategy to enhance dissemination of physics, in particular in radioactivity topics. (author)

  15. Mathematical problems in modeling artificial heart

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed N. U.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some problems arising in mathematical modeling of artificial hearts. The hydrodynamics of blood flow in an artificial heart chamber is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, coupled with an equation of hyperbolic type subject to moving boundary conditions. The flow is induced by the motion of a diaphragm (membrane) inside the heart chamber attached to a part of the boundary and driven by a compressor (pusher plate). On one side of the diaphragm is the blood and on t...

  16. Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technologies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents, and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled. This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of background radioactivity is proposed. Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogeneity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity rs are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown on Fig. 1. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation measurement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if human activity had led to contamination of soil only by artificial radionuclides. But we can view a totality of soil radioactivity factors in the following way. (author)

  17. Radioactive iodine uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine uptake test; RAIU ... to swallow a liquid or capsule containing radioactive iodine. After a certain period of time (usually 4 ... have: Diarrhea (may decrease absorption of the radioactive iodine) Had recent CT scans using intravenous or oral ...

  18. Ionizing radiations and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter explain the basic of ionizing radiations and its characteristic. Subtopics include radioactivity, quantity and unit, interaction with other materials, radioactive sources and its application in our daily life

  19. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  20. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  1. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  2. 4 Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are classified by the areas of their occurrence, by the level and type of radioactivity and the nature of emitted radiation. Described are spent fuel element storage, processing and long-term burial in geological or iceberg formations and on the sea bottom or under it. Deactivation of radioactive materials uses chemical, physical, physico-chemical and biological methods. The question is discussed of the disposal of radioactive gases and aerosols as is that of nuclear reactor decommissioning. (J.C.)

  3. Experimental studies on utilization of argonless artificial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive argon produced in nuclear reactors causes environmental pollution. One of the substantial methods to reduce radioactive argon is the utilization of the artificial air with low argon content in reactor rooms. The artificial air close to natural air is obtainable by mixing commercial oxygen and nitrogen, however, there are some technical problems to be solved before it is solved. A small scale facility supplying artificial air was manufactured for trial, in order to find the optimum condition of controlling the mixing and to develop the continuous measurement method for the argon concentration in artificial air. In this study, the following facts have been found. For providing with the argonless artificial air close to natural air, the mixing of the gases evaporating from commercial liquid oxygen and nitrogen can be safely controlled. For the mixing control covering the wide range of flow rate, it is necessary to set up an auxiliary line in low flow range, in addition to the ordinary main line. The method of controlling the flow ratio of oxygen and nitrogen is not suitable to the control in low flow range. The oxygen concentration control method detecting it continuously is applicable to the control of whole flow range. The argon concentration is measured with an X-ray emission spectrometer. (Kako, I.)

  4. Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now there has not been conducted assessment of radioactive contamination consequences to the environment and human health in this region. The impact of ionization radiation on people health has been presented

  5. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidenttheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  6. Production of radioactive stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years radioactive stents proved to inhibit neointima formation. This report describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. Different methods of radioactive Stent production are considered. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Research Center Karlsruhe will be described in more detail. (orig.)

  7. Packaging radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides information on the packaging of radioactive wastes for which disposal routes are not presently available. It is the first of a series of Radioactive Waste Management Papers planned to provide information and assistance to those concerned with production of radioactive waste. (author)

  8. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  9. From the discovery of radioactivity to the production of radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    The evolution of the projectiles used to explore the nucleus influenced strongly the development of Nuclear Physics. The alpha particles from radioactivity were the projectiles mostly used up to the second world war. This period was marked by fundamental discoveries, as those of artificial radioactivity and of fission. From the 1930's to 1070, light accelerated particles (electrons, protons, deuterons, isotopes of helium) became universally used. A third period began in the 1960's with the emergence of heavy ion accelerators, the use of which led to a true revolution in the study of nuclear matter. Finally, the fourth period started in 1985 when the first secondary beams of radioactive nuclei were produced, and opened new ways in physics. (authors)

  10. From the discovery of radioactivity to the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the projectiles used to explore the nucleus influenced strongly the development of Nuclear Physics. The alpha particles from radioactivity were the projectiles mostly used up to the second world war. This period was marked by fundamental discoveries, as those of artificial radioactivity and of fission. From the 1930's to 1070, light accelerated particles (electrons, protons, deuterons, isotopes of helium) became universally used. A third period began in the 1960's with the emergence of heavy ion accelerators, the use of which led to a true revolution in the study of nuclear matter. Finally, the fourth period started in 1985 when the first secondary beams of radioactive nuclei were produced, and opened new ways in physics. (authors)

  11. Artificial transmutation of radioactive nuclei by neutron and photon absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Above the particle emission threshold, all nuclei exhibit an isovector giant dipole resonance (GDR), easily excited by several probes. First discovered in 1947, the giant resonances have been extensively studied across the periodic table. From the systematics, it is well established that the centroid of these resonances are at an excitation energy of E (MeV) ? 77*A-1/3 and of decay widths ? (MeV) ? 23*A-1/3. In the mass region of interest (A?100), we expect the GDR to occur at an excitation energy of about 15- 18 MeV and a width of about 5 MeV. A quick look at the nuclear data tables will show that the GDR decay by emitting neutrons which in turn result in very short-lived activities or stable isotopes. In contrast to the conventional Bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, the laser back scatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the selective tuning capability of photons of energies of interest. This feature coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei promises a fertile ground of nuclear isotopes productions. We are proposing the measurements of (?,n) reactions at laser back scatter photon facilities. Specifically, we are working on a proposal to build a beamline at the Canadian Light source (http://www.lightsource.ca). (authors)

  12. Natural and artificial radioactivity in soils of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 222 Rn, 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs were studied in soils of a forest zone located at 3000 m altitude in the central portion of Mexico. the radon concentrations in different soil horizons were determined with solid state nuclear track detectors and the concentrations of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs in soil samples were measured with a gamma spectrometer at low level coupled to a High purity Ge detector. The results indicate differences of a magnitude order in the radon concentrations inside the studied area. The levels of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs are discussed as function of the perturbation grade of the soil and atmospheric pollution. (Author)

  13. Artificial radioactivity of waters of the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cs-137 concentration measurements in surface waters of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, obtained in the R/V 'Gorizont' cruise (May - June 1998), are described. The annual Cs-137 inputs to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea since 1959 till 1998 are estimated

  14. Decrease of deposited artificial radioactivity in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of cesium during the first three years after deposition was investigated with in-situ gamma spectrometry at 48 measuring sites. An evaluation method was developed which allowed determination of retention on asphalt surfaces, the effective depth profile in soils covered with grass, and time factor developments of the gamma dose rate. Two months after deposition, the gamma dose rate on grassy soils amounts to 60% of the dose rate for smooth large-scale surfaces with identical deposition, but without weathering or soil migration. After 3 years this ratio lies at 35%. On asphalt surfaces, however, there was after 2 months only a dose rate of 20% of the dose rate on smooth surfaces without weathering; after 3 years it was only 4%. Environment factors were defined which determined the ratio of dose rates on measuring areas to dose rates on large grassy surfaces. The environment factors are the smaller, the bigger the proportion of asphalt. They are constant as regards the time factor, or they decrease gradually after deposition. Results were approximated analytically. The investigation of tiles showed that there was an activity retention of 30-60% on roofs in Munich following wet deposition of cesium. After 2 years it was still 10-25%. (orig./HP)

  15. The artificial cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisetti, Naresh; Islam, Mohammad Mirazul; Griffith, May

    2013-01-01

    Human corneal transplantation to date suffers from the shortage of good-quality donor tissue, and in some conditions, allografting is contraindicated. A range of artificial replacements to donor allograft corneas have been developed. These range from keratoprostheses (KPro) that replace basic corneal functions of light transmission and protection to regenerative medicine strategies for regenerating one or more layers of the human cornea. This chapter reviews the advances made in developing artificial corneas or more accurately, artificial alternatives to donor allograft corneas for ocular application. PMID:23690003

  16. Artificial Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and contains an excellent photo gallery of coral ecosystems around the world (2). The collection includes six pages of artificial reef photos taken in the Pacific. The following site comes from the online companion to the BBC's acclaimed documentary series The Blue Planet. Based on the episode The Web of Life, this site offers a fun, multimedia challenge for learning about and testing one's knowledge of coral reefs (3). The site includes a section on artificial reefs (click on Take it Further). Next, an August 2001 segment from National Public Radio's All Things Considered explores efforts to create artificial reefs using decommissioned New York City subway cars -- a project of Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control in the Division of Fish and Wildlife (4). Likewise, the non-profit group Artificial Reefs of the Keys is working to bring a de-commissioned military ship to the Florida Keys (5). The New Jersey Scuba Diver Web site provides an excellent introduction to artificial reef ecology; focused on reefs in New Jersey, of course. The mini-tutorial comes courtesy of William Figly, Principal Fisheries Biologist for the New Jersey Artificial Reef Program (6). The Fall 2001 issue of California Wild, the magazine of the California Academy of Sciences, addresses the benefits and concerns of off shore oil rigs becoming artificial reefs (7). Finally, visitors will find dozens of news articles and Web links related to artificial reefs in this entry, a page from the New England Artificial Reef Society Web site (8).

