WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Radiant Energy Collector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. (ERA citation 06:003645)

W. R. McIntire

1980-01-01

2

Radiant energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a radiant energy collector for receiving and collecting incident radiation. It comprises: an absorber; reflector means surrounding the absorber and having an upright axis and a concave reflective inner surface distributed about the axis for reflecting the radiation onto the absorber; and a lens member extending across the axis of and above the reflector means for receiving an energy flux from a source of radiant energy and having a plurality of prismatic elements distributed about the reflector axis in the lends member.

Dawson, R.E.

1990-01-16

3

Radiant energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

McIntire, William R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1983-01-01

4

Radiant energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lower-most extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

McIntire, W.R.

1983-12-13

5

Radiant energy collector having plasma-textured polyimide exposed surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of fabricating a radiant energy collector is disclosed wherein a substrate is coated on at least a portion of the surface to be exposed to radiant energy, with polyamide then surface-textured employing known procedures, e.g., plasma etching, reactive ion etching or a combination of these techniques, to impart to the coated surface high absorptivity and low emissivity for radiant energy.

Guarnieri, C. R.

1984-06-04

6

Radiant energy collector having plasma-textured polyimide exposed surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy collector is disclosed which is fabricated from a substrate coated on at least a portion of the surface thereof exposed to radiant energy with polyimide which has been surface-textured employing known procedures, e.g., plasma etching, reactive ion etching or a combination of these techniques, to impart of said coated substrate high absorption and low emissivity for radiant energy, the surface of the substrate opposite that exposed to the radiant energy being in contact with a working fluid such as water.

Guarnieri, C.R.

1984-10-23

7

Lightweight, low cost radiant energy collector and method for making same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dish-shaped, radiant energy collector comprises a thin, concave, thermoplastic cover having a reflective layer of metallization vapor deposited on the convex side thereof. A coating of foamed resin is applied to the metallization in order to render the collector self-supporting. Struts or a layer of honeycomb cardboard and/or fiberglass may be introduced into the sandwiched composite to provide further structural rigidity. The cover is produced by forming a flat sheet of acrylic plastic which is transparent to the wavelengths of interest.

Sorko-Ram, P.

1984-09-04

8

Radiant energy collector with focal point between the plane of the frame and earth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of focusing the radiant energy collected by a heliostat at a fixed point as the collector tracks the sun is resolved by mounting the reflector on a circular frame such that its focal point is located along the axis of symmetry of the frame. Means are provided for pivoting the reflector axis about its focal point. This includes a plurality of parallel, curved tracks, each of which is a portion of a circle that intersects the circular frame, and means for rotating said tracks about the frame. With the plane of the frame inclined at an angle to the surface of the earth that is the complement of the site's latitude location, the focal point is advantageously positioned between the plane of the frame and the surface of the earth.

Solomon, M.

1982-08-03

9

Radiant energy device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiant energy such as solar energy is utilized to form a vapor from a liquid state of a material. Concentrated radiant energy is directed through a liquid lens to a target for absorption of the radiation. The target in this way is heated to a high temperature and produces steam or other vapor at high pressure. High efficiency at low over-all cost is achieved by the direct vaporization of a liquid within a collector enclosing the target structure; the recovery of energy absorbed by the liquid lens; the reduction in conductive and convective heat losses in the solar collector by special enclosure of the target within the collector; recovery of heat as blackbody radiation from the target by using reflective walls within the enclosure and/or permitting absorption of the blackbody radiation by the liquid lens; and an optional use of a heat pump effect for increasing the output of the collector.

Metzger, J.B.

1985-03-19

10

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. 10 figures.

Winston, R.; Xiaohui Ning.

1993-09-07

11

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

Science.gov (United States)

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1993-01-01

12

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1996-01-01

13

Ambient radiant energy concentrator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a solar energy concentrator that can accept radiant energy from all directions, an elongated plane mirror faces directly towards the center of the bowl of an elongated mirror that in section has a parabolic profile. With these two components, the incoming radial converging pattern of rays is changed into a new pattern in which all of the rays are turned parallel and concentrated together. The concentration of parallel rays then enters a narrow slot in the center of the parabolic mirror or in the center of the plane mirror where the radiant energy impinges on a thermal element. The heated element is a blackened metal tube containing a circulatory fluid. The heated thermal element has a cylindrical jacket with a mirrored interior surface to reflect back and prevent the escape of collected energy. A small slot in the jacket permits the narrow beam of concentrated radiant energy to enter and impinge on the blackened thermal element. The temperature of the heated element is elevated sufficiently by the radiation concentrator to boil the enclosed fluid. The pressurized vapor from the fluid is then directed through a turbine to generate electric power, or is used for heating. Four of the radiant energy concentrators can be supported in a tower arrangement to collect radiation from all directions. 5 figs.

Horsley, P.B.

1992-07-04

14

Radiant energy burner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a radiant energy burner, a combustion element is described comprising a porous metal support having an inner surface and an outer surface, a woven fabric disposed on the outer surface of the support and composed of substantially continuous ceramic fibers, connecting means for securing end portions of the fabric to the support, the connecting means being metal and being enclosed in a ring-like sleeve of woven ceramic fiber. The central portion of the fabric is free of attachment to the support, supply means including a blower to supply a gaseous fuel through the support and the fabric, and fuel igniting means disposed adjacent to the outer surface of the fabric to ignite the fuel.

Granberg, D.N.

1986-07-08

15

Solar radiant energy heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy heat exchanger for use in a solar energy power plant comprises one or more banks of heat exchange ducts, each bank of ducts having an inlet and an outlet manifold to receive and discharge the medium to be heated. The ducts are curved along their length between the inlet and outlet manifolds so that the amount of radiant energy falling on the ducts per unit area of duct decreases between the inlet and outlet manifolds at such a rate that the duct temperature is substantially constant between the manifolds while the temperature of the medium being heated increases, the radiant energy falling on the ducts being substantially unidirectional.

Jubb, A.; Stansbury, E.W.

1980-09-16

16

Nonimaging radiant energy direction device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.

Winston, R.

1980-12-02

17

Radiant energy sensitive device and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a radiant energy sensitive device, it comprises: a first radiant energy transmissive, electrically conductive layer of tin oxide; a second radiant energy transmissive, electrically conductive layer of zinc oxide disposed upon the layer of tin oxide; and a radiant energy sensitive layer deposited upon the layer of zinc oxide.

Delahoy, A.E.

1991-11-12

18

Radiant energy power source structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a radiant energy power source structure for providing electrical power to a vehicle utilizing radiant energy from a jet engine, the jet engine of the type having a radiant energy emitting combustion chamber formed from spaced apart inner and outer concentric elongated cylindrical liners, the combustion chamber outer liner concentrically surrounded by an elongated annular outer combustion casing. It comprises: a modified elongated annular combustion casing; a plurality of pairs of circumferentially spaced apart ribs operably attached to the elongated annular base; at least one photovoltaic cell operably situated between each pair of longitudinal ribs; a set of opposed, longitudinally extending grooves formed in the pair of ribs at a location radially spaced from the at least one photovoltaic cell; and a protective plate removable carried in the grooves.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-07-14

19

Radiant energy tracker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus is described for maintaining a radiation sensitive portion thereof in alignment with a distant source of radiation during relative movement between the situs of the apparatus and the source, wherein movement from alignment causes a differential in energy output in spaced apart elements of the radiation sensitive portion which is transformed into mechanical energy to return the portion to alignment.

Robbins, R.W.

1982-09-28

20

Radiant Energy Flow  

Science.gov (United States)

How does energy flow in and out of our atmosphere? Explore how solar and infrared radiation enters and exits the atmosphere with an interactive model. Control the amounts of carbon dioxide and clouds present in the model and learn how these factors can influence global temperature. Record results using snapshots of the model in the virtual lab notebook where you can annotate your observations.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

 
 
 
 
21

Mobile radiant energy sterilizer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A portable, radiation-producing apparatus is provided that can produce highly energetic electron beam radiation and X-rays from a low voltage power source., e.g., a battery. The radiation-producing apparatus is comprised of a radiation generating device, a pulsed high voltage generator and a control system. The pulsed high voltage generator is comprised of a power source and a Tesla resonant transformer. The Tesla resonant transformer has at least one first capacitor, a primary coil, a secondary coil and at least one second capacitor. The at least one second capacitor is disposed axially within the secondary coil. The pulsed high voltage generator is connected to the radiation generating device for providing electrical energy to the radiation generating device.; The control system is connected to the pulsed high voltage generator for selectively controlling the transfer of energy from the pulsed high voltage generator to the radiation generating device. The radiation-producing apparatus generates pulses of electrons and X-rays. Each pulse has a time duration of about 100 nanoseconds or less. The electrons and X-rays produced by the radiation-producing apparatus can be used to deactivate microbial contamination or irradiate various materials.

KORENEV SERGEY A

22

PORTABLE RADIANT ENERGY STERILIZER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A portable, radiation-producing apparatus produces highly energetic electron beam radiation and X-rays from a low voltage power source., e.g., a battery (42). A pulsed high voltage generator (40) includes a power source (42) and a Tesla resonant transformer (41). The Tesla resonant transformer has at least one first capacitor (44), a primary coil (46), a secondary coil (48) and at least one second capacitor (50). The at least one second capacitor is disposed axially within the secondary coil. A control system (60) is connected to the pulsed high voltage generator (40) for selectively controlling the transfer of energy from the pulsed high voltage generator (40) to a radiation generating device (22). The radiation generating device generates pulses of electrons and X-rays. Each pulse has a time duration of about 100 nanoseconds or less. The electrons and X-rays produced by the radiation enerating device can be used to deactivate microbial contamination or irradiate various materials.

KORENEV Sergey A.

23

Solar energy collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method of making a solar energy collector is disclosed. The method involves fusing a collector panel to headers using a high frequency magnetic field. End fitments are also fused to the headers. Other improvements in solar energy collectors per se are also disclosed.

Stewart, J.M.

1982-10-12

24

Radiant energy to electric energy converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus for converting radiant energy into electric energy comprising a capacitor including an ionic dielectric and a pair of electrodes, means for causing said dielectric to be cyclically irradiated by said radiant energy, the properties of said dielectric being dominated by a dipole layer only on or near its surface, the capacitance of the capacitor being modulated in response to the cyclic irradiation, and means for connecting a load to the electrodes so the load is responsive to current derived from the capacitor in response to the capacitance modulation.

Sher, A.

1980-07-22

25

Radiant energy heat exchanger system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy heat exchanger is described. It comprises a panel structure including a base having a multiplicity of transversely spaced barrier walls extending longitudinally between the end portions of the panel structure. An inner sheet form wall section is sealingly connected with each pair of adjacent barrier walls providing a plurality of inner fluid containing channel spaces extending longitudinally between the end portions of the panel structure, a concavo-convex outer sheet form wall section sealingly connected with each pair of adjacent barrier walls, and an intermediate sheet form wall section between the associated inner and outer wall sections defining a multiplicity of outer and intermediate fluid containing spaces in outwardly disposed relation with respect to the multiplicity of inner fluid containing channel spaces.

Mcalister, R.E.

1981-07-21

26

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector is described which is inexpensive to manufacture and install. It comprises a heat absorber unit of rubber-like material having channels for the passage therethrough of heat exchange fluid and spaced-apart retainer means on its top for retaining a flexible solar collector cover in a flexed configuration accomplished by wedging it between the retainer means so that the area of the insulating space between absorber and collector can be controlled for different climates by spacing the retainer means. A simple means for assembling absorber and collector is provided. The collector is adapted to be mounted on a base to form a modular unit.

Reynolds, J.E.

1980-01-08

27

Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

Chao, Bei Tse (Urbana, IL); Rabl, Ari (Downers Grove, IL)

1977-02-15

28

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evacuated solar collector receives impinging solar radiation of varying intensity and converts the same into useful thermal energy in a selected working range of the ambience. The collector has absorber and window surfaces selectively coated for rendering the conversion of solar radiation to useful thermal energy more efficient by increasing absorption, reducing reradiation, and in certain cases may include at least one electrically conductive coating on the solar window which is capable of carrying an electric current, for suppressing snow accumulation thereon.

Kenny, N.S.

1980-11-18

29

Solar energy collector  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

Brin, Raymond L. (Cedar Crest, NM); Pace, Thomas L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01

30

Power generating apparatus using radiant energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A power generating apparatus for conversion of radiant to mechanical or electrical energy utilizes radiometric drive rotors coupled to mechanical or electrical output devices; radiometer internal pressure regulating means controls output speed and power. Particular vane constructions enhance the radiometric effect.

1983-01-01

31

Radiant energy transport in porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of gray body radiant energy transport in porous media is analyzed using the volume averaging method. For a rigid solid-stagnant gas system the analysis yields an energy transport equation. The vector is entirely associated with the anisotropic structure of the porous medium, and arguments are presented which suggest that the vector is proportional to the gradient of the void fraction. The form of the transport equation near a bounding surface is discussed, and the effects of conduction and radiation on wall heat transfer coefficients are noted. The theory indicates that the linear and nonlinear portions of the radiant energy conductivity tensor and the vector depend on the emissivity, the geometric structure of the porous media, and the physical properties of the 2 phases. 24 references.

Whitaker, S.

1980-05-01

32

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This solar energy collector includes a base and an outwardly inclined collar having a mirror finish carried by the base. An energy absorbing pine tar substance for absorbing solar energy is carried by the base. Copper tubing arranged in a generally spiral pattern provides a heat exchange conduit located within the energy absorbing substance and fluid is passed through the pipes to absorb heat from the energy absorbing substance. A metallic ring is disposed on top of the pine tar and lenses are located above the metallic ring for focusing solar energy on the metallic ring and transferring heat to the pine tar.

Hicks, V.C.

1982-02-23

33

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector having an energy concentrating unit and an energy collecting unit is disclosed. The concentrating unit includes at least one converging lens for concentrating the sun's rays onto the collecting unit. Each lens may be blow-formed from sheets of thermoplastic. Each lens may be hollow or filled with a liquid. The collecting unit includes a fluid-transporting member having a heat transfer fluid therein. Input and output pipes connected to the fluid-transporting member carry the heat transfer fluid to and from the fluid-transporting member, respectively. The fluidtransporting member may be a coil, or it may be a double-walled dome, or an arch of flat hollow plates. The solar energy collector further includes a backplate for fixing the position of the collecting unit relative to the concentrating unit such that the focus of each lens is on or near the fluid-transporting member. The backplate may have translucent portions for allowing a portion of the sun's rays to pass through the solar energy collector.

Bloxsom, D.E.

1982-07-27

34

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector having an energy concentrating unit and an energy collecting unit is disclosed. The concentrating unit includes at least one converging lens for concentrating the sun's rays onto the collecting unit. Each lens may be blow-formed from sheets of thermoplastic. Each lens may be hollow or filled with a liquid. The collecting unit includes a fluid-transporting member having a heat transfer fluid therein. Input and output pipes connected to the fluid-transporting member carry the heat transfer fluid to and from the fluid-transporting member, respectively. The fluid-transporting member may be a coil, or it may be a double-walled dome, or an arch of flat hollow plates. The solar energy collector further includes a backplate for fixing the position of the collecting unit relative to the concentrating unit such that the focus of each lens is on or near the fluid-transporting member. The backplate may have translucent portions for allowing a portion of the sun's rays to pass through the solar energy collector.

Bloxsom, D.E.

1981-12-15

35

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector is described including an enclosure provided with a glazing closure or panel and a detachable retainer assembly securing the glazing panel in place. The retainer assembly includes a retainer cap mechanically interlocked with internal protrusions formed on the enclosure walls and a spring clip associated with the retainer cap for urging the same in such interlocked relation with the enclosure wall protrusions.

Krueger, W.F.; Shaw, A.R.

1980-11-04

36

Nonimaging radiant energy direction device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A raidant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

1980-01-01

37

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector is disclosed which is comprised of a base and a solar energy absorbing element spaced from the base. The solar energy absorbing element has an accordian-like shape including angularly disposed upper ridges and lower valleys interconnected by generally planar surfaces. The lower valleys are positioned immediately adjacent the base. Fluid supply conduits are positioned between the solar energy absorbing element and the base immediately adjacent the upper ridges. The fluid supply conduits are adapted to supply fluid adjacent the solar energy absorbing element upper ridges which fluid may then flow along the planar surfaces until dropping off the lower valleys onto the base, whereby heat absorbed by the solar energy absorbing element is transferred to the fluid. A trough is provided for receiving the flow of heated fluid along the base. The solar energy absorbing element lower valleys are positioned sufficiently close to the base such that the lower valleys are maintained in contact with the film of fluid flowing along the base, thereby further improving the heat transfer efficiency of the disclosed solar energy collector. The fluid supply conduits are provided with incrementally larger internal dimensions in a direction away from the trough for providing an incrementally increased flow of fluid over the solar energy absorbing element in a direction away from the trough, whereby fluid which must travel a greater distance to the trough will be provided in larger quantity.

Rahman, M.A.

1981-09-29

38

Radiant heat for energy conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is proposed that human comfort could be provided in otherwise chilly surroundings by filling the occupied space with electromagnetic energy of centimeter wavelength. Very considerable reductions in the consumption of energy required for the heating of buildings should result from the lowering of interior temperatures thereby permitted.

Pound, R.V.

1980-05-02

39

Radiant heat for energy conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is proposed that human comfort could be provided in otherwise chilly surroundings by filling the occupied space with electromagnetic energy of centimeter wavelength. Very considerable reductions in the consumption of energy required for the heating of buildings should result from the lowering of interior temperatures thereby permitted.

Pound RV

1980-05-01

40

Treatment of tissue volume with radiant energy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention describes devices and methods for utilizing electromagnetic radiation and other forms of energy to treat a volume of tissue at depth. In one aspect, a device modulates the flux incident on surface tissue to control and vary the depth in the tissue which an effective dose of radiant energy is delivered and, thereby, treat a specific volume of tissue. The methods and devices disclosed are used to perform various treatments, including treatments to prevent and relieve pain and promote healing of tissue.

ILYA YAROSLAVSKY

 
 
 
 
41

Radiant energy to electrical power conversion system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy to electrical power thermionic conversion system is disclosed that uses a transducer structure with very closely spaced cathode and anode elements in a vacuum to minimize space charge buildup and to optimize cross transfer of electrons from cathode to anode. The materials chosen are for a high work function high melt temperature cathode, tungsten for example with a work function of 4.52 volts, and an anode with a relatively low work function, typically a silver-oxide substrate with a coating of cesium as an anode face deposited on a copper heat sink conductor yielding, with the anode face, a work function approximating 0.75 volts.

Brunson, R. D.

1980-02-12

42

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01

43

Solar-energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar-energy collector having an absorber unit comprising two plates of rigid material, having an intermediate space for a flowing medium to be heated. In order to obtain a form-stable unit having temperature equilizing properties, the two plates are waveshaped in mutually intersecting directions, symmetrically in relation to the main direction of flow of the medium, and the plates abut each other at the points of intersection, at which points the plates are joined together by welding, adhesive bonding or the like.

Janson, G.

1985-08-13

44

Solar energy collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector system is described having an array of solar concentrators mounted at spaced intervals along a conduit network through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated. The concentrators include an arcuate channel providing a heat absorption surface and a saddle member for mounting the channel section to the conduit. An insulation shroud surrounds the channel member and conduit. An elongate lens panel is positionable over the absorption surface for focusing incident solar radiation. The angle of inclination of the lens panel can be varied by manual rotation of the solar concentrators about the longitudinal axis of the conduit.

Natter, H.

1981-12-29

45

Tracking solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tracking solar energy collector is described comprising a plurality of internally defined, spaced-apart channels for containing a working medium to be heated with solar energy. In a preferred form the invention comprises a rigid, generally rectangular frame , a foam insulation layer confined within the frame forming a lower side of the collector, converter means disposed within the frame over the insulation layer for absorbing heat from solar energy, fluid input manifold means disposed within the frame for inputting a working medium into the unit, fluid output manifold means in spaced-apart, substantially parallel relationship with the input manifold means, and a plurality of generally parallel, elongated channels disposed between the converter means and the foam insulative means for conducting fluid between said input manifold means and said output manifold means. In a preferred form of this invention the converter means comprises a carbon silicone elastomer material having an end portion lapped about the major portion of the length of the output manifold.

Methvin, J.

1981-06-16

46

Radiant energy attenuation in electron beam therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decelerator and bolus, which reduce radiant energy in electron beam radiotherapy, were investigated with respect to the interrelation between their quality of material, thickness and position, and the mean energy and depth-dose rate curve pattern. The date obtained indicated that an acryl decelerator fitted to the tube aperture had the disadvantage of entailing bremsstrahlung x-ray intervention as well as increased depth dose. An elastomeric bolus placed on the phantom surface, however, resulted in an increased surface dose and minimal x-ray intervention. When radiation was performed with the phantom surface held apart from the bolus, a build-up phenomenon occurred on the phantom surface with a consequent diminution of surface dose. It was concluded that a bolus is more effective than a decelerator fitted to the tube aperture for attenuation of radiant energy. It is more advantageous to irradiate with the bolus in contact with the skin in cases in which the target is localized in the superficial layer of the skin, and with the bolus apart from the skin in cases in which the target is situated deeper below the skin. (author).

1990-01-01

47

Radiant energy attenuation in electron beam therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decelerator and bolus, which reduce radiant energy in electron beam radiotherapy, were investigated with respect to the interrelation between their quality of material, thickness and position, and the mean energy and depth-dose rate curve pattern. The date obtained indicated that an acryl decelerator fitted to the tube aperture had the disadvantage of entailing bremsstrahlung x-ray intervention as well as increased depth dose. An elastomeric bolus placed on the phantom surface, however, resulted in an increased surface dose and minimal x-ray intervention. When radiation was performed with the phantom surface held apart from the bolus, a build-up phenomenon occurred on the phantom surface with a consequent diminution of surface dose. It was concluded that a bolus is more effective than a decelerator fitted to the tube aperture for attenuation of radiant energy. It is more advantageous to irradiate with the bolus in contact with the skin in cases in which the target is localized in the superficial layer of the skin, and with the bolus apart from the skin in cases in which the target is situated deeper below the skin. (author).

Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Yamada, Toshiharu; Sugita, Katsuhiko (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Junior Coll. of Medical Technology) (and others)

1990-03-01

48

Radiant energy concentration by optical total internal reflection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy redirecting system comprises: (A) a radiant energy transmitting body means, (B) said means comprising multiple elements, each of which acts as a radiant energy redirecting module, having on its crosssectional perimeter an entry face to receive incidence of said energy into the interior of said perimeter, an exit face to pass said energy to the exterior of said perimeter in a direction towards the reverse side of the body from the side of said incidence, and a totally internally reflecting face angled relative to said entry and exit faces to redirect towards said exit face the radiant energy incident from said entry face, (C) said body means generally redirecting incident radiant energy towards a predetermined target zone situated apart from and on the reverse side of said body relative to the side of said incidence.

Parkyn, W.A.; Pelka, D.G.; Popovich, J.M.

1982-07-06

49

An Exploratory Study of Radiant Energy Transport in Beo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current hypotheses were reviewed relative to the contribution of radiant energy to heat transfer in BeO. The problem of radiant energy transmission in BeO was explored by exposing simultaneously, two types of BeO sample materials heated from 1000 to 2000 ...

E. J. Chapin D. G. Howe

1965-01-01

50

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sun tracking solar energy collector assembly having both a longitudinally extending flat plate absorber and a tube absorber spaced from and extending longitudinally generally parallel to the flat plate absorber. In one form a parabolic reflector focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and directs diffused rays of solar radiation onto the plate absorber. In another form a fresnel lens plate focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and flat reflector surfaces direct diffused solar radiation passing through the lens plate onto the plate absorber. In both forms a fluid is first heated as it circulates through passages in the flat plate absorber and then is further heated to a higher temperature as it passes through the tube absorber.

Penney, R.J.

1980-09-02

51

Bi-Radiant Oven - A low energy oven System.  

Science.gov (United States)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The principle of the Bi-radiant Oven is to thermally couple the food product and energy source by radiative heat transfer. The Bi-radiant Oven has three important fe...

1982-01-01

52

Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

Chao, Bei Tse (Urbana, IL); Rabl, Ari (Downers Grove, IL)

1976-01-01

53

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of a solar energy collector structure comprising: a plurality of partially evacuated tublar members substantially transparent to incident solar radiation, said tubular members having opposed lateral ends being arranged in a first and second group and lying adjacent one another in parallel axial alignment, means for joining each tubular member next to each adjacent tubular member of the group to form a first and second respective tube sheet structure; said tube sheets arranged adjacent each other in tendem to form at least one flow channel therebetween in a self-supporting structure; an absorber member disposed within said flow channel for intercepting and absorbing solar energy; and an insulating film having deposited theron a radiation reflecting substance located behind said absorber member disposed over and conforming closely to a surface of said second tube sheet for forming an insulating space between the insulating film and the second tube sheet to thereby suppress radiation, conduction and convection from said absorber in a direction out of the interior of the flow channel.

Kellberg, H.; Wilder, A.

1980-07-01

54

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disclosure illustrates a solar collector comprising an evacuated generally rectangular glass shell of a configuration commonly used for television tubes and a flat plate receiver having a black chrome surface positioned within the shell. A conduit in heat exchange relation to the plate has a single inlet and outlet for heat exchange fluid which extends through an insulating seal in the neck of the glass shell. This configuration permits a far greater collector surface area than prior evacuated cylindrical tube configurations.

Uroshevich, M.

1981-06-16

55

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

56

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector is described which consists of: (a) a frame; (b) a heat absorbing panel supported in the frame so as to be exposed to sun rays, the panel having spaced magnifying lens integral with the panel through its top surface in order to concentrate the sun rays for increased efficiency and hot water heating areas, the area encompassed by and contiguous with each of the lens, including means for detaining the water at each of the lens; (c) a water pump in fluid communication with the hot water heating areas of the panel; (d) a hot water heating system in fluid communication with the hot water heating area of the panel; and (e) a piping system serially connecting the lens with the pump and water heating system. The means comprises superimposed upper and lower chambers in the area through which water circulates in succession, the upper chamber having an inlet and the lower chamber having an outlet, the chambers being separated by a transparent partition having an aperture to cause the water to flow in a zig zag path therethrough to be detained and thus absorb more heat.

Stephens, C.O.

1986-09-16

57

ORAL IRRIGATOR APPLIANCE WITH RADIANT ENERGY DELIVERY FOR BACTERICIDAL EFFECT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An oral irrigator includes a base having a pump mechanism, a reservoir housed within the base and fluidically connected with the pump mechanism. A handle with a jet tip is connected with an outlet from the pump mechanism to receive a pressurized fluid stream from the reservoir to direct a fluid at a surface inside an oral cavity. The oral irrigator also includes a radiant energy source and delivery system for directing radiant energy at a surface inside an oral cavity.

SNYDER CLIFFORD J; HASZIER GORDON; LUETTGEN HAROLD A; HAIR KENNETH A; COVER DANIEL BERNARD

58

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the construction of a solar collector reflector surface which permits the use of semi-rigid or flexible materials for the reflector surface. The basic principle involves the use of curved support members and methods for forming same whereby the members support and restrain said reflector material in a predetermined plane or predetermined curved planar surface.

Niedermeyer, W. P.

1980-02-26

59

Thermionic energy converter with small flux of radiant energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conceptional scheme for cylindrical thermionic converter of energy with lowered losses for emission at the sacrifice of the application of perforated collector was suggested. Optimization of geometric sizes of the thermionic convector of energy with perforated collector for the production of maximum efficiency at the sacrifice of decreasing losses for emission under low increasing losses in plasma was conducted. Under comparison of parameters of the perforated collector converter with the traditional variant of cylindric thermionic converter it is shown that the first has a greater efficiency almost in all range of temperatures of electrodes and more than at a twofold rate power per unit of summary mass of electrode at the same power

2002-01-01

60

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector of the air heat exchange type is described including a housing member in which the air passes through a duct whose upper surface is an absorber, and where the air passes from the collector to another, the improvement comprising means defining an air duct in said housing out of thermal conductive contact with said housing, said housing having openings in at least one side wall thereof, said duct extending between said housing openings with the ends of the duct very close to but out of contact with the edges defining said openings, the ends of said duct being aligned with said openings, a thermally insulating resilient sealing member surrounding said openings at the edges thereof and secured to said housing, whereby when two of said collectors are joined with the openings aligned, said sealing means compressively and resiliently engages and provides an air seal about said openings and ducts in said housing are aligned and in direct communication across said openings.

Hopper, T.

1980-07-29

 
 
 
 
61

Conversion of Radiant Energy into Chemical Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of light into chemical energy as well as the conversion of chemical energy into light leads to exciting speculations and experiments. Reversible photoredox reactions appear to be the most promising chemical system for converting solar energ...

G. Calzaferri

1978-01-01

62

Cylindrical radiant energy direction device with refractive medium  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is provided for directing radiant energy and includes a refractive element and a reflective boundary. The reflective boundary is so contoured that incident energy directed thereto by the refractive element is directed to the exit surface thereof or onto the surface of an energy absorber positioned at the exit surface.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

1978-01-01

63

ORAL IRRIGATOR APPLIANCE WITH RADIANT ENERGY DELIVERY FOR BACTERICIDAL EFFECT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An oral irrigator includes a base having a pump mechanism, a reservoir housed within the base and fluidically connected with the pump mechanism. A handle (908) with a jet tip (910) is connected with an outlet from the pump mechanism to receive a pressurized fluid stream from the reservoir to direct a fluid at a surface inside an oral cavity. The oral irrigator also includes a radiant energy source (916) and delivery system (922) for directing radiant energy at a surface inside an oral cavity.

SNYDER CLIFFORD J; GORDON HASZIER

64

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

65

Lens-like radiant energy transmission control means  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a combination, a source of radiant energy, and means interposed on the axis of transmission between the radiant energy source and an area to be irradiated, to control the transmission of the radiant energy in the manner of a lens, the control means comprising a grid structure, the matrix of which defines an array of cells that are juxtaposed to one another about the axis of transmission, and have a pair of opposed radiant energy transmissive ends to the opposing sides of the structure at the opposing axially oriented faces thereof, the individual cells of the array having reflective walls about the inner peripheries thereof and being generally orthogonal in cross-section in planes perpendicular to those axes of the cells which extend in the general axial direction of the structure and outward through the radiant energy transmissive ends of the cells, the latter mentioned axes of the cells being angularly oriented to the axis of transmission so that the structure has a focal point on the axis of transmission at one side of the structure, and there being means including cells varying in length along the respective axes thereof, relative to the cross-sectional areas thereof, as the matrix progresses in directions radially outward from the axis of transmission so that when the source is shifted along the axis of transmission to one side or the other of the focal point, the energy is imaged on an area at the other side of the structure in a more or less intensified form than the source alone would provide by direct transmission to the area, depending on the location of the source with respect to the focal point.

Johnson, R.N.