  17. Generalised Derived Limits for Selected Artificial Radionuclides in Foodstruffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of generalised derived limits for selected artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs consumed by the Indonesians have been carried out. The calculations is based on annual dose limit of 1 mSv for members of the public and the data on dose equivalent per unit of intake for the respective radionuclides, whilst the data of food consumption were taken from a survey conducted by The Central Bureau of Statistics. The generalised derived limits presented, as well as the derived investigation which the results of artificial radioactivity level monitoring in environmental foodstuffs can be compared. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Pregnancy rate in lactating Bos indicus cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination and treated with different follicular growth inducers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ériklis, Nogueira; Dayanna Schiavi do Nascimento, Batista; Luiz Carlos Cesar da, Costa Filho; Alexandre Menezes, Dias; Juliana Corrêa Borges, Silva; Luís Carlos Vinhas, Ítavo.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing eCG with FSH or FSH/LH on the diameter of ovulatory follicles (DOF) and the pregnancy rates (PR) of lactating Bos indicus cows subjected to a synchronization of ovulation protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) [...] based on progesterone, estradiol benzoate (EB), PGF2?, and estradiol cypionate (EC). On day 0, primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows (n = 329) at 68 days postpartum were body condition scored (BCS) and received a P4 implant (PRIMER 1.0 g P4) plus 2 mg EB intramuscularly (IM). At day 8, the implant was removed, and 250 ?g cloprostenol were injected IM along with 0.5 mg EC. At the time of implant removal, the animals were divided into one of four treatments: cows received (G1) 1 mL of saline solution IM (Control; n = 80); (G2) 300 IU eCG IM (ECG300; n = 84); (G3) 15 mg FSH IM (Folltropin; n = 82); and (G4) 30 IU FSH/LH IM (Pluset; n = 83); all cows were subjected to FTAI 48-54 h after implant removal (day 10). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed to measure the DOF to FTAI and to estimate the pregnancy rate on day 35. A statistical analysis examined the effects of the treatment, technician, semen, BCS, calf age and parity on PR to FTAI. There was no significant difference in PR and DOF among the treatment groups (G1, 41.3%, 13.1 mm; G2, 46.4%, 14.5 mm; G3, 46.3%, 14.2 mm; and G4, 48.2%, 14.3 mm), but PR was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows. Commercial FSH solutions (Pluset or Folltropin) do not promote increases in PR or DOF of lactating Nellore cows and are equal to eCG in promoting growth in preovulatory follicles and elevating the PR in Nellore cows with a moderate BCS subjected to a progesterone-based FTAI protocol with EC.

  19. Clinical application of artificial bone in the maxillofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Hideto; Chung, Ung-il; Igawa, Kazuyo; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Chikazu, Daichi; Iino, Mitsuyoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Hard tissue reconstruction is very useful for bony defects of the maxillofacial region. Autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, and artificial bone have been used to reconstruct maxillofacial bone; however, the use of autogenous bone involves high surgical invasiveness because of the need to harvest the bone. The use of allogeneic bone is associated with infections, raises ethical concerns, and is not widely used in Japan. Artificial bone has several advantages, including no need for bone harvesting, excellent biocompatibility, and a relatively easy surgical procedure. Use of artificial bone avoids the much greater invasiveness of harvesting bone, and several types of artificial bone have been developed. Design requirements for artificial bone include surgical manipulability, structural compatibility with the defective area, support properties, and the ability to induce bone regeneration; however, no artificial bone meeting all these requirements has yet been developed. Artificial bone is used in many patients in our medical center, and we have been active in developing the next generation of artificial bone with better properties. In this article, we present a case history and discuss the future development of artificial bone for use in maxillofacial reconstruction. PMID:19184280

  20. Categorization of radioactive sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. They are also used in some military applications. Many are in the form of sealed sources with the radioactive materials firmly contained or bound within a suitable capsule or housing. The risks posed by these sources vary widely, depending on such factors as the radionuclides used, the physical and chemical form and the activity. Sealed sources, unless they have been breached or are leaking, present a risk of external radiation exposure only. However, breached or leaking sealed sources, as well as unsealed radioactive materials, may give rise to contamination of the environment and the intake of radioactive materials into the human body. Until the 1950s, only radionuclides of natural origin, particularly 226Ra, were generally available for use. Since then, radionuclides produced artificially in nuclear facilities and accelerators, including 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs and 192Ir, have become widely used. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation, and the Safety Requirements for Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety set out the essential elements of a regulatory control system. Sealed and unsealed radioactive souystem. Sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used for a variety of purposes and they incorporate a wide range of radionuclides and amounts of radioactive material. High activity sources, if not managed safely and securely, can cause severe deterministic effects to individuals in a short period of time, whereas low activity sources are unlikely to cause exposures with harmful consequences. his Safety Guide provides a risk based ranking of radioactive sources and practices in five categories. The categorization system is based on a logical and transparent method that provides the flexibility for it to be applied in a wide range of circumstances. On the basis of this categorization, risk informed decisions can be made, in a graded approach to the regulatory control of radioactive sources for the purposes of safety and security. Following an assessment of the major findings of the International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, held in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998, the IAEA undertook a number of tasks designed to improve the safety and security of radioactive sources around the world. An ensuing 'Action Plan for the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials', approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 1999, identified the need for a categorization of radiation sources. A publication dealing with categorization was prepared in 2000, which was subsequently improved upon and superseded by the Categorization of Radioactive Sources, issued in 2003. This Safety Guide provides guidance on categorizing radioactive sources and on how this categorization can be used to meet the requirements for regulatory control set out in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1 and the BSS. The categorization system is based on that of IAEA-TECDOC- 1344, and was developed by considering a variety of circumstances of use and misuse of radioactive sources

  1. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. PMID:25497990

  2. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  3. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Raju; Nitin Sikka; Sanjeev Kumar; Rahul Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Based on the recent surge in interest in the both academic and games industry in character- based artificial intelligence. Although the games are mainly related with entertainments, but with this there are other serious applications of gaming, including military training, educational games, driving training, medical training and games that reflect social consciousness or advocate for a cause. Artificial intelligence in games is a concept of taking game applications beyond the lim...

  5. Artificial Left Ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Tohid Emami; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left...

  6. Artificial impedance surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Olli

    2009-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis the properties of certain artificial impedance surfaces and electromagnetic materials are studied. In the context of the thesis the word artificial refers to the electromagnetic properties of homogeneous surfaces and materials, that are not naturally observed in nature. The macroscopic electromagnetic properties of these homogeneous materials are determined by their microscopic structures. Therefore it is convenient to call these surfaces and materials also as metasurf...

  7. The Artificial Regression Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lay, Nathan; Barbu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The Artificial Prediction Market is a recent machine learning technique for multi-class classification, inspired from the financial markets. It involves a number of trained market participants that bet on the possible outcomes and are rewarded if they predict correctly. This paper generalizes the scope of the Artificial Prediction Markets to regression, where there are uncountably many possible outcomes and the error is usually the MSE. For that, we introduce the reward kern...

  8. Artificial periodontal defects

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jan

    1982-01-01

    Artificial periodontal defects in experimental animals have been widely used in the past to study the effects of periodontal treatment procedures. Since the ultimate goal of animal experiments is the extrapolation of the results to t he human situation, the artificially created periodontal defects should resemble the naturally occurring periodontal lesions found in a man, as closely as possible. First, the features of naturally occuring periodontitis are described. Next, results of the histol...

  9. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  10. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 (137Cs) and strontium-90 (90Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author) raw produce. (author)

  11. Charge distributions and coagulation of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-charging of radioactive aerosols will be reduced by background ions, such as those produced by radioactive gases. The sources of these background ions and their production rates are specified for a reactor containment atmosphere during a possible nuclear accident. Previous theory is extended to calculate the charging of a polydisperse radioactive aerosol. Gaussian approximations to charge distributions on an aerosol of a given size, and are shown to give a good representation of the exact numerical charge distributions of a Cs aerosol at normal temperatures, and also for highly radioactive aerosol containing 131I in a containment atmosphere. Extensive calculations are performed for charged-induced modifications to Brownian coagulation rates between steady-state size distribution of these radioactive aerosols, and also between small-sized radioactive aerosol and larger (non-radioactive) aerosol. The results show considerable enhancements of the coagulation rates between large and small-sized aerosol, but also a strong suppression of coagulation between large particles. Rate modifications calculated using the Gaussian approximations are generally close to the exact values. Time-dependent calculations for a monodisperse ?-decaying aerosol reveal enhancements in coagulation rates even when the average charge on the aerosol is positive. Our results are relevant to behaviour in a dusty plasma. (author)

  12. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  13. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  14. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII during 2010 and 2011. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the Irish environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable, they are low. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Trace amounts of radioactive isotopes consistent with the Fukushima nuclear accident were detected in air, rainwater and milk samples during the period March to May 2011. These increases in levels of radioactivity were not of concern from a public health point of view. For the remainder of the reporting period, activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne particles were low and consistent with measurements made in recent years. Radioactivity levels in milk, mixed diet and a wide range of foodstuffs were low and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. All drinking waters tested were found to be in compliance with the total indicative dose defined in national and EU legislation. The doses incurred by the Irish public in 2010 and 2011 as a result of artificial radioactivity in the marine environment are small when compared to dose limits or to natural radiation doses received by the Irish public. The doses to the most exposed individuals, members of the oyster and mussel farmers critical group, were approximately 0.02 per cent and 0.05 per cent of the annual dose limit of 1000 microsieverts for members of the public from practices involving controllable sources of radiation in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The increase in 2011 can be attributed to changes in sampling protocol and analytical method. These doses represent a small fraction of the average annual dose to a person in Ireland from all sources of radioactivity of 3950 microsieverts. In general, levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment remain fairly constant and are broadly consistent with levels reported previously. It must be emphasised that the levels of radioactive contamination present in the marine environment, do not warrant any modification of the habits of people in Ireland, either in respect of consumption of seafood or any other use of the amenities of the marine environment

  15. National policy and experience with the management of radioactive wastes from non-fuel cycle activities in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research, production, and application of radioisotopes in many fields of science, industry, agriculture, medicine, education, etc. proceeded in the former Czechoslovak Republic (CSFR) since the mid-fifties. These activities resulted in a great accumulation of relatively large volumes and activities of radioactive wastes. Therefore, in 1959 the Czechoslovak government appointed the Institute for Research, Production, and Application of Radioisotopes (IRPAR), now NYCOM, to be the central authority for collection and disposal of these radioactive wastes. In 1972 these responsibilities were defined in more detail by the decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic No. 59/1972 on the protection of public health against the effects of ionizing radiation. From the very beginning the services for collection, transport, and disposal provided by IRPAR (NYCOM) were based on the concept of waste concentration and their safe disposal in well-controlled facilities. The aim of disposal is to guarantee that man and his environment will not suffer, neither at present nor in the future, from these wastes. This aim is achieved by isolation of radioactive wastes from the human environment by a system of multiple barriers for a sufficiently long period of time to allow activity to decay below acceptable limits. The disposal of radioactive wastes in the central repositories started in 1959, when the first repository located near the village Hostim in the Beroun District was put ige Hostim in the Beroun District was put in operation. The operational period of this repository was ended in 1963 and it was closed in 1965. At present, there are other two repositories in operation. The repository Richard serves for disposal of wastes containing artificial radionuclides, i.e., nuclides with induced radioactivity and fission products. The repository Bratrstvi serves for disposal of naturally occurring radionuclides, i.e., nuclides of uranium and thorium and their daughter products. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs

  16. Studies on the utility of artificial mutations in plant breeding, 16: Gene analysis of male sterility induced in rice [Oryza sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven male-sterile mutants were induced from a rice variety Sasanishiki by ethyleneimine and ?-ray treatments of seeds. Nine of them produced no pollen grains or only abortive ones and the other two showed extremely low pollen fertilities. The eleven mutants were crossed with the original variety. All F1 hybrids were fertile, i.e., normal in both pollen and seed fertilities. In eight of their F2 progenies, fertile and male-sterile plants segregated in a ratio of 3 to 1, indicating that the male sterility of the eight mutants was controlled by a single recessive gene. In one of the other three, segregation ratio suggested the participation of two recessive genes, while in the remaining two, the number of the genes responsible for male sterility could not be determined. (author)

  17. Categorization of Radioactive Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. They are also used in some military applications. Many are in the form of sealed sources with the radioactive materials firmly contained or bound within a suitable capsule or housing. The risks posed by these sources vary widely, depending on such factors as the radionuclides used, the physical and chemical form and the activity. Sealed sources, unless they have been breached or are leaking, present a risk of external radiation exposure only. However, breached or leaking sealed sources, as well as unsealed radioactive materials, may give rise to contamination of the environment and the intake of radioactive materials into the human body. Until the 1950s, only radionuclides of natural origin, particularly 226Ra, were generally available for use. Since then, radionuclides produced artificially in nuclear facilities and accelerators, including 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs and 192Ir, have become widely used. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation, and the Safety Requirements for Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety set out the essential elements of a regulatet out the essential elements of a regulatory control system. Sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used for a variety of purposes and they incorporate a wide range of radionuclides and amounts of radioactive material. High activity sources, if not managed safely and securely, can cause severe deterministic effects to individuals in a short period of time, whereas low activity sources are unlikely to cause exposures with harmful consequences. his Safety Guide provides a risk based ranking of radioactive sources and practices in five categories. The categorization system is based on a logical and transparent method that provides the flexibility for it to be applied in a wide range of circumstances. On the basis of this categorization, risk informed decisions can be made, in a graded approach to the regulatory control of radioactive sources for the purposes of safety and security. Following an assessment of the major findings of the International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, held in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998, the IAEA undertook a number of tasks designed to improve the safety and security of radioactive sources around the world. An ensuing 'Action Plan for the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials', approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 1999, identified the need for a categorization of radiation sources. A publication dealing with categorization was prepared in 2000, which was subsequently improved upon and superseded by the Categorization of Radioactive Sources, issued in 2003. This Safety Guide provides guidance on categorizing radioactive sources and on how this categorization can be used to meet the requirements for regulatory control set out in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1 and the BSS. The categorization system is based on that of IAEA-TECDOC-1344, and was developed by considering a variety of circumstances of use and misuse of radioactive sources

  18. Categorization of radioactive sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education; they are also used in some military applications. Many are in the form of sealed sources with the radioactive materials firmly contained or bound within a suitable capsule or housing. The risks posed by these sources vary widely, depending on such factors as the radionuclides used, the physical and chemical form and the activity. Sealed sources, unless they have been breached or are leaking, present a risk of external radiation exposure only. However, breached or leaking sealed sources, as well as unsealed radioactive materials, may give rise to contamination of the environment and the intake of radioactive materials into the human body. Until the 1950s, only radionuclides of natural origin, particularly 226Ra, were generally available for use. Since then, radionuclides produced artificially in nuclear facilities and accelerators, including 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs and 192Ir, have become widely used. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation, and the Safety Requirements for Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety set out the essential elements of a regulatet out the essential elements of a regulatory control system. Sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used for a variety of purposes and they incorporate a wide range of radionuclides and amounts of radioactive material. High activity sources, if not managed safely and securely, can cause severe deterministic effects to individuals in a short period of time, whereas low activity sources are unlikely to cause exposures with harmful consequences. his Safety Guide provides a risk based ranking of radioactive sources and practices in five categories. The categorization system is based on a logical and transparent method that provides the flexibility for it to be applied in a wide range of circumstances. On the basis of this categorization, risk informed decisions can be made, in a graded approach to the regulatory control of radioactive sources for the purposes of safety and security. Following an assessment of the major findings of the International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, held in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998, the IAEA undertook a number of tasks designed to improve the safety and security of radioactive sources around the world. An ensuing 'Action Plan for the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials', approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 1999, identified the need for a categorization of radiation sources. A publication dealing with categorization was prepared in 2000, which was subsequently improved upon and superseded by the Categorization of Radioactive Sources, issued in 2003. This Safety Guide provides guidance on categorizing radioactive sources and on how this categorization can be used to meet the requirements for regulatory control set out in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1 and the BSS. The categorization system is based on that of IAEA-TECDOC- 1344, and was developed by considering a variety of circumstances of use and misuse of radioactive sources

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  20. Radioactive contamination of wood and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents research on radioactive contamination of the three most common kinds of wood in Croatia -- beech, oak and fir as well as acorn. Gamma-spectrometric measurements carried out on the samples of bark and wood of beech, oak, fir and acorn have shown radioactivity contents ranging from 1.6±0.1 to 37.3±0.5 Bq/kg from deposited 137Cs, whose concentrations in the soil of Croatia have increased after the Chernobyl accident. Measurements have also shown the radioactivity originating from 40K and 214Bi, which are part of the natural composition of the soil. The distribution of the radionuclides in wood has been discussed, as well as the impact of radioactive contamination of wood by the artificial radionuclide 137Cs upon the forest ecosystem. According to the corresponding model, it has been calculated that a 10 h daily stay in a typical family house increases the annual radiation dose of the population, due to the deposited 137Cs in the structure or furniture, by 343 ?Sv

  1. Characteristics and Disposal Categorization of Solid Radioactive Waste from the Front End of the Uranium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper categorization of radioactive waste forms the basis for defining its disposal method. In particular, it is the basis for defining the disposal policy for solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle to identify scientifically its characteristics, in view of the differences in regulatory approach between artificial radioactive waste and NORM waste. The paper examines the disposal policy and practice in China and other countries for solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle and discusses the confusion in disposal of the waste as artificial radioactive waste. The radionuclide composition and characteristics of the solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle are investigated in detail and a new idea that such waste needs to be disposed of and categorized as NORM waste is proposed. (author)