1989-06-27

66

Solar energy collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A trough-like concentrator having a reflective surface contoured to image the sun at a linear focus. The reflective surface is supported by a structural tube having plural ribs. A microcomputer is programmed to exclusively aim the concentrator at the sun. A stationary vacuum-insulated linear solar energy receiver is positioned at the focus of the concentrator, with heat-transfer fluid entering at one end of the receiver and leaving at the other end.

Riise, H.G.; Goranson, G.G.; Karwan, H.P.

1984-02-21

67

Rooftop solar energy collector panel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector panel is adapted to be mounted on a rooftop for heating air forced therethrough. The panel is rectangular in form and outwardly opens. A closure member is affixed to the outermost peripheral edge portion of the housing and forms a thermal barrier through which solar energy can travel into the interior of the housing, while thermal energy is restricted from traveling therefrom. The panel includes a plurality of parallel, adjacent, spaced-apart, series connected tunnels, each having a multiplicity of heat transfer members which absorb solar energy from the sun and dissipate thermal energy to air flowing thereacross. A blower pulls air from an outlet formed in the panel and directs the air into an enclosure. Cool air is received by an inlet formed in the panel and travels in series relationship through each of the tunnels so that thermal energy is transferred into the air as the air travels along a torturous path through the panel.

Behrendt, B.O.; Cisneros, I.L.; Stephenson, D.R.; Stephenson, R.B.

1981-05-12

68

Tracking solar energy collector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector assembly of the tracking type is disclosed herein and includes a solar panel mounted for movement along a predetermined tracking path in order to maintain a predetermined orientation with respect to the sun as the latter moves across the sky. The disclosed assembly also includes a specific solar tracking sensor for maintaining the panel member in its predetermined orientation and a direct insolation monitor (D.I.M.) provided to monitor the presence and absence of direct sunlight in order to prevent the sensor from mistaking a relatively bright cloud or other diffused light for the sun.

Carlton, R.J.

1981-10-27

69

Cataract after exposure to non-ionizing radiant energy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed solely to infrared radiation, a chorioretinal lesion indistinguishable from the type characteristically secondary to repeated, thermal radiation was observed. More recently, the earliest sign of thermal radiation cataractogenesis, capsular opacification, has become evident. The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis.

Zaret MM; Snyder WZ; Birenbaum L

1976-09-01

70

Nontracking parabolic solar energy collector apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mirror collector having a generally parabolic surface terminating near the vertex in a circular or cylindrical curve, an evacuated cylindrical heat entrapment tube composed of a clear glass for energy admission and an elongated, U-shaped heat collector tube centrally located in the heat entrapment tube for passing an inner fluid to be heated. The U-shaped tube is constructed of copper with a selective absorption coating for receiving heat and positioned so that the mirror collector concentrates substantially all incoming energy upon the central heat collector tube for providing a concentration factor of about four (4).

Gill, M.; Rogers, M. C.

1985-10-01

71

SURGICAL LIPOSUCTION INSTRUMENT WITH RADIANT ENERGY SOURCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cannula for a liposuction device includes an energy source for liquefying, emulsifying or softening fatty tissue near a tip end. The energy source can provide laser energy through a fiber optic cable, or can provide energy such as RF, ultrasound or IR/UV/Vis energy from a laser diode or the like. Fat is emulsified, liquefied or softened by the energy emitted from the cannula and is removed by aspiration through a series of holes disposed in the outside wall and at the distal end of the cannula. In a power assisted embodiment, the openings in the cannula shear or cut neighboring fat tissue. The tip of the cannula can be heated to promote skin tightening.

FERENCE JEFF; BALLARD THURMAN; GEISERT DANIEL

72

Study on distribution of radiant energy of UV light in heterogeneous photocatalytic system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measuring method and affecting factors on radiant energy distribution of UV light in heterogeneous photocatalytic system are studied by using raster-spectrometer that lines fiberoptic. The experimental results showed that measuring method of radiant energy distribution of UV light is available and the radiant energy distribution of UV light in heterogeneous photocatalytic system is not well-distributed as the axial and radial of the reactor. That is, it is the strongest at the middle position of the reactor than other position as axial direction, and it reduced gradually as radial direction. The photocatalyst TiO{sub 2} can considerably decrease radiant energy due to its adsorption and obstruction function. Whereas, microporous aerating has little effect on radiant energy distribution. The three-dimension diagrams on radiant energy distribution of UV light in heterogeneous photocatalytic system were established, and attenuation model can be expressed by an exponential equation. (orig.)

Liu Changan; Sun Dezhi; Zhao Haifa; Mu Xuan [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin (China)

2003-07-01

73

Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

74

Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, A.J.

1982-02-02

75

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01

76

Method of manufacturing a radiant energy collecting or emitting element  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy collecting/emitting element, including an absorber plate with a cylindrical bore through which a tool comprising a mandrel having lands is drawn to form helical grooves. A tube formed of a ductile metal dissimilar to the plate metal is placed within the bore and a second tool is then drawn through the tube. The second tool has an outer diameter greater than the inner diameter of the tube so that the tube is radially expanded outwardly into intimate surface contact with the bore. During expansion the material of the tube cold flows into the grooves to form lands which lock the tube against displacement relative to the plate.

Mclaughlin, J.C.

1981-11-17

77

Solar collector with improved thermal concentration  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

Barak, Amitzur Z. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01

78

Effect of radiant energy on near-surface water.  

Science.gov (United States)

While recent research on interfacial water has focused mainly on the few interfacial layers adjacent to the solid boundary, century-old studies have extensively shown that macroscopic domains of liquids near interfaces acquire features different from the bulk. Interest in these long-range effects has been rekindled by recent observations showing that colloidal and molecular solutes are excluded from extensive regions next to many hydrophilic surfaces [Zheng and Pollack Phys. Rev. E 2003, 68, 031408]. Studies of these aqueous "exclusion zones" reveal a more ordered phase than bulk water, with local charge separation between the exclusion zones and the regions beyond [Zheng et al. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 127, 19; Zheng and Pollack Water and the Cell: Solute exclusion and potential distribution near hydrophilic surfaces; Springer: Netherlands, 2006; pp 165-174], here confirmed using pH measurements. The main question, however, is where the energy for building these charged, low-entropy zones might come from. It is shown that radiant energy profoundly expands these zones in a reversible, wavelength-dependent manner. It appears that incident radiant energy may be stored in the water as entropy loss and charge separation. PMID:19827846

Chai, Binghua; Yoo, Hyok; Pollack, Gerald H

2009-10-22

79

Effect of radiant energy on near-surface water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While recent research on interfacial water has focused mainly on the few interfacial layers adjacent to the solid boundary, century-old studies have extensively shown that macroscopic domains of liquids near interfaces acquire features different from the bulk. Interest in these long-range effects has been rekindled by recent observations showing that colloidal and molecular solutes are excluded from extensive regions next to many hydrophilic surfaces [Zheng and Pollack Phys. Rev. E 2003, 68, 031408]. Studies of these aqueous "exclusion zones" reveal a more ordered phase than bulk water, with local charge separation between the exclusion zones and the regions beyond [Zheng et al. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 127, 19; Zheng and Pollack Water and the Cell: Solute exclusion and potential distribution near hydrophilic surfaces; Springer: Netherlands, 2006; pp 165-174], here confirmed using pH measurements. The main question, however, is where the energy for building these charged, low-entropy zones might come from. It is shown that radiant energy profoundly expands these zones in a reversible, wavelength-dependent manner. It appears that incident radiant energy may be stored in the water as entropy loss and charge separation.

Chai B; Yoo H; Pollack GH

2009-10-01

80

The Effect of Radiant Energy from Climate Elements on Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since radiant energy is one of the important resource of clean energy, it can scientifically been obtained from the sun. In research, areas and scientific development and managing the optimized consumption of fossil fuels and their high costs some measures can be taken to be evidences towards obtaining the integrated management of optimized consumption of energy. Geographical location of different areas are in close relationship with architectural directions of buildings such as establishment of the buildings and their heights, direction of passage, size of furniture capable of being opened and other cases. The purpose of this paper is only human comfort and the base of comfort is using scientific findings in related topics.

Fardin Nazafati Namin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Wind and radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of wind with radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables can help promote conservation of food and nonrenewable energy resources. Low-cost, small-scale solar dryers have been developed with the potential for developing larger dryers. These dryers depend on natural air convection to remove moisture. Designing the dryers to incorporate natural wind currents, providing forced air circulation, could increase drying rates. Preliminary studies to provide information for such designs included: (1) comparing drying tests with and without forced air circulation, (2) monitoring wind speeds on-site, and (3) testing wind collecting devices. Average wind speeds during solar periods were higher than air velocities from unassisted air convection in these small food dryers. Drying rates were increased by 6 to 11% when the natural convection dryer was provided with a small electric fan. Either of two wind collecting devices also could increase drying rates.

Wagner, C.J. Jr.; Coleman, R.L.; Berry, R.E.

1981-01-01

82

Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

Hinterberger, H.

1980-10-29

83

Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have made a comparison of the geometric efficiencies of basic collectors, by examining the constancy with which each of them collects the solar energy during a day or a year, independant of their dimensions, the amount of energy collected, the concentration, the use of the energy once collected. ...

Duban, M.

84

Solar system employing ground level heliostats and solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This specification discloses an improvement in a solar system having one or more collectors for receiving and using radiant energy from the sun and at least one and preferably a plurality of respective reflector means for reflecting the radiant energy onto the collectors. The improvement is characterized by having towerless collectors and towerless reflectors that are disposed at ground level or substantially the same level, to eliminate the major expense of a collector tower, which is inefficient and nonfunctional in a solar system. Also disclosed is a complete system, or combination, for generating power employing solar energy and the improvement delineated above; as well as structural details of preferred arrangements and equipment.

Blake, F.A.; Northrup, L.L.

1981-07-07

85

OPTICAL FEEDTHROUGH FOR JOINING MODULAR MEDICAL DEVICES THROUGH THE USE OF A RADIANT ENERGY SOURCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In general, the disclosure is directed toward transmitting radiant energy across a boundary of a medical device via an optical feedthrough. A system for transmitting radiant energy across a boundary of a medical device includes a first functional module (30) of a medical device, a second functional module (32) of the medical device, an optical feedthrough assembly (40) coupled to the first functional module, and a radiant energy source (60) that emits a beam (62) through the optical feedthrough assembly to perform a manufacturing process on the first functional module and the second functional module.

ROBINSON REGINALD D; DIFFERDING DAVID D; JOHNSON JAMES A; LI BERNARD Q; LINDNER GERALD G; TISCHENDORF BRAD C; THOM ANDREW J

86

Method of Marking Biological Tissues for Enhanced Destruction by Applied Radiant Energy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for staining a selected tissue with a dye, stain or pigment that is attuned to absorb the energy from a radiant energy source are disclosed. The stain enhances absorption of incoming radiant energy, which results in increased destruction of stained tissues and decreased destruction of underlying tissues. This method provides clinicians with the ability to selectively mark a tissue for destruction, while leaving wanted tissues generally intact. Optionally, a radiant energy opaque substance that can be applied adjacent the stained treatment area to protect against incidental exposure to untargeted tissue. Also optionally, an oxidizing substance may be applied with the stain to further enhance the effect of this method. Wavelengths of radiant energy to which tissue is normally transparent may be utilized by applying appropriate stains to targeted tissue, thereby allowing targeted tissue to even be destroyed when it lies beneath untargeted tissue.

JENSEN STEVEN D

87

Catheter probe arrangement for tissue analysis by radiant energy delivery and radiant energy collection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A catheter tip apparatus arranged in a catheter for the delivery and collection of an energy signal to permit energy beam analysis of body tissue by the collected signal. The apparatus comprises an elongated housing (150) supporting a first reflective surface (158) for emitting radiation in a first beam toward a target body tissue and a second reflective surface (156) for receiving radiation reflected back from the target body tissue, said first reflective surface and said second reflective surface being longitudinally spaced apart from one another and aligned with first and second channels (166,162), respectively, formed through said housing a first flexible, elongated energy bearing delivery fiber (168) having a distal portion extending through said first channel (166) a second flexible, elongated energy bearing collection fiber (164) having a distal portion extending through said second housing channel (162) said first and second channels alignably supporting said first and second energy bearing fibers (168,164) such that distalmost ends thereof are adjacent said first and second reflective surfaces (158, 156), respectively and said housing rotatably supported within a flexible catheter sheath for insertion of said catheter into a mammalian body for tissue analysis thereof.

FURNISH SIMON

88

Catheter Probe Arrangement for Tissue Analysis by Radiant Energy Delivery and Radiant Energy Collection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A catheter tip apparatus arranged in a catheter for the delivery and collection of a light-energy signal to permit subsequent computerized analysis of body tissue by the collected signal. The apparatus comprises an elongated housing supporting a first reflective surface and a second reflective surface. The first reflective surface and the second reflective surface are longitudinally spaced apart from one another. A first flexible, elongated energy bearing delivery fiber has a distalmost end arranged adjacent the first reflective surface. A second flexible, elongated energy bearing collection fiber has a distalmost end arranged adjacent the second reflective surface. The housing is rotatably supported on a flexible catheter sheath for insertion of the catheter into a mammalian body for tissue analysis thereof.

FURNISH SIMON M

89

Radiant energy transfer in a thin pebble bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model is suggested for determining the radiant thermal conductivity of a thin pebble bed with account of the wall effect. Model extension to cover the case of an unlied bed has shown the possibility of describing it using the data of various investigations. Results of experimental investigations into radiant thermal conductivity of a thin pebble bed, are presented that confirm the efficiency of the suggested mathematical model.

1984-01-01

90

Complete theoretical treatment of the transmittance ratio ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometric stray radiant energy test method.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper develops the theoretical basis behind the transmittance ratio test method for determining the relative stray radiant energy level in a double-beam dispersive spectrophotometer so as to allow for the non-transparency of a test solution towards the stray radiant energy for all sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratios. Non-transparency is defined as the transmittance of the reference beam solution, whose monochromatic absorbance is unity, towards stray radiant energy. The proposed method has the same concentration absorbing sample placed in the beams of the scanning spectrophotometer, the sample-beam cuvette being a known factor longer than the reference-beam cuvette. While scanning towards shorter wavelengths, an apparent differential absorbance Mielenz peak is recorded. An exact formula is derived in this paper relating the relative stray radiant energy level to the Mielenz peak absorbance, to the known cuvette path length ratio, to the observed monochromatic absorbance of the test sample at the Mielenz peak wavelength, and to the sample transmittance towards the stray radiant energy. Sample transmittance towards stray radiant energy cannot be determined experimentally. However, the derived formula only allows the other experimental quantities to tie in together for a single numerically calculated value for the sample-transmittance towards stray radiant energy. The formulae are tedious to derive and cumbersome to handle, but their application is facilitated greatly by a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 spreadsheet. The test method was applied to an ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS) scanning spectrophotometer at nine wavelengths in the range 713 > lambda (nm) >; 649 for a sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratio of 10 mm/5 mm and using blue food dye (E123) as the test material. Sample transparency to stray radiant energy fluctuated in wavelength between 0.819 and 0.948, while the relative stray radiant energy level fluctuated between 1.283 x 10(-3) and 2.516 x 10(-3). The investigation was repeated at 665.6 nm for all fifteen sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratios, which it was possible to establish using combinations of quartz-glass cuvettes with path lengths of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 mm. The sample transparency to stray radiant energy at 665.6 nm was 0.95 +/- 0.5, while the relative stray radiant energy was (1.5 +/- 0.33) x 10(-3). PMID:19843363

Fleming, Paddy

2009-10-01

91

Complete theoretical treatment of the transmittance ratio ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometric stray radiant energy test method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper develops the theoretical basis behind the transmittance ratio test method for determining the relative stray radiant energy level in a double-beam dispersive spectrophotometer so as to allow for the non-transparency of a test solution towards the stray radiant energy for all sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratios. Non-transparency is defined as the transmittance of the reference beam solution, whose monochromatic absorbance is unity, towards stray radiant energy. The proposed method has the same concentration absorbing sample placed in the beams of the scanning spectrophotometer, the sample-beam cuvette being a known factor longer than the reference-beam cuvette. While scanning towards shorter wavelengths, an apparent differential absorbance Mielenz peak is recorded. An exact formula is derived in this paper relating the relative stray radiant energy level to the Mielenz peak absorbance, to the known cuvette path length ratio, to the observed monochromatic absorbance of the test sample at the Mielenz peak wavelength, and to the sample transmittance towards the stray radiant energy. Sample transmittance towards stray radiant energy cannot be determined experimentally. However, the derived formula only allows the other experimental quantities to tie in together for a single numerically calculated value for the sample-transmittance towards stray radiant energy. The formulae are tedious to derive and cumbersome to handle, but their application is facilitated greatly by a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 spreadsheet. The test method was applied to an ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS) scanning spectrophotometer at nine wavelengths in the range 713 > lambda (nm) >; 649 for a sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratio of 10 mm/5 mm and using blue food dye (E123) as the test material. Sample transparency to stray radiant energy fluctuated in wavelength between 0.819 and 0.948, while the relative stray radiant energy level fluctuated between 1.283 x 10(-3) and 2.516 x 10(-3). The investigation was repeated at 665.6 nm for all fifteen sample beam-to-reference beam cuvette path length ratios, which it was possible to establish using combinations of quartz-glass cuvettes with path lengths of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 mm. The sample transparency to stray radiant energy at 665.6 nm was 0.95 +/- 0.5, while the relative stray radiant energy was (1.5 +/- 0.33) x 10(-3).

Fleming P

2009-10-01

92

Evaluation of the interaction with radiant energy of substances traversed by a borehole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a well logging method and apparatus for obtaining impulse response of a formation traversed by a borehole by means of correlation techniques. Use is made of a source of radiant energy and of a control element for said source to produce a substantially random or pseudorandom sequence of discrete bursts of radiant energy from the source to cause interactions of these bursts with the formation whereby characteristic radiations of interactions are produced. A detector is provided which is responsive to these radiations to produce corresponding signals. In one embodiment of my invention the impulse, expressed by a function h(t), is obtained by crosscorrelating signals produced by the detector with signals respresenting the bursts of radiant energy from the source. In another embodient the impulse response h(t) of the formation is obtained by autocorrelating signals produced by the detector. In another embodiment of my invention the outputs of two detectors, differently spaced from a source of radiant energy, are crosscorrelated. Using the function h(t), valuable information regarding physical properties of the formation may be obtained. The source of radiant energy may be a source of energetic neutrons, particularly of the deuterium-tritium type, or a source of gamma radiation or of microwaves, or a source of any other form of radiant energy.

Neufeld, J.

1985-03-05

93

Evaluation of the interaction with radiant energy of substances traversed by a bore hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disclosed is a well logging method and apparatus for obtaining impulse response of a formation traversed by a bore hole by means of correlation techniques. Use is made of a source of radiant energy and of a control element for said source to produce a substantially random or pseudorandom sequence of discrete bursts of radiant energy from the source to cause interactions of these bursts with the formation whereby characteristic radiations of interactions are produced. A detector is provided which is responsive to these radiations to produce corresponding signals. In one embodiment of my invention the impulse response, expressed by a function h(T), is obtained by crosscorrelating signals produced by the detector with signals representing the bursts of radiant energy from the source. In another embodiment the impulse response h(T) of the formation is obtained by autocorrelating signals produced by the detector. In another embodiment of my invention the outputs of two detectors, differently spaced from a source of radiant energy, are crosscorrelated. Using the function h(T), valuable information regarding physical properties of the formation may be obtained. The source of radiant energy may be a source of energetic neutrons, particularly of the deuteriumtritium type, or a source of gamma radiation or of microwaves, or a source of any other form of radiant energy.

1982-01-01

94

Evaluation of the interaction with radiant energy of substances traversed by a borehole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A well logging method and apparatus are disclosed for obtaining impulse response of a formation traversed by a borehole by means of correlation techniques. Use is made of a source of radiant energy and of a control element for said source to produce a substantially random or pseudorandom sequence of discrete bursts of radiant energy from the source to cause interactions of these bursts with the formation whereby characteristic radiations of interactions are produced. A detector is provided which is responsive to these radiations to produce corresponding signals. In one embodiment of my invention, the impulse response, expressed by a function h(t), is obtained by cross correlating signals produced by the detector with signals representing the bursts of radiant energy from the source. In another embodiment the impulse response h(t) of the formation is obtained by autocorrelating signals produced by the detector. In another embodiment of my invention the outputs of two detectors, differently spaced from a source of radiant energy, are crosscorrelated. Using the function h(t), valuable information regarding physical properties of the formation may be obtained. The source of radiant energy may be a source of energetic neutrons, particularly of the deuterium-tritium type, or a source of gamma radiation or of microwaves, or a source of any other form of radiant energy.

Neufeld, J.

1983-09-06

95

Evaluation of the interaction with radiant energy of substances traversed by a bore hole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a well logging method and apparatus for obtaining impulse response of a formation traversed by a bore hole by means of correlation techniques. Use is made of a source of radiant energy and of a control element for said source to produce a substantially random or pseudorandom sequence of discrete bursts of radiant energy from the source to cause interactions of these bursts with the formation whereby characteristic radiations of interactions are produced. A detector is provided which is responsive to these radiations to produce corresponding signals. In one embodiment of my invention the impulse response, expressed by a function h(T), is obtained by crosscorrelating signals produced by the detector with signals representing the bursts of radiant energy from the source. In another embodiment the impulse response h(T) of the formation is obtained by autocorrelating signals produced by the detector. In another embodiment of my invention the outputs of two detectors, differently spaced from a source of radiant energy, are crosscorrelated. Using the function h(T), valuable information regarding physical properties of the formation may be obtained. The source of radiant energy may be a source of energetic neutrons, particularly of the deuteriumtritium type, or a source of gamma radiation or of microwaves, or a source of any other form of radiant energy.

Neufeld, J.

1982-04-20

96

Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

Moore, Stanley W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-07-12

97

On the amplification of radiant energy during channeling in acoustically excited single crystal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical solutions of classical equations of motion and of total radiant energy from a relativistic electron/positron in planar channeling in a single crystal excited by longitudinal standing hypersonic (HS) wave are given. The limit on the radiant energy increase from the channeled particle at parametric resonance is determined by nonlinear effects and the amplitude of HS vibrations. The relative increase of radiant energy due to the transverse oscillations near the minima of potential energy of particle may reach {approx}100% if HS vibrations are in phase with the instants of particle incidence on the crystal. For particles with energies E{<=}100 MeV the achieved fit is only qualitative, because for description of channeling in this case the application of the methods of quantum theory is needed.

Grigoryan, L.Sh. E-mail: levonshg@web.amlevonshg@yandex.ru; Mkrtchyan, A.H.; Khachatryan, H.F.; Wagner, W.; Saharian, A.A.; Baghdasaryan, K.S

2003-12-01

98

On the amplification of radiant energy during channeling in acoustically excited single crystal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical solutions of classical equations of motion and of total radiant energy from a relativistic electron/positron in planar channeling in a single crystal excited by longitudinal standing hypersonic (HS) wave are given. The limit on the radiant energy increase from the channeled particle at parametric resonance is determined by nonlinear effects and the amplitude of HS vibrations. The relative increase of radiant energy due to the transverse oscillations near the minima of potential energy of particle may reach ?100% if HS vibrations are in phase with the instants of particle incidence on the crystal. For particles with energies E?100 MeV the achieved fit is only qualitative, because for description of channeling in this case the application of the methods of quantum theory is needed.

2003-01-01

99

To the problem of radiant energy release distribution over the BOR-60 reactor core radius  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of determination of radiant energy release radial distribution in the BOR-60 reactor core is discussed. The information concerned is required in the process of irradiation facility developments and it should be verified experimentally. The applicability of the method of displacing the set of fuel assemblies relative to the D-23 cell for experimental investigation of radiant energy release in the reactor core is shown. An example of the measurement results processing is considered. The comparison of the experimental and calculational data is made

1999-01-01

100

Equipartition and rate of energy exchanges in a model of a radiant cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of calculations on a model of a radiant cavity, performed in order to explore the relation between stochasticity and geometrical structure of phase space, are presented. The rate of energy exchanges, as indicator of stochasticity, is found to be quite effective. Furthermore, a trend to equipartition for such a quantity is observed at increasing energy, and this implies an increasing rigidity of high harmonic modes also in the stochastic regime of motion. Such a feature may be correlated to the shape of the spectrum which characterizes the radiant cavity with respect to nonlinear chains.

Alabiso, C.; Casartelli, M.; Sello, S.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Equipartition and rate of energy exchanges in a model of a radiant cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of calculations on a model of a radiant cavity, performed in order to explore the relation between stochasticity and geometrical structure of phase space, are presented. The rate of energy exchanges, as indicator of stochasticity, is found to be quite effective. Furthermore, a trend to equipartition for such a quantity is observed at increasing energy, and this implies an increasing rigidity of high harmonic modes also in the stochastic regime of motion. Such a feature may be correlated to the shape of the spectrum which characterizes the radiant cavity with respect to nonlinear chains

1989-01-01

102

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

CERN Multimedia

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Boji?, Milorad; Mileti?, Marko; Maleševi?, Jovan; Boyer, Harry

2012-01-01

103

Solar energy collector and method of making same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method of making a solar energy collecting device which includes glass absorbing means for absorbing radiant energy and transferring the energy to a heat transfer fluid carried thereby, and insulating means for passing therethrough radiant energy while insulating the absorbing means from an external environment. The method consists of melting a metallic substance to form molten metal, spraying the molten metal on the glass absorbing means by use of a stream of pressurized gas so as to fuse a metallic layer thereon, blackening the metallic layer, and hermetically sealing together the glass absorbing means and the insulating means so as to form an insulating chamber therebetween, whereby the absorbing means absorbs, when the collecting device is operational, solar energy at a level of at least 70% and passes the same to the heat transfer fluid while emitting no more than 5% energy in the infrared range. A method of making a solar energy concentrator for use with solar absorbing means for absorbing solar energy and for transferring the solar energy to a heat transfer fluid carried thereby. The concentrator includes a solar energy concentrating means for directing radiant energy onto the absorbing means. The concentrating means is made by the steps of: forming a transparent glass member in a shape so that, when disposed about the absorbing means, an inner surface of the transparent member faces and is adapted to direct radiant energy onto the absorbing means, and melting a metallic substance to form molten metal, spraying the molten metal on an outer surface of the transparent glass member by use of a stream of pressurized gas so as to fuse thereon a thin metallic layer thereby to form a smooth, highly reflective concentrator for directing radiant energy onto the absorbing means. This patent also describes a solar energy collecting devices.

Deakin, D.

1986-04-01

104

Ignition of condensed media with absorbing additives upon concentrated application of radiant energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which absorbing media affect ignition. In each experiment as described the pulse energy was measured, the value of d /SUB i/ was determined, and the radiant energy density incident on the surface of the medium was found. The experimental results were used to calculate the critical energy density corresponding to a 50% probability of ignition. The effect of additive particle size was also studied. An approximate expression for the energy flux density absorbed by the additive and transferred into the surrounding medium is obtained. In conclusion it is determined that additives capable of absorbing large amounts of radiant energy and easily evaporated markedly increase the inflammability of condensed media.

Aleksandrov, V.E.; Dolgolaptev, A.V.; Ioffe, V.B.; Koval' chuk, V.M.; Levin, B.V.; Obraztsov, A.P.

1984-01-01

105

Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun's radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.

Pollack GH; Figueroa X; Zhao Q

2009-04-01

106

Absorption and distribution of radiant energy in metallic particles with oxide film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features of radiant energy absorption and distribution (with 0.53 ?m wave length) inside aluminium and titanium particles covered by oxide coatings are considered. Manifestation and growth of oxide coating thickness on a metal nucleus in several intervals of particle sizes lead to an increase of radiation absorption by such particles by an order and to a substantial change of the absorbed energy distribution picture in two-layer particle nuclei.

1993-01-01

107

Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to eval...

J. F. Baumeister

1994-01-01

108

Solar energy collector/storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

109

Studies on advanced tubular solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An all glass double walled tubular array of approx. 1m x 1m area has been fabricated and the effect of evacuation on its performance has been studied. Transmittance of the cylindrical geometry has been computed. The study reveals that the transmittance at higher azimuths is better than that at lower ones on a whole day basis for a south facing tilted collector.

Garg, H.P.; Shukla, A.R.; Agnihotri, R.C.; Chakravertty, S.; Indrajit; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

1982-01-01

110

Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun's radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water. PMID:19468316

Pollack, Gerald H; Figueroa, Xavier; Zhao, Qing

2009-03-27

111

A note on the solutions of thermal radiant energy interchange problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interchange of radiant energy among diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting opaque surfaces, separated by radiatively nonparticipating media, is a phenomenon governed by systems of integral equations. It is assumed that temperature fields are known, these systems are linear and may have, as unknown, the local radiosities over each surface considered. The author will develop his discussion for an enclosure composed of M diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting opaque surfaces. If he assumes that the medium is radiatively nonparticipating, all the energy that leaves a region of a given surface will reach one (or more) of the other (M-1) surfaces and/or itself.

Saldanha da Gama, R.M. (Lab. Nacional de Computacao, Cientifica, Rio de Janero (Brazil))

1988-11-01

112

Solar air collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar heating system including a radiant heat collector apparatus made up of an enclosure having glazed panels. The collector provided within the enclosure is upstanding with the enclosure and the collector has heat absorbent flat walls spaced inwardly from the glazed panels. A heat storage core is provided centrally within the collector and spaced from the walls of the collector. The heat storage core includes an insulated housing and a heat retaining member within the insulated housing. Air passageways are formed between the collector walls and the insulated housing for passing input air, and duct members are provided for communicating with a household.

Deschenes, D.; Misrahi, E.

1981-12-15

113

A Non-Tracking Solar Energy Collector System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar energy collector system is characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flat-plate receiver. A plurality of individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetric...

M. K. Selcuk

1977-01-01

114

Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Field  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this paper is similar, but relies on using a storage functionwith a physical interpretation leading to a conceptually simpler control lawwith more transparent tuning parameters, see also (Ydstie and Alonso 1997)for a general treatment of thermodynamic storage functions in control.Other control strategies for this solar power plant based on finite-dimensionalmodels with experimentally evaluated performance can be found in e.g. (Camachoet al. 1997, Silva et al. 1997, Rato et al. 1997, Johansen et al. 2000) and thereferences therein.This paper is organized as follows: First wegiveanoverview of the plantand a mathematical model in section 2. Energy-based control strategies aresuggested and analysed in section 3. Some aspects of controller implementationare described in section 4, and experimental results are included in section 5before the conclusions.22 Mathematical ModelThe dynamics of the distributed solar collector field are described bythefollowing energy balanceA@T@t(t# x)+q(t)@T@x(t# x)=j 0 Gcae(x)I(t) (1)with boundary condition T (t# 0) = T in (t). The position along the collector/tube is x and t is the time. The other model variables are the followingT (t# x); oil temperature at position x along the tubeq(t) ; oil pump volumetric flow rateI(t) ; solar radition(x) ; tube/collector characteristic functionBetween x =0andx = l the tube contains passive parts that are not exposedto solar radiation, and wehaveintroduced the tube/collector characteristicfunction to account for this. Hence, (x) = 1 if the tube at position x isexposed to solar radiation, and (x) = 0 otherwise. The model parameters areA; tube inner cross-sectional area (m2)j 0 ; collector optical efficiencyG; collector aperture (m)c ; specific oil heat ...