  2. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  3. Radioactivity levels in surface water of lakes around Izmir / Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity presents in surface continental waters is mainly due to the presence of radioactive elements in the earth's crust, other artificial radionuclides have appeared due to such human activities as nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing and manufacture and use of radioactive sources It is well known that natural radionuclides can be effective as tracers for the different processes controlling the distribution of elements among dissolved and particulate phases in aquatic systems. The detection of high radionuclide concentrations was proposed as a public health problem in several areas and consequently studies into the risks of radionuclides were started in the 2000s. Especially, these radioactive substances in groundwater are an unwanted and involuntary risk factor from natural sources, not artificial sources. These radioactive substances include uranium, radon found in uranium series, and other radioactive substances such as radium and gross alpha. Uranium present in rock, soil, and natural materials, and is found in small quantities in air, water, and food that people always contact. In this project, lake water samples were collected from three lakes around Izmir-Turkey. In surface lake water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkaline content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the lake water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. The radioactivity concentrations related to gross radium isotopes, gross-? and gross-? activities in the surface lake water were determined. The correlation among some parameters for water samples and concentrations of uranium, activity concentration of gross radium isotopes, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are also discussed

  4. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  5. Experiments with radioactive source

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Marus?a

    2012-01-01

    In this diploma thesis the most interesting and instructive experiments have been collected using radioactive sources, which intended for lecturing students and teachers. The diploma thesis begins with topics about radioactive nuclei (structure of nucleus, types of decays, how radioactivity is measured, radiation dose and its effects on human body). The experimental part presents the measurements and calculated absorption coefficients for the isotope Strontium 90. In the first part I examine ...

  6. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  7. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  8. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the recent surge in interest in the both academic and games industry in character- based artificial intelligence. Although the games are mainly related with entertainments, but with this there are other serious applications of gaming, including military training, educational games, driving training, medical training and games that reflect social consciousness or advocate for a cause. Artificial intelligence in games is a concept of taking game applications beyond the limits of interactive gaming. Such system learn about the player’s behaviours during game play and beyond the pre-programmed set provides and interactively develop and provide a best experience to the players.General Terms The main aim of our research is to develop such artificial intelligence techniques that can have a substantial impact in the game industry. In the following research paper we are going to study about Case Based Reasoning (CBR, automatic behaviour adjustment for believing characters, drama management and user modelling for interactive stories and strategic behaviour planning for real time strategy games. We include problems in adopting artificial intelligence in games and some algorithms for respective games. Future aspect of artificial intelligence in games is also mentioned in the paper.

  10. The radioactive inventory of a decommissioned magnox power station structure. 1. Measurements of neutron induced activity in samples from the reactor island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first of a series which, together, aim to produce an accurate assessment of neutron induced activation levels in the fixed structural components of a reactor of the steel pressure vessel Magnox type. It describes the measurements made of induced activation, necessary in order to establish credibility in the complex calculations described in the subsequent reports. The report also attempts systematically to assess the potential contributions to the dose and disposal problem from all isotopes with a half-life in excess of 5 years. This is necessary in order to ensure that no isotope has been overlooked which could limit any part of the plan for the decommissioning of a Magnox reactor. In addition the report aims to determine concentrations, in each major material type, of trace elements which lead to the isotopes limiting in decommissioning. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste in perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes

  12. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  13. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.)

  14. Stress and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Supreme Court case ''People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE) vs Metropolitan Edison,'' one of the conclusions was that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission did not have to consider psychological distress, community cohesiveness and sense of well-being in the supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covering the restart of Three Mile Island (TMI). This decision was based on the assumption that the intention of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to focus on the physical environment, and the casual chain between psychological distress and adverse health effects is tenuous. In this paper the authors summarize the literature on the relationship between environmentally-induced stress and its effects on health. They present the results of a new survey research project in which levels of stress were evaluated in West Chicago, Illinois, a community in which radioactive wastes have been present for many years. Explanatory social variables are brought into the evaluation in which stress is evaluated as a function of proximity to the radioactive waste site. In addition, stress is discussed in the context of attitudes on nuclear power, environmental group participation, and knowledge about the health effects associated with radioactive waste. The paper ends with a discussion of the portion of the Supreme Court decision in which psychological distress, community stability, cohesiveness and sense of well being are excluded as variables to address in EISs excluded as variables to address in EISs

  15. Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Based Models for Chemical Biodegradability Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Sabljic; Mihelcic, James R.; Dragan Gamberger; Baker, James R.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a review of biodegradability modeling efforts including a detailed assessment of two models developed using an artificial intelligence based methodology. Validation results for these models using an independent, quality reviewed database, demonstrate that the models perform well when compared to another commonly used biodegradability model, against the same data. The ability of models induced by an artificial intelligence methodology to accommodate complex interactions in ...

  16. Helium 3 precipitation in AISI 316L stainless steel induced by radioactive decay of tritium: Microstructural study of helium bubble precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the thermonuclear technology has given rise to a renewed interest in the study of the behavior of helium in metals. A great amount of work is still required for the understanding of the role of helium on the mechanical properties of structural materials for fusion technology, especially austenitic stainless steels. This article deals with the study of the influence of thermomechanical heat treatments, aging conditions (temperature and time), and helium concentration of helium bubble precipitation in a 316L austenitic steel. Helium was generated by the radioactive decay of tritium (tritium trick). Helium bubbles impede the grain growth in 316L steel aged at 1,373 K and also the recrystallization reaction at this temperature if cold working is performed prior to aging. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated a weak helium precipitation at 1,073 and 1,223 K, presumably due to the presence of trapping sites for tritium, and no bubble growth after aging up to 100 hours. Precipitation sites are mainly dislocations in the matrix at 1,073 K and grain boundaries and individual dislocations in the matrix at 1,223 K. The large bubble size (50 nm) observed at 1,373 K, even for short aging times (0.083), can partly be attributed to bubble dragging by dislocations toward the grain boundaries. Cold deformation prior to aging leads to a larger bubble size due to growth enhancement during recrystallization. Decreasing the helium content leads tion. Decreasing the helium content leads to a smaller helium bubble size and density. Tritium trapping at helium bubbles may favor helium 3 accumulation on defects such as grain boundaries, as observed by tritium autoradiography

  17. An artificial molecular pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration. PMID:25984834

  18. Artificial Heart Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

    Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

  19. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  1. Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine ordeastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the analysis is that environmental management generated radioactive wastes have substantially less impact than radioactive sources if dispersed by terrorist-induced explosion or fire. From a health standpoint, the impact is very small. However, there is no basis to conclude that wastes are totally unattractive for use in a disruptive or economic damage event. Waste managers should be cognizant of this potential and take measures to ensure security of stored waste and waste shipments. (authors)

  2. Radioactivity and environment: example of the Brest roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the author makes, first, an inventory of the natural and artificial sources of radiations. Then, in a second chapter, he presents the characteristics, origin and management of radioactive wastes. Chapter 3 treats of the radiological monitoring of the environment with the example of the Brest gulf (Brittany, Western France). The last chapter presents the role of pharmacists in the supply of potassium iodide tablets, in public information and in the participation to consultation networks about the risks of nuclear energy and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  3. Measurement of radioactivity in agricultural products (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity levels and concentration of radionuclides in agricultural products like beans, sesame, potato, etc. were measured by using Low Level Beta/Alpha System and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. The levels of radioactivity were found to be less than the Derivedc Intervention Level adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1991 (IAEA BSS safety series No. 115-1). No artificial radionuclides such as fission products, activation products were not found whereas radionuclides found in the samples are only natural occurring radionuclide, K-40. (author)

  4. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  5. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  6. Low-background shielding of Ge detectors for the measurement of residual 152Eu radioactivity induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi

    1992-05-01

    Low-background gamma-ray spectrometers were constructed for the measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by the atomic-bomb neutrons. Optimum thickness of lead shielding, inner linings and background characteristics were investigated for an ordinary coaxial- and a well-type Ge detector. In addition, an anticoincidence shielding was installed for the well-type detector. As a result, the background counting rate due to cosmic rays was greatly reduced. It was also shown that a sample preparation to enrich the objective activity and eliminate background activities was important in the case of the 152Eu measurement.

  7. Application of artificial intelligence to radiation control, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently artificial intelligence (AI) which has functions of our interpretations and judgments has been applied to various fields of science. In the first application of AI to the transport procedure of the radioactive material, a prototype of expert system was developed with UTI-LISP programming language to appropriately classify mainly the packages and packagings according to regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Classification of the packages and packagings for the consignment is mainly determined from input informations such as radionuclides, its activities, states and conveyances through a forward reasoning method of the expert system. The rationalization of practice on our interpretations and judgments for transport of radioactive material including uniformity and reliability of our decision were confirmed as the result of an application to radiation control. (author)

  8. The oceanic geochemistry of artificial radionuclides: The SEEP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides have been and continue to be introduced to the marine environment in various ways. The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1960s resulting in global fallout has been the major contributor of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Nuclear power plants have produced a large quantity of radioactive wastes which are presently being stored on land. The United States, amongst other countries (e.g., England, France, Japan), was seriously investigating the possibility of disposing of these radioactive wastes in the ocean. Clearly it is important to study and to understand the oceanographic behavior of radioactive substances. The DOE sponsored SEEP (Shelf Edge Exchange Processes) research; discussed here, is a detailed study into the biogeochemistry of radionuclides in the shelf and slope environment. The questions asked by this research (see below) pertain directly to problems arising from the introduction of radionuclides into the oceans from energy-related industries (e.g. nuclear power plants, waste disposal)

  9. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  10. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by first selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 6 claims, 8 drawing figures

  11. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  12. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  13. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of some waste management activities including sources, system of collection and treatment of radioactive wastes. The report also includes methods and options used for treatment of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  15. Shielding experiments by the JASMIN collaboration at Fermilab (II) - Radioactivity measurement induced by secondary particles from the anti-proton production target

    CERN Document Server

    Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Iwase, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran; Oishi, Koji; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has performed an experiment to conduct measurements of nuclear reaction rates around the anti-proton production (Pbar) target at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). At the Pbar target station, the target, consisting an Inconel 600 cylinder, was irradiated by a 120 GeV/c proton beam from the FNAL Main Injector. The beam intensity was 3.6 x 10**12 protons per second. Samples of Al, Nb, Cu, and Au were placed near the target to investigate the spatial and energy distribution of secondary particles emitted from it. After irradiation, the induced activities of the samples were measured by studying their gamma ray spectra using HPGe detectors. The production rates of 30 nuclides induced in Al, Nb, Cu, Au samples were obtained. These rates increase for samples placed in a forward (small angle) position relative to the target. The angular dependence of these reaction rates becomes larger for increasing threshold energy. These experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo ca...

  16. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations II. Preliminary findings on the radioactive fallout due to nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since we have detected a considerable amount of artificial radioactivity in the rain in spring 1954, it has become one of the most important items, from the health physics point of view, to continue measurements of radioactivity in the rain and in the atmosphere. To watch out the radioactive contamination of our environment due to repeated nuclear weapons testings in other countries was also considered to be important from the nuclear engineering point of view, in the sense that the permissible allowances of the radioactivity for the peaceful uses of atomic energy might be lowered if the degree of radioactive contamination due to nuclear testings should continue to increase gradually and indefinitely. If the permissible level were lowered, the cost for radiation protection may be expected to increase at the peaceful uses of atomic energy and should the radioactive contamination increase seriously in the future, it was anticipated that we may have to face a very difficult situation in designing the atomic energy facilities for peaceful purposes in our country. From these points of views, we have been continuing measurements of the radioactivity in the rain in Osaka, Japan since the spring of 1954. Some of the preliminary findings are introduced in this paper

  17. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Radioactive gas dose computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic device is described for rapidly determining the volume of a radioactive gas needed to be removed from a closed container such that the removed volume will constitute a predetermined amount of radioactivity. Further, the device incorporates novel features including the use of a shielded valve assembly so that this determination, and actual withdrawal of the desired amount of radioactive gas may be accomplished without removing the closed container from its leaded radiation shield. The leaded radiation shield also serves as a shipping container for the multidose radioactive gas container, and is easily removed for periodic interchange with similarly shielded replacement radioactive source containers. The shielded valve assembly attaches to the top of the shielded closed container to facilitate withdrawal with minimum radiation exposure to the handling operator

  19. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  20. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  1. Radioactive waste disposing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vessel for containing radioactive wastes is composed of a cylindrical vessel main body and a vessel lid. The vessel main body and the vessel lid are made of stainless steels respectively. A vessel for disposing radioactive wastes is composed of a disposing vessel main body and a disposing vessel lid. The disposing vessel main body and the processing vessel lid are made of a reinforced material such as carbon steels or stainless steels respectively. The radioactive waste containing vessel is incorporated in the inside of the disposing vessel main body while having a bentonite-type filler over the entire surface of the containing vessel main body. Then, a radioactive waste processing vessel can be obtained, which is suitable to underground disposal of radioactive wastes such as spent fuels in a stable state. (I.N.)

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of 137Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  5. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  6. Artificial joint lubrication.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pražák, Josef; Štol, Miroslav; Musil, Jan

    Olomouc : Palacký University, 2000 - (Vaverka, F.; Janura, M.), s. 118-119 ISBN 80-244-0193-2. [Conference of the Czech Society of biomechanics with international participation Biomechanics of man 2000. Olomouc (CZ), 24.11.2000-25.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA MPO FB/64/98 SKELET Keywords : lubrication * synovial fluid * artificial joints Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  8. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  9. Natural or Artificial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This worksheet, suitable for pre-readers, directs students to categorize pictures as sources of either natural or artificial light. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  10. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  11. Artificial intelligence and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbakis, NG

    1998-01-01

    Covering artificial intelligence and automation, these contributions discuss: the evolution of AI tools; an SPN knowledge representation scheme; software engineering using AI; the impact of AI in VLSI design automation; incremental adaptation as a method to improve reactive behaviour; and more.

  12. The Artificial Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  13. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plze? : University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plze? (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  15. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  16. Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Simari, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Examines the intersection between two fields of inquiry, including Argumentation Theory and Artificial Intelligence. This book presents an overview of key concepts in argumentation theory and of formal models of argumentation in AI. It offers a review of the foundational issues in argumentation and formal argument modeling.

  17. X-ray diffraction on radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction studies on radioactive materials are discussed with the aim of providing a guide to new researchers in the field. Considerable emphasis is placed on the safe handling and loading of not-too-exotic samples. Special considerations such as the problems of film blackening by the gamma rays and changes induced by the self-irradiation of the sample are covered. Some modifications of common diffraction techniques are presented. Finally, diffraction studies on radioactive samples under extreme conditions are discussed, with primary emphasis on high-pressure studies involving diamond-anvil cells

  18. Radioactivity in drinking water. From basics to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material of natural and artificial origin contributes to the radiation exposure of the public. In this paper the current scientific and legal basics are given to show comprehensively the evaluation methods and limitation of public radiation exposure. The implementation of concepts and methods into the radiation protection practice with consideration of the experience in Austria is demonstrated. International developments give an outlook on future solutions of this specific environmental related radiation protection problem. (orig.)

  19. AKTIS Nr. 12: To better understand radioactive aerosol deposit in order to better measure it; Radio-induced lesions: a new step towards healing; Modelling the collapse of an immersed grain column; To better model soot deposit; Towards the prediction of the leakage rate of containment enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the main results of researches undertaken by the IRSN in the field of radiation protection, nuclear safety and security. The topics herein addressed are: radio-induced lesions as a new step towards healing (case of injection mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of induced severe colorectal lesions), the modelling of the collapse of an immersed grain column (to study the nuclear fuel behaviour in an accidental situation through a modelling of fluid-grain interactions), a better understanding of radioactive aerosol deposit (to study particle or aerosol deposits after radioactive releases in the atmosphere in case of accident), a better modelling of soot deposits (in case of fire), the prediction of leakage rates of containment enclosures (ageing phenomena of installations, systems and equipment, with the case of cracks due to material ageing and resulting in confinement losses which could thus be quantified)

  20. Measurement of radioactivity levels and assessment of radioactivity hazards of soil samples in Karaman, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in soil samples collected from surrounding of Karaman in Turkey were measured. Activity concentrations of the concerned radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 40 % at 1.332 MeV. The results obtained for the 238U series (226Ra, 214Pb and 214Bi), 232Th series (228Ac), 40K and fission product 137Cs are discussed. To evaluate the radiological hazard of radioactivity in samples, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose and the external (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) were calculated and presented in comparison with the data collected from different areas in the world and Turkey. (authors)

  1. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  2. Environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station Machu Picchu 1999 - 2000 Antarctic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) initiated the Environmental Radioactivity studies in the Antarctic Region in 1996. The objective of this research was to determine the levels of natural and artificial radioactivity achieving the evaluation of the radiological status in the antarctic region. Samples of brown algae (phaeophyta), lichens, moss, gramineous, soil, marine sediment, sea water and air were collected in the surrounding area of the Machu Picchu Scientific Station. This study shows the results corresponding to the 1999-2000 period

  3. Research on radioactive sources safety assessment based on BP neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on artificial neural network and BP network principle, a mathematical model of radioactive sources safety assessment system is built. To train the model using MATLAB simulation software and improve the factor weight influencing radioactive sources safety assessment gradually can obtain the minimal value of mean-square error between the actual output and the expected output of the network sample. It is proved by simulation calculation that BP network method has the better precision. (authors)

  4. Surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere between prognosis and measurement - early alert in the Deutscher Wetterdienst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) 'German Meteorological Service' is legally responsible for the large-scale surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere. For an early alert of artificial radioactivity gamma-ray-spectrometry of aerosols is performed at selected meteorological stations of the synoptic-climatological network. Results of measurements as well as dispersion calculations are urgently required for making further decisions. The combination of measurements and forecasts combined with airborne measurements in an alert-situation is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Development of an experimental set-up for the measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections of highly radioactive fissile nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companis Iulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of many actinides is complicated by the difficulty in separating capture ?-rays from the large fission-fragment prompt ?-ray background. For example, current estimates of the capture cross section of 233U show large discrepancies, with differences of more than 20%. To improve the accuracy of data, a new experimental set-up for the simultaneous measurement of the neutron-induced capture and fission cross sections was designed, assembled and optimized. The measurements will be performed at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility in Belgium, where neutron cross sections can be measured over a wide energy range with high energy resolution. The fission detector consists of a dedicated multi-plate high-efficiency ionization chamber (IC. The ?-rays produced in capture reaction are detected by an array of C6D6 scintillators. Fission ?–rays are distinguished from capture ?–rays by the anticoincidence signals from the IC and the C6D6 detectors. For the undetected fission events a correction has to be applied based on the efficiency of the IC that should be high and known with a high accuracy. The performance of the IC during dedicated test experiments is presented, focusing on the determination of the detection efficiency.