Tor A. Johansen; Camilla Storaa

115

Radiant transport function for radiant heat transfer problems in buildings and urban spaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiant transport functions encountered in buildings and urban spaces are complex and diverse and are especially different depending on the inside of buildings because of the existence of atmospheric radiation in the outdoors and transparency conditions in rooms. A radiant transport function is proposed in order to overcome such difficulties and to obtain a systematic understanding of the entire system. It is defined as the response at any point and in any direction in enclosure for the excitation of the radiant energy emission at a point and direction by the Dirac delta function. The radiant transport function indicates the characteristics of the radiant energy transferred in an enclosure. Therefore, it is effective for understanding the behavior of radiant energy when the radiant transport function is obtained in buildings and urban spaces. The radiant energy is determined simply integrating the function with the emissive power thus avoiding the otherwise tedious calculations necessary to solve the integral equation for a radiant transfer problem.

Nakamura, Y. (Dept. of Architecture, Kyoto Univ. (JP))

1989-05-01

116

Radiant energy collecting or emitting element and method and tool for manufacture thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiant energy collecting/emitting element is described including an absorber plate with a cylindrical bore through which a tool comprising a mandrel having lands is drawn to form helical grooves. A tube formed of a ductile metal dissimilar to the plate metal is placed within the bore and a second tool is then drawn through the tube. The second tool has an outer diameter greater than the inner diameter of the tube so that the tube is radially expanded outwardly into intimate surface contact with the bore. During expansion the material of the tube cold flows into the grooves to form lands which lock the tube against displacement relative to the plate.

Mclaughlin, J.C.

1980-08-19

117

The influence of radiant energy on heat losses in small pressurizers, calculated with MODPRESS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a previous work, a model for heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculations was inserted in MODPRESS transient code for PWR pressurizer analysis, so the heat transfer to the surrounding air could be determined. The new routines were verified for Neptunus experimental test number U47, yielding a thermal power loss of 11.4 kW while experimental determinations point to 17.0 kW out. Several HTC correlations were extensively tested for the natural convection between wall and ambient air, but none was capable of justifying such discrepancy. Bearing in mind that, radiation heat loss may account for an important reaction of the global heat loss, in the present work, a HTC relative to the radiant energy was added to the natural convection HTC, resulting in a thermal loss of 16.8 kW. Now, this result compares very well to the experimental measurements, when using for the surface the emissivity of carbon steel. (author)

2011-01-01

118

Photovoltaic cell cover for use with a primary optical concentrator in a solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a radiant energy converter for converting radiant energy into electrical energy. The converter has a focal zone, comprising: (a) primary optical concentrator including focusing means having a preselected configuration and receiving incident radiant energy for focusing the energy onto the focal zone; (b) one or more photovoltaic cells individually located in the area of the focal zone, each of the cells having active material and a pattern of electrically-conducting elements positioned on and obscuring a portion of the active material, the active material for receiving the radiant energy and in response thereto generating an electrical signal; and (c) a cell cover for each of the cells, the cell cover having one or more refractive elements, each having a geometry selected to be compatible with the preselected configuration of the focusing means of the primary optical concentrator and further determined by the pattern of electrically conducting elements positioned on the active areas of the cells. The cell cover receives the focused radiant energy from over a wide angular distribution from the primary optical concentrator depending on the location of the cell in the focal zone and the preselected configuration of the focusing means of the primary optical concentrator and in response thereto refracting the radiant energy away from the pattern of electrically conducting elements and onto the active area of the cells not obscured by the conducting elements.

O' Neill, M.J.

1987-12-08

119

Modeling the spatial distribution of the volumic radiant energy and absorbed dose of radiation in the DNA structure under accelerated heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model approaches are developed to the description of the mechanism of the formation of different types of atomic-level DNA lesions under accelerated heavy ions. The radial distribution of volumic radiant energy and the absorbed dose are calculated in accelerated heavy ions. The radial distribution of volumic radiant energy and the absorbed dose are calculated in accelerated 4He, 12C, and 40Ar ion tracks in the energy range of 3-20 MeV/nucleon. The spatial location of the atoms of an adenine-thymine nucleotide pair is compared with the calculated radial dose and volumic radiant energy distribution

2011-01-01

120

Bi-Radiant Oven: A Low-Energy Oven System. Volume I. Development and Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating element...

D. P. DeWitt M. V. Peart

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01

122

Tailor-made biopolymers porous scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering: application of radiant energy in the form of microwave under vacuum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many methods are available for developing three-dimensional porous scaffolds using various polymeric materials for tissue-engineering applications. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the available methods and their limitations were discussed briefly. This paper focuses on the scope of novel technology called radiant energy application under vacuum for the fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Radiant energy application in the form of microwave under vacuum has been shown to develop and maintain the porous structure in fruits and vegetables after dehydration, which produced the microstructure similar to the freeze dried materials. Same principle of applying radiant energy under vacuum was used on the biopolymeric gels to create tailor-made, porous scaffolds for biomedical purposes. It has many advantages over the other existing methods of scaffold fabrication. This paper also reviews the scaffolds design recently fabricated by the authors using radiant energy under vacuum. PMID:19197112

Jaya, S; Durance, T D

2008-01-01

123

Tailor-made biopolymers porous scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering: application of radiant energy in the form of microwave under vacuum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many methods are available for developing three-dimensional porous scaffolds using various polymeric materials for tissue-engineering applications. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the available methods and their limitations were discussed briefly. This paper focuses on the scope of novel technology called radiant energy application under vacuum for the fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Radiant energy application in the form of microwave under vacuum has been shown to develop and maintain the porous structure in fruits and vegetables after dehydration, which produced the microstructure similar to the freeze dried materials. Same principle of applying radiant energy under vacuum was used on the biopolymeric gels to create tailor-made, porous scaffolds for biomedical purposes. It has many advantages over the other existing methods of scaffold fabrication. This paper also reviews the scaffolds design recently fabricated by the authors using radiant energy under vacuum.

Jaya S; Durance TD

2008-01-01

124

Energy inputs due to the condensation of moist air on an atmospheric collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The low temperature operation of atmospheric collectors used as an evaporator or as a secondary heat exchanger at the cold source of a heat pump engenders energy recovery by condensation of moist air on the walls. A model is proposed that serves to evaluate the quantity of heat given up to the collector during this phase change. The final purpose of this study is to estimate the share of energy due to condensation in the total energy balance of the collector.

Gobbe, C. (Laboratoire de Genie Civil, IUT ' ' A' ' , 33 - Talence (France))

1985-02-01

125

Collapsed cone convolution of radiant energy for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for photon beam dose calculations is described. The primary photon beam is raytraced through the patient, and the distribution of total radiant energy released into the patient is calculated. Polyenergetic energy deposition kernels are calculated from the spectrum of the beam, using a database of monoenergetic kernels. It is shown that the polyenergetic kernels can be analytically described with high precision by [A exp(-ar)+B exp(-br)]/r2, where A, a, B, and b depend on the angle with respect to the impinging photons and the accelerating potential, and r is the radial distance. Numerical values of A, a, B, and b are derived and used to convolve energy deposition kernels with the total energy released per unit mass (TERMA) to yield dose distributions. The convolution is facilitated by the introduction of the collapsed cone approximation. In this approximation, all energy released into coaxial cones of equal solid angle, from volume elements on the cone axis, is rectilinearly transported, attenuated, and deposited in elements on the axis. Scaling of the kernels is implicitly done during the convolution procedure to fully account for inhomogeneities present in the irradiated volume. The number of computational operations needed to compute the dose with the method is proportional to the number of calculation points. The method is tested for five accelerating potentials; 4, 6, 10, 15, and 24 MV, and applied to two geometries; one is a stack of slabs of tissue media, and the other is a mediastinum-like phantom of cork and water. In these geometries, the EGS4 Monte Carlo system has been used to generate reference dose distributions with which the dose computed with the collapsed cone convolution method is compared. Generally, the agreement between the methods is excellent.

1989-01-01

126

Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume II. Executive summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new low-energy oven - referred to as the Bi-Radiant Oven - features highly reflective cavity walls, absorptive utensils, and upper/lower heating elements that are independently powered and operate at moderate temperatures. Three major technical areas are addressed in this project. The first area is concerned with a heat transfer enclosure analysis to relate cavity efficiency to oven parameters such as wall reflectivity, heating element configuration, insulation thickness and other oven parameters. The second area deals with the thermal performance of two ovens with wall materials having emissivities of 0.03 and 0.31; efficiencies of 22% and 18%, respectively, were obtained, which compare to a range of 12-16% for a conventional oven. A method of control was developed to provide constant net heat fluxes to the upper/lower surfaces of a product. Under simulated microprocessor control, satisfactory oven operation is demonstrated for repetitive cake baking. The third area is concerned with the food requirements and the establishment of oven element power settings to provide acceptable quality for a wide variety of foods. Foods were categorized into groups that require common power settings.

DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.W.

1981-10-01

127

Exergetic optimization of solar collector and thermal energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the exergetic optimization of a solar thermal energy system. This consists of a solar collector (SC) and a rectangular water storage tank (ST) that contains a phase change material (PCM) distributed in an assembly of slabs. The study takes into account both conduction and convection heat transfer mode for water in the SC, and also the phase change process for the PCM in the ST. An analytical solution for the melting process in the PCM is also presented. The results of the study are compared with previous experimental data, confirming the accuracy of the model. Results of a numerical case study are presented and discussed. (author)

Aghbalou, F.; Illa, J. [Department of Computer and Industrial Engineering, University of Lleida, C/Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Badia, F. [Department of Environmental and Soil Sciences, University of Lleida, C/Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

2006-04-15

128

Radiant ceiling panel heating-cooling systems: experimental and simulated study of the performances, thermal comfort and energy consumptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well known in the North of Europe, the water ceiling panel systems are mainly used to provide cooling. However, as well as for a radiant floor, this system can be used for heating in winter and cooling in summer. In order to get a better knowledge of the energy performances of such devices, the Gaz de France Research Centre funded a test campaign during two winters and one summer. This experimental study was carried out in our laboratory, located in Rennes, in western France. A water ceiling panel system and a monitory data acquisition system were installed in a test room. The studied ceiling panel system was made of copper pipes with rigid aluminium diffusion fins. The used materials presented a good heating conductivity and the ceiling radiant panel was fast-acting. Simulation models were developed with the simulation program TRNSYS, using the experimental study results for the code verification. (author)

Miriel, J.; Serres, L. [INSA de Rennes, (France). Civil Engineering Research Group, Equipe de thermique des Batiments; Trombe, A. [INSA de Toulouse, (France). Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques

2002-11-01

129

Overall energy, exergy and carbon credit analysis by different type of hybrid photovoltaic thermal air collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? Comparative study of PVT air collectors. ? CO2 analysis of all type of PVT air collectors. ? Study of thermal energy, exergy gain and exergy efficiency. ? Exergy efficiency of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is most efficient. - Abstract: In this paper, comparative analysis of different type of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) air collector namely: (i) unglazed hybrid PVT tiles, (ii) glazed hybrid PVT tiles and (iii) conventional hybrid PVT air collectors have been carried out for the composite climate of Srinagar (India). The comparative study has been carried out in terms of overall thermal energy and exergy gain, exergy efficiency and carbon credit earned by different type of hybrid PVT air collectors. It has been observed that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 27% and 29.3% respectively as compared to glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector and by 61% and 59.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. It has also been observed that overall annual exergy efficiency of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 9.6% and 53.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. On the basis of comparative study, it has been concluded that CO2 emission reduction per annum on the basis of overall thermal energy gain of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 62.3% and 27.7% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector and on the basis of overall exergy gain it is 59.7% and 22.7%.

2013-01-01

130

Reduced meteorological data for the computation of the energy produced by solar collectors. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report compares the RED-function method with other methods based on reuced data sets, especially cumulative radiation frequencies curves (CFC). So far, all results refer to the collector heat output for fixed-collector temperatures. The subject of the research was the determination of the precision of the calculation of the energy output of flat-plate solar collectors, when a data reduction is used in which the correlation between irradiance and temperature of the ambient air is conserved.

Koch, H.R.

1984-01-01

131

Influence of reflectance from flat aluminum concentrators on energy efficiency of PV/thermal collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the results of the influence of reflectance from flat plate solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil on energy efficiency of PV/Thermal collector are presented. The total reflectance from concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil is almost the same, but specular reflectance which is bigger in concentrators made of Al foil results in increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor. With the increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor, total daily thermal and electrical energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators increase. In this work also optimal position of solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil and appropriate thermal and electrical efficiency of PV/Thermal collector have been determined. Total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al foil in optimal position is higher than total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al sheet. (author)

Kostic, Ljiljana T.; Pavlovic, Tomislav M.; Pavlovic, Zoran T. [Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 224, 18 000 Nis (RS); Montenegro

2010-02-15

132

Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the use of photovoltaic cells to generate the electrical power demands of the aircraft. The photovoltaic cells are mounted inside the casing of the jet engine, are thermally insulated from the normally hot engine casing, and are appropriately cooled. The photovoltaic cells receive their required radiant energy from the combustion flame by holes in the combustion liner. The instrumentation system used to make these measurements employed fiberoptic probes - entering the engine by way of an existing (modified) access plate - to obtain the radiation measurements. Such an instrumentation system has the strong advantage of being able to measure radiation from all the holes running axially down the combustor without making any holes in the plenum/engine casing - as would be necessary if sapphire observation windows were used. This report is thus more than a discussion of spectral radiation measurements made on a jet engine: it is also a report of the design and evolution of the fiberoptic instrumentation system used to make these measurements. The instrumentation system was designed and built from fundamental first principles, as described in detail in this report. It is believed that this fiberoptic instrumentation system will find application with gas-turbine manufacturers.

Doellner, O.L.

1986-02-01

133

Solar-energy-powered sun tracker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for causing a solar energy collector to constantly follow the sun using the sun's radiant energy reflected from an arrangement of mirrors to differentially heat fluid-containing reservoirs to create a differential pressure which is utilized to rotate the apparatus and the collector.

Robbins, R.W.

1982-06-08

134

Modeling the spatial distribution of the volumic radiant energy and absorbed dose of radiation in the DNA structure under accelerated heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model approaches are developed to the description of the mechanism of the formation of different types of atomic-level DNA lesions under accelerated heavy ions. The radial distribution of volumic radiant energy and the absorbed dose are calculated in accelerated 4He, 12C, and 40Ar ion tracks in the energy range of 3-20 MeV/nucleon. The spatial location of the atoms of an adenine-thymine nucleotide pair is compared with the calculated radial dose and volumic radiant energy distribution

2012-01-01

135

Use of high efficiency radiant burners can save energy and/or improve product quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infrared (IR) heating has several advantages to convective heat transfer. Porous radiant burners are typically applied to improve productivity, process efficiency and product quality or in order to reduce operating costs, emissions and required space for process equipment. This paper includes a general description of gas-fired IR heating as well as recent developments in burner technology and ongoing research activities. The new burner designs include ECN`s ceramic multi-layer and multi-step burners, coating of ceramic burners in order to match absorption characteristics of typical products and high temperature surface burners with combustion air preheating. (au)

Myken, A.N.; Rasmussen, N.B.K. [Danish Gas Technology Centre (Denmark); Drift, B. van der [Netherlands Energy Reserch Foundation (Netherlands)

1997-11-01

136

A System for Determining Parameters of a Particle by Radiant Energy Scattering Techniques, Patent Application.  

Science.gov (United States)

The system for determining parameters of a particle described in this document is a government-owned invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the system together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A collector contains a hole and annular apertures for transmitting…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

137

Solar energy conversion on the principle of fluorescent collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emphasis of the work was the measurement and investigation of fluorescent dyes and matrix materials with regard to an application in fluorescent collectors. In the visible range new dyes from the field of display applications were available. In this spectral range the combination organic dye-plexiglas can give satisfactory results concerning efficiency as well as stability, both of which have been improved in the last two years. At the moment, however, a commercial application is not yet possible. The first collectors are being tested in a long term outdoor test set-up. In the red and infrared range, the properties of dyes and collectors are not yet satisfactory. A special program for dye development in this spectral range was started in spring 1980 by the chemical industry.

Baur, G.; Goetzberger, A.; Heidler, K.; Langhals, H.; Sah, E.; Wittwer, V.; Zastrow, A.

1982-06-01

138

Evaluation of the chromium oxide arc spraying treatment on solar energy collectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerated aging tests were performed on steel specimens coated with plasma gun Cr2O3 arc sprays. The chromium oxide coating is attractive due to its radiation absorptance characteristic, especially for solar thermal energy absorption applications. The use of plasma blowpipes gives low porosity coatings. Collector efficiency curves were determined and compared to the curves of conventional black paint collectors. The efficiency is close to conventional painting. The excellent behavior at high temperatures makes this treatment applicable to concentrated radiation absorbers.

Fernandezarroyo, Gloria; Gonzalezgarcia-Conde, Antonio; Moralespoyato, Francisco; Arrerajaraiz, Jose Maria; Blancotemprano, Cristina; Camonalvarez, Francisco

139

Sea shell solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is provided for the collection and concentration of solar radiant energy including a longitudinally extending structure having a wall for directing radiant energy. The wall is parabolic with its focus along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at one solstice and with its axis along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at the other solstice. An energy absorber is positioned to receive the solar energy thereby collected.

Rabl, Ari (Downers Grove, IL)

1976-01-01

140

Solar energy collectors made of chrome-nickel steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The surface of the solar collector (C) absorber made of heat-resistant chrome-nickel steel is initially oxidized at temperature 200-700/sup 0/C in water vapors. Then in order to passivate and increase the service life of the C, it is submerged into molten salt. Before high temperature oxidation, the surface of the C can be polished, for example, by SiC powder.

Kharada, Y.; Isibasi, K.; Yosikava, K.

1982-01-22

 
 
 
 
141

A theoretical study on area compensation for non-directly-south-facing solar collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy integrated with the building is an important approach for the synchronous development of solar energy and architecture. The energy gain of the solar collector integrated with the pitched roof has been greatly influenced by the roof azimuth and tilted angle. Investment cost of the collectors is mainly decided by the size of the collector area. Accordingly, it is significant for solar building design to economically determinate the area compensation of the solar collector at different azimuth and tilted angles. Take Kunming and Beijing as examples, area compensation for the flat-plate tube-fin solar collector used in southern regions and the evacuated tube collector with cylindrical absorbers used in northern regions in China have been theoretically calculated. The results to some extent show that the daily horizontal solar radiation, ambient temperature, the azimuth and tilted angle of the collector integrated into the roof have an influence on the area compensation. The azimuth angle and tilted angle of the roof are the main factors that influence the A/A , which is defined as the collector area ratio of the non-south-facing collectors to the south-facing ones with the optimal tilted angle. Comparative studies found that the range of A/A for the evacuated tube collector used in the northern regions is close to that for the flat-plate tube-fin solar collector used in the southern regions. When the pitched roof tilted angle ? element of [25 deg., 45 deg.] and the azimuth angle vertical bar ? vertical bar ? 30 deg., the collectors can intercept a lot of solar radiant-energy. Considering the economic situations of the ordinary consumers in China, the optimal area compensation A/A ? 1.30 is recommended in this paper.

2007-01-01

142

Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. (Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand))

1992-01-01

143

Membrane-based space energy collector: A conceptual study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work the shape characteristics of a parabolic structure that consists of an initially flat circular membrane subject to solar radiation pressure in the space environment are examined. This problem arises in the analysis of space systems such as solar power collectors and solar sails. This paper presents parametric studies aimed at determining the power concentration capacity of a non-ideally reflecting flat circular membrane as a function of its radius size and thickness. The shape of the deformed membrane is close to parabolic. Both numerical simulations and analytical study show that the thin membrane subject solely to solar radiation pressure can concentrate the sunlight power several hundred times.

Couceiro, F.; Gamboa, P. V.; Silva, J. M.; Guerman, A. D.

2013-06-01

144

Method for decreasing radial temperature gradients of crystal growth melts utilizing radiant energy absorptive materials and crystal growth chambers comprising such materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for reducing the radial temperature gradient of a radiant energy emitting heated body is described. The method comprises insulating such heated body with a refractory insulating material containing an efficient absorber of the radiant energy emitted by said heated body. Specifically, materials containing trivalent dysprosium are disclosed as suitable thermal insulation for use where the heated body is at a temperature in the 18000 C.-25000 C. range. Also described is a crystal growth chamber for pulling unicrystalline compositions from a melt utilizing the Czochralski technique. The chamber is characterized by the placement of a refractory insulating material containing an efficient absorber of near infrared radiation around a crucible which contains the melt. Dysprosium is specifically disclosed as an efficient absorber of the near infrared radiation which is emitted by melt and crucible at the elevated temperatures employed for boule formation utilizing the Czochralski technique.

1984-01-01

145

Mathematical modelling, variational formulation and numerical simulation of the energy transfer process in a gray plate in the presence of a thermal radiant source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy transfer process in a gray, opaque and rigid plate, heated by an external thermal radiant source, is considered. The source is regarded as a spherical black body, with radius a (a ? 0) and uniform heat generation, placed above the plate. A mathematical model is constructed, assuming that the heat transfer from/to the plate takes place by thermal radiation. The obtained mathematical model is nonlinear. Is presented a suitable variational principle which is employed for simulating some particular cases. (author)

1992-01-01

146

Multi systems solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to solar collector apparatus in general and more specifically to a multi systems solar collector which has a unique design which allows the collector unit to absorb energy from radiation, conduction and convection. The device in question also utilizes a dry gas at higher than atmospheric pressure to form the working fluid for the convection heat transfer.

Rabedeaux, R.W.

1981-09-22

147

Flat plate solar collector for a tropical climate: Determining the solar energy contribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is the lifeblood of most manufacturing processes. Finding an inexpensive and reliable source of energy is a challenge in many developing countries. Due to lack of planning and bureaucratic barriers, state-run energy industries of these countries are unable to meet the demand of booming small industries. Plant managers, struggling to ship their export quotas, seek viable solutions to their energy problems. This report analyzes the hot water needs of a manufacturing plant in Sri Lanka. A solution is proposed to incorporate a flat-plate solar collector to supplement the current water heating system using appropriate technologies. Any proposed solutions to the energy problems in developing countries should consider the socioeconomic status of a given country. Specifically, this article illustrates how one can estimate the thermal energy contribution that can be obtained via a flat-plate solar collector mounted on a plant roof. Once the energy contribution factor is known, one can use it for other economical analysis.

Kulatunga, A. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., MO (United States). Polytechnic Inst.

1999-10-01

148

Measured performances of curved inverted-vee, absorber compound parabolic concentrating solar-energy collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and thermal performance of modified compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar-energy collectors are described. The designs incorporate a curved inverted-Vee absorber fin, which allows a reflector of simple geometry to be used. This CPC collector, has exhibited a superior performance to that of a conventional cusp-reflector CPC design, owing to the enhancement of the optical efficiency obtained by eliminating gap optical losses and an enhanced heat removal factor. The consequence upon the performance of a further design refinement, which inhibited the convective heat losses, is also reported.

Norton, B. (Univ. of Ulster at Jordanstown (Ireland)); Prapas, D.E. (Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)); Eames, P.C.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford (England))

1989-01-01

149

Energy and exergy efficiencies of a hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) air collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this communication, an attempt has been made to evaluate exergy analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) parallel plate air collector for cold climatic condition of India (Srinagar). The climatic data of Srinagar for the period of four years (1998-2001) has been obtained from Indian Metrological Department (IMD), Pune, India. Based on the data four climatic conditions have been defined. The performance of a hybrid PV/T parallel plate air collector has been studied for four climatic conditions and then exergy efficiencies have been carried out. It is observed that an instantaneous energy and exergy efficiency of PV/T air heater varies between 55-65 and 12-15%, respectively. These results are very close to the results predicted by Bosanac et al. [Photovoltaic/thermal solar collectors and their potential in Denmark. Final Report, EFP Project, 2003, 1713/00-0014, www.solenergi.dk/rapporter/pvtpotentialindenmark.pdf]. (author)

Joshi, Anand S.; Tiwari, Arvind [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

2007-10-15

150

A study on energy gain on evacuated collector tube with cylindric absorber on building southern facade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the Clear-Day Model, daily energy gain and its annual variation of single evacuated collector tube with cylindric absorber in three different installation on building southern facade are studied. The solar energy gain of vertical installed tube and east-west horizontal installed tube comparing with local latitude tilted installed tube are presented. During the summer season the east-west horizontal installed tube has more solar energy gain than the vertical installed tube. (orig.)

Min Zijian [Information Engineering Coll., Capital Normal Univ., BJ (China); Ge Hongchuan [Beijing Eurocon Solar Energy Tech. Co., Ltd., BJ (China); Ma Yiqing [Special Education Coll. of Beijing Union Univ., BJ (China)

2008-07-01

151

Thermal load from a CO2 laser radiant energy source induces changes in corneal surface asphericity, roughness, and transverse contraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We examined corneal surface response to an isolated thermal load. METHODS: Cadaveric porcine eyes were pressurized and stabilized for processing and imaging. A carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (1.75 W) delivered a uniform disk of continuous wave thermal radiant energy to the exposed corneal stromal surface without ablation. Thermal load was determined by measuring corneal surface temperature during CO2 laser irradiation. Corneal profilometry was measured with broad-band optical interferometry before and after CO2 laser irradiation. Photomicrographs of the stromal surface were taken before and after irradiation, and the images were superimposed to examine changes in positional marks, examining mechanical alterations in the stromal surface. RESULTS: Thermal load from uniform laser irradiation without ablation produces central corneal steepening and paracentral flattening in the central 3-mm diameter. Q values, measuring asphericity in the central 2 mm of the cornea increased significantly and it was correlated with the temperature rise (R2=0.767). Surface roughness increased significantly and also was correlated with temperature rise (R2=0.851). The central stromal surface contracted and underwent characteristic morphologic changes with the applied thermal load, which correlated well with the temperature rise (R2=0.818). CONCLUSIONS: The thermal load created by CO2 laser irradiation creates a characteristic spectrum of morphologic changes on the porcine corneal stromal surface that correlates to the temperature rise and is not seen with inorganic, isotropic material. The surface changes demonstrated with the CO2 laser likely are indicative of temperature-induced transverse collagen fibril contraction and stress redistribution. Refractive procedures that produce significant thermal load should be cognizant of these morphologic changes.

McCafferty SJ; Schwiegerling JT; Enikov ET

2012-01-01

152

Reflection due to fluorescence of a radiant energy flux impinging on a planar surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors describe a study of the manner in which L-K transitions reflect radiation impinging upon a plane layer of thickness l. They assume that the energy distribution of the incident photons is a Planck function. Fluorescence due to K-shell vacancies produced by photoionisation is the only effect taken into consideration. Fluorescence due to other inner-shell processes is neglected. They consider that the atoms of the materials have a K-shell binding energy much greater than those of the L or M-subshells. They also assume that the temperature of the blackbody spectrum is sufficiently high for K-shell ionizations. Moreover, the fluorescence yields due to other inner-shell vacancies are small. By solving the transfer equation, they shall be able to calculate the re-emitted flux and, consequently, the albedo of the layer. Photons with energy greater than the K-shell binding energy photoionize the K-shell of the atoms and induce immediate L-K transitions, thus causing emission of photons with energy hvKL = EK-EL or Auger electrons. They give numerical results to the case when the Auger effect is not taken into account. This neglect can be justified when induced processes are very important, They shall then compare the results with those obtained when account is taken of maximum ejections of Auger electrons.

1990-01-01

153

Radiant cooling of an enclosure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero.

2006-01-01

154

Radiant cooling of an enclosure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero. (author)

Chebihi, Abdeslam [Facultes Universitaires N.-Dame de la Paix, Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, 61, rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Byun, Ki-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dongguk University, Jung Ku, Seoul 100-715 (KR ); Wen, Jin [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Smith, Theodore F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2006-02-01

155

Second-law analysis of solar collectors with energy storage capability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an analytical and numerical study of the exergy that can be delivered by a solar collector installation with temporary energy storage capability. In the first part of the study, the method of variational calculus is used to show that under conditions of time-dependent inlet and outlet flow rates, the total exergy delivered by the installation is maximum when the collector temperature is maintained at an optimum constant level throughout the insolation period. More realistic models of solar collectors with storage capability are analyzed in the second and third parts of the study. In each of the models considered, the analysis shows that the relative timing of the filling and discharge processes has a significant effect on the total exergy delivered by the installation. The main conclusion of the study is that the daily regime of operation of the collection/storage installation can be selected by design in order to maximize the harvesting of solar exergy per unit of collector area. 20 references.

Chelghoum, D.E.; Bejan, A.

1985-08-01

156

Reflection due to flUOrescence of a radiant energy flux impinging on a planar surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors describe a study of the manner in which L-K transitions reflect radiation impinging upon a plane layer of thickness. They assume that the energy distribution of the incident photons is a Planck function. Fluorescence due to K-shell vacancies produced by photoionization is the only effect taken into consideration. Fluorescence due other inner-shell processes is neglected. The authors consider that the atoms of the material have a K-shell binding energy much greater than those of the L or M-subshells. We also assume that the temperature of the blackbody spectrum is sufficiently high for K-shell ionizations. Moreover, the fluorescence yields due to other inner-shell vacancies are small. By solving the transfer equation, they shall be able to calculate the re-emitted flux and, consequently, the albedo of the layer.

1990-01-01

157

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to describe a solar collector, which has a particularly high efficiency. In order to solve this problem, a solar collector is described, which has at least one collector surface at an angle to the horizontal and at least one duct on the collector surface for the heat transport of a flowing medium from the collector surface to the user. In a preferred form of the solar collector according to the invention, the collector surface is formed by a large number of individual collectors or collector elements, which are fixed to a support or frame, where each collector element has one duct extending over the whole length of this collector element. The ducts of the individual collector elements are interconnected so that the collector elements or the ducts in the individual collector elements are in series, i.e. the medium used for heat transport flows through the collector elements in sequence. In a further form of the invention, the solar collector consits of a large number of individual movable collector surfaces, which are fixed to a support and can be moved by a common drive or control device, so that optimum solar radiation on to the individual collector surfaces is guaranteed.

Bindl, M. Jr.