  6. Nuclear power stations: environmental surveillance of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the radiations they emit, radioactive substances can be detected, identified and measured at extremely low concentrations ? the corresponding masses are lower by a factor ranging from 1000 to 10 000 than those that can be measured by any other chemical or physical method, however precise, applied to non-radioactive substances. Radioisotopes can therefore be detected in the environment at levels much lower than those at which genuine public health problems begin to arise. Unfortunately, we cannot say the same of numerous non-radio active pollutants, which can be measured only at concentrations very close to, or even exceeding, the toxicity threshold. In the mind of the uninformed public confusion seems quite frequently to reign as between the detection threshold and the toxicity threshold. This undoubtedly explains the following situation which is, to say the least, paradoxical: people are afraid of the hypothetical effects of radioactivity at ridiculously low levels, whereas nobody is alarmed at the fact that the toxicity limits for a very large number of non-radioactive, but very real pollutants are being exceeded almost continuously. The sum of all artificial irradiations does not exceed the normal fluctuations of natural irradiation, and if the genetic effects of very low radiation doses were truly cumulative, the natural radiation to which we are all exposed and which is by far the highest would by itself have eliminated every trace of life on earth lonliminated every trace of life on earth long ago. Lastly, let us not forget that merely the use of X-rays in medicine, particularly in radiodiagnosis, represents an additional average artificial irradiation of the population amounting to double the natural radiation (100 millirem per year). This is about 100 times the irradiation which would accrue from nuclear industry even according to the most pessimistic estimate. We have seen that the measures described above will make it genuinely possible to maintain environmental radioactivity in all circumstances at a level which is perfectly compatible with public health regulations. Far from constituting a hazard to the public, nuclear facilities can, by virtue of the strictness of the controls to which they are subjected, serve as a model for combating numerous unacceptable conventional pollutants of the environment, the most alarming of which, indeed, nuclear power will undoubtedly cause to disappear in the long run

  7. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish terrestrial environment, including foodstuffs, remain extremely low and do not pose a significant risk to health. Nonetheless, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland remains vigilant and will continue to monitor the exposure of people living in Ireland to all relevant sources of ionising radiation

  8. Measurement of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive nuclei or atoms released in the atmospheric environment may lead to the formation of radioactive aerosols which are widely used as a tracer for investigating atmospheric transport and diffusion. Aerosols collection methods are presented followed by radioactivity measurement including alpha-rays (proportional counters), beta-rays (gas-flow counters), and gamma radiations NaI scintillation and germanium semiconductor counters). For discriminating the nuclei, silicon semi-conductor or liquid scintillation counter are used. For particulate radius measurement, several methods such as impact, diffusion battery, and track detector counting are used. (S. Ohno)

  9. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  10. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  11. What is Radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and radioactive substances are found naturally in the environment and can also be man-made. They have a range of beneficial applications, from generating power to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. These activities lead to radioactive waste in various gaseous, liquid and solid forms. The waste is radioactive because the atoms in the waste are unstable and spontaneously release ionizing radiation during the transformation process towards becoming stable. This ionizing radiation can have potentially harmful effects. Therefore, it is important to safely manage the waste in order to protect people and the environment, and help prevent waste from becoming a burden on future generations

  12. Monitoring the environment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a review of the basic principles in radiation monitoring activity. The main sources of radioactive products and the main radioisotopes identified in current monitoring are enlisted and discussed. The paper contains the following six sections dealing with air, water, land and vegetation radioactivity monitoring radioactivity monitoring and also aspects concerning sampling and measurements. The measurements are either global, in case of alpha and beta radiations or spectral. Also the principles of external dose evaluation are given. 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  13. CT staging of lung cancer: the role of artificial pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of artificially induced pneumothorax in the evaluation of the chest wall and mediastinal invasion in patients with peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. CT scans of 22 patients obtained after induced pneumothorax were evaluated. All patients had peripheral lung mass abutting the pleura on a routine CT scan. Room air of 200-400ml was introduced through intrathoracic negative pressure initially, followed by pressure injection through the 18 gauge long bevelled needle under fluoroscopic control. Conclusively, CT with artificial pneumothorax added more information than conventional CT in the evaluation of the chest wall or mediastinal invasion by lung cancer without notable risk

  14. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  15. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  16. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  17. A scenario for a genetically controlled fission of artificial vesicles.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik

    Artificial vesicles have been used for decades as model systems of biological cells to investigate scientific questions in simulacra. In recent years, the significance of artificial vesicles further increased because they represent ideal candidates to become the building block of a de novo construction of a cell in a bottom-up manner. Numerous efforts to build an artificial cell that bridge the living and non-living world will most presumably represent one of the main goals of science in the 21st century. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery can be incorporated into vesicles, and therefore allow the synthesis of a large number of proteins (Noireaux et al. 2005). However, vesicle fission remains one of the upcoming challenges in the artificial cell project (Noireaux et al. 2011). So far, vesicle fission is implemented by applying mechanical stress to vesicles (Hanczyc et al. 2003). In the present work, we developed a scenario how a genetically controlled fission of vesicles may be achieved by the synthesis of a special class of viral proteins within artificial vesicles. Because the authors already have a lot of experience in the water-in-oil emulsion transfer method to prepare vesicles, the base for the development of a protocol to induce fission in artificial cell may be available.

  18. Generating artificial light curves: Revisited and updated

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D; Papadakis, I E

    2013-01-01

    The production of artificial light curves with known statistical and variability properties is of great importance in astrophysics. Consolidating the confidence levels during cross-correlation studies, understanding the artefacts induced by sampling irregularities, establishing detection limits for future observatories are just some of the applications of simulated data sets. Currently, the widely used methodology of amplitude and phase randomisation is able to produce artificial light curves which have a given underlying power spectral density (PSD) but which are strictly Gaussian distributed. This restriction is a significant limitation, since the majority of the light curves e.g. active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts show strong deviations from Gaussianity exhibiting `burst-like' events in their light curves yielding long-tailed probability distribution functions (PDFs). In this study we propose a simple method which is able to precisely reproduce light curves which match both the PSD an...

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Frasconi (University of Florence) Ron Shamir (Tel Aviv University)

    Artificial Intelligence and heuristic methods are extremely important for the present and future developments of bioinformatics, a very recent and strategic discipline having the potential for a revolutionary impact on biotechnology, pharmacology, and medicine. While computation has already transformed our industrial society, a comparable biotechnological transformation is on the horizon. In the last few years it has become clear that these two exponentially growing areas are actually converging.

  20. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  1. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sealed vessel containing radioactive wastes is contained in an other sealed vessel in which powdery raw material for glass is filled surrounding the circumference of the former, and the sealed vessel is pressed by a high temperature isotropic pressing device. Alternatively, after heating a sealed vessel containing a mixture of radioactive liquid wastes and a powdery raw material for glass to calcine the radioactive liquid wastes, it is pressed by a high temperature isotropic pressing device. With such procedures, the powdery raw material for glass or powdery starting material for glass in the mixture are softened to a high viscous state, and cooled and solidified by taking the sealed vessel out of the high temperature isotropic pressing device, to form a stable glass solidification product. Accordingly, radioactive wastes can be kept stably for a long period of time, and since a furnace is not necessary, troubles of surrounding contamination caused by using a furnace can be avoided. (T.M.)

  2. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  3. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137Cs and 226Ra, 228Th and 40K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 ?R/hr and the minimum was 0.07 ?R/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 ?R/hr. (U.K.)

  4. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  5. Radioactive pollution in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine measurements of radioactivity in rainfall are carried out at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway. The report discusses why the method of ion exchange was selected and gives details on how the measurements are performed

  6. Sealed Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The International Atomic Energy Agency has developed a ranking of radioactive sources according to their relative potential ... process parameters, such as moisture and thickness of products and for monitoring equipment condition such as pipe ...

  7. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  9. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  10. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  11. Radioactive pollution, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters as well as the atmosphere is discussed. Man-rem data are compared and expected quantities for disposal by power plants in the Netherlands are tabulated

  12. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  13. Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

  14. [Radioactivity of bone cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, M A; Winkler, R; Ascherl, R; Lenz, E

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between limit of detection (detected in the amount of Ra-226, Pb-210, and Ra-228 detected between different samples of the same product from the same manufacturer, as well as between various types of cements. The highest radioactivity level was measured for Ra-226. Although stochastic radiation effects can not totally be excluded, it is extremely unlikely that the small amount of radioactive substances additionally transferred into the body by the bone cement has negative effects on the recipient's organism or on the fate of the alloplastic implant: "The risk factor and extrapolation in a low dosage range ... do not lead to an underestimation but more likely to an overestimation of the radiation hazard" [18]. PMID:8441806

  15. Bitumenisation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes, particularly water wet wastes, are encapsulated, prior to disposal, in bitumen/wax blends. Such blends are less prone to swelling due to water adsorption by encapsulated water-sensitive salts. (author)

  16. GeneSys: Hydraulic and thermal characterisation of an artificially induced fracture and implications for its geothermal utilisation; GeneSys: Hydraulische und thermische Charakterisierung des kuenstlich erzeugten Risses und Implikationen fuer dessen geothermische Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tischner, T.; Jatho, R.; Kehrer, P. (GGA Institut, Hannover); Sulzbacher, H.; Jung, R.; Orzol, J. [BGR Hannover (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Horstberg Z1 is an exploratory well used by Geozentrum Hanover for investigating new geothermal concepts. The investigations focused on the applicability of the water frac technology to dense sedimentary rock in the context of the GeneSys project (Jung et al., 2004). An artificially induced fracture was investigated with a view to its potential for geothermal heat supply. The contribution presents results of hydraulic test evaluations which are indicative of the fracture characteristics. Further, it is investigated which natural supporting mechanism prevents full closure of the fracture after pressure relief. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the fracture are investigated in cyclic tests with the aid of model calculations, in which the central element is the long-term thermal response to cyclic loading with cold water and recirculation of hot water out of the fracture. (orig.) [German] Die Bohrung Horstberg Z1 dient dem Geozentrum Hannover als Forchungsbohrung fuer die geothermische Energiegewinnung. Hier sollen neue Methoden zur Erdwaermegewinnung untersucht und insbesondere Einbohrlochkonzepte getestet werden. Im Zentrum der Untersuchungen steht die Anwendbarkeit der Wasserfrac-Technik auf dichte Sedimentgesteine. Die Untersuchungen an der Bohrung Horstberg Z1 stehen im engen Zusammenhang mit dem GeneSys-Projekt (Jung. et al., 2004). Aufbauend auf den Erfahrungen an der Bohrung Horstberg Z1 sollen hier entwickelte Konzepte auf den Standort Hannover uebertragen und fuer die geothermische Waermeversorgung des Geozentrums umgesetzt werden. An der Bohrung Horstberg Z1 wurden im Herbst 2003 massive Wasserfrac-Tests im Buntsandstein (Detfurth- und Volpriehausen-Formation) durchgefuehrt. Die groesseren Fracoperationen fanden im Detfurth-Sandstein, ueber eine Perforationsstrecke von 3787-3791 m statt. Es wurden hier 2 Fracoperationen mit einer Fliessrate von jeweils 50 l/s und insgesamt ca. 20.000 m{sup 3} Frischwasser ausgefuehrt. Hierdurch konnte ein grossflaechiger kuenstlicher Riss erzeugt werden, der interessante hydraulische und thermische Eigenschaften aufweist. Ueber Ablauf und wesentliche Ergebnisse der bisherigen Untersuchungen an der Bohrung Horstberg Z1 wird bereits in dem Beitrag von Orzol et al. (Das Geothermieprojekt GeneSys - Ergebnisse von massiven Wasserfractests im Buntsandstein des Norddeutschen Beckens) in diesem Band berichtet. Die nachfolgende Darstellung knuepft inhaltlich unmittelbar an diesen Beitrag an. Es werden Ergebnisse von hydraulischen Testauswertungen praesentiert, die Rueckschluss auf die Eigenschaften des Risses zulassen. Weiterhin wird der Frage nachgegangen, welcher natuerliche Stuetzmechanismus ein vollstaendiges Schliessen des Risses nach Druckentlastung verhindert. Schliesslich wird das thermische Verhalten des Risses in zyklischen Tests mit Hilfe von Modellrechnungen untersucht. Im Zentrum dieser Modellrechnungen steht das thermische Langzeitverhalten bei zyklischer Beladung mit Kaltwasser und Rueckfoerderung von Heisswasser aus dem Riss. (orig.)

  17. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  18. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  19. The discovery of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In only three years, since 1895, some important experimental discoveries, absolutely unexpected - the X-rays in Germany, the radioactivity in France, the Zeeman effect in the Netherlands and the electron in Great-Britain - have deeply modified our knowledge of nature and provided the investigation means to study the microscopic structure of the matter. The discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel, generalized by Pierre and Marie Curie, represents the French contribution to this scientific revolution. (J.S.)

  20. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  1. Radioactive sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the Radioactive Sources Service's main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your requests via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  3. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA)

  4. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  5. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  6. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  7. Radioactivity Analysis for Reliability Assessment in the Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to assess the reliability of data and to improve nuclear analytical techniques concerning the Domestic Radioactivity Intercomparison program for environmental radioactivity monitoring of Jeju from 1998 to 2006. Gross beta for filter papers and water samples was determined, and gamma nuclides for natural and artificial nuclides in soil and water samples were analyzed. The gross beta activity of all samples except for the water samples of 1998 and 1999 showed a good agreement within the confidence intervals. In gamma nuclides, and of soil samples and most nuclides in the water samples, with the exception of several nuclides, were evaluated to be reliable. Based on these results, it is considered that a reliable method for the analysis and monitoring of environmental radioactivity were established, which may play an important role in case of emergency radiation accident

  8. Study of radio-active ions in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study is made of active, deposits of radon and thoron in suspension in the atmosphere by means of ? radiation counting, using ZELENY tubes, scattering equipment, filter papers or membranes. It has been possible to show the existence of small and large ions which are negative and positive, as well as of neutral radio-active nuclei; their properties are studied. A theoretical interpretation of the results is presented. The average content of radon (using the Ra A concentration) and of Th B in the air has been determined. The radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products in atmospheric air are examined. The techniques developed for active radon and thoron deposits are applied to the study of artificial radio-activity, the analyses being carried out by means of ? spectrometry. (author)

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 32 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region

  11. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais / Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Moreira, Xavier; André Gomes de, Lima; Camila Rosa Moraes, Vigna; Fabíola Manhas, Verbi; Gisele Gonçalves, Bortoleto; Karen, Goraieb; Carol Hollingworth, Collins; Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira, Bueno.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the [...] Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medicinal, industrial and food applications of ionizing radiation. The text leads the reader to reflect on the subject and to consider its various aspects with scientific and technological maturity.

  12. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Moreira Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medicinal, industrial and food applications of ionizing radiation. The text leads the reader to reflect on the subject and to consider its various aspects with scientific and technological maturity.

  13. Assessment of the results of the Mediterranean coast side of the Permanent Observatory of Radioactivity (OPERA network) between 1992 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the observation strategy (selection of indicators, spatial strategy, time strategy), of sampling, processing and gamma spectrometry measurement of samples, this report presents, analyses and comments the results obtained for the measurements of natural radioactivity, of artificial radioactivity related to 137Cs, 60Co and 106Ru activity in mussels, fishes and sediments sampled on the Mediterranean coast

  14. Model description of radioactive materials migration in surface waters - input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Input data for computer models describing radioactive material proliferation in surface fresh water are classified into three groups. Group one consists of data on the radionuclide composition of radioactive effluents, the time schedule of release, the chemical composition of waste waters and their temperature. Group two consists of data necessary for the description of radioactive materials proliferation in natural or artificial water courses and in water basins. Group three consists of data on water uses leading to radiation burden to population, ie., fish, irrigation, farm animal watering, water sports and recreation. (H.S.)

  15. The environmental impact of radioactive releases from accidents in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; nature of the environmental impact of radioactive releases (natural and artificial sources of background ionising radiation in the environment; the effects on human health of various levels of radiation and radioactivity; maximum permissible levels and emergency reference levels; nature of radiological hazards from (a) the passing cloud of airborne radioactive material; and (b) radiological material deposited on the ground); atmospheric dispersion; environmental consequences of notional accidental releases from nuclear power reactors; the concept and comparison of risk; conclusions. (U.K.)

  16. Measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biological environment in the Netherlands 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey of the results of detailed radioactivity measurements performed in the Netherlands during the period immediately after the Chernobylsk accident, and the risk analyses made on the basis of these results, are presented. The increase of the airborne radioactivity and the activity concentrations in surface water during the first week of May 1986 is demonstrated graphically. The radiation dose in 1986 due to artificial radioactivity has been calculated to be about 60 ?Sv for adults, 70 ?Sv for ten-year-old children and 110 ?Sv for one-year-old children. 54 figs.; 32 tabs

  17. Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)

  18. Simulating and detecting artificial magnetic fields in trapped atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Matthias; Klein, Alexander; Jaksch, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate exhibiting a nontrivial phase induces an artificial magnetic field in immersed impurity atoms trapped in a stationary, ring-shaped optical lattice. We present an effective Hamiltonian for the impurities for two condensate setups: the condensate in a rotating ring and in an excited rotational state in a stationary ring. We use Bogoliubov theory to derive analytical formulas for the induced artificial magnetic field and the hopping amplitude in the limit of low condensate temperature where the impurity dynamics is coherent. As methods for observing the artificial magnetic field we discuss time-of-flight imaging and mass current measurements. Moreover, we compare the analytical results of the effective model to numerical results of a corresponding two-species Bose-Hubbard model. We also study numerically the clustering properties of the impurities and the quantum chaotic behavior of the two-species Bose-Hubbard model.