1980-02-21

158

Heating halls with high-performance gas infrared radiant heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rooms with insufficient thermal protection, high and drafty halls, halls whose gates remain open at times or workshop halls of which only a part needs heating (for instance sports or tennis halls) are ideal opportunities for using gas infrared radiant heaters. Illustrated by numerical examples, the paper informs on fundamentals of heat physics (air heating and radiant heating) and energy conservation as well as on the radiator, its function and automatic control (sketch showing a cut through the system, photographs). Finally, the starting up of such radiant heaters and their maintenance is described. Gas infrared radiant heaters have been proven for years and are considered a technology of the future. (HWJ).

Flesch, A.

1987-09-01

159

Optics and materials research for controlled radiant energy transfer in buildings. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this project was to perform the optics and materials research necessary to identify and solve the technical problems associated with fabricating durable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows for energy efficient buildings and vehicles. The research performed at the Tufts Electro-Optics Technology Center (EOTC) has identified and solved nearly all the significant problems, as discussed below in this final technical report. There still remains, however, one important problem to be solved--i.e., to better understand the science of deposition processes and thereby develop and optimize one or more production-worthy deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows. Therefore, it is recommended that such studies be carried out with the goals of: (1) determining the probable practical limits of performance; and, very importantly, (2) to develop and optimize deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable electrochromic windows.

Goldner, R.B.

1996-07-01

160

Radiant energy dissipation during final storage of high-level radioactive waste in rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A final disposal concept is assumed where the high-active waste from 1400 t of uranium, remaining after conditioning, is solidified in borosilicate glass and distributed in 1.760 waste casks. These containers 1.2 m in height and 0.3 m in diameter are to be buried 10 years after the fuel is removed from the reactor in the 300 m deep boreholes of a salt dome. For this design the mean absorbed dose rates are calculated in the glass die (3.9 Gy/s), the steel mantle (0.26 Gy/s) and in the salt rock (0.12 Gy/s at a distance of 1 cm and 0.034 Gy/s at a distance of 9 cm from the container surface) valid at the beginning of disposal. The risk involved with these amounts of stored lattice energy is shortly discussed. (orig.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Heat removal from a triangular finned flat-plate solar-energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a fin-and-tube header-and-riser arrangement of a flat-plate solar-energy collector, the effect of triangular tapering of the absorber fins attached to each riser has been analysed. The heat-removal factor for each triangular fin is greater than for a rectangular fin of the same base width but lower than that of a rectangular fin of the same magnitude of absorber surface area. (author).

Norton, B.; Hobson, P.A.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Inst. of Tech., Bedford (GB). Solar Energy Technology Centre)

1989-01-01

162

The effect of solar irradiation on the fading of nylon and polyester fabrics dyed with selected disperse dyestuffs on radiant energy basis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar total, UVA and UVB irradiances were measured separately using three kinds of wavelength band detectors in Tokyo, Japan in November 1999. Characteristics of diurnal variations were examined: Total irradiance reached a maximum value of about 600 W m(-2) at around noon. The variation pattern of UVA irradiance was observed to be similar to the total irradiance. The energy level was about 4.65% of total irradiance. Diurnal variation of UVB was in the form of a steeper bell curve due to the absorption in the air mass. UVB energy to solar total irradiance was about 0.07%. Photodegradation characteristics of two disperse dyestuffs were investigated on the basis of solar radiant energy. A UVA fluorescent lamp was applied to examine the fading characteristics to find the wavelength dependency. As a result, nylon dyeings were less lightfast by a factor of about 6 and 13 for C I Disperse Blue 27 and C I Disperse Blue 165, respectively, compared with polyester on the radiant energy basis. Visible light, as well as UVA, radiation contribute to fading of C I Disperse Blue 165 whereas UVA mostly cause the fading of C I Disperse Blue 27. PMID:15214450

Imaizumi, A; Yoshizumi, K; Fujita, T

2004-04-01

163

Energy and exergy analysis of photovoltaic-thermal collector with and without glass cover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) technology, the use of glass cover on the flat-plate hybrid solar collector is favorable to the photothermic process but not to the photovoltaic process. Because of the difference in the usefulness of electricity and thermal energy, there is often no straight forward answer on whether a glazed or unglazed collector system is more suitable for a specific application. This glazing issue was tackled in this paper from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Based on experimental data and validated numerical models, a study of the appropriateness of glass cover on a thermosyphon-based water-heating PV/T system was carried out. The influences of six selected operating parameters were evaluated. From the first law point of view, a glazed PV/T system is found always suitable if we are to maximize the quantity of either the thermal or the overall energy output. From the exergy analysis point of view however, the increase of PV cell efficiency, packing factor, water mass to collector area ratio, and wind velocity are found favorable to go for an unglazed system, whereas the increase of on-site solar radiation and ambient temperature are favorable for a glazed system.

2009-01-01

164

Heat energy supply system with prefabricated heat collectors on modular system. Waermeenergie-Versorgungssystem mit vorgefertigten Waermekollektoren im Baukastensystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a heat energy supply system with prefabricated heat collectors absorbing heat from solar radiation and by cooling the air flowing through them on a modular system working at a low temperature. The purpose of the invention is to develop a reasonably priced heat energy supply system independent of seasonal variation together with a heat store, and with a simple heat collector which has no losses and therefore has a good output on the modular system. According to the invention, the problem is solved by a permanent arrangement impermeable to water of several stable, sound and heat insulating units which are prefabricated, form a sloping roof or cladding of a building and are connected in series or parallel as heat collectors, together with a heat pump, a heat exchanger and which forms a supply unit with the refrigerant flowing through the cooling pipes of the heat collectors.

Kellner, W.

1981-05-21

165

Differential response of the permeability of the rat liver canalicular membrane to sucrose and mannitol following in vivo acute single and multiple exposures to microwave radiation (2.45 GHz) and radiant-energy thermal stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both acute and chronic exposures to microwave radiation altered the function of the rat canalicular membrane. A single acute exposure to microwave radiation [80 mW/cm2, 2.45 GHz, continuous wave, 30 min exposure (SAR approximately equal to 72 W/kg)] or a matched radiant-energy thermal load, both designed to raise core body temperature approximately 3 degrees C, decreased the permeability of the canalicular membrane of male Sprague-Dawley rats to sucrose. The change in canalicular membrane permeability was demonstrated by a significant increase in the percentage of [3H]sucrose recovered in bile following its administration by a segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection. Similar acute exposures to microwave and radiant-energy thermal sources produced no significant alterations in canalicular membrane permeability to [14C]mannitol. In both acute exposure protocols, a rapidly reversible increase in bile flow rate was observed. Four exposures (30 min/day x 4 days) to either microwave radiation (80 mW/cm2) or a matched radiant-energy thermal load resulted in a significant depression in bile flow rate at normothermic temperatures. Animals receiving multiple exposures to microwave radiation had significant decreases in canalicular membrane permeability to both [3H]sucrose and [14C]mannitol, while similar exposure to radiant-energy thermal load alone altered canalicular membrane permeability to [3H]sucrose. An examination of the hepatic clearance of sucrose and mannitol following acute microwave exposure demonstrated no significant differences. Thus acute single exposure to microwave and radiant-energy thermal loads produced similar alterations in canalicular membrane permeability. Conversely, multiple exposures produced nonreversible changes in bile flow rate and canalicular membrane permeability, with microwave exposure producing greater alterations in the function of the canalicular membrane than an equivalent radiant-energy thermal load.

Lange DG; D'Antuono ME; Timm RR; Ishii TK; Fujimoto JM

1993-04-01

166

Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

1979-01-01

167

Photothermal solar radiation collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical and energy characteristics of several types of photothermal combined solar radiation collectors are compared. Both steady-state and transient regimes are considered. The models evaluated are a flat collector and two types of evacuated tube collectors. Values are also derived for the heat-loss coefficient of each model. Computational and experimental results are compared. The most effective construction is found to be a combined system consisting of a thermal collector, photoelectric generator and thermal accumulator. This model also yields stable thermal characteristics under variable solar illumination conditions.

Koltun, M.M.; Matveev, V.P.; Gavrilova, I.P.

1980-01-01

168

Radiant energy device for the microclimatic conditioning of isolated environments intended for aquiculture, hydroculture, and greenhouse culture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Device for microclimatic conditioning comprising a culture tank (1), a heat storage fluid mass held in a container (5) external to said tank, a solar collector (8) interconnected with said external container by way in and way out passages and a movable transparent cover (3) for said tank, provided with a movable shadowing screen (9).

Romeo Giulio

169

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

2009-01-01

170

The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

1992-08-01

171

Geothermal energy - Handbook of cage-type collectors; Projekt Handbuch Erdwaermekoerbe. Dokumentation, Auslegung und Anwendungsbeispiele  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the use of cage-type ground-loop collectors used as the heat or cold source for heat-pump installations. The report describes the operating principle, functioning and application of such installations. Also, examples of installations are given and typical installations are documented. Simple rules for the dimensioning of the installations are presented. The suitability of such systems as an alternative to traditional ground loops and borehole heat exchangers for use in the heating systems of smaller single-family homes is discussed.

Bassetti, S.; Rohner, E.

2005-07-01

172

Heliotropic solar heat collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector is described which comprises: (a) a two-sided collector panel, (b) a secondary reflector panel positioned adjacent to the collector panel, and (c) an array of flat primary reflector panels respectively positioned to direct incoming solar energy in the direction of the collector panel and the secondary reflector panel. A first series of adjacent primary reflector panels centrally of the array is arranged in a generally two-dimensional parabolic assembly to direct incoming rays to a first side of the collector panel. A second series of primary reflector panels bordering the first series is disposed to direct incoming rays past the collector panel to the secondary reflector panel positioned on the other side of the collector panel to direct reflected rays to the other side of the collector panel.

Blikken, W.A.; Blikken, M.A.

1986-02-25

173

EBDC: An Energy-Balanced Data Collection Mechanism Using a Mobile Data Collector in WSNs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data collection problem is one of the most important issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Constructing a tree from all sensor nodes to the sink node is the simplest way, but this raises the problem of energy unbalance since the sensors closer to the sink node would have much higher workloads from relaying data. To cope with the energy unbalance problem, a number of mobile-sink mechanisms have been proposed in recent years. This paper proposes an Energy-Balanced Data Collection mechanism, called EBDC, which determines the trajectory of a mobile data collector (or mobile sink) such that the data-relaying workloads of all sensors can be totally balanced. Theoretical analysis and performance evaluation reveal that the proposed EBDC mechanism outperforms the existing approaches in terms of network lifetime and the degree of energy balancing.

Chih-Yung Chang; Chih-Yu Lin; Chin-Hwa Kuo

2012-01-01

174

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990.

175

Estimation of surface energy balance from radiant surface temperature and NOAA AVHRR sensor reflectances over agricultural and native vegetation. [AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model is developed to evaluate surface heat flux densities using the radiant surface temperature and red and near-infrared reflectances from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor. Net radiation is calculated from an empirical formulation and albedo estimated from satellite observations. Infrared surface temperature is corrected to aerodynamic surface temperature in estimating the sensible heat flux and the latent flux is evaluated as the residual of the surface energy balance. When applied to relatively homogeneous agricultural and native vegetation, the model yields realistic estimates of sensible and latent heat flux density in the surface layer for cases where either the sensible or latent flux dominates. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Huang Xinmei; Lyons, T.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia)); Smith, R.C.G. (CSIRO, Perth (Australia)); Hacker, J.M.; Schwerdtfeger, P. (Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia))

1993-08-01

176

Solar energy system with roof-integrated solar collectors for a low energy house. Zonne-energiesysteem met dakgeintegreerde collectoren voor minimum-energie-woning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a sustainable and aesthetical application of solar energy in newly-built houses the possibilities of integrated or built-in photovoltaic modules or solar collectors must be studied. Attention is paid to the design of roof-integrated solar collectors and to how a thermal solar energy system can be implemented into the installation of a low-energy house. The solar heating system is designed to heat tap or rinse water, for heating of spaces, and is equipped with a new type of gas afterheating system. 1 fig.

Zegers, F.T.S. (Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Kroon, A. (Bureau voor Advies en Begeleiding van Energiebesparing (Netherlands))

1993-05-01

177

Radiantly heated furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a travelling hearth furnace comprising at least one impermeable hearth member adapted to travel generally horizontally along a path from a first locus to a second locus, means to cause the hearth member to travel along the path. Means directs radiant hat toward the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the first locus positions a thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the second locus removes objects from the hearth member. Means, positioned intermediate the first locus and the second locus, positions additional objects on the thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member.

Pargeter, J.K.

1987-06-30

178

Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

179

Chaotic dynamics of a classical radiant cavity  

Science.gov (United States)

The statistical properties of a classical electromagnetic field in interaction with matter are numerically investigated on a one-dimensional model of a radiant cavity, conservative and with finite total energy. Our results suggest a trend towards equipartition of energy, with the relaxation times of the normal modes of the cavity increasing with the mode frequency according to a law, the form of which depends on the shape of the charge distribution.

Benenti, G.; Casati, G.; Guarneri, I.

1999-05-01

180

Performance evaluation and collector sizing for solar energy operated/assisted absorption machines under local climatic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents the theoretical performance of solar energy operated/assisted continuous absorption air conditioning machines while operating under local climatic conditions. The two most commonly used pairs of working fluids i.e. LiBr-H/sub 2/O and NH/sub 3/ -H /sub 2/O have been employed in the study the thermodynamic analysis of the two absorption machines has been reported while operating in air conditioning mode and deriving input heat for the vapor generator from a flat plate solar collector. The COP, the relative solution circulation ratio and the energy transfer at various points in the system are also reported for both LiBr-H/sub 2/O and NH/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O absorption machines. The monthly average daily solar energy collected to drive the absorption machines and utilizability of solar energy while operating the hot water solar collector at the temperature of generation have been discussed. The collector aperture area required per TR (ton of refrigeration has been estimated for both the absorption machines. Monthly average daily collector efficiencies are also reported for the three summer months. Finally, the operating cost of VCS, gas operated VAS and solar energy operated VAS have been reported and conclusions have been made. (author)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a solar collector, particularly a flat collector, with a collector box with connections and ducts for a heat medium, with a transparent cover on the top and a thermally insulating layer on the bottom. The purpose of the invention is to develop such a solar collector so that even during standstill, i.e. if the flow of the heat medium is interrupted, no excessive temperatures can occur. According to the invention, the problem is solved by providing a heat store in the area of the thermally insulating layer. There is no direct heating of this heat store by solar radiation, as due to the layout of the solar collector, all the radiated solar energy is transferred to the heat medium. Only if, due to interruption of the flow of heat medium, this no longer removes energy from the solar collector will this store be heated by conduction to an increasing extent, so that it takes up heat according to its thermal capacity and therefore prevents excessive heating of the solar collector.

1980-09-11

182

Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

Zhiyong Yang; Yiping Wang; Li Zhu

2011-01-01

183

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention deals with a solar collector made of a few basic joint components, which make a self-carrying construction without a stiff frame. Excluding the already known heat absorbers the solar collector is constructed with a base part and two sides made of a foamed plastic material, and a transparent cover, which is partly bent round the base and the sides.

Pehrsson, H.; Sundberg, P.

1985-07-15

184

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The innovation deals with the design of a solar collector flown through by a fluid, heated by solar energy. It has been intended to prevent heat losses in the solar collector. This problem could be resolved by an appropriate geometric shape of the fluid tank. Another idea of the invention was the installation of radiation deflecting mirror segments between the liquid tanks. Other proposals are directed to the pipe shape of the fluid tank with a case section of a triangle.

Schneider, J.

1982-01-28

185

Solar collector having a solid transmission medium  

Science.gov (United States)

There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL); Zwerdling, Solomon (Woodridge, IL)

1977-06-14

186

Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness solar energy for thermal heating, desalination, lighting, and electricity. Further,

Kusiolek, Richard

187

Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

2003-10-01

188

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evacuatable solar collector, comprising a collector tub, a radiotransparent pane sealingly covering the tub, an absorber arranged below the pane, and support members passing through the absorber and having a limited cross-section whereby, in the evacuated state of the absorber, said support members support the pane in punctiform manner from the inside in places distributed over the surface area thereof, against the action of the external atmospheric pressure, wherein the support members in turn are supported against means engaging with the bottom of the collector tub and which bring about a distribution of the forces exerted by the support members on the tub bottom counteracting marking of the latter.

Kellner, B.

1984-11-06

189

Distributed collectors for the conversion of solar thermal energy into electric power; Sistemas distribuidos de conversao heliotermoeletrica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this chapter some important topics related to distributed concentrating collectors are discussed such as: general properties of concentrating collectors; parabolic collectors; common bias and errors; and parabolic disks among others. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Fraidenraich, Naum [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear; Lyra, Francisco [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

1995-12-31

190

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector consisting of an inclined heat absorbing panel with passageways in corregation pattern is designed. Pressurized air is forced through the passageways by means of a blower fan and used for space heating.

Hanson, D.J.

1981-12-04

191

A design method for closed loop solar energy systems with concentrating collectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of performance prediction and design for closed loop concentrating solar collector systems is presented, along with a comparison of prediction with results using a compound parabolic concentrating collector. The numerical model is an extension of Collares-Pereira and Rabl (1978) model for concentrating collectors to a closed-loop scenario, using a monthly average utilizability factor and the f-chart technique. The predictions were compared with simulations using the TRNSYS program, considering 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 concentration factors, and a sensible heat storage system. Performance predictions were found to depart from the simulations by an average of 14.04% for all cases, with the predictions giving consistently lower results. The method is concluded to be useful for optimizing collector areas and concentration ratios in closed-loop systems.

Ryan, W. A.

192

Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

Hall, Frederick F. (2452 Villaneuva Way, Mountain View, CA 94040)

1978-01-01

193

A numerical study of the characteristics of a radiant heat flux in a turbine cascade  

Science.gov (United States)

A Monte-Carlo algorithm is developed for solving the problem of radiant heat transfer in a gas turbine blade passage defined by sections of parabolas. The distribution of the absorbed radiant energy over the blade profile at the cascade inlet and outlet is examined. The throughput capacity of a cascade and its guiding properties relative to a radiant heat flux are investigated with allowance for the reflective characteristics of the blading. It is shown that the effect of radiant heat transfer on the thermal state of the blading of high-temperature turbines is particularly pronounced in the case of film cooling.

Bogomolov, E. N.; Orlova, V. I.

1983-06-01

194

Performance modeling of radiant heat recovery exchangers for rotary kilns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Heat loss from rotating kilns may represent a significant percentage of the total energy input especially in highly energy-intensive industrial sectors such as cement production. As an alternative to traditional energy recovery methods, the possibility of recovering radiant heat los...

195

The determination of space parameters of the heliostatic collector field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assurance of perpetual perpendicular insolation of solar collector absorber surface may increase the insolation energy by ca 42-45 %. A consequence of the increase in the energy production may be the reduction of the solar collectors surface area. For the large scale solar collector field conception is advantageous to build collector sections with several collectors in one heliostat. For the conception of the solar collector field with heliostat collectors is important to make a regular identification of space parameters of all parts of the solar system field. The placement of the heliostats is a basic condition for the optimal insolation conditions of heliostat solar collectors field. (authors)

2006-01-01

196

Time dependence of thermal radiant exposures in nuclear explosions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear explosion is accompanied by about 35 % of energy emitted in the form of thermal radiations from the fireball. This thermal energy, gets emitted from the fireball, varies with time. This thermal energy is also termed as Thermal Radiant Exposure measured in cal/cm2. For an air burst with the heights of burst up to 15000 feet (4572 m) and beyond, the Thermal Radiant Exposure can be computed as a variation with time incorporating the normalized time, normalized power and the transmittance. This paper presents the Time Dependent Thermal Radiant Exposure Estimate studies carried out by implementing THRADIANT EXPOSURE software. The software computes the thermal Radiant Exposure at a particular time of explosion subject to the maximum time limit as a parameter corresponding to maximum temperature of the fireball. The estimates can be used effectively for system evaluations and safety planning considerations based on material ignition characteristics. The software has been implemented in C language using phased life cycle model. It has been accomplished with alpha and beta tests. The time varying thermal Radiant Exposures for 20kT and 100kT weapons for different heights of burst (below and above 15000 feet) and different ground zero distances have also been presented in the paper. (author)

2008-01-01

197

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is concerned with a solar collector provided with pipelines for the heat transfer fluid and a box with a cover transparent for heat radiation. The box is filled with black absorber granules. The heat transfer medium runs through the cavities of this mass. The upper surface of the granules is covered by a gas-filled, double-walled foil cover. The goal of the invention is the design of a solar collector in which there is no contact between water and granules. This problem had been resolved using meander-shaped pipes inside the granular material. By that, the thermal efficiency of the solar collector could be improved. A more economical production was possible.

Hinterding, H.

1981-08-20

198

Radiant heat exchange calculations in radiantly heated and cooled enclosures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to compute the radiant heat exchange between surfaces separated by a transparent and/or opaque medium. The model formulation accommodates arbitrary arrangements of the interior surfaces, as well as arbitrary placement of obstacles within the enclosure. The discrete ordinates radiation model is applied and has the capability to analyze the effect of irregular geometries and diverse surface temperatures and radiative properties. The model is verified by comparing calculated heat transfer rates to heat transfer rates determined from the exact radiosity method for four different enclosures. The four enclosures were selected to provide a wide range of verification. This three-dimensional model based on the discrete ordinates method can be applied to a building to assist the design engineer in sizing a radiant heating system. By coupling this model with a convective and conductive heat transfer model and a thermal comfort model, the comfort levels throughout the room can be easily and efficiently mapped for a given radiant heater location. In addition, objects such as airplanes, trucks, furniture, and partitions can be easily incorporated to determine their effect on the performance of the radiant heating system.

Chapman, K.S.; Zhang, P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01

199

Energy analysis of a solar air collector with rows of fins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The necessity for improving the thermal performances of the solar air collector, for some needs, encouraged us to carry out this study. Initially, to improve the efficiency factor of these solar collectors, we create an increasingly turbulent flow between the absorber and the back wooden plate. For that, we use obstacles of various forms. In this study, we chose rectangular plate fins inserted perpendicular to the flow. The fluid flows out through the interstices between fins in the same row, this allows a good distribution of the fluid and reduces the dead zones. Secondly, and for the same configuration, we undertake a study on the evaluation of the transfer coefficient. The results are compared with those obtained with a solar air collector without fins, using two types of absorbers selective (in coppersun) or not selective (black-painted aluminium). (Author)

Moummi, N.; Youcef-Ali, S.; Moummi, A.; Desmons, J.Y. [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambresis, Lab. de Mecanique et d' Energetique, Valenciennes, 59 (France)

2004-10-01

200

Issues in the design of infrared radiant heating systems. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Army placed infrared heaters in many installation buildings as an energy-conserving measure. Radiant systems require less maintenance, have lower first costs, and are advertised as more energy conserving than conventional heating systems. Though radiant systems have generally met expectations, the relative benefits of radiant systems have never been formally studied. This study reviewed and tested industry claims for radiant heaters, and experimentally compared gas-fired low-intensity infrared radiant tube-type heaters to conventional heaters at Fort Riley, KS. Technical issues in infrared heating design and available design guidance were reviewed. This report includes a list of radiant heater manufacturers and presents the lessons learned from the experimental investigation. Experience and results from a field demonstration, informal survey, literature search, several site visits, and industry contacts indicate that low-intensity infrared radiant heating systems exhibit a potential for energy savings. However, proper implementation, control, and operation are essential to achieving these savings. There is also a need for a specific, nonproprietary guidance for designing radiant heating systems.... Infrared energy, Heating equipment and supplies.

Morton, J.D.; Lawrie, L.K.; Nemeth, R.J.; Reed, J.; Rives, B.L.

1992-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Size optimization of conventional solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An expression for the optimum length of a flat-plate solar collector that maximizes the life-cycle savings of the collector is derived. An expression has been obtained also for the optimal distribution of a finite amount of thermal insulation that minimizes the energy loss from the back side of a flat-plate solar collector. (author)

Al-Nimr, M.A.; Kiwan, S.; Al-Alwah, A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-05-01

202

Direct and diffused solar radiation collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high concentration solar energy collector is provided which collects diffused solar radiation as well as direct solar radiation. A reflector focuses direct radiation onto a first collector and reflects a substantial portion of the diffused radiation onto a second collector positioned near the focus of the reflector.

Goldman, A.J.

1984-01-24

203

Heat yield and characteristics of solar collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The test results of the summer 1980 test on solar collectors are summarised. Apart from the 16 collectors tested under contract, two were investigated as a reference serving flat collectors, e.g. for the area of International Energy Agency (IEA), two were evacuated cylindrical collectors. The report allows the comparison of heat power outputs of the different products on the basis of the measured optical and thermal data values. (A.N.K.)

1981-01-01

204

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1982-01-01

205

An apparatus and a system for the sequential combination of a plurality of radiant-energy pulsed beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention relates to combining pulsed optical beams with a view to increasing the recurrence frequency thereof, and more especially, to a device for optically compensating angular fluctuations resulting from the rotation of the combination members. The system comprises several lasers mounted in star fashion about a rotating reflector combining sequential pulses into a single beam directed towards corrective members driven, at half the reflector speed, in opposite directions so as to compensate the rotation of the deflection plane, on the one hand, and the deflection itself due to the rotation of the combination optical members during laser pulses, on the other hand. Such a system is specially suitable for isotope separation plants using laser energy.

1974-01-30

206

COLLECTOR TRAY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a collector tray (50) which is arranged in a detachable manner on the frame (14) of a seed unit, in order to collect the seeds from a dosing device (22) when said device is cleaned. Said collector tray (50) contains a concave-shaped area (52) for receiving the seeds, a cross-bar type receiving area (54) for engagement with a cross-bar (68) on the frame (14) and a hook (56) which is inserted into a recess (76) formed in the frame (14). The concave-shaped area (52) comprises a first end wall (62) which is provided with the cross-bar type receiving area (54) and another receiving area (70). The concave-shaped area (52) comprises a second end wall (64) which is provided with a hook (56).

MARIMAN Nathan Albert; HAGEN Matthew Brian

207

Solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector adapted to heat a heat-carrying fluid is provided. The collector includes a heat absorbing wall formed by a plurality of panels which are integrally made of a conducting material. Adjacent panels slope with respect to each other in a saw tooth configuration to form alternating acute and obtuse dihedrons. The two adjacent panels defining an acute dihedron form therebetween an angle at least equal to the angle between the winter solstice and the summer solstice. In addition, the two panels are operably situated in planes directed respectively towards the respective solstice. An integrally formed gutter is also provided in the region of each apex with each gutter opening toward the inside of the acute dihedron. A plurality of heat conducting ducts which carry the heat-carrying fluid are shaped to by closely received in a respective gutter. Preferably, the angle between the two adjacent panels is between 65/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/. In addition, the gutters are preferably made from elastically deformable material so that the respective ducts may fit into the respective gutters by resiliently urging apart the respective edges of the gutters. The ducts and gutters preferably have a cylindrical cross section. The collector can also include an enclosure for the wall having a transparent front and a reflecting heat insulating back. If desired, a gas can be conveyed to this enclosure to heat the gas.

Ladriere, S.

1985-08-13

208

The energy roof - Photovoltaics and solar collectors combined; PV und Kollektoren schoen kombiniert. Das Energiedach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this Interview with Giorgio Hefti, CEO of the Swiss Tritec group, the company's aims and the products offered are discussed. These include mains-connected and island-operated photovoltaic (PV) systems. The history of the company is briefly discussed, as is co-operation with local installers and the company's function as a general contractor for large installations. These include, amongst others, the PV-installation on the 'Stade de Suisse' football stadium in Berne. PV systems for single-family homes and their costs are examined. Also, mounting systems for combining PV and solar collectors (combined power and heat generation) are discussed, as are combinations of PV and heat-pumps. Hybrid PV-solar-collectors and their disadvantages are discussed as is the future of the Tritec group, which has grown continuously over the years and is active in several European countries.

Niederhaeusern, A.

2008-07-01

209

Solar collectors in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The use of regenerative energies began in greece in 1974. Solar energy for hot water preparation has evolved best mainly for favourable climatic conditions. More than 50% of Europe's collector capacity is produced and used in Greece. Solar energy, collectors, heat pump, alternative energies are terms used by greece people in day-to-day life. The author discusses the significance of the greece solar market and its economic aspects. (orig.)[de] Die Einfuehrung von regenerativen Energien auch in Griechenland hat seit 1974 angefangen. Aus verschiedenen Gruenden, hauptsaechlich aber, wegen der guenstigen klimatischen Verhaeltnisse, ist die Sonnenenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung am weitesten entwickelt worden. In Griechenland wird heute ueber 50% der Kollektorenkapazitaet Europas produziert und eingesetzt. Solarenergie, Kollektoren, Thermosyphon-Anlagen, alternative Energien sind Woerter, die im taeglichen Leben der griechischen Einwohner zu treffen sind. Die Bedeutung des griechischen Solarmarktes und ihre wirtschaftlichen Aspekte werden im vorliegenden Referat erlaeutert. (orig.)

1993-01-01

210

Controlled Production of Sub-Radiant States of a Diatomic Molecule in an Optical Lattice  

CERN Document Server

We report successful production of sub-radiant states of a two-atom system in a three-dimensional optical lattice starting from doubly occupied sites in a Mott insulator phase of a quantum gas of atomic ytterbium. We can selectively produce either sub-radiant 1g state or super-radiant 0u state by choosing the excitation laser frequency. The inherent weak excitation rate for the sub-radiant 1g state is overcome by the increased atomic density due to the tight-confinement in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Our experimental measurements of binding energies, linewidth, and Zeeman shift confirm observation of sub-radiant levels of the 1g state of the Yb_2 molecule.

Takasu, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Borkowski, Mateusz; Ciury?o, Roman; Julienne, Paul S

2012-01-01

211

Thermal Modeling of a Hybrid Thermoelectric Solar Collector with a Compound Parabolic Concentrator  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study radiant light from the sun is used by a hybrid thermoelectric (TE) solar collector and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to generate electricity and thermal energy. The hybrid TE solar collector system described in this report is composed of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate, TE modules, a heat sink to cool the water, and a storage tank. Incident solar radiation falls on the CPC, which directs and reflects the radiation to heat up the absorber plate, creating a temperature difference across the TE modules. The water, which absorbs heat from the hot TE modules, flows through the heat sink to release its heat. The results show that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depend on the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the TE modules. A maximum power output of 1.03 W and a conversion efficiency of 0.6% were obtained when the temperature difference was 12°C. The thermal efficiency increased as the water flow rate increased. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved was 43.3%, corresponding to a water flow rate of 0.24 kg/s. These experimental results verify that using a TE solar collector with a CPC to produce both electrical power and thermal energy seems to be feasible. The thermal model and calculation method can be applied for performance prediction.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.

2013-07-01

212

Internal solar collectors for greenhouses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A typical greenhouse heat balance shows a considerable heat load during the night and surplus heat during the day. This deals with the possibilities to collect the surplus heat by replacing a conventional shading device with inhouse solar collectors which consists of shadingweb between two layers of plastic film (PE). The plastic layers are sealed at the edge and the water which flows between the layers is dissipated by the web and at the same time the heat absorbed in the web is transfered to the water. The inhouse solar collector system is a part or a component in a low energy system with heat pump, watertank storage and storage of heat in soil. Measurements of parameters like the heat transfer coefficient between the inside air and the water in the collectors have been done. Computer simulations shows that the surplus heat could be collected with such and inhouse solar collector and that a fairly good climate could be achieved in an unventilated greenhouse. This requires however that the solar collectors can be supplied with enough cold water (requires heat pump) and that the surface temperature of the solar collectors can be controlled. The most serious problem concerns the hazards when having water flowing between the plastic film layers above the crops. A hole in the plastic layer might cause the water to drop to the ground and this could cause serious damage to the crop. The temperature of the plastic film has to be kept down by the cold water, otherwise the plastic will become soft, which might cause accumulation of water in bags in the collector. Evaluations of energy costs have to be carried out for whole systems, where the inhouse solar collector is a component in the system. In a particular system, investment costs for this component could be compared with investment costs for other alternative components which can provide the low energy heat, for instance external solar collectors.

Andreason, I.

1983-01-01

213

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector is designed for converting solar radiation into heat and transferring the heat thus collected, by means of a chamber formed of a window exposed to the sun and allowing passage of solar radiation, and of a bottom or opposite end-face. This radiation is absorbed by adequate means fitted inside this chamber, and the heat it entails is carried off outside the latter. Both the window and the bottom which form the chamber, are made of glass elements hermetically sealed to one another along their periphery by low-melt glass welding.

Boy-Marcotte, J.; Chevalier, P.J.; Grossin, R.J.; Junot, H.D.

1981-10-13

214

Modular solar collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modular solar collector system is formed of interconnectible manifold sections and a plurality of tubular collectors connected between the manifold sections having fittings and connecting means for securing the tubular collectors and forming a liquid tight seal.

Offutt, W.W.

1982-03-30

215

Exergy analysis of photovoltaic solar collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exergy analysis (availability or second law analysis) is applied to the photovoltaic thermal solar collector. Photovoltaic thermal collector is a special type of solar collector where electricity and heat are produced simultaneously. The electricity produced from the photovoltaic thermal collector is all converted into useful work. The available quantity of the heat collected can readily be determined by taking into account both the quantity (heat quantity) and quality ( a function of temperature) of the thermal energy. Therefore, using the concept of exergy allows heat produced from the thermal collector and the electricity generated from the photovoltaic cells to be compared or to be evaluated on the basis of a common measure such as the effectiveness on solar energy collection or the total amount of available energy. In this paper, the effectiveness of solar energy collection is called combined photovoltaic thermal exergy efficiency. An experimental setup of a double pas photovoltaic thermal solar collector has been deigned, fabricated and tested. (author)

1998-01-01

216

Versatile transparent polymer collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar collector development in the past has been designed to create specific products for specific applications. As a result, there has been a proliferation of relatively expensive, limited-use collectors. A new generation of collector, the transparent polymer collector, promises to bring collector costs back down to a reasonable level. Because of lower material and labor costs as well as the numerous uses of the collector, the economics of this new generation of collector look very promising. It can be utilized as an active collector, passive glazing, or in a number of potential hybrid applications.

Williamson, R.T.

1980-01-01

217

Solar energy plant - comprises solar collector, solid material accumulator and heat pump, used for air heating with possible copper@ tube heating circuit for garden shower  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The solar collector consists of several acryl glass baths arranged next to one another and inserted in one another, covering a suitably large surface, being adjusted and fixed by distance strips and connected by means of clamp strips. The existing roof covering is coated matt black as under part of the solar collector in company with a matt black-coated aluminium bath. Every third acryl glass bath is connected by a pipe conduit and issues in the areas of air inlet and hot air outlet in an air heat exchanger, which is embedded in a solid material accumulator surrounded by an adequateley dimensioned insulation. The solid material accumulator is filled with basalt stone chippings and is directly fixed to the solar collector, adequately insulated, and provides an emergency heating with solar cell current feed for frost protection. USE/ADVANTAGE - To make full use of solar energy all the year round.

HAPKE HEINZ ING GRAD

218

LOW-COST SOLAR COLLECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a low-cost solar collector arranged horizontally on the ground, which is composed basically of: a) an insulating material in the lower part, covered with black plastic whose function is that of absorber; on which are placed b) a number of pipes in a circular arrangement along the collector, connected to one another via their ends and connected to a hydraulic circuit by means of an inverted return arrangement, which guarantees suitable hydraulic behaviour on the part of the collector; and c) a cover with a transverse section in the form of a circular arc, made from transparent plastic material, for reducing losses of heat through convection. The solar energy collector that is the subject of the invention has been developed basically to boost the conventional heating of greenhouses and to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels.

ABRIL HERNANDEZ JOSE MARIA; GRANGED PASCUAL ARTURO; RUIZ HERNANDEZ VALERIANO; CAMARA ZAPATA JOSE MARIA; MARTINEZ GABARRON ANTONIO

219

Testing of solar collector efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed specifications of a number of solar collectors are presented. These tests have been carried out at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory from June to August 1980. The tests have been untertaken according to a Danish-Swedish testing method where the test-stand is based on a solar simulator. The present report is dealing with testing of 27 solar collectors in all. A detailed description of each solar collector is given as well as the results of the efficiency tests are mentioned. Furthermore, a comparison of the efficiency of the various solar collectors has been made. The testing which has been made is part of the system evaluation which will have to be made in order to be subsidized by the State as stated in ''Law about State-grants to lasting energy sources''.

Svendsen, S.

1980-11-01

220

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

1993-11-09

 
 
 
 
221

Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

1996-09-01

222

Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

2009-10-15

223

Characterization of Evacuated Collectors, Arrays and Collection Subsystems: Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

After six years of detailed investigations at twelve installations by the ten countries of the International Energy Agency Task on Evacuated Collector Systems, we present a summary of the main characteristics of evacuated collectors and associated compone...

O. Guisan B. Lachal A. Mermoud O. Rudaz

1986-01-01

224

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

225

Preventing static electricity in fabric dust collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all industrial dusts - in the correct concentrations and when subjected to a strong enough spark - have the capacity to explode. By design, dust collectors maintain a cloud of finely divided particles in suspension. If these particles are combustible, even small electrostatic charges can lead to an explosion. And, the higher the dust concentration, the less energy required for ignition. Static electricity buildup occurs in a dust collector because the dustladen air receives a static charge as it moves through the ductwork and the collector housing. The fabric of a dust collector bag is a very poor conductor (nearly an insulator), thus preventing the dissipation of this static charge.

Godbey, T.

1985-01-10

226

Elevation of thermal efficiency of solar collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of energy losses confinement form solar collectors has been proposed. The method consists in planing the transparent hexagonal cellular material between the absorber and collector containment. The calculations and verification experiments have been carried out in the especially constructed physical model. 27 refs, 4 figs.

1995-01-01

227

Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

Stetiu, C.

1998-01-01

228

Surface Radiant Flux Densities And Their Uncertainty  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The applied data analysis scheme SESAT calculates surface radiant fluxes using satellite data of NOAAAVHRR and MSG SEVIRI. Exemplary results are presented including a validation of the inferred values withground truth data of several Anchor Stations.

Angela Schwiebus; Franz H. Berger

229

Performance of a heat pipe solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a comparative study between theoretical predictions and experimental results of a flat-plate solar collector with heat pipes. The theoretical model for the heat pipe solar collector is based upon the method by Duffie and Beckman (1980), modified to use heat pipes for energy transport. The methanol filled heat pipes are self-contained devices whose evaporators are inserted under pressure in the flat plate of the solar collector and the heat exchange is carried out at their condensers. The evaporators contain a wick of one mesh layer to ensure a better distribution of the working fluid. The condensers are wickless and inclined 15 deg more than the inclination of the evaporators to facilitate the return of the condensate to the evaporators. The time constant of the heat pipe solar collector was calculated and found to be about 23 minutes. Also presented in this paper are comparative experimental results of the proposed solar collector and a conventional commercial solar collector. The two collectors were tested simultaneously. The instantaneous efficiencies of the heat pipe solar collector are lower than the conventional collector in the morning and higher when the heat pipes reach their operating temperatures.

Ismail, K.A.R. [UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Eng Termica e Fluidos; Abogderah, M.M. [7th April Univ., Subrata (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-02-01

230

Collector research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current solar collector research of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The document is divided into three sections dealing with the three aspects of the program: reliability and maintainability, optical materials, and evacuated tube collector testing.

Neeper, D.A.

1981-01-01

231

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar heat collector panel having an absorber plate with fins as part thereof to reduce convection air currents and heat loss from the panel. A screen disposed above a collector plate also reduces the undesired convection air currents. A fluid carrying pipe is attached to the collector plate by snapping into channels therein after a sealer material has been placed in the channel.

Heinemann, K.W.

1981-01-20

232

Transmission solar focusing collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter is described a TIR-total internal reflection-solar collector, with a concentration ratio of about 40-output temperature required, 250deg. The collector is made of metacrylate ''roof'' type (Amici) prisms; the engineering of the collector is described and a proper suntracking system is identified.

1977-01-01

233

Modelling of Microclimate in collectors.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off on to the absorber surface. It is important to characterize microclimatic conditions in the collector, and at the Department of Buildings and Energy work is carried out with the improvement of a computer model. As a tool the computer model will be useful in developing guidelines to achieve the most favourable microclimate conditions for materials. Results from the computer model will be compared to measurement of microclimatic parameters in a collector in operation.

Holck, Ole

1996-01-01

234

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

Germer, J.H.

1987-07-07

235

Connectable solar air collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method applying statistical identification of the parameters characterizing the solar air collectors. The two methods lead to identical steady state efficiencies for the three investigated solar air collectors. The simple method is mainly applicable when comparing efficiencies of different solar air collectors. If simulation of the dynamical behaviour of the solar air collectors is the aim, the advanced method is still needed. (au)

Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

2002-02-01

236

Translucent solar collector. Lichtdurchlaessiger Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is concerned with the design of a transparent solar collector for utilization of atmospheric or radiation heat energy. This solar collector consists of a distributor and manifold with connection system. Pipelines are connected with absorber, covers and supports. Essential features are the light transparent absorber pipes, installed in the cavities of a light transparent profiled plate. Distributer and manifold pipes are lead to the open side of the profiled plates. Some more patent claims has been given concerned to the fasteners of the absorber and the cover stripes.

1981-02-14

237

Solar collector for heating purposes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector transfers the thermal energy of solar radiation to a liquid which acts as thermal vehicle, said liquid being moved by a thermo-convective action in a closed circuit so transferring through heat exchange the absorbed heat to a fluid contained in a vessel. This solar collector, compact in structure and low in cost, is provided with a valve which is apt to allow said thermo-convective action of the liquid in one sense, while blocking it in the opposite sense.

Bianchini, G.

1982-09-21

238

Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive.

1990-01-01

239

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar collector is a trough-shaped case closed on one side by a transparent wall, with a collector element inside this case, which has a liquid flowing in through an incoming pipe and flowing out through an outgoing pipe. In order to increase the efficiency and reduce the resistance to flow of the solar collector, the collector element is made as a plate shaped hollow body of small width on the side of solar irradiation, where the liquid flows into the lower part and flows out of the upper part of the collector element.

Edmeier, J.

1982-10-28

240

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This innovation is concerned with a trough solar collector, with sun light transparent wall of a closed case and with an absorber pipe inside this box. To gain a high efficiency with low flow resistance has been the essential intension of this innovation. This problem has been resolved by plate collector elements with cavities. The cavities are shaped small in sun direction. The heat transfer liquid flows into the upper part of the collector element. The collector design and its production are uncomplicated. With low production costs. Design features of some prefered solar collector systems are described in 14 patent claims and some drawings.

Edmeier, J.

1981-04-10

 
 
 
 
241

Study of a biogas digester feed in energy by a solar-water heating collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The socio-economic development which occurred to the XIXE and XXE centuries would have been impossible without energy. Indeed coal, oil, the nature gas and various other sources of energy were the world engine of the economy. Currently, energy is available in great quantity and remains relatively cheap. It makes it possible to many populations to enjoy very high levels of comfort, productivity and mobility. The access to these great quantities of energy and their exploitation is however unequally distributed between the areas and the countries. In Algeria in spite of the high contents in hydrocarbons, the supply fossil fuels (oil, natural gas) remains one of the major problems of the wedged areas and more particularly the mountainous areas and those of the south, which generated a consumption increased out of wood, a thorough degradation of the forests, an erosion of the grounds and a deterioration of the climate and environment. To meet the requirements in energy for our country, in order to ensure its perennity, to appreciably reduce local pollution and the effect of greenhouse, for the safeguarding of the environment, the prospecting and the development of new sources of energy were in particular undertaken the energy of the biomass and more precisely that provided by biogas. This largely available renewable energy, inexpensive and non-polluting in used to supplement non-renewable fossil energy. Energy production starting from the organic matter of various origins: animal manure, under products of the food industry, mud of the stations of purification, household refuse..., by means of processes of anaerobic digestion in suitable digesters (for bio-methane production), will allow a better management of waste. a safeguarding of the environment and a development as well as a diversification of the energy resources (alternative energies). In addition, this organic matter, at the local level, will make it possible to produce energy at lower cost for cooking. the heating, the lighting and manure with high fertilising potential (stabilised mud) like amendments for the arable lands. The production of biogas could be regarded as an economic solution, decentralised and ecological with these problems through energy autonomy and a durable agricultural development of the rural zones. The bio-methane remains an energy ignored in Algeria, that in spite of several attempts at use which were undertaken since the Forties and even if it does not form part of our sociological cultural and economic traditions, it must represent the best solution to the already mentioned problems. Our study propose to produce bio-methane starting from the animal manure (dung of cows). For that an experimental device was designed and carried out. It consists of digester of 800 litters, of a gas meter bell of 600 litters, of a device of heating applied with a solar-fired heater which ensures a mesophile temperature to him and of a system of agitation of the substrate. The experimental study made it possible to optimize the process of production, for a domestic application and also to develop a system temperature control required at the entry of digester ranging between 25 and 40 degree centigrade. The model is quasi-autonomous. The achievement of this objective of research will make it possible, as we hope for it, to lay down a policy of digester installation of on a national scale.(Author)

2006-01-01

242

A collector testbench for electron coolers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new collector design for electron coolers was elaborated in the Karlsruhe electron cooling group at LEAR (CERN). For testing the performance of the collector a linear set-up was built with an electron beam of energies up to 20 keV and currents up to 1.25 A. In the present stage maximum collector perveance of 37 ?AV-3/2 can be obtained. Loss rates are well in the 10-5 region for collector perveances of ?25 ?AV-3/2. The collector was investigated in detail and a new type of computerized control and monitor system was tested based on a Macintosh Plus personal computer with a special interface for CAMAC and VME. (orig.)

1988-01-01

243

Integrated solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

1985-01-01

244

Comparison of proportional and on/off collector loop control strategies using a dynamic collector model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Common control strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate solar collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns (clear and cloudy days), and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes the effect of collector capacitance. In general, capacitance has a minimal effect on long term collector performance; however, short term temperature response and the energy-storage capability of the collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional controllers. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of controllers, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and controller set points on total energy collection. Results show that the turn-on set point is not always a critical factor in energy collection since the collector stores energy while it is warming up and during cycling; and, that proportional flow controllers provide improved energy collection only during periods of interrupted or very low insolation. Although proportional controllers initiate flow at lower insolation levels than on/off controllers, proportional controllers produce lower flow rates and higher average collector temperatures, resulting in slightly lower instantaneous collection efficiencies.

Schiller, S.R.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.M.

1980-01-01

245

Correlation analysis of infrared radiant intensity between hyperplastic breast tissue and tongue surface in patients with hyperplasia of mammary glands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To establish a supplementary diagnostic indicator (infrared radiant intensity) in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with hyperplasia of mammary glands through correlation analysis of infrared radiant intensity between hyperplastic breast tissue and tongue surface.Methods: Infrared radiant intensity of the hyperplastic breast tissue and different points on tongue surface in 20 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands with liver-energy stagnation and phlegm retention syndrome and 16 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands with irregular thoroughfare and conception vessels syndrome were measured with external infrared spectrometer PHE-201 made by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics. Correlation of infrared radiant intensity between the hyperplastic breast tissue and the different points on tongue surface was assessed by using bivariate correlation analysis.Results: The results showed that the numbers of positive correlated wave bands of infrared radiant intensity between the hyperplastic breast tissue and different detected points on tongue surface in the patients with liver-energy stagnation and phlegm retention syndrome and irregular thoroughfare and conception vessels syndrome were 127 (83.55%) and 71 (46.71%), respectively. Infrared radiant intensity between the hyperplastic breast tissue and the tongue surface had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Infrared radiant intensity can be used as one of supplementary diagnostic indicators in TCM tongue diagnosis of hyperplasia of mammary glands.

Zhi-feng ZHANG

2007-01-01

246

Optimisation of solar-heated cavity receivers with paraboloid collectors. Optimierung von solar beheizten Hohlraumstrahlungsempfaengern mit Paraboloidkollektoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors investigate the optimisation of solar-heated cavity receivers in which solar energy collected by a paraboloid collector is converted into electrical energy. The focussed solar energy enters the receiver through an aperture to heat the working fluid, which flows inside the receiver tubes and is compressed by the compressor of a gas turbine system, to the highest process temperature. A method of calculating the distribution on the inner receiver surfaces of the solar radiation reflected by the paraboloid collector is presented to begin with. The interchange of radiant energy inside the receiver cavity can be calculated on this basis, including the radiation loads, the temperatures of the inner receiver walls, and the radiative and convective losses. The temperature fields in the tube walls must be known for determining the strength required of receiver tubes; they can be derived from the useful heat which comprises a directed component directly reflected by the paraboloid and a component resulting from the hot, diffuse-radiation-emitting inner walls of the receiver. The optimisation procedure shows that the desired result of maximum materials utilisation, high heating surface load and high efficiency can be achieved with different receiver configurations if the cavities are designed accordingly.

Bammert, K.; Hegazy, A.

1984-01-01

247

Radiant, virtual, and dual sources of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel description of interference and diffraction with fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence is introduced in the framework of the phase-space representation. The field is modeled as produced by radiant and virtual point sources. The first ones emit the radiant power of the field, independently of its spatial coherence state, and the second ones emit the modulating energy in strong dependence on such state. This energy can take on positive and negative values that produce the interference and diffraction patterns after adding them to the radiant energy. Radiant and virtual point sources at a given plane can be arranged over two distinct layers, which can be brought together to provide a unified structure of point sources for the field at such plane. So, the coincidence of specific radiant and virtual sources at the same point induces a further type: the dual point source. Descriptions of diffraction arrangements, Young's experiment with diffraction effects, and some implications of this model are discussed.

Castañeda R; Cañas-Cardona G; Garcia-Sucerquia J

2010-06-01

248

Estimate of the energy and environment impacts attributed to solar thermal collectors in Brazil; Estimativa dos impactos energeticos e ambientais atribuida aos coletores solares termicos nas residencias brasileiras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study esteem the energy impacts, in terms of energy saving and reduction of peak demand, Real and Potential, as well as the environmental impacts, in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction, attributed to the use of solar thermal collectors in Brazil, in substitution to the electric showers. The evaluation of the energy saving, starting from the F Method, it was disaggregated in regional level, for the calculations of the solar fractions and distribution of the market and, starting from the energy saving and factor of national system emission, it was calculated the reductions of GHG effect. According to evaluations the use of solar thermal collectors in Brazil generated energy savings of the order of 1,073.2 GWh, what results in about 51,514 tCO{sub 2} of GHG emission reduction, equivalent to 104 thousand petroleum barrels, the year of 2008 and a reduction of peak demand of 1,220 MW, about 1.5% of the maximum demand registered on that year. It was verified, also, that Brazil uses less than 5% of the potential of solar thermal energy in the residential sector for water heating. (author)

Cardoso, Rafael Balbino [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itabira, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: cardosorb@unifei.edu.br; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: horta@unifei.edu.br

2011-04-15

249

Solar collector. Solarkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to a solar collector consisting of several collector elements next to one another, with a pipe with the heat medium flowing through it for each one. There are absorber surfaces on the sides of the pipes, which are made as one unit with the pipe. Engaging connection profiles are provided on the longitudinal sides of the individual collector elements. Such a connecting profile is made U-shaped. The invention is characterised by the fact that U-shaped connecting profiles are provided on the two longitudinal sides of the collector elements, which have different sizes and which engage in one another. There is a projection over the whole longitudinal side of the collector element. The free end of the small connecting profile is spring loaded to the projection after two collector elements are assembled. These and other features described in 9 patent claims give a self-sealing, fast and cheap assembly.

Zierhut, H.; Schabmueller, H.

1983-01-05

250

Solar collector structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar collector structure includes a solar collector for deriving heat from the sun for useful heating purposes. The collector structure is pivotally mounted and means are provided to pivot the structure during daylight hours to follow the sun and receive the maximum amount of heat available. The means for pivoting the solar structure includes bellows which are expanded and contracted in accordance with the angle at which the solar structure is positioned with respect to the sun.

Bottum, E.W.

1980-01-29

251

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

2010-09-01

252

Dust collectors chop costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of dust collectors in pharmaceutical manufacturing is described as a means of fulfilling the FDA requirements concerning airborne dusts (due to weighing, granulating, drying, milling, blending, compressing, and packaging medicinal materials). Key areas in design are: (1) method of dust entry; (2) bag attachment; and (3) cleaning system design. These factors are discussed as well as energy conservation techniques. Of a total exhaust volume of 100,000 cfm, the system described is able to recirculate nearly 75,000 cfm, representing 1.6 million BTU or $5.25/hr. The two types of dust capture are described which result in a slight negative air pressure in each room. Efficiency of dust removal is 99.9%. (MJJ)

1980-05-01

253

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

1998-11-13

254

Solar collector. Solarkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details of a sandwich type of solar collector are published, whose surface is made as a black body plate and simultaneously as support for the layer with heat medium flowing through it and a thermal insulating layer on its back, which is situated below the surface. This sandwich type of solar collector is closed on the back by a layer covering the surface and impervious to liquid, so that no liquid can enter the solar collector from the atmosphere. This solar collector can either be mounted directly at a position exposed to solar radiation, or in a frame beneath a covering plate transparent to light and heat.

Reisgies, B.

1985-01-03

255

Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

1993-11-01

256

Evaluación energética de un colector solar de placa plana de doble cubierta/ Energy assessment of a double cover flat-plate solar collector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se establece la incidencia de la relación de aspecto (razón entre la longitud y ancho de un colector de área constante) sobre la eficiencia térmica de un colector solar de placa plana que utiliza doble cubierta transparente para el calentamiento de aire. Este estudio se realiza desde dos enfoques: el primero utiliza un modelo físico-matemático a partir de los balances de energía del colector, y el segundo utiliza un prototipo con su respectiva ins (more) trumentación para calcular su rendimiento de manera experimental. El colector está compuesto por una estructura en madera, una doble cubierta de vidrio transparente, una placa absorbedora de radiación solar y un ventilador para extraer el aire calentado. Para calcular el rendimiento se registraron de manera automática datos de temperatura, radiación solar y flujo másico de aire; durante aproximadamente 6 horas por varios días y bajo distintas condiciones climáticas de la ciudad de Montería, Córdoba (Colombia). En general se encontró, para un área constante del colector, que la eficiencia térmica de este aumenta cuando la relación de aspecto aumenta y que el modelo teórico se ajusta de manera aceptable con los resultados experimentales. Abstract in english This study establishes the effect of the aspect ratio (ratio between length and width of a constant collector area) on the thermal efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector that uses a double cover for air heating. The analysis has two approaches: first, using a physical-mathematical model that develop a steady state analysis from a collector energy balance and the second, using an instrumented prototype to calculate its performance in experimental way. The collector con (more) figuration consists in a wood structure, a double glass cover, an absorber plate of solar radiation and blower to extract the heated air. To calculate the performance temperature data, solar radiation and mass flow of air were automatically recorded for about 6 hours for several days and under different weather conditions in the city of Montería, Cordoba. In general it was found, for a constant collector area, where the thermal efficiency increases when the aspect ratio increases and that the theoretical model fits in an acceptable way with the experimental results.

Ávila Gómez, Adrián Enrique; Mendoza Fandiño, Jorge Mario; Beltrán Sarmiento, Julio Fernando

2010-06-01

257

New tool for standardized collector performance calculations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance for a number of representative cities in Europe on the basis of parameters from collector tests performed according to EN12975, without any intermediate conversions. The main target group for this tool is test institutes and certification bodies that intend to use it for conversion of collector model parameters derived from performance tests, into a more user friendly quantity: the annual energy output. The energy output calculated by the tool can be expressed either per square meter or per collector module.

Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter

2011-01-01

258

Intermittent tracking of flat plate collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical analysis of different intervals of intermittent two-axis tracking of the sun, on the amount of annual energy received by flat-plate collectors, has been carried out. The analysis was done for Ipoh, a city near the university at a latitude of 40 34 North in Malaysia. For the analysis, a computer program was developed to calculate the solar insulation according to the interval settings, considering ASHRAE Standard Sky assumption. Both direct and diffused components of solar radiation have been considered. The tracking system was targeted for flat plate collectors where the degree of tracking accuracy would be much lower Hence, the tracking mechanism will be much simpler and lower in costs. Results showed that by a 3-hour intermittent tracking, a flat-plate collector could get as much as 35% more annual energy than a fixed one. The 3-hour interval tracking greatly simplifies the gear mechanism from the motor to the solar collector. (Author)

2000-01-01

259

LUMINESCENT SOLAR COLLECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are fluorescent dye compounds of Formula (I): wherein R1, R2, and G are as described herein. The fluorescent dyes are suitable for use in luminescent solar collectors or as a colorant. Methods of making the fluorescent dyes and luminescent solar collectors comprising them are also described.

BHAUMIK KANKAN; HURST JEREMY D; NADKARNI PRADEEP JEEVAJI; SANKARAN NEDUMBAMANA; VELATE SURESH

260

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector consisting of thermal insulating plate with a transparent plane on at least one surface is designed to have one or several sunken parts wrapped in a transparent coating in such way that there are formed air pockets. The solar collector plates can either be placed among the construction elements or become construction roof elements themselves.

Proeven, J.

1981-09-29

 
 
 
 
261

New plastic solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main structure of a new plastic solar collector is presented. Efficiency measurements have been performed. and it is concluded that the collector has excellent performance taking into account the simple design, easy installation, low weight, and low cost. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Rekstad, J.; Henden, I.; Meir, M.G.; Cipera, E.; Kooij, G.J. [GE Plastics, Bergen op Zoom, (Netherlands)

1995-03-03

262

LUMINESCENT SOLAR COLLECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are fluorescent dye compounds of Formula (I) or (II): where R, R', m and k are as described herein. The dye compounds are suitable for use in luminescent solar collectors. Methods of making the dye compounds and luminescent solar collectors comprising them are also described.

BHAUMIK KANKAN; HURST JEREMY D; NADKARNI PRADEEP JEEVAJI; SANKARAN NEDUMBAMANA; VELATE SURESH

263

Solar collector module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extended width parabolic trough solar collector is supported from pylons. Collector is formed from a center module and two wing modules joined together along abutting edges by connecting means. A stressed skin monocoque construction is used for each of the modules.

Hutchison, J.A.

1983-02-08

264

Solar collector module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extended width parabolic trough solar collector is supported from pylons. Collector is formed from a center module and two wing modules joined together along abutting edges by connecting means. A stressed skin monocoque construction is used for each of the modules.

Hutchison, J.A.

1981-10-27

265

Air solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air solar collector described in this document, is characterized by the fact that the absorber plate is made of expanded metal (aluminium) disposed with a serrated configuration in the collector, thus air and heat transfer surface with the air and insuring better solidity towards temperature induced deformations.

Revol, R.; Chabert, F.; Bressange, J.; Mandineau, D.; Chateauminois, M.; Roux, D.

1984-05-04

266

Thermal radiant exitance model performance: soils and forests  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of surface temperatures of two land surface types based on their energy budgets were developed to simulate the effects of environmental factors on thermal radiant exitance. The performance of these models is examined in detail. One model solves the non-linear differential equation for heat diffusion in solids using a set of submodels for surface energy budget components. The model performance is examined under three desert conditions thought to be a strong test of the submodels. The accuracy of the temperature predictions and submodels is described. The accuracy of the model is generally good but some discrepancies between some of the submodels and measurements are noted. The sensitivity of the submodels is examined and is seen to be strongly controlled by interaction and feedback among energy components that are a function of surface temperature. The second model simulates vegetation canopies with detailed effects of surface geometry on radiant transfer in the canopy. Foliage solar absorption coefficients are calculated using a radiosity approach for a three layer canopy and long wave fluxes are modeled using a view factor matrix. Sensible and latent heat transfer through the canopy are also simulated using nearby meteorological data but heat storage in the canopy is not included. Simulations for a coniferous forest canopy are presented and the sensitivity of the model to environmental inputs is discussed.

Balick, Lee K.; Smith, James A.

1995-01-01

267

Thermal radiant exitance model performance: Soils and forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models of surface temperatures of two land surface types based on their energy budgets were developed to simulate the effects of environmental factors on thermal radiant exitance. The performance of these models is examined in detail. One model solves the non-linear differential equation for heat diffusion in solids using a set of submodels for surface energy budget components. The model performance is examined under three desert conditions thought to be a strong test of the submodels. The accuracy of the temperature predictions and submodels is described. The accuracy of the model is generally good but some discrepancies between some of the submodels and measurements are noted. The sensitivity of the submodels is examined and is seen to be strongly controlled by interaction and feedback among energy components that are a function of surface temperature. The second model simulates vegetation canopies with detailed effects of surface geometry on radiant transfer in the canopy. Foliage solar absorption coefficients are calculated using a radiosity approach for a three layer canopy and long wave fluxes are modeled using a view factor matrix. Sensible and latent heat transfer through the canopy are also simulated using, nearby meteorological data but heat storage in the canopy is not included. Simulations for a coniferous forest canopy are presented and the sensitivity of the model to environmental inputs is discussed.

Balick, L.K. [EG& G Energy Measurements Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Smith, J.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Terrestrial Physics

1995-12-31

268

Solar collector panel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector panel is provided which has a pair of integral hook portions disposed along the longitudinal edges of the panel for corresponding contact with each pipe of a pair of adjacent solar collector pipes of a normal side-by-side solar collector pipe array. Adjacent hook members of adjacent panels cooperate to generally encompass, in a heat transfer relationship, a common pipe of successive adjacent pairs of pipes. Spring-biased fasteners attach the end panels to the main frame of the solar collector unit with the spring bias transmitted across the plurality of adjacent panels so as to introduce balancing forces to the cooperating hook members for clenching the common pipe therebetween as well as providing a solar collector panel/pipe array suspended from the main frame.

Johnson, B.E.

1982-09-28

269

Moisture in solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic problems with condensation in solar collectors are discussed. A model of how condensation takes place in collectors is set up. A computer program based on the model is written and some preliminary results are prsented. The validation is not carried out but the principles for this work is discussed. It has been showed that it is possible to establish a model of how condensation takes place in solar collectors. The ventilation rate curve or number for the collector is used as the major parameter. Based on some preliminary results it looks likely that it will be possible to find an optimum ventilation rate curve for collectors. More work has to be done on the validation of the model and the program. The maximum amount of water that can stay on the outside and the inside of the cover without running off has to be found from mesurements. (SM).

Svendsen, S.

1986-04-01

270

Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined with displacement ventilation. Vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating than for warm air heating, but there was no significant difference in thermal perception between the two mixing ventilation systems. For the summer conditions the subjects voted warmer than predicted by the PMV and about one third preferred more air movement. No significant difference in thermal perception between the two displacement ventilation systems was found.

Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta

2012-01-01

271

Radiant heat transfer from storage casks to the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spent fuel storage cask must efficiently transfer the heat released by the fuel assemblies through the cask walls to the environment. This heat must be transferred through passive means, limiting the energy transfer mechanisms from the cask to natural convection and radiation heat transfer.. Natural convection is essentially independent of the characteristics of the array of casks, provided there is space between casks to permit a convection loop. Radiation heat transfer, however, depends on the geometric arrangement of the array of casks because the peripheral casks will shadow the interior casks and restrict radiant heat transfer from all casks to the environment. The shadowing of one cask by its neighbors is determined by a view factor that represents the fraction of radiant energy that leaves the surface of a cask and reaches the environment. This paper addresses the evaluation of the view factor between a centrally located spent fuel storage cask and the environment. By combining analytic expressions for the view factor of (1) infinitely long cylinders and (2) finite cylinders with a length-to-diameter ratio of 2 to represent spent fuel storage casks, the view factor can be evaluated for any practical array of spent fuel storage casks.

1999-01-01

272

A solar collector and method of manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical and mechanical properties of a solar collector are improved by an arrangement where a solar collector contains an aluminum substrate, an intermediate layer and a dark coating. Moreover, in accordance with the method of manufacturing the solar collector by treating the substrate, applying the intermediate layer and the dark coating, the intermediate layer is applied by sequential application of a zinc layer, treating the product obtained in an acid solution and etching in an alkaline solution. This significantly improves the absorption capability of the substrate surface, since due to the multiple reflections off the microvalleys in the aluminum substrate, the majority of the luminous energy is absorbed, resulting in an improvement of the optical properties of the solar collector.

Sukhopar, P.A.; Fedoryuk, V.V.

1984-01-01

273

Heat collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat collector system comprises a heat collector connected to a heat pump. The heat collector has an inlet conduit and contains a heat transmitting fluid and is effective to take radiation heat from the environment. The heat collector has a structural configuration effective to additionally absorb convection heat as a convector which causes a good heat transmission between the ambient air and the heat transmitting fluid. A rated and controlled cooling device is connected to the heat conduit of the heat collector. The cooling device is effective to supply fluid to the heat collector at a temperature below the temperature of the ambient air. Further features of the invention include a regulating device effective to regulate the difference in temperature between the temperature of the ambient air and the cooling temperature. The collector may be composed of two superimposed chambers including an upper chamber made of transparent material and having a heat conductive surface and a lower chamber having a structural configuration effective to absorb heat radiation.

Kleinwachter, J.; Ritter, A.

1981-11-24

274

Heat collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat collector system comprises a heat collector connected to a heat pump. The heat collector has an inlet conduit and contains a heat transmitting fluid and is effective to take radiation heat from the environment. The heat collector has a structural configuration effective to additionally absorb convection heat as a convector which causes a good heat transmission between the ambient air and the heat transmitting fluid. A rated and controlled cooling device is connected to the heat conduit of the heat collector. The cooling device is effective to supply fluid to the heat collector at a temperature below the temperature of the ambient air. Further features of the invention include a regulating device effective to regulate the difference in temperature between the temperature of the ambient air and the cooling temperature. The collector may be composed of two superimposed chambers including an upper chamber made of transparent material and having a heat conductive surface and a lower chamber having a structural configuration effective to absorb heat radiation.

Kleinwachter, J.; Ritter, A.E.

1980-11-11

275

Transient annealing of semiconductors by laser electron-beam and radiant heating techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annealing techniques which rely upon transient energy deposition in semiconductors from Q-switched and scanning continuous wave laser, electron beam, ion beam, and other radiant sources are reviewed. Advances achieved using transient annealing methods in fundamental and applied physics are described.

Cullis, A.G.

1985-01-01

276

Absolute radiant power measurement of the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser), reached laser amplification at 10 keV photon energy in June 2011. SACLA can provide XFELs with its wavelength of shorter than 0.1 nm. Since the radiant power is a fundamental parameter of the XFEL beam which strongly influences nonlinear effects, its measurement in absolute terms is of significant importance. In the present study, the absolute radiant power of the XFEL was measured using a cryogenic radiometer at the BL3 in SACLA. The radiant power as a function of a silicon attenuator thickness was also measured to estimate the contribution of the higher harmonics. The radiant power in the range between 8 ?W and 1005 ?W was measured in the photon energies of 4.4 keV, 5.8 keV, 9.6 keV, 13.6 keV and 16.8 keV. The contribution of the higher harmonics is negligible except for the photon energy of 4.4 keV. The third harmonics component in the photon energy of 4.4 keV is about 1 %.

Tanaka, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Saito, Norio; Kudo, Togo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

2013-03-01

277

Young solar collector: an evaluation of its multiple farm uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The homemade, low-cost Young flat-plate solar collector, well suited for multiple agricultural uses, was designed by a Nebraska farm couple and personnel from the Small Farm Energy Project. It is portable and tiltable, with a flexible airflow system. The collector satisfactorily dried grain and heated the Young farm home. Use of the collector in the fall and winter of 1979 saved 331 gallons of propane worth $179. Net energy savings yielded an 11.2-percent return on investment and, including allowable tax credits, gave a payback of 5.8 years, making this collector - with an expected 20-year life - an attractive investment for farmers and lending institutions.

Heid, W.G. Jr.

1981-05-01

278

Annual exergy evaluation on photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we designed and constructed a photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector on our campus. The collector consisted of a liquid heating flat-plate solar collector with mono-Si PV cells on substrate of non-selective aluminum absorber plate. The collector area was 1.3x0.5 m. Since electrical and thermal energy are different in nature, it is necessary to take into account the nature of the energy in evaluating or comparing them. For this, we adopted concepts based on the exergy theory. From our annual experimental evaluation based on exergy, we are concluding that the PV/T collector can produce higher output density than a unit PV module or liquid heating flat-plate solar collector

Fujisawa, Toru; Tani, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-10-08

279

SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

2008-08-01

280

Measurement of radiant properties of ceramic foam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An experimental facility is described for the measurement of the normal spectral and total emissivity and transmissivity of semi-transparent materials in the temperature range of 600 C to 1200 C. The set-up was used for the measurement of radiation properties of highly porous ceramic foam which is used in low NOx radiant burners. Emissivity and transmissivity data were measured and are presented for coated and uncoated ceramic foam of different thicknesses. (orig.)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Radiant tube technology [steam generation]: executive summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficiencies of steam raising apparatus has been slowly increasing over the last two hundred years. There is still a need to increase the efficiencies of steam raising in order to conserve fuel and reduce greenhouse gases, (e.g. to ensure that maximum use is made of the carbon content of natural gas), and there is also a need to reduce the size and cost of the equipment per given use of steam production to conserve industrial space and gain production efficiencies. This project explored the need to increase the efficiencies of steam raising in order to conserve fuel and help reduce greenhouse gases. The document summarizes the use of radiant tubes or candles as a way of burning natural gas with increased radiant efficiency. The project demonstrated that up to 49 percent of radiant efficiencies could be achieved in sub-surface burners. Further work on the reliability of the burners now needs to be undertaken to offer boiler manufacturers an Australian gas fired alternative to present systems.

Clarke, M. `and others` [M.E.T.T.S. Pty. Ltd., Potts Point, NSW (Australia)

1996-10-01

282

Heat transfers in porous media. Conduction, convection, radiant transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple physico-chemical and transport phenomena take place in porous media. The study of these phenomena requires the knowledge of fluid storage, transfer and mechanical properties of these media. Like all polyphasic heterogenous systems, these properties depend on the morphology of the matrix and of the phenomena interacting in the different phases. This makes the heat transfers in porous media a particularly huge field of researches. This article makes a synthesis of these researches. Content: 1 - classification and characterization of porous media; 2 - modeling of transfer phenomena; 3 - heat transfer by conduction: concept of equivalent thermal conductivity (ETC), modeling of conduction heat transfer, ETC determination; 4 - heat transfer by convection: modeling of convection heat transfer, natural convection (in confined media, along surfaces or impermeable bodies immersed in a saturated porous medium), forced and mixed convection; 5 - radiant heat transfer: energy status equation, approximate solutions of the radiant transfer equation, use of the approximate solutions: case of fibrous insulating materials; 6 - conclusion. (J.S.)

2008-01-01

283

Fibrous absorber solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lightweight and durable solar collector employing a fibrous absorber is described. Sufficient fiber mass may be used to blanket all radiation. The absorber is disposed between a transparent cover and a heat insulating shield behind which may be a rigid collector container. A reflector disposed between the absorber and the insulation is optional. Air enters the collector passes into a duct near bottom of the absorber and across the width of the absorber, flows parallel to and through the thinnest dimension of the absorber conducting heat from the fiber at the depths of greatest absorption and then exits through a similar duct located near the top of the absorber and out of the collector.

Novinger, H.E.

1981-12-08

284

Ceramic solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In abstract a preferred embodiment of this invention is a flat plate type solar collector constructed of specially prepared ceramic material and designed to give maximum heat exchange with either liquid or gaseous fluids.

Davis, M.A.

1980-09-16

285

Solar collector headers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention presents a novel method for injection molding a header to the open-ended tubes of an elastomeric solar collector. Special mold pieces and mandrels are required to carry out the invention.

Sigworth, H.W.

1982-01-26

286

Solar collector apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is provided a solar collector apparatus comprising a rotatable platen supporting a solar collector, means for rotating the platen such that the solar collector follows the wandering of the sun, said solar collector comprising a plurality of elongated parallel sun radiation concentrators, each concentrator being associated with an elongated conduit which is arranged to be subjected to the radiation concentrated by the concentrator, and pump and control means for circulating a liquid through the conduits via a liquid magazine, the concentrators being located on the platen with their longitudinal axes aligned in the vertical plane of the solar direction, said means for rotating the platen being adapted to maintain such alignment of the concentrators.

Margen, P.H.; Roseen, R.A.; Zinko, H.

1980-10-14

287

Luminescent solar collector structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a luminescent solar collector optically coupled to a photovoltaic cell and in confronting relationship thereto a diffusing layer of a particulate phosphorescent material deposited on and backed by a mirror.

Boling, N. L.

1980-02-12

288

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar heat collector includes a heat pipe formed of heat-conductive material, with a heat-radiation portion at one end of the pipe, and a heat-collection portion. A plurality of ribs formed of the same conductive material as the heat pipe extends radially from the heat-collection portion of the heat pipe. The collector also comprises a header pipe, which is fixed to and in surface contact with the heat-radiation portion, and a solar heat-collector pipe surrounding the heat-collection portion. The heat-conductive plate comes into surface contact with the rear side of a heat-collecting face of the collector pipe.

Takeuchi, H.; Mikiya, t.

1988-08-09

289

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector with a focussing entry duct and a casing containing a radiation converter. The technical problem comprises the provision of a solar collector which stores the incident solar radiation within the casing to a large extent so that a radiation conversion is effectively possible even in the case of minor conversion efficiency. The entry duct is designed as a fine-mesh, netted structure from a transparent, light refracting material.

Anon.

1988-01-28

290

Solar plastic collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several plastic materials are suitable for solar collectors because of their light weight, their high solar transmission, and their resistance to shattering. Additives are needed to make them more weather-resistant, however, and their low fire resistance is a serious drawback. Comparisons of the relative merits of plastics and conventional materials for each of the components are used to rate various collectors in terms of price and efficiency. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

Bansal, N.K.

1983-07-01

291

Shenandoah solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study was designed to meet the following objectives: 1) develop a cost estimate for manufacturing 124 Seven-Meter Parabolic Dish Solar Collectors to be installed at Shenandoah, Georgia; 2) make recommendations to lower the expenses of collector fabrications and overall project cost; 3) identify alternate sources for materials and sub-contracted services; and 4) provide detailed backup data to support all estimates. Results are presented. (WHK)

1980-09-01

292

Fuel cell current collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

Katz, Murray (Newington, CT); Bonk, Stanley P. (West Willington, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT); Abrams, Martin (Glastonbury, CT)

1991-01-01

293

Theoretical Analysis of Solar Thermal Collector with a Flat Plate Bottom Booster Reflector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of a solar thermal collector with a flat plate bottom reflector is presented. The bottom reflector extends from the lower edge of the collector. The variations of daily solar radiation absorbed on the collector with inclinations from horizontal for both the collector and reflector throughout the year were predicted, and the optimum inclinations of the collector and reflector which maximize the daily solar radiation absorbed on the collector were determined for each month at 30oN latitude. The effects of the size of the collector and reflector on the daily solar radiation absorbed on the collector were also investigated. The optimum collector inclination is lower in summer and higher in winter, while the optimum reflector inclination is higher in summer and lower in winter. The average daily solar radiation absorbed on the collector throughout the year can be increased about 20%, 27% and 33% by using a bottom reflector if the ratio of reflector length to collector length is 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, when the collector’s length is equal to its width. Key words: Solar energy; Solar thermal collector; Bottom reflector; Collector-reflector; Optimum inclination

Hiroshi Tanaka

2011-01-01

294

Solar collector design with respect to moisture problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humidity inside the collectors is one factor that can be minimised to keep the most favourable microclimatic condition for the internal materials of the collector. This microclimate inside the collector is an important factor in determining the service lifetime of an absorber coating. During the design of the collector, the location and size of ventilation holes, properties of the insulation materials and dimension of the solar collector box are parameters that have to be taken into account for the optimisation in order to achieve the most favourable microclimate to prevent corrosion.Simulation of the microclimate in solar thermal collectors can be a valuable tool for optimisation of the collector with respect to ventilation. A computer model has been established for fulfilling this. By using this tool the producers can be advised whether their solar collectors ought to be additionally tightened, or whether more ventilation openings should be made and what influence the insulation material has. Guidelines forcollector designers are proposed. The design guidelines provide some suggestions to be considered during the design of solar collectors.The work was carried out within the framework of the working group Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors of the International Energy Agency-Solar Heating and Cooling Programme.

Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend

2003-01-01

295

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01

296

Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

2005-03-18

297

Economic optimization of stationary nonevacuated CPC solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stationary, nonevacuated CPC solar collectors are a promising alternative to corresponding flat plate collectors in that they offer superior yearly energy delivery at comparable cost for low-temperature thermal applications. For realistic cost scenarios, the authors determine optimal concentrator configurations and concentration ratios, and calculate their sensitivity to variations in relative component costs, climate, orientation and collector operating temperature. For CPC's that are to have the flexibility of either east-west or north-south orientation, optimized collectors are shown to have low concentrations of around 1.2, achieved by truncation from acceptance half angles of about 45 deg.

Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M.; Gordon, J.M.

1987-02-01

298

Efficiency of the Fermilab Electron Cooler's Collector  

CERN Multimedia

The newly installed high-energy Recycler Electron Cooling system (REC) at Fermilab will work at an electron energy of 4.34 MeV and a DC beam current of 0.5 A in an energy recovery scheme. For reliable operation of the system, the relative beam current loss must be maintained to levels < 3.e-5. Experiments have shown that the loss is determined by the performance of the electron beam collector, which must retain secondary electrons generated by the primary beam hitting its walls. As a part of the Electron cooling project, the efficiency of the collector for the REC was optimized, both with dedicated test bench experiments and on two versions of the cooler prototype. We find that to achieve the required relative current loss, an axially-symmetric collector must be immersed in a transverse magnetic field with certain strength and gradient prescriptions. Collector efficiencies in various magnetic field configurations, including without a transverse field on the collector, are presented and discussed

Prost, L R

2005-01-01

299

PVT unglazed corrugated transpired solar collector model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTCs) are an effective means of reducing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and building energy consumption. This paper described a model developed to predict the performance of a corrugated photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) UTC with PV cells mounted on the absorber plate. The model was a modified version of a TRNSYS UTC model. Two configurations were studied: (1) a configuration where the top of the corrugations were covered with PV cells; and (2) a configuration where the PV cells were deposited on the entire surface of the collector. Temperature of the plate was assumed to be uniform. Calculations performed at each time step were assumed to have reached steady-state, and PV cells were assumed to work at the maximum power point. Energy balances were performed on the absorber plate, on the wall located at the back of the collector, and in collector holes. Total irradiation of the collector was calculated by considering each surface of the absorber plate separately. Kirchoff's law was used to express the diffuse reflectance of the surfaces. The simulations showed that PV cells mounted on top of the corrugations resulted in higher amounts of useful energy. It was noted that outdoor testing of a PV-T UTC will be conducted in the future to validate results of the simulations. 19 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

Delisle, V.; Collins, M.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

2007-07-01

300

Materials in solar thermal collectors - International cooperation within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency; Material i plana termiska solfaangare - Internationellt samarbete inom ramen foer IEAs solvaermeprogram under 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts made during 1998 by the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute within the framework of the international working group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors` of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency are briefly reviewed. Research work deals with a) durability and life-time assessment of solar absorber coatings, b) methods for characterization of micro climate for materials in flat plate solar collectors, and c) antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric materials for solar thermal applications. Results of the work include a) recommended methods for assessment of durability of solar absorber surfaces, b) methods for characterization of climate inside of solar collectors for the purpose of durability testing, and c) methods for testing the mechanical properties and weatherability of antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric cover plate materials 15 figs, 5 tabs

Carlsson, Bo; Moeller, Kenneth; Andersson, B.L.; Andersson, Ingemar

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
301

A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations in Europe. The collector parameters used as input in the tool are compiled from tests according to EN12975, without any intermediate conversions. The main target group for this tool is test institutes and certification bodies that are intended to use it for conversion of collector model parameters (derived from performance tests) into a more user friendly quantity: the annual energy output. The energy output presented in the tool is expressed as kWh per collector module. A simplified treatment of performance for PVT collectors is added based on the assumption that the thermal part of the PVT collector can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations.

Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter

2012-01-01

302

Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectorsinstead of normal flat-plate collectors. For solar heating plants, the yearly energy output from these evacuated tubular collectors is about 40%-90% higher than the output from typical flat-plate collectors at an operation temperature of about 50°C.

Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

1998-01-01

303

Tracking system for solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01

304

Exergy delivery from typical solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long term exergy output was calculated for four types of solar collectors located in Sevilla and operating at 50/sup 0/C, 70/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/C. The performance model PROSOL (1) has been used to predict the long term energy output for several collector types. We point out that a parallelism exists between the energy and exergy graphs through the year. The daytime ambient temperature has a very important influence on the exergy delivery at Sevilla when the temperature of working fluid is low.

Canada, J.; Hernandez, V.R.

1987-01-01

305

Electromagnetic Spectrum: Distribution of Radiant Energies  

Science.gov (United States)

This item is a beginning tutorial on the electromagnetic spectrum designed for students of introductory physics. It provides multiple plots of the spectrum to aid users in understanding various EM spectrum classifications. This item is part of a larger tutorial on the topic of Remote Sensing, sponsored by the NASA Goddard Program office.

Short, Nicholas M.

2008-06-12

306

The management of metabolic energy storage during the life cycle of mayflies: a comparative field investigation of the collector-gatherer Ephemera danica and the scraper Rhithrogena semicolorata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration and seasonal dynamics of the major energy storage components, triglycerides and glycogen, were measured in two species of mayfly (Rhithrogena semicolorata and Ephemera danica) with contrasting life cycle strategies living in a small mountain stream. E. danica is a burrowing, semivoltine collector-gatherer; R. semicolorata is univoltine and scrapes periphyton from stones. This is the first publication which focuses on the role of metabolic energy sources during the larval life span of two mayfly species until the larvae emerge. Although triglycerides are the major energy reserve in both species (>84% of total energy storage) throughout the whole larval development their seasonal dynamic differed considerably. In R. semicolorata the triglyceride concentration declined during the last weeks prior to emergence in both sexes. The same pattern was found in female larvae of E. danica, but not in male E. danica. It is suggested that females use triglycerides in the last larval stages for egg maturation, which is completed in the last larval instar. In male E. danica the triglyceride concentrations remained high until emergence, presumably due to their high energy demands as adults for their swarming flights. Glycogen concentrations did not show such a difference between species and sexes. Its significance as a storage substrate for energy is rather low; however, concentrations decreased in both species and sexes prior to emergence. PMID:16960724

Winkelmann, Carola; Koop, Jochen H E

2006-09-08

307

Solvent vapor collector  

Science.gov (United States)

A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

Ellison, Kenneth (20 Avondale Cres., Markham, CA); Whike, Alan S. (R.R. #1, Caledon East, both of Ontario, CA)

1979-01-30

308

Thermoelectric detector for high radiant flux densities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of a thermoelectric radiant-flux-density detector for use at solar concentration factors from 1 to more than 100 is presented. Thermoelectric emf is measured across a 19.4 x 10 x 10-mm block cut from a single uniform Si crystal, to which a blackened Cu receiver plate and a heat sink are affixed. Calibration was performed with an Eppley radiometer in unconcentrated sunlight at 24 C, and the device was tested in the focal plane of a parabolic reflector. The temperature effect on the sensitivity of the device is plotted. The reliability of the temperature-corrected flux-density measurements obtained is considered good.

Cochrane, J.W.; Goldsmid, H.J.; Moore, R.J.

1983-01-01

309

Characterization of evacuated collectors, arrays and collection subsystems: Summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After six years of detailed investigations at twelve installations by the ten countries of the International Energy Agency Task on Evacuated Collector Systems, we present a summary of the main characteristics of evacuated collectors and associated components, as they were carefully identified, defined and evaluated.

Guisan, O.; Lachal, B.; Mermoud, A.; Rudaz, O.

1986-06-01

310

Miniature, ruggedized data collector  

Science.gov (United States)

McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

2009-05-01

311

Lawnmower with grass collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lawnmower comprising a grass cutting unit 4,5 a grass collector 6 having an outlet (9, fig. 2) which can be attached to an external grass receiver and a mechanism 10 for removing grass from the collector through the outlet. The mechanism may be manually operable or automatically operable, either driven by the power supply of the lawnmower or by an external power source. The mechanism may be an Archimedes screw, or means for generating a flow of air to suck or blow the grass through the outlet. The outlet is preferably an expandable flexible duct. The lawnmower may have a sensor to detect when the collector is full and an alarm to alert a user. Also claimed is a grass receiver, which may have a heater for heating grass, a grass agitation mechanism and a dispenser for grass treatment chemicals.

HONEY DAVID

312

Solar collector overheating protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prismatic structures in a thermal solar collector are used as overheating protection. Such structures reflect incoming light efficiently back whenever less thermal power is extracted from the solar collector. Maximum thermal power is generated when the prismatic structure is surrounded by a switching fluid with an index of refraction comparable to that of the prismatic structure. Thermal heat can be harvested via extra fluid channels in the solar absorber or directly via the switching fluid near the prisms. The light reducing effect of prismatic structures is demonstrated for a typical day and a season cycle of the Earth around the Sun. The switchability and the light reducing effect are also demonstrated in a prototype solar collector. (author)

Slaman, M.; Griessen, R. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Condensed Matter Physics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-07-15

313

MALE URINE COLLECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a male urine collector easy to wear. The urine collector has an opening ring (24) attached at the peripheral edge of the opening of a urine collecting bag (12), a seal member (14) formed of a sponge material worn around a penis (P), and a securing ring (16-2). The securing ring is formed such that the opening ring is set so as to abut on a ring portion (16b) within the cylindrical portion (16a) of the securing ring and the urine collecting bag passes through a bag extending exit of the ring portion (16b) and extends toward the outside of the securing ring. The securing ring is set so that the cylindrical portion is fit around the seal member (14) worn around the penis, thereby securing the urine collector to the penis by pressing the seal member against the penis.

SEKIYAMA MIHOKO; IWATSUBO EIJI

314

A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan). The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

S. A. ABDALLA; KAMAL N. ABDALLA

2006-01-01

315

Flat plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disclosure illustrates a flat plate solar collector comprising a vacuum formed tray, of low conductivity material, such as ABS, of sufficient thickness to form a structural support. A layer of glass beaded foam is placed in the tray. A receiver of layers of thin copper with heat transfer fluid passages is positioned over the glass beaded foam. Single or double glass glazing is provided to cover the tray and reduce heat losses. Foam insulating material on the outside of the tray further minimizes heat losses. The receiver and glass beaded insulating material are secured to the tray which forms a low cost, easily manufacturable structural base for the collector.

Uroshevich, M.

1981-07-14

316

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact, self-contained solar heat collector is disclosed which is particularly suited for addition to new or existing structures in the form of window shutters, exterior siding, awnings, columnar elements and the like. The exterior glazing (32) of the collector includes undulating transverse pane segments (36, 38, 118, 156), the angle of which is chosen to optimize insolation during winter months. Beneath the preferably sharp peaks and valleys of such undulations is positioned a heat absorption, storage and exchange assembly (42-64) which defines an enclosed heat transfer cavity (42, 122, 134, 142) through which a heat transfer fluid such as air is directed.

Helman, E.R.; Buford, S.P.; Christopher, J.N.; Fava, D.C.; Helman, H.A.; Holtschneider, H.B.

1984-04-17

317

Numerical analysis of solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An algorithm for the fast numerical determination of the performance of a generic solar collector design is presented. Results are quoted for a specific collector of the two-absorber type and these are consistent with practical expectations. (Author).

Barker, N.S.; Moseley, L.L. (University of the West Indies, Cave Hill (Barbados). Dept. of Physics)

1992-04-01

318

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01

319

Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump. The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0.2 to 0.3 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for combi tank systems and in the interval from 0.3 to 0.4 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for preheating systems. Further, calculations showed that by means of an advanced control strategy for the flow rate - for instance if the flow rate is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the solar collector and the bottom of the mantle - an increase of about 1% of the thermal performance is possible.Finally, calculations showed that the highest thermal performance for large SDHW systems with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rates in the solar collector loops are between 0.15 and 0.2 l/min. per m^2 solar collector. Also for large systems an increase of about 1% is possible by means of an advanced control strategy for the flow rate.Most likely, better control strategies than the investigated control strategies can be found. However, it is unlikely that significant thermal increases can be achieved by means of advanced control strategies.

Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

1996-01-01

320

Test benches for solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Minimum requirements on solar collectors are listed in the DIN specifications. To meet these requirements, suitable measuring techniques must be developed, and collectors must be optimized, accurately dimensioned and adapted to the overall system. Messrs. Dornier have developed and constructed test benches for solar collectors. The test benches are available to producers of solar collectors and are also sold abroad; they can be modified to meet the specifications of the users' countries.

Flesch, T.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Test stands for solar collector evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Collector test stands have been developed for particular adaptation to individual countries. Long-term testing is used to evaluate collector reliability and collector service life. Test stands for four collectors have been developed in Mexico and plans for flat-plate collector test stands and for test facilities for concentrating collectors have been proposed.

Flesch, T.

1981-01-01

322

Structurally integrated steel solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

Moore, Stanley W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-03-08

323

Heat pump with integrated solar collector. Waermepumpe mit integriertem Solarkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to a heat pump heating system, which extracts thermal energy from the atmospheric air. It is characterized by the fact that the air used for heat extraction is first blown by a blower through a solar air collector, which consists of 2 to 4 plastic foils welded together at the edges, and then through an air/liquid heat exchanger, in which the thermal energy useful for the heat pumps is transferred to the liquid. Absorber sheets with selective coatings are inserted in the gap in the foil collector with air flowing through it. At times of great solar radiation, other transparent plastic foils are fixed to the collector, which create a thermally insulating air cushion on the top side of the collector. The integrated solar air collector is used either wholly or partly for heating service water with a closed air circuit.

Boettcher, A.

1981-08-20

324

Understanding flat plate solar collector efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some guidance is given for understanding the meaning, terminology, and make-up of the efficiency of conventional flat plate solar collectors. Commercially available flat plate solar collectors are rated by the California Energy Commission through its Testing and Inspection Program For Solar Equipment (otherwise known as TIPSE) which relies upon test data collected under standard test procedures specified by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE). This guide should serve as an aid toward correct interpretation of TIPSE ratings and performance curves based on ASHRAE 93-77 specification tests, and as a basic primer on the meaning and make-up of efficiency.

Bradford, P.V.

1982-01-01

325

Solar collector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

Murphy, J.A.

1980-09-09

326

Crop drier utilizing a solar collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A crop drier comprises a solar collector, tensioned side sheets and end panels. The solar collector may comprise a translucent airtight flexible sheet which is sealed to the side sheets and tensioned over the end panels to form an air chamber which is ventilated by means of a fan (electric or motorized) and heated by solar energy. The air chamber extends over the outer surface of the side panels. The side sheets made be flexible and airtight and may make firm contact with the crop to be dried. The end panels may be rigid airtight panels, their upper edges being convexly curved. One end panel may have an entry hole to ventilate the solar collector. The crop to be dried maybe in the form of bales or in bins. The bales or bins maybe placed on a ventilation floor or pallet to allow drying air to exit from the lower surface of the bales.

MACBEAN GORDON FINLAY

327

Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

Dunn, Charlton (Calabasas, CA); Bremner, Robert J. (Woodland Hills, CA); Meng, Sen Y. (Reseda, CA)

1989-01-01

328

Separating collectors for subsea blowouts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collector apparatus and method for use with a blown-out seabottom wellhead comprising a plurality of collector elements each having an extended, open base and an upper portion enclosing a volume to receive fluid comprising gas and lesser quantities of oil rising, in the water, from the wellhead, and risers connected to the collector elements and extending thereabove to conduct fluid therefrom. One collector element is disposed below at least one other collector element with an open volume defined therebetween, the first element positioned to intercept fluid rising from the wellhead, and the second element positioned to receive and collect excess flow of fluid that is not collected by the first element. A riser extends from the first collector element to the surface of the sea, and a second riser extends from the second collector element to a storage tank above the second collector element. The first riser includes an adjustable valve adapted to restrict flow through the riser whereby only a portion of gas from the blown-out wellhead is allowed to flow through the first riser and a further portion of gas and oil are rejected by the first collector element and flow into the second collector element, and the second riser is adapted to conduct gas in a gas-lift pumping flow rate capable of carrying water and accompanying oil from the second collector element to the storage tank.

Milgram, J.H.; Burgess, J.

1984-04-03

329

Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

NONE

1995-12-01

330

Radiant heat transfer of bicycle helmets and visors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets.

Brühwiler PA

2008-08-01

331

Radiant heat transfer of bicycle helmets and visors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets. PMID:18608845

Brühwiler, Paul A

2008-08-01

332

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

1983-08-01

333

Transient annealing of semiconductors by laser, electron beam and radiant heating techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review surveys the new field of transient annealing and covers all time scales below those available with the conventional furnace. The work outlined includes the use of techniques which rely upon transient energy deposition in semiconductors from laser, electron beam, ion beam and other radiant sources. The many advances which have been achieved using these transient annealing methods in both fundamental and applied areas of physics are described.

Cullis, A.G.

1985-08-01

334

High performance solar collector for small cooling facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar cooling facilities for air-conditioning, food storage and ice making can be built by absorption type cooling machines and flat plate collectors. Depending on the ambient and operating conditions relatively high operating temperatures of the collector field are required. Therefore high performance flat plate collectors with selective coated absorbers should be employed. The aim of the project was to connect high performance solar collectors to an ammonia-water cooling system and to determine the collector efficiencies and system efficiencies in real operation. Due to technical problems with the ammonia cooling system in Egypt, the planned procedure was applied to the collector tests and for the system test it was changed in favour of a semiempirical evaluation of two cooling systems working with normal and selective flat plate collectors. An air conditioning system with a lithium bromide/water cooling machine for the Dornier solar test house in Immenstaad and a cold storage system with an ammonia/water cooling machine in Cairo/Egypt were tested and analysed by a computer simulation. The test systems are described briefly. The results of the collector tests showed a considerable improvement (10-100% due to operating point) of performance by the use of selective coatings. The performance of the cooling systems in terms of the daily cooling energy correspondingly increased by 10 to 45%, depending on the ambient conditions. The results provide a useful tool for the design of most effective solar cooling systems.

Hause, R.

1984-01-01

335

Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01

336

Evacuated tubular or classical flat plate solar collectors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evacuated tubular solar collectors are increasingly used all over the world due to their low coefficients of heat losses to the environment. They are presented as a device collecting much larger quantities of solar energy than is usually possible to obtain from typical flat collector. They have, however, unfavorable radiation transmissivity characteristics of transparent shield of absorber. It causes that the profits of energy gain at the operating conditions of typical solar system in our country only slightly dependent on the nature of the solar collectors applied. This article is an attempt to explain this phenomenon through theoretical considerations.

Zbyslaw Pluta

2011-01-01

337

Collector material desorption tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To obtain long cathode lifetimes, the surface of the spent beam collector for the photocathode rf power source (called the Lasertron) must have a low coefficient of desorption of gas molecules by electrons. We assembled a low voltage (less than or equal to 10 kV) ultrahigh vacuum electron gun and target system to measure the desorption rates of CO and CO/sub 2/ under conditions where the power density, charge density and pressure were the same order as expected in the lasertron. Copper coated with a thin layer of a nonevaporable getter (NEG) was found to have a coefficient of desorption of CO/sub 2/ (CO) at least 30 (5) times less than vacuum degassed high grade OFHC copper. The NEG material may be coated on the usual collector geometries and therefore can substantially reduce operating tube pressure in conventional klystron and other high current tubes.

Welch, J.J.; Sinclair, C.K.

1986-05-01

338

Collector material desorption tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To obtain long cathode lifetimes, the surface of the spent beam collector for the photocathode RF power source (called the Lasertron) must have a low coefficient of desorption of gas molecules by electrons. A low voltage (? 10 kV) ultrahigh vacuum electron gun and target system assembled to measure the desorption rates of CO and CO2 under conditions where the power density, charge density and pressure were the same order as expected in the lasertron. Copper coated with a thin layer of a nonevaporable getter (NEG) was found to have a coefficient of desorption of CO2 (CO) at least 30 (5) times less than vacuum degassed high grade OFHC copper. The NEG material may be coated on the usual collector geometries and therefore can substantially reduce operating tube pressure in conventional klystron and other high current tubes

1986-01-01

339

Textile solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

1982-04-27

340

Flat plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention deals with a flat plate collector. The absorber box is formed by two silica glass plates and a metallic distance frame, gas-tighly joined with the glass plates. A special feature of this invention is the stiffness of the metal profiles. Deformable bars are soldered with the metallized edges of glass plates. Thus a high mechanical stability, a torsional solidity and a sufficient elasticity could be guaranteed.

Termath, G.; Unbescheid, J.; Nowoczyn, H.W.; Dalstein, R.; Greif, H.D.; Spies, J.

1981-07-02

 
 
 
 
341

The flat solar collector an approach to its evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The flat solar collector is the most widely used device for the utilization of solar energy, but its energetic and economic values are still debated. A preliminary energy and economic analysis is presented. The energy analysis indicates that the energy needed to produce one solar collector is equivalent to the electricity consumed by an electric water heater in roughly three months. The economic analysis indicates that the pay-back time for a solar collector varies from 5.5 to 7.7 yr. according to the discount rate. The economic analysis from a national point of view indicates that the use of solar collectors for domestic purposes only could reduce electricity consumption in Israel by 10%.

1977-01-01

342

Protective coatings and corrosion protection for solar collectors. January 1976-January 1981 (citations from the Energy Data Base). Report for January 1976-January 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of protective coatings for the corrosion protection of solar collectors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on aluminum, copper and iron as the most common solar collector materials. Coatings include thin film metallized polymers and electrochemically deposited polymer films, as well as the use of vacuum processes and spray pyrolysis. The use of black chrome plating for solar selective absorbers is also discussed. (Contains 88 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

1981-03-01

343

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high-purity silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the reported research is to explore a processing method for decomposing silane. The process involves heating the particles at the surface of a shallow fluidized bed by radiant heaters located above the surface of the bed. The radiant sources could be cooled by a purge of inert gas which is exhausted with the spent H/sub 2/. The hot bed particles would circulate down to the bottom of the bed where they would heat the cold silane gas rising through the distributor plate. Decomposition and deposition of the silane then follow. Two important systems characteristics are evaluated. One, the effective absorptivity of the bed, is the fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heaters which is actually absorbed by the particles. The second is the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate. Both characteristics are experimentally studied and theoretically examined. (LEW)

Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G.T.; Ouyang, F.

1983-08-01

344

Radiant heat transfer of optically thick spherical shells through a layer of hot almost transparent plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of radiant heat exchange in a multilayer system comprising optically thick spherical shells with intermediate layers of high-temperature (hot) plasma is developed for effective solution of spherically-symmetric one-dimensional problems of radiation gasodynamics with simultaneous existence of optically thin and optically thick layers of substance. Radiation transport in optically thick layers in the suggested model is described in the known approximation of radiant thermal conductivity, but in this case integral boundary conditions including radiation effects of the given layer by volumetric radiation of optically thin plasma and weak radiation of the neighbouring optically thick layer (and self-radiation) are derived for equations of thermal conductivity. The effect of substance local heating by surface radiation of surrounding optically thick layers at the expense of partial absorption of this radiation by plasma is investigated in hot plasma. The equations of the model comply with the laws of energy conservation and they correspond to Kirchhoff law.

1987-01-01

345

Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

1994-05-01

346

Solar collector with profiled cover  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create a type of solar collector, in which the total losses in the course of a whole day are lower than those of conventional designs. This problem is solved, according to the invention, by a solar collector with a profiled cover, where the profiled cover has smaller reflection losses and therefore guarantees a better yield of solar radiation during the course of a day. The solar collector consists of a cover, an absorber, insulation and a frame. The profiled cover can replace the usual cover frame and can cover several collectors simultaneously. The solar collector can be used as a roof or facade component, and can consist of one or several covers. Its construction can be in the form of several pyramids or cones, whose tips are directed towards the outside. The collector cover can consist of a flat or a profiled cover, and a variable sequence is possible.

Kuenzel, M.; Exarchou, N.

1980-02-07

347

Transition to stochasticity in a one-dimensional model of a radiant cavity  

Science.gov (United States)

We make a numerical study of the solutions of the equations of motion for the electromagnetic field in a one-dimensional model of a radiant cavity. Our main results are as follows: (1) There exist Stochasticity thresholds such that below them one has ordered motions without energy exchanges, while chaotic motions with intense energy exchanges occur above them; (2) above thresholds there is a trend toward equipartition of energy (in time average) among the normal modes of the field, but this occurs in the sense of Boltzmann and Jeans, namely, with the higher frequencies requiring longer and longer times in order to be involved in the energy sharing.

Benettin, Giancarlo; Galgani, Luigi

1982-01-01

348

Oil collector for subsea blowouts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collector apparatus and collection method are disclosed for use with a blown-out seabottom wellhead. The collector apparatus, including a collector element with an extended, open base and an upper portion enclosing a volume to receive fluid (substantial quantities of gas and lesser quantities of oil) rising, in the water, from the wellhead, and a riser connected to the collector element and extending thereabove to conduct fluid therefrom, is characterized in that the collector element is adapted for fixable attachment to the ocean floor about the seabottom well head prior to any blow-out, and the upper portion of the collector element further includes a relief passage from its interior to the exterior of the collector apparatus, the release passage adapted to vent excess gas from the collector apparatus during initial stages of any blow-out. In preferred embodiments, the relief passage is valved to allow the passage to be closed after the initial stages of any blow-out to limit escape of released oil and reduce the amount of water collected and the collector includes a drilling port adapted to allow drilling operations to proceed therethrough.

Milgram, J.H.

1984-06-26

349

Efficiency and operational reliability testing of solar collectors carried out for the test station for solar energy. Solar collector manufacturer: Dansk Solvarme af 10/8-92; Proevning af solfangeres effektivitet og driftssikkerhed foretaget for Proevestationen for Solenergi. Solfangerfabrikant: Dansk Solvarme af 10/8-92  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of performance testing carried out on a solar collector produced by the Danish firm Dansk Solvarme af 10/8-92 are given. Data on efficiency and operational reliability are included. The design of the solar collector and the testing method are described in addition to the calculation of the solar collector`s heat capacity. Details are given on efficiency connected with standard and with low liquid flow and on pressure loss. (AB)

Kristiansen, F.

1993-01-01

350

Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the increased interest in the utilization of solar energy, it is essential to enhance the energy collection of solar energy devices. In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the instantaneous, daily, and yearly enhancement in solar energy collection of a tilted flat-plate solar collector augmented by a plane reflector is developed. The shadow effect due to the reflector on the collector is considered in the analysis. A FORTRAN computer program has been constructed based on the analysis in order to study the effect of different operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat-plate solar collector system on the collector solar energy collection. These parameters include collector-reflector system orientation and tilt angles, collector elongation ratio, and reflector overhang ratio. (author)

Hussein, H.M.S.; Ahmad, G.E.; Mohamad, M.A. [National Research Centre, Giza (Egypt). Solar Energy Dept.

2000-06-01

351

Development of flat-plate solar plate collector: Evaporator  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g., solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

1981-11-01

352

Development of flat - plate solar plate collector - evaporator. Summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g. solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

1981-11-01

353

Improving the performance of a liquid solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of varying design and dimensions of a heat exchanger, and of expanding a collector's area, on the solar energy collection efficiency of the liquid solar collector was examined experimentally. A geometric efficiency factor (g) was defined and calculated. Results illustrate the advantage of employing a heat exchanger made up of a set of vertical tubes over one made up of a continuous tube of several bends. It is suggested optimization of exchanger and collector dimensions should be made as a means of improving thermal performance in terms of heat collected at the storage tank and material cost. (author).

Al-Abbasi, M.A.; Naoum, O.F. (Solar Energy Research Centre, Jadiriyah, Baghdad (IQ)); Ghani, A.J.A. (Baghdad Univ., Jaderiyah (IQ). Dept. of Chemistry); Hussain, A.A.-K. (Baghdad Univ. (IQ). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01

354

Performance evaluation of porous radiant gas burners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of temperature and gas composition measurements as a function of position, as well as spectral and total radiosity measurements. Uncombusted hydrocarbons were detected within the flame support layer for only low flow rates (e.g 7.1 1/min for a reticulated ceramic flame support layer); only combustion products mixed with the atmosphere were detected at higher rates. Radiosity increased with increasing flow rate via increasing surface temperatures, while burner efficiencies decreased because of less effectual heat transfer of combustion product gases to solid surfaces. Stainless steel screen-based flame support layers demonstrated optimum performance as compared to ceramic and metal tube-based, and reticulated ceramic-based flame support layers. Increased turbulent flow and surface area for convective heat transfer between the base surface and the end of the flame support layer were factors attributed to improved burner radiosity and efficiency. The greybody temperatures and emittances of burners were determined using a simplex algorithm fit of spectral radiosity data to Planck`s equation. The significantly higher and more grey emittance (hence radiosity) of CoAl$-(2)$O$-(4)$-coated mullite flame support tubes, as compared to alumina tubes of identical geometry, was demonstrated using this method.

Speyer, R.F.; Lin, Wen-Yi; Agarwal, G. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

355

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

2001-12-01

356

Preliminaries to the ergodic theory of infinite-dimensional systems: A model of radiant cavity  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss a number of mathematical results that are relevant to the statistical mechanics of a model of radiant cavity in which the electromagnetic field interacts with a nonlinear charged oscillator. In particular, we show that energy equipartition in the sense of Jeans would exclude local exponential instability of orbits; it would also prevent the existence of significant finite invariant measures on a given energy surface. A phase space of infinite total energy is defined, and an invariant measure in it is built, for which different modes of the field are statistically independent.

Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Valz-Gris, Fausto

1983-01-01

357

Radiant heat exchange of optically thick spherical envelopes through a layer of hot almost transparent plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of radiant heat exchange in a multilayer system is developed to effectively solve sherically symmetric one-dimensional problems of the radiation gas dynamics with simultaneously present optically thin and thick substance layers. This multilayer system consists of optically thick spherical envolopes with intermediate layers of high-temperature (hot) plasma. In the proposed model the radiation transfer in optically thick layers is described in the framework of a known approximation of radiant thermal conductivity, but for the thermal conductivity equations the integral boundary conditions are deduced which include effects of irradiation of this layer by three-dimensional radiation of an optically thin plasma and by attenuated radiation of a neighbouring optically thick layer (and by self-radiation). Effect of local radiant heating of substance by the surrounding optically thick layers at the expense of partial absorption of radiation by a plasma is simulated for a hot plasma. The model equations satisfy the laws of energy conservation and correspond to the Kirchhoff law. A high-temperature plasma substance is considered to be fully ionized so that only slowing down absorption and phonon radiation occur in it. Derivations of averaged radiation absorption factors and corresponding plasma emissivities are presented

1983-01-01

358

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated bed for the production of high-purity silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the exploration of a processing method which uses radiant heating of the particles of a fluidized bed for the production of high-purity silicon. The process involves heating the particles at the surface of a shallow fluidized bed by radiant heaters located above the surface of the bed. The radiant sources could be cooled by a purge of inert gas which is exhausted with the spent H2. The hot bed particles would circulate down to the bottom of the bed where they would heat the cold silane gas rising through the distributor plate. Decomposition and deposition of the silane then follow. Two important characteristics of the system are discussed. One is the ''effective absorptivity'' of the bed. This is the fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heaters which is actually absorbed by the particles. The other is the heat transfer coefficient between hot bed and cool distributor plate. Knowledge of this will allow prediction of the temperature of the distributor plate during silicon production.

Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.B.; Ouyang, F.; Zhang, G-T.

1984-01-01

359

Development of mass-producible line-focus tracking concentrating solar collectors - Category 1: collectors. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a technical study including the detailed design of a low-cost, mass-producible, line-focusing parabolic trough solar collector, the fabrication and test of a prototype drive string for this design, and the conceptual definition of a plant for its mass production. The design represents a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art for cost-effective, medium-temperature (93/sup 0/ to 315/sup 0/C) solar thermal collectors. Significant improvements were made in the areas of collector performance, manufacturing costs, installation costs, and reliability to yield a major reduction in the cost of delivered thermal energy.

Reese, J. Jr.; Wong, V.; Sutton, G.; Gumbel, H.

1983-07-01

360

Microenvironmental changes and plant responses due to shading and wind deflectio by solar collectors: a simulation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential microenvironmental changes at the ground surface beneath arrays of solar mirrors or collectors were investigated in a Sonoran Desert ecosystem, utilizing a simulated array of plywood panels. The simulated array consisted of twelve panels designed to exhibit a similar shape, tilt, and spacing as is expected to occur in heliostat fields of solar thermal facilities or in arrays of photovoltaic collectors. The experimental design in the study was based on comparing two microsites in the simulated array versus the open desert. Presence of the panels results in up to a 90% reduction in solar radiance during the midday period, with microsites beneath each panel receiving about 14% of the open desert irradiance over the whole day. The array of panels also effected a 14% to 60% reduction in monthly accumulated wind flow in the center of the array. The combination of reduced radiant energy input and wind deflection resulted in significantly reduced surface and soil temperatures in the heavily shaded sites, and moderately reduced surface and soil temperatures in the sunny microsites. Plant responses to a cooler, moister environment were: (1) higher diversity and survival of winter spring annuals; (2) proliferation of C/sub 3/ annuals in the summer flora versus the more typical C/sub 4/ annuals in the open; (3) greater new shoot production of shrubs; (4) greater gross photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of the two shrub species in the warm dry season, but not in the cool wet season; (5) increased leaf retention and reduction in the typical leaf polymorphic character into the dry season of the drought deciduous Ambrosia deltoidea; and, (6) invasion of the heavily shaded areas of the array by a pseudo-riparian species, Baccharis sarothroides. (WHK)

Patten, D.T.; Smith, S.D.

1980-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Optimum tilt angle for a flat plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the important parameters that affects the performance of a flat plate solar collector is its angle of tilt with the horizontal. This is due to the fact that the variation of tilt angle changes the top loss coefficient and the amount of solar radiation reaching the absorber plate. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the useful energy gained by a flat plate collector under various operating conditions. The model is then used to determine the optimum tilt angles for a typical collector in Basrah on a daily basis, as well as on the basis of a specified period. The optimum tilt angle is found by searching its value for which the useful energy gained by the collector is a maximum for a particular day or a specified period.

Saraf, G.R.; Hamad, F.A.W.

1988-01-01

362

Colored solar collectors - Annual report 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause an excessive degradation of the collector efficiency. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation, and are manufactured by sol-gel dip-coating or magnetron sputtering. The novel colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. Due to the tunability of the refractive index, nanostructured materials such as SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} composites and porous SiO{sub 2} are very useful for application in multilayer interference stacks. Novel quaternary Mg-F-Si-O films exhibit a surprisingly low refractive index and are therefore promising candidates for highly transparent coatings on solar collector glazing. The nanostructure of these thin films is studied by transmission electron microscopy, while the optical constants are measured precisely by ellipsometry. For a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples of high quality are imperatively needed. The fabrication of nanocomposite SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} films has been demonstrated by sol-gel dip-coating of A4-sized glass panes. The produced coatings exhibit a colored reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure will result in speeding up the sol-gel process and saving energy, thereby reducing costs significantly. The infrastructure for UV-curing has been established. A UV C radiation source can now be attached to the dip-coater, which is placed in a UV-screened laminar flow chapel. An industrial partner for the prototype fabrication of colored collector glazing has been found. For a first attempt of industrial scale production, adapted multilayer designs have been proposed. First tests on the industrial magnetron sputtering equipment have shown encouraging results, but some adaptations are still needed. Possible ways of implementation of the novel colored solar collectors/solar facades are investigated and discussed with facade manufacturers and architects. (authors)

Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

2007-12-15

363

Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector. The method is applied for horizons of up to 42 hours. Solar heating systems naturally come with a hot water tank, which can be utilized for energy storage also for other energy sources. Thereby such systems can become an important part of energy systems with a large share of uncontrollable energy sources, such as wind power. In such a scenario online forecasting is a vital tool for optimal control and utilization of solar heating systems. The method is a two-step scheme, where first a non-linear model is applied to transform the solar power into a stationary process, which then is forecasted with robust time-adaptive linear models. The approach is similar to the one by Bacher et al. (2009), but contains additional effects due to differences between solar thermal collectors and photovoltaics. Numerical weather predictions provided by Danish Meteorological Institute are used as input. The applied models adapt over time enabling tracking of changes in the system and in the surrounding conditions, such as decreasing performance due to wear and dirt, and seasonal changes such as leaves on trees. This furthermore facilitates remote monitoring and check of the system.

Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

2011-01-01

364

Biological impedance collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a biological impedance collector which comprises a power supply circuit which is respectively connected with a sine wave generating circuit, a single chip microcomputer system circuit and an interface signal switching circuit. The sine wave generating circuit is connected with a measuring electrode. The single chip microcomputer system circuit is respectively connected with the measuring electrode and the interface signal switching circuit which is respectively connected with a printer or a scanner and a PC computer by a parallel port, or the utility model is positioned between the single chip microcomputer system circuit and the measuring electrode. The single chip microcomputer system circuit is connected with the measuring electrode through a discharge circuit and a rectification circuit. The utility model adopts a single chip microcomputer to measure the body surface impedance of a living body's body surface under the actuation of a low-voltage sine wave and send the data through the parallel port to the computer to carry out a further analysis. The single chip microcomputer can recognize that the computer needs to be communicated with the parallel port devices, such as the printer, the scanner, etc., or communicated with the biological impedance collector, and thus, the single chip microcomputer can share one parallel port with the parallel port devices, such as the printer, the scanner, etc.

LI JIANG

365

Solar collector. Sonnenkollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is used to produce a solar collector with the simplest possible means, so that it can easily and comfortably be assembled, and in spite of being securely fixed prevents deformations between the cover and the supporting frame which could adversely affect the operation of the collector. In order to solve this problem, according to the invention, the connection of the two frames has jointed grid elements between its profile bars and transverse to the longitudinal direction in the plane of the frame, which are adjustable along a profile bar, and which are latched into the grid transversely to the plane of the frame on the covering frame via springs applying a pressure on elastic intermediate members of the supporting frame. The connection is made by pressing the covering frame on to the supporting frame, where, in spite of limited pressure, much larger latching or holding forces can be controlled. As the grid elements are adjustable along a profile bar, the latched profile bars can be freely adjusted in the longitudinal direction and can expand by differing amounts. The elastic intermediate members are preferably formed by a removable seal made of elastically deforming material.

1980-02-28

366

Second generation collectors become operational  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design guided by the principle of maximal use of incident radiation has not been successful. Second generation solar collectors are now designed on the principle of maximal yield per unity of invested capital. This kind of collectors is supposed to be working in the Netherlands with a lot of overcast. (J.H.K.)

den Ouden, C. (Technisch Physische Dienst TNO-TH, Delft (Netherlands)); van de Schootbrugge, G.A.

1984-04-01

367

Selection and test of high temperature solar collector adhesives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of results for a test program directed at evaluating candidate adhesives which could be used for bonding flat plate solar collector absorbers is presented. Temperature performance, structural integrity and thermal conductivity for candidate adhesives are presented along with typical test performance for a bonded solar collector. These results are part of a Department of Energy Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch Office of Conservation and Solar Applications funded project.

Dame, R.E.

1980-01-01

368

Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

1998-01-16

369

Performance of a combined photovoltaic/thermal, flat-plate, liquid collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T), flatplate, liquid collector, where the liquid circulates both below and above the photovoltaic cells (the primary energy-absorbing surface), has been designed and tested according to ASHRAE 93-77 specifications to yield collector thermal and electrical efficiencies. A one-dimensional thermal analysis predicts the test results accurately. On the strength of the test and analytical results, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

Aiello, W.A.; Raghuraman, P.

1981-01-01

370

Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via slots provided therein and are affixed in heat transfer relation with pipes containing a fluid.

Nevins, R.L.

1980-04-15

371

Mathematical modeling and thermal performance analysis of unglazed transpired solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unglazed transpired collectors or UTC (also known as perforated collectors) are a relatively new development in solar collector technology, introduced in the early nineties for ventilation air heating. These collectors are used in several large buildings in Canada, USA and Europe, effecting considerable savings in energy and heating costs. Transpired collectors are a potential replacement for glazed flat plate collectors. This paper presents the details of a mathematical model for UTC using heat transfer expressions for the collector components, and empirical relations for estimating the various heat transfer coefficients. It predicts the thermal performance of unglazed transpired solar collectors over a wide range of design and operating conditions. Results of the model were analysed to predict the effects of key parameters on the performance of a UTC for a delivery air temperature of 45-55 C for drying applications. The parametric studies were carried out by varying the porosity, airflow rate, solar radiation, and solar absorptivity/thermal emissivity, and finding their influence on collector efficiency, heat exchange effectiveness, air temperature rise and useful heat delivered. Results indicate promising thermal performance of UTC in this temperature band, offering itself as an attractive alternate to glazed solar collectors for drying of food products. The results of the model have been used to develop nomograms, which can be a valuable tool for a collector designer in optimising the design and thermal performance of UTC. It also enables the prediction of the absolute thermal performance of a UTC under a given set of conditions. (author)

Leon, M. Augustus; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

2007-01-15

372

Corrosion-free solar collectors for thermally driven seawater desalination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seawater desalination can be carried out by a variety of techniques, some of which are thermally driven at operating temperatures in the range of 60 to 80 deg. C. At this temperature level, these systems can be supplied by thermal energy gained from solar collectors. In order to increase the efficiency of such systems and simultaneously reduce costs, a heat exchanger between the collector loop and the desalination unit can be omitted if the seawater flows directly through the collectors. Since hot seawater is very aggressive, this configuration requires corrosion-free solar collectors. We developed selectively coated prototype collectors which fulfil this requirement. They will be installed in a pilot plant in Pozo Izquierdo, Gran Canaria, which will produce about 600 litres of desalinated water per day. This international project is funded by the European Commission DG XII, within the JOULE programme. The main task was to find materials which are resistant to seawater and can withstand temperatures up to 200 deg. C, which can occur under stagnation conditions. Moreover, it had to be ensured that it was possible to apply a selective coating on the absorber in order to increase the efficiency. A further limitation was given by the aim for the resulting water costs. After investigating different materials and collector designs, we developed a prototype consisting of an array of selectively coated glass tubes mounted in a conventional flat-plate collector housing. The efficiency was increased by adding a specially shaped reflector. The design was developed by carrying out both various optical and thermal simulations and indoor as well as outdoor tests. We obtained an appropriate collector which fulfilled the technical and economical requirements set by the special task of desalinating seawater. In-situ measurements at the test site in Gran Canaria will be carried out to gain more information about the long-term collector performance. (au)

Hermann, M.; Koschikowski, J.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

2000-07-01

373

ENERGY EMITTING TREATMENT DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In one aspect, the present application is directed to a radiant energy emitting device. The radiant energy emitting device comprises (A) an outer housing including at least one aperture there through, the housing being operationally configured to (1) receive and contain radiant energy therein, and (2) emit radiant energy out through the aperture to a target surface (B) an energy emission means and (C) a sensor means disposed about the aperture of the housing, the sensor means being in communication with the energy emission means and operationally configured to detect the spatial relationship between the sensor means and the target surface, said spatial relationship determining activation of the energy emission means.

JOHNSON SCOT L; JOHNSON DARYL

374

Biobriefcase aerosol collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Christian, Allen T. (Madison, WI); Bailey, Christopher G. (Pleasanton, CA); Willis, Ladona (Manteca, CA); Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-09-22

375

Chinese prickly ash collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a Chinese prickly ash collector, which resists the disturbance of tree thorn, is easy to alter extending length, and automatically collects grains of Chinese prickly ash. A cover, which is provided with round holes in the lateral wall, is connected in series with a plurality of tubular-rods whose inner chamber can transport grains of Chinese prickly ash and a collecting bottle by a connecting sleeve a side opening of the cover covers the Chinese prickly ash cluster and pulls backward the raked grains of Chinese prickly ash are collected into the inner chamber of the tubular-rods by grids in the cover and fall into the collecting bottle automatically.

LIU GENDONG

376

LHCb Tag Collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with SVN and Nightly Build System, is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

2011-12-23

377

Studies of collectors, 9  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chelating surfactants bearing hydroxyaminocarbonyl and amino groups (RnAHx) and cotelomer-type surfactants bearing hydroxyaminocarbonyl and pyridyl groups (Ls-VP-Q-Hx) were prepared and applied as flotation collectors for a trace amount of uranium. The uranium in an aqueous solution of pH 4 - 8 and in seawater was floated more effectively by ion flotation using RnAHx or by foam fractionation using Ls-VP-Q-Hx, compared with alkylhydroxamic acid (RnHx) and telomers bearing hydroxyaminocarbonyl groups (Lo-Hx). The effective flotation was concluded to be due to the chelate effects between the two groups on the complex formation and to the HLB of the resulting complex. Furthermore, the uranium recoveries were examined by using a hydroxamic acid polymer (62Hx), a N-methylhydroxamic acid telomer (Ls5.6MHx), and its cotelomer (Ls3.2VP4.5MHx). (author).

1987-01-01

378

Animal excrement collector device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An animal excrement collector device including a handle having a first internal cavity a spring-loaded extension assembly disposed therein, that extends an extension rod from the handle upon activation of an extension button disposed on the handle a trigger-lock mechanism, which is continuously disposed within the first internal cavity and an extension rod second internal cavity, includes a trigger grip member that activates a trigger button which, in turn, extends first and second cables that extend claw members hingedly attached to the second cables, which, in turn, expand a waste collection bag attached thereto. The claw members retract to pick up an object, such as animal excrement, and scoop the object into the waste collection bag for containment. The used waste collection bag may be hung from a J-hook disposed on a handle lower end. A bag dispenser disposed within the second internal cavity holds unused bags.

DEJESUS JUAN E

379

Two-dimensional mathematical model of evacuated tube solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of an evacuated tubular solar collector is presented by developing a two-dimensional performance model. The collector uses a thin flat plate spanning its diameter as its absorbing surface. Energy balances are made on collector plate and tube, each considered as a separate unit. It has been found that a zero capacitance model is quite adequate when hourly meteorological data are used, and hence in this study steady state analysis of the collector is made (1). The overall loss coefficient has been assumed to be constant for the whole plate. The model also includes optical effects. The emphasis of the investigation is to study the two-dimensional effects in the absorber plate housed in evacuated glass cylinders. Performance curves obtained from the two-dimensional model has been compared with that of HW model. It was found that the HW model overestimates the performance.

Rahman, F.; Al-Zakri, S.; Rahman, M.A.A.

1984-08-01

380

Flat plate collector utilizability for Guyana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to analyse one year of hourly solar radiation data from Georgetown, Guyana, and derive a simplified tool in the form of a utilizability curve for designing solar thermal systems with fixed flatplate collectors. The significance of the utilizability curve is demonstrated with the solution of a typical design problem - the sizing of solar crop drying systems. For instance it is shown that an advanced flatplate collector [U/[eta][sub o] = 3 W/m[sup 2o]C and F[sub R]([tau][alpha]) = 0.95] with A[sub C] = 16 m[sup 2], delivers 29.6 MJ of energy per hour while heating ambient air from 30 to 50[sup o]C. (author)

Hazel, R.D. (Univ. of Guyana, Georgetown (Guyana). Dept. of Physics); Langevine, L.P. (Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Georgetown (Guyana). Solar Energy Lab.)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27

382

The program for calculation of heat productivity of solar converters with flat collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program for calculation of heat productivity of Solar Converters with flat collectors allows to calculate the parameters of heliosystem taking into account the input data and monthly meteorological data of regions. For solar heat study and predesigning process it is expedient to use a program for flat collectors productivity calculation. That program allows to calculate the collector`s parameters and characteristics proceeding from meteorological input data. Depending on the season of the year that program takes into account the whole absorbed solar energy and determines the coefficient for additional energy for the provision of necessary temperature

Kazarian, E.; Vrtanessyan, K.; Kazarian, G. [State Engineering University of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

1997-12-31

383

Inverted flat plate solar collector. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction and testing of an inverted flat plate solar collector are described. Heat transfer and economic analysis were performed to optimize the collector design. The newly designed collector was tested against two other flat plate collectors and the results and comparison of efficiencies are presented. (BCS)

Brown, M.A.

1981-08-26

384

Accelerated Testing of Solar Collector Durability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A climatic simulator has been build to test the reliability and durability of solar collectors. In the climatic simulator the collector is expåosed to extreme climatic conditions and temperature variations in an accelerated way and during this process the function of the collector is tested and the microclimate in the collector box is measured.

Svendsen, Sv Aa HØjgaard

1996-01-01

385

The conception and development of a high performance collector for electron cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In view of an energy upgrade of the LEAR electron cooler to 100 keV and in preparation for the development of electron cooling for COSY, the physics of energy - and current circulation in electron coolers was scanned. Taking also into account the characteristics of electron cooling and the peculiarities of LEAR and COSY, a new collector concept was developed and put into work. In measurements with a 1 diameter test beam of up to 1.3 A the new collector proved to have hybrid properties of an improved Faraday - cup collector and of a high - perveance hollow beam collector, enabling a current loss ratio of less than 60 ppm at one end of its operational range (at about 20 ?Perv) and a collector perveance of up to 160 ?Perv (loss ? 2%) at the other end. Those figures were achieved with an uncompensated electron beam in a technically straightforward collector set-up. (orig.)

1989-01-01

386

Analysis and optimization of a multi-stage solar collector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present an analytic method for predicting the long-term performance of solar energy systems with more than one collector brand (''multi-stage'' systems). This procedure enables the designer to determine the most cost-effective method of combining different collector brands for a given load. Although the derivations pertain to solar systems for constant load applications and/or near constant collector operating threshold, they can also be used for conventional multi-pass designs. The problems of excess energy delivery, and of various collector on/off control strategies, are taken into account. The results are simple closed-form expressions whose evaluation requires readily-available average climatic data, and load and collector characteristics. The analytic method is illustrated by a solved example which shows that significant savings can be realized by combining different collector brands for a given application (multi-staging).

Gordon, J.M.; Saltiel, C.

1986-08-01

387

Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

Abright, B.L.

1982-01-15

388

Economical judge possibility uses solar collectors to warm service water and heating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sun-heated water has been used from before fossil fuels started to determine the direction of our power consumption. This article is focused on the assessing of the use of solar energy as one of inexhaustible resources that has multiple uses, including hot water service systems. Heating is rendered through solar collectors that permit to transform solar energy to warm water. We divide solar collectors into various groups but in principle they are medium temperature collectors and low temperature collectors. The work is directed also on the solar collector market. In our case the market is just at its initial stage as this technology is little known and costs of collectors are rather high, compared to our conditions, on average, they may grow up to 100,000 Slovac crowns per a family house. Because it is the only investment and the costs of operation are minimum throughout the entire collectors lifetime, from the economic point of view, it is a rather advantageous investment. Solar collectors are used in heating and also in hot service water systems in family houses, where they permit to lower costs for the consumption of many kinds of energies. In the hot service water system, solar collectors permit to lower the consumption by almost 70 %. This way of using the solar energy is very prospective and in future it will be used in various sectors

Lívia Bodonská

2006-01-01

389

Wall collector design analysis: project status report No. 2. Hing/daylighting prototype development, Phase I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design process and energy analyses for the wall (air) collector component for the passive/hybrid system building alternatives for pre-engineered metal buildings are described. A hybrid collector was coupled to the rockbed storage and ceiling plenum of the office and maintenance spaces. A thermosyphon collector was coupled directly to the interior space of the warehouse. The schematic design, design development, and performance analysis are included. (MHR)

Aronson, S.J.; deCampo, R.; Snyder, M.K.

1981-03-01

390

Solar collector with altitude tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

Barak, Amitzur Z. (Chicago, IL)

1977-01-01

391

Development of economic collector systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of systems of the different modular concepts was introduced for collector development work. The HELIOMAN-3-32/A collector module was used as the basis of comparison. Because of the results of this comparison, the single axis/horizontal north-south variant was given preference for development work. Activities for the design and development of the following components for the single axis horizontal trough following the sun took place: Parabolic mirror (1.5 m long, 1.1 m wide, thickness of glass 5 mm), absorber (38 mm diameter), trough structure (combination of several rows of mirrors), trough drive with 4 joint drive. Apart from this development work for a cylindrical paraboloid collector, the complete unit of a collector area was also considered (reducing the price).

Kraft, M.

1983-01-01

392

Theoretical analysis to investigate thermal performance of co-axial heat pipe solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal performance of co-axial heat pipe solar collector which consist of a collector 15 co-axial heat pipes surrounded by a transparent envelope and which heat a fluid flowing through the condenser tubes have been predicted using heat transfer analytical methods. The analysis considers conductive and convective losses and energy transferred to a fluid flowing through the collector condenser tubes. The thermal performances of co-axial heat pipe solar collector is developed and are used to determine the collector efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of heat taken from the water flowing in the condenser tube and the solar radiation striking the collector absorber. The theoretical water outlet temperature and efficiency are compared with experimental results and it shows good agreement between them. The main advantage of this collector is that inclination of collector does not have influence on performance of co-axial heat pipe solar collector therefore it can be positioned at any angle from horizontal to vertical. In high building where the roof area is not enough the co-axial heat pipe solar collectors can be installed on the roof as well as wall of the building. The other advantage is each heat pipe can be topologically disconnected from the manifold.

Azad, E.

2011-12-01

393

Floor radiant system with heat storage by a solid-solid phase transition material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat storage by means of solid-solid phase transition has been used in a floor radiant system. Tests have been performed in order to establish a comparison between a system storing energy as latent heat with another one using sensible heat. The first system is much more efficient in temperature regulation, allowing an adequate utilization of the off-peak electricity for the charge period. Results obtained in this show the promising perspectives of the solid-solid phase transition for thermal storage in building materials. (orig.)

Barrio, M. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Font, J. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Lopez, D.O. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Muntasell, J. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Tamarit, J.Ll. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear)

1992-07-01

394

Corrosion of anode current collectors in molten carbonate fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion of metallic parts is one of the life-time limiting factors in the molten carbonate fuel cell. In the reducing environment at the anode side of the cell, the corrosion agent is water. As anode current collector, a widely used material is nickel clad on stainless steel since nickel is stable in anode environment, but a cheaper material is desired to reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack. When using the material as current collector one important factor is a low resistance of the oxide layer formed between the electrode and the current collector in order not to decrease the cell efficiency. In this study, some candidates for anode current collectors have been tested in single cell molten carbonate fuel cells and the resistance of the oxide layer has been measured. Afterwards, the current collector was analysed in scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results show that the resistances of the formed oxide layers give a small potential drop compared to that of the cathode current collector. (author)

Randstroem, Sara; Lagergren, Carina [KTH Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Capobianco, Paolo [Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A, Corso Perrone 25, I-161 61 Genova (Italy)

2006-10-06

395

Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

R. Lawrence Ives, Amarjit Singh, Michael Read, Philipp Borchard, Jeff Neilson

2009-05-20

396

Thin film absorber for a solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1985-01-01

397

Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

2009-01-01

398

Characteristics of unsteady heat transfer for a flat-plate solar collector system. 2nd Report. Prediction calculation of thermal response and collected solar energy; Heibangata taiyonetsu shunetsukei no hiteijo dennetsu tokusei. 2. Shunetsuki no ondo oto oyobi shunetsuryo no yosoku keisan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to obtain the basic data which are necessary to improve the performance of a flat-plate solar collector equipped with a thin transparent plastic film between cover glass and heat absorber plates, the numerical analysis of unsteady heat transfer characteristics of the flat-plate solar collector has been conducted. The characteristics of thermal responses of the collector components were examined under condition that the insolation or the wind velocity or the water flow-rate changes stepwise or periodically. Effects of the thermophysical and optical properties of the collector components and the position of the thin transparent plastic film on the outlet water temperature and the collected solar energy are also clarified in case of periodic change of the insolation. In the case that the insolation changes stepwise, it is illustrated that the temperature of warm water in the collector panel water tube increases with the change of insolation and reaches the steady value for a relatively short time. On the other hand, in the case that the insolation changes periodically, it is illustrated that the temperature of warm water in the collector panel water tube changes almost simultaneously with the change of insolation. 15 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Hira, E. [Miyazaki Prefectural Industrial Research Institute, Miyazaki (Japan); Koyama, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Hamasaki, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujii, T. [University of East Asia, Yamaguchi (Japan)

1995-01-31

399

Combined solar collector and storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems.

2000-01-01

400

Use of an absorber for obtaining heat energy in building collectors and in building greenhouses. Einsatz eines Absorbers zur Waermeenergiegewinnung im Kollektorbau wie auch im Gewaechshausbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent and trademark application describes an absorber, which can be used in building collectors and in building greenhouses. The absorber consists of a hollow aluminium frame on which two windows of transparent material, resistant to the heat medium liquid are glued like a sandwich. If the absorber is used in building greenhouses, the two windows consist of heat-resistant float glass. A heat medium liquid which is enriched with aluminium particles flows between the two windows.

Grimm, A.; Dittmar, M.

1985-08-29

 
 
 
 
401

Energy-supplying external walls. Solar collectors, not only for roof installation; Energiegeladene Fassaden. Sonnenkollektoren haben nicht nur auf dem Dach Platz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

External walls can act directly as heat supplying elements, either with solar collectors or with a novel 'solar honeycomb' thermal insulation system. The author presents three exemplary systems. [German] Fassaden muessen nicht nur Schutzhuelle fuer Gebaeude sein. Sie koennen ein Gebaeude auch direkt mit Waerme versorgen - sei es mit Sonnenkollektoren oder mit einer neuen Solarwaben-Daemmung. Unser Autor Heinz Langer stellt ihnen drei Systeme vor. (orig.)

Langer, H.

2001-03-01

402

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar heat collector including an outer substantially straight tube being closed at one end and open at the other end and an inner substantially straight tube being closed at one end and open at the other end. The inner and outer tubes are hermetically sealed at their open ends with the space therebetween being evacuated to a predetermined degree of vacuum. A hairpin pipe for circulation of fluid media is disposed within the inner tube and includes two substantially straight sections wherein both or at least one of which is in surface contact with the inner surface of the inner tube. A pair of heat-conducting members are disposed within the inner tube and include arc portions and inwardly bent flat portions. The arc portions are semi-circular in shape and are joined to the inwardly bent flat portions through transient portions inclined at an angle wherein 120/sup 0/ to 150/sup 0/. The heat-conducting members are based diametrically to ensure contact of both or at least one of the substantially straight sections of the hairpin pipe against the inner surface of the inner pipe.

Takeuchi, H.; Mikiya, T.

1984-04-03

403

Electrostatic vacuum dust collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A clean environment is a key facility required for the production of high-density integrated circuits. In fact, dust could have a serious effect on the yield of semiconductor production. Conventional equipment is ineffective for dust released within the vacuum chamber. Here, new equipment is developed which uses electron beam and electrostatic force to collect dust in a vacuum. This electrostatic dust collector incorporates tape to cellect dust, the tape being in contact with an electrode. The electrode consists of a dielectric layer and a conductive layer, and is charged positive by an external high-voltage, direct-current power source. Some basic tests are performed to demonstrate its performance. Conducting dust can be collected by electrostatic force alone. Semiconducting or insulating dust is charged negative by electron beam and then collected by positive electrostatic force. The use of tape makes it possible to collect dust in large amounts as compared to the conventional plate-type equipment. Test results show that the equipment can perform continuous dust collection. More than 90 percent of the total dust used in the test is found to be collected. (N.K.).

1989-01-01

404

A simplified design procedure for solar collectors based on heat exchange theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of a solar collector is determined using heat exchanger theory instead of the solar collector efficiency method. It has been found that the solar collector performance is generally described as the product of the effectiveness of the solar collector and the insolation usage factor, (IUF). The effectiveness describes only the heat transfer characteristics of the solar collector and is a function of the solar number of transfer units, (SNTU) and the /PSI/ parameter. The effectiveness and the SNTU parameters are defined to be similar to the effectiveness and NTU parameters used in heat exchanger theory. The IUF parameter describes the effects of the operating conditions on the solar collector performance. It has been found to be a function of the transmittance-absorptance product and the ratio of the minimum heat loss from the solar collector to the incident solar radiation flux. Since the development of this procedure is general, the graph provided for the IUF parameter and the effectiveness applies to all nonconcentrating solar collector applications. The advantage of this design procedure over the conventional solar collector efficiency method is that it separates the effects of the heat transfer characteristics on the solar collector performance from those of the operating conditions. This separation of effects simplifies the comparison of different collector designs and allows general conclusions to be reached about the use of solar energy and factors affecting solar collector performance. The effects of the absorber plate design parameters on the collector performance are easily isolated using a nomograph which is based on this procedure. An example of this procedure has been performed to illustrate these advantages.

Kowalski, G.J.; Foster, A.J.; Kim, B.J.

1983-11-01

405

Wind loading on solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01

406

Improvement of reliability, durability and expected lifetime for solar collector systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of solar collectors and solar collector systems must, besides the efficiency, consider reliability, durability and expected lifetime. These matters are an important part of the cooperative work within the Solar Heating and cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Here the aim of task III, subtask F, is to establish the necessary background for (mandatory) requirements concerning solar collector system durability, and to make a qualified estimation of expected lifetime for the components. Good design features of solar collector systems are also an important part of the work. In Denmark the focus has been on building integration of solar collector systems. Good results have been obtained with a new kind of roof integrated solar collector and a compact second generation therm

Vejsig Pedersen, P.

1984-05-01

407

Numerical 3-D heat flux simulations on flat plate solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A transient 3-D mathematical model for solar flat plate collectors has been developed. The model is based on setting mass and energy balances on finite volumes. The model allows the comparison of different configurations: parallel tubes collectors (PTC), serpentine tube collectors (STC), two parallel plate collectors (TPPC), and other non-usual possibilities like the use of absorbent fluids with semitransparent or transparent plates. Transparent honeycomb insulation between plate and cover can also be modelled. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of the materials has also been considered. The model has been validated experimentally with a commercial PTC. The model is a useful tool to improve the design of plate solar collectors and to compare different configurations. In order to show the capabilities of the model, the performance of a PTC collector with non-uniformity flow is analysed and compared with experimental data from literature with good agreement. (author)

Villar, N. Molero; Lopez, J.M. Cejudo; Munoz, F. Dominguez; Garcia, E. Rodriguez; Andres, A. Carrillo [Grupo de Energetica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UMA, Plaza El Ejido s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)

2009-07-15

408

Development of a selective thin film and of a hermetically sealed flat plate solar collector with gas filling  

Science.gov (United States)

The industrial productibility of a selective absorbing thin film was investigated on the basis of reactive cathodic sputtering of Ni. On substrates of 1.8 sq m of Al, Cu, steel and stainless steel, solar absorption values up to 97% were achieved at emissivities of 5 to 10%. A prototype flat plate collector for high temperatures with two covers and hermetical sealing was developed. The technical data of the collector were measured, dependent on the selectivity of the absorber, gas fillings of dry air, argon or SF6 and the geometry and were compared with those of an evacuated flat plate collector. A hermetical sealed double flat plate collector for low temperatures was developed which has the advantage of lower no load temperatures and higher energy gain for heating swimming pool water compared with a conventional flat plate collector. The insolation values on collectors were measured and were used for a calculation of the energy gains of different collector types.

Zernial, W.

1982-12-01

409

Solar collector device with boiling heat carrier and stratified storage tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the invention is the construction of a solar collector system with a stratified storage tank, so that no circulating pumps and electrical control systems are needed. The thermal energy can be transported without any losses. Pipelines connect the solar collector with the storage tank. The tank is mounted at a higher niveau as the collector. Inside the storage tank, their exists a central heat pipe. These pipes are connected with the solar collector. The upper side is provided with the valve shutter. The most important feature of this invention is the low material expenditure.

Merges, V.

1981-08-20

410

Outdoor testing of evacuated-tube heat-pipe solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the steady state performance of two types of commercially available evacuated-tube heat-pipe solar collector that were tested under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. The tests were made in arrays of collectors in contrast with the normal tests performed under controlled laboratory conditions. A theoretical model is also presented to predict the collector efficiency as well as the collectable energy during a steady state test. Within the range of expected coolant temperatures, the efficiency and the heat loss coefficient of collectors are measured and a linear expression can adequately depict their characteristics. (author)

Ng, K.C.; Yap, C.; Khor, T.H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering

2000-04-01

411

Effects of three-dimensional current collectors on supercapacitors` characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Supercapacitors made of high-area electrode materials are complementary to batteries as far as electrical energy storage is concerned. Indeed, supercapacitors show low energy-density but high power-density. To achieve this, the time constant RC must be as low as possible, so the internal resistance R must be low. Apart from the effect of electrolyte resistivity and electrode thickness on the internal resistance, we show that the structure of the current collector acts on this parameter; the use of a three-dimensional current collector, such as metallic foam, results in an important decrease of the internal resistance of the cell. (orig.)

Tassin, N. [SORAPEC, Fontenay-sous-Bois (France); Bronoel, G. [SORAPEC, Fontenay-sous-Bois (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d`Electrochimie Industrielle, Paris (France); Bispo-Fonseca, I. [CNAM, Lab. d`Electrochimie Industrielle, Paris (France)

1997-03-01

412

Performance of evaporator-collector and air collector in solar assisted heat pump dryer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solar assisted heat pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. This paper presents the performance of the evaporator-collector and the air collector when operated under the same meteorological conditions. ASHRAE standard procedure for collector testing has been followed. The evaporator-collector of the heat pump is acting directly as the solar collector, and the temperature of the refrigerant at the inlet to the evaporator-collector always remained below the ambient temperature. Because of the rejection of sensible and latent heats of air at the dehumidifier, the temperature at the inlet to the air collector is lower than that of the ambient air. Hence, the thermal efficiency of the air collector also increases due to a reduction of losses from the collector. The efficiencies of the evaporator-collector and the air collector were found to vary between 0.8-0.86 and 0.7-0.75, respectively, when operated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore.

2008-01-01

413

Flat plate collector. Selbsttragende Sonnenkollektorplatte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create a solar collector plate, which is suitable as a component for walls and roofs, and which simultaneously acts as solar collector. According to the invention this problem is solved by having a solar collector plate consisting of 2 sheets V-shaped in crossection, whose backs are connected, where suitable half ducts are made in the backs of each sheet, and where grooves for inserting transparent windows are provided in the legs of the sheets forming the front on opposite sides, which are fitted spaced from the floor of the sheets. On the sheet directed towards the inside, an insulating layer extending over its whole surface is placed, which is spaced from the floor of the sheet, so that a duct extending over the width and height of the sheet is obtained. The solar collector plate for walls and roofs thus consists of 2 profiled sheets, which touch on their backs and are connected. This gives them sufficient stiffness. Half ducts are formed in the adjacent backs, through which the heat exchange medium flows. The back of the plate acts as a heat collector.

Grumbach, E.

1981-04-09

414

Process heat generation in industrial buildings using solar concentration collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most promising and important applications of solar energy is in the area of process heat generation for industry. While the greater part of the effort in solar research has traditionally been spent on developing devices for domestic use, it has long been recognized that the industrial user has a far greater potential. Apart from the quantities of energy involved, the industrial user is a convenient one and particularly geared for solar energy utilization. The main limitation of the industrial user with regard to solar energy utilization is his need for steam - rather than hot water at temperatures below 100 degrees C. The common flat-plate collectors are inadequate for generating steam and other types of collectors, usually more expensive, have to be employed. This paper describes a study aimed at incorporating a solar collector of a particular design in the roof structure of an industrial building, thereby bringing down the cost. The particular feature of the collector, based on the SRTA Stationary Reflector/Tracking Absorber concept, is a stationary spherical mirror which focuses the solar rays on a small, cylinder-shaped tracking absorber. Industrial roofs are usually constructed of modular elements, mounted on a support structure. It has been suggested to combine the spherical mirror of the collector in the modular roof element, thus obtaining a roof which can serve at the same time as a solar collector. The advantages to doing this are many: The added cost of the solar system is reduced since the roof itself provides the structure of its mirrors; the mirrors reduce the insulation requirements of the roof; optimum utilization of the roof area for solar energy collection can be achieved; the mirror surface can be renewed and refurbished in-situ, and there is no need to replace the entire mirror when its reflectivity decreases in time. (author).

1994-01-01

415

A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

2011-01-01

416

The Young solar collector: an evaluation of its multiple farm uses. Agricultural economic report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The homemade, low-cost Young flat-plate solar collector, for multiple uses on the farm was designed by a Nebraska farm couple and personnel of the Small Farm Energy Project. This study describes the features of the Young collector and reports on its physical and economic performance.

Heid, W.G. Jr.

1981-05-01

417

Modeling Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Optimum Tilt Angles for Solar Collectors in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in optimal tilt angle of a solar collector relative to a horizontal position assists in maximizing its performance for energy collection depending on changes in time and space. In this study, optimal tilt angles were quantified for solar collectors based o...

Can Ertekin; Fatih Evrendilek; Recep Kulcu

418

Conceptual design of a hybrid thermal and photovoltaic receiver of an FMDF collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical characteristic of a Fixed Mirror Distributed Focus (FMDF) solar collector is used as a basis for the design of a hybrid thermal and photovoltaic (PV) receiver. The result provides another variation in energy conversion that an FMDF solar collector can conveniently perform. (author)

Sulaiman, M.Y.; Hlaing Oo, W.M.; Wahab, M.A.; Sulaiman, Z.A. [Pertanian Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Khouzam, K.Y. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

1997-12-31

419

A solar collector design procedure for crop drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A design procedure was proposed for sizing solar-assisted crop-drying systems and assessing the combination of solar collector area and auxiliary energy needs that meets the requirements of the load. Two empirical correlations were compared for use with high thermal inertia solar collectors that are cheap and appropriate for rural areas. A case study as performed in the city of Campinas in southeastern Brazil. Grain drying with partial air heating by solar energy can provide an annual savings of 30% in fuel consumption for 1.80m² collector area during the drying of 1.2t of corn at 50ºC at a daily air rate of 1526.8 m³/day.

B. M. Santos; M. R. Queiroz; T. P. F. Borges

2005-01-01

420

A solar collector design procedure for crop drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A design procedure was proposed for sizing solar-assisted crop-drying systems and assessing the combination of solar collector area and auxiliary energy needs that meets the requirements of the load. Two empirical correlations were compared for use with high thermal inertia solar collectors that are cheap and appropriate for rural areas. A case study as performed in the city of Campinas in southeastern Brazil. Grain drying with partial air heating by solar energy can prov (more) ide an annual savings of 30% in fuel consumption for 1.80m² collector area during the drying of 1.2t of corn at 50ºC at a daily air rate of 1526.8 m³/day.

Santos, B. M.; Queiroz, M. R.; Borges, T. P. F.

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
421

Ditch collector for heat pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If soil heat can be used for the heat pump, monovalent operation is possible. To achieve this, the soil heat should drop only very little below the freezing point (-1/sup 0/C) in order to have a sufficient efficiency of the heat pump and a complete temperature compensation of the soil in this depth in the summer. The soil moving work for a ditch collector are very low compared with a soil surface collector, and the place needed for installation in the garden is also much smaller. Initially, there was some doubt concerning the heating efficiency due to the narrow spacing of the pipes, but meanwhile, data are available from experiences made with several systems over two to three heating periods which completely justify this simplified form of a soil ditch collector.

Gerbert, H.

1982-03-01

422

Solar collector method and apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a solar collector system. It comprises: an extruded solar collector with a plurality of orifices longitudinally extending therethrough; an input manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; an output manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; means for positioning the nipples of the input manifold into one end of the plurality of orifices and for positioning the nipples of the output manifold into the other end of the plurality of orifices such that a fluid flowing into the input manifold flows through the nipples of the input manifold into the plurality of orifices and then through the nipples of the output manifold into the output manifold; a sheet of transparent material affixed in a spaced-apart position above the solar collector by means of a stand-off material; an insulated material positioned above the manifolds; and an arcuate member adhered between the sheet of transparent material and the strip of material and positioned over one of the manifolds to prevent debris from being deposited between the manifold and the solar collector. Also described is a nipple formed in a cylindrical configuration with an exterior surface and a free end. Also described is coupling apparatus between a manifold having a cylindrical nipple and a solar collector having a cylindrical orifice. Also described is a manifold for connection to a solar collector having a plurality of orifices extending longitudinally therethrough.

Sadler, C.

1989-09-19

423

Dynamics and control of a solar collector system for near Earth object deflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solar collector system is a possible method using solar energy to deflect Earth-threatening near-Earth objects. We investigate the dynamics and control of a solar collector system including a main collector (MC) and secondary collector (SC). The MC is used to collect the sunlight to its focal point, where the SC is placed and directs the collected light to an asteroid. Both the relative position and attitude of the two collectors should be accurately controlled to achieve the desired optical path. First, the dynamical equation of the relative motion of the two collectors in the vicinity of the asteroid is modeled. Secondly, the nonlinear sliding-mode method is employed to design a control law to achieve the desired configuration of the two collectors. Finally, the deflection capability of this solar collector system is compared with those of the gravitational tractor and solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the solar collector is much more efficient with respect to deflection capability.

1000-01-00

424

Simulations of geometry effects and loss mechanisms affecting the photon collection in photovoltaic fluorescent collectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monte-Carlo simulations analyze the photon collection in photovoltaic systems with fluorescent collectors. We compare two collector geometries: the classical setup with solar cells mounted at each collector side and solar cells covering the collector back surface. For small ratios of collector length and thickness, the collection probability of photons is equally high in systems with solar cells mounted on the sides or at the bottom of the collector. We apply a photonic band stop filter acting as an energy selective filter which prevents photons emitted by the dye from leaving the collector. We find that the application of such a filter allows covering only 1% of the collector side or bottom area with solar cells. Furthermore, we compare ideal systems in their radiative limits to systems with included loss mechanisms in the dye, at the mirror, or the photonic filter. Examining loss mechanisms in photovoltaic systems with fluorescent collectors enables us to estimate quality limitations of the used materials and components.

Prönneke L.; Gläser G. C.; Rau U.

2012-01-01

425

Corrosion-free solar collectors for thermally driven seawater desalination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seawater desalination can be carried out by a variety of techniques, some of which are thermally driven at operating temperatures in the range of 70 to 120{sup o}C. At this temperature level, these systems can be supplied with thermal energy gained from solar flat-plate collectors. In order to increase the efficiency of such systems and simultaneously reduce costs, a heat exchanger between the collector loop and the desalination unit can be omitted if the seawater flows directly through the collector absorbers. Since hot seawater is very aggressive, this configuration requires corrosion-free absorbers. We developed collectors which fulfil this requirement. They were installed in a pilot plant in Pozo lzquierdo, Gran Canaria, which produces about 600 l of drinking water per day. The main task was to find materials which are resistant to seawater and can withstand stagnation temperatures up to 200{sup o}C, out of which appropriate absorber constructions had to be developed. Moreover, it had to be ensured that it was possible to apply a selective coating on the absorber. A further limitation was given by the aim for the resulting water costs. After investigating different materials and collector designs, we developed a prototype consisting of an array of selectively coated glass tubes mounted in a conventional flat-plate collector housing. The efficiency was increased by adding a specially shaped reflector. The design was developed by carrying out various optical and thermal simulations, and indoor as well as outdoor tests. We obtained appropriate collectors which fulfil the technical and economical requirements. Finally, first results of the in-situ measurements in Gran Canaria will be presented. (author)

Hermann, M.; Koschikowski, J.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

2002-05-01

426

Focussing solar collector. Konzentrierender Solar-Kollektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focussing solar collector according to the invention is intended to make the use of thin walled Fresnel lenses for focussing solar radiation possible by covering the collector frame with fine steel wires, between which the Fresnel lenses are inserted.

Kiefer, E.

1984-09-20

427

Thermal effects of a wall solar collector-storage cell of energy, like conditioning system in residential air-conditioning; Efectos termicos de una pared colector-acumulador de energia solar, como sistema de acondicionamiento en la climatizacion habitacional  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At UNJBG-CERT in Tacna, we count on a laboratory that in its architectonic development integrates a collector solar power accumulator all. It was built with granite. It is a part of an accumulation system of calorific energy as well as at the external surface is used as a collection plate of incidental solar energy, making possible with it a contribution of heat for convection, conduction and radiation. In this article, there are results of the behavior of the temperatures of the interior air in the laboratory in correlation with different temperature measurements in the external and internal surfaces of the wall. In the article. Also there are some theoretical and experimental comparative graphics between between external and internal temperatures and their fluctuation grade for 24-hour periods. (Author)

Rivasplata, C.

2008-07-01

428

Base load fuel comsumption with radiant boiler simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operating point of an oil fired radiant boiler, 580 Megawatt capacity, is critical in maximizing the availability, performance, reliability, and maintainability of a power producing system. Operating the unit above the design operating point causes outages to occur sooner than scheduled. When the boiler is operated below the design operating point, fuel is wasted because the quantity of fuel required to operate a radiant boiler is the same, whether the design setpoint is maintained or not. This paper demonstrates by means of simulation software that the boiler design setpoints is critical to fuel consumption and optimum output megawatts. A boiler with this capacity is used to provide a portion of the base load of an electric utility in order to sustain revenues and maintain reliable generation.

Shwehdi, M.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA (United States)); Hughes, C.M. (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)); Quasem, M.A. (Howard Univ. School of Business, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01

429

Generalized thermal analysis of tubular solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A generalized thermal analysis of tubular solar collectors such as the CPC, CPC with bare absorber and flat-plate (all having U-tube fluid carriers) is presented. The analysis is applicable for smaller as well as larger size troughs. It has been found that earlier published results of thermal analyses of the CPC collectors are not applicable to all CPC collectors encountered in the literature. The present analysis can, however, be successfully applied to all such collectors.

Chandra