  19. Simulating and detecting artificial magnetic fields in trapped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenkranz, Matthias; Jaksch, Dieter; 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.013607

    2010-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate exhibiting a nontrivial phase induces an artificial magnetic field in immersed impurity atoms trapped in a stationary, ring-shaped optical lattice. We present an effective Hamiltonian for the impurities for two condensate setups: the condensate in a rotating ring and in an excited rotational state in a stationary ring. We use Bogoliubov theory to derive analytical formulas for the induced artificial magnetic field and the hopping amplitude in the limit of low condensate temperature where the impurity dynamics is coherent. As methods for observing the artificial magnetic field we discuss time of flight imaging and mass current measurements. Moreover, we compare the analytical results of the effective model to numerical results of a corresponding two-species Bose-Hubbard model. We also study numerically the clustering properties of the impurities and the quantum chaotic behavior of the two-species Bose-Hubbard model.

  20. Quantum anti-Zeno effect in artificial quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Qing; Sun, C P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE) purely induced by repetitive measurements for an artificial atom interacting with a structured bath. This bath can be artificially realized with coupled resonators in one dimension and possesses photonic band structure like Bloch electron in a periodic potential. In the presence of repetitive measurements, the pure QAZE is discovered as the observable decay is not negligible even for the atomic energy level spacing outside of the energy band of the artificial bath. If there were no measurements, the decay would not happen outside of the band. In this sense, the enhanced decay is completely induced by measurements through the relaxation channels provided by the bath. Besides, we also discuss the controversial golden rule decay rates originated from the van Hove's singularities and the effects of the counter-rotating terms.

  1. Amplification of large artificial chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D. R.; Smyth, A. P.; Moir, D. T.

    1990-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome cloning is an attractive technology for genomic mapping studies because very large DNA segments can be readily propagated. However, detailed analyses often require the extensive application of blotting-hybridization techniques because artificial chromosomes are normally present at only one copy per haploid genome. We have developed a cloning vector and host strain that alleviate this problem by permitting copy number amplification of artificial chromosomes. The vec...

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg-1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg-1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 137Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg-1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h-1 and 0.06 mSv y-1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 134Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 40K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg-1. While the values of the activity concentration of 137Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L-1 and 0.05 Bq L-1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation emitted by 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 164.4 ?Sv. The values of the radon activity concentration measured in the dwellings in Turkey are below the limit value of 400 Bq m-3

  3. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  4. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  5. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  6. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 226Ra, 228Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241Am, 7Be, 60Co, 55Fe, 3H, 131I, 54Mn, 95Nb, 210Pb, 210Po, 106Ru, 125Sb, 228Th, 232Th, and 95Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g-1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  7. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents f?m Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  8. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226Ra and 228Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210Pb and progeny 210Bi and 210Po. These are found in combination with 226Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  9. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  10. Biodegradation of radioactive animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Party, N.; Party, E.; Wilkerson, A. [Rockefeller Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The two most common disposal alternatives for animals contaminated with radioactive materials are incineration and burial. For most of the country burial has entailed shipping the carcasses to a commercial disposal facility at Barnwell, South Carolina, where it was landfilled along with other solid radioactive waste. Unfortunately, since 30 June 1994, this facility accepts waste generated by the states of the Southeast Compact only. Therefore, burial is no longer an option for most of the country`s generators and incineration is an option only for those institutions which have, or have access to, an incinerator that is permitted to burn radioactive materials and that accepts animal carcasses with de minimis levels of radioactive contaminants. Many institutions, especially those in congested urban areas where the public does not support incineration, do not have viable outlets for radioactive animal carcasses. Interim, on-site storage poses problems of its own. Biodegradation of animal carcasses with dermestid beetles is an inexpensive approach to this waste management problem. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biodegradation of radioactive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Party, N; Party, E; Wilkerson, A; Gershey, E L

    1995-06-01

    The two most common disposal alternatives for animals contaminated with radioactive materials are incineration and burial. For most of the country burial has entailed shipping the carcasses to a commercial disposal facility at Barnwell, South Carolina, where it was landfilled along with other solid radioactive waste. Unfortunately, since 30 June 1994, this facility accepts waste generated by the states of the Southeast Compact only. Therefore, burial is no longer an option for most of the country's generators and incineration is an option only for those institutions which have, or have access to, an incinerator that is permitted to burn radioactive materials and that accepts animal carcasses with de minimis levels of radioactive contaminants. Many institutions, especially those in congested urban areas where the public does not support incineration, do not have viable outlets for radioactive animal carcasses. Interim, on-site storage poses problems of its own. Biodegradation of animal carcasses with dermestid beetles is an inexpensive approach to this waste management problem. PMID:7759267

  12. Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, S; Puente, N P; Chaikina, E I; Yamilov, A

    2012-02-13

    We develop and experimentally verify a theory of evolution of polarization in artificially-disordered multi-mode optical fibers. Starting with a microscopic model of photo-induced index change, we obtain the first and second order statistics of the dielectric tensor in a Ge-doped fiber, where a volume disorder is intentionally inscribed via UV radiation transmitted through a diffuser. A hybrid coupled-power & coupled-mode theory is developed to describe the transient process of de-polarization of light launched into such a fiber. After certain characteristic distance, the power is predicted to be equally distributed over all co-propagating modes of the fiber regardless of their polarization. Polarization-resolved experiments, confirm the predicted evolution of the state of polarization. Complete mode mixing in a segment of fiber as short as ? 10cm after 3.6dB insertion loss is experimentally observed. Equal excitation of all modes in such a multi-mode fiber creates the conditions to maximize the information capacity of the system under e.g. multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmission setup. PMID:22418121

  13. Measurement of metallothionein by radioactive silver saturation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive silver saturation method has been developed for measurement of metallothionein in tissues of animal. The results show that the relative affinities of metals for metallothionein in 0.5M glycine buffer at pH 8.5 is Ag+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Hg2+ > Zn2+, and measurement of metallothionein in liver of rats induced by zinc using radioactive silver satruation method is sensitive and valid

  14. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  15. Radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent corrosions in the inner wall of a metal container for sealing radioactive wastes by coating a thin plate made of a specific metal to the inner wall of the metal container. Constitution: A metal more anodic than iron, for example, zinc, aluminum or an alloy thereof is coated to the inner wall of a radioactive waste container, for example, drum can made of iron material. The coating formed to the inner wall of the drum can is not necessarily be closely bonded but may merely be in contact thereto and spot-welded or soldered. In such a structure, electrolytic corrosions can surely be prevented, whereby the life of the radioactive waste container can be increased and the reliability thereof is improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Sealed radioactive sources - Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This International Standard establishes a system of classification of sealed radioactive sources based on performance specifications. It provides a set of tests by which the manufacturer of sealed radioactive sources can evaluate the safety of his products under working conditions, and by which the user of such sources can select types which suit the application he has in mind, especially where protection against the release of radioactive material, with consequent exposure to ionizing radiations, is concerned. This International Standard may also be of guidance to regulating authorities. The tests fall into several groups including, for example, exposure to abnormally high and low temperatures, and a variety of mechanical tests. Each test can be applied in several degrees of severity. The criterion of pass or fail depends on leakage of the contents of the source. Methods of testing sources for leakage after testing are set out in ISO/TR 4826

  17. Method of packaging radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the leaching of radioactive waste in marine environment. Method: Fillers are placed between a drum can and an inner cage for charging radioactive wastes in order to prevent the leakage of the radioactive wastes from the drum can. Leaching inhibitors for radioactive materials are mixed with the fillers made of organic substance such as asphalts and plastics. The leaching inhibitors are made of materials in the similar chemical form to that of the radioactive materials in the wastes and mixed into the fillers to the saturation limit of dissolution. For the radioactive wastes containing spent adsorbents for iodine, the inhibitors are made of silver nitrates. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Artificial cardiac stimulation: a current view of physiologic pacemakers.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengarten, M. D.; Chiu, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial pacing of the heart has evolved rapidly over the last 20 years; the physician can now implant "physiologic" pacemakers that preserve the natural order of atrial and ventricular systole. The commonly used pacemakers that pace only the ventricle can induce dizziness, fatigue and syncope and increase congestive heart failure. Physiologic pacemakers can eliminate many of these side effects, but they are more expensive, can be less durable and may induce arrhythmias. Physiologic pacing ...

  19. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  20. Radioactive mixed waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) (reference 1) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) (reference 2) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the storage of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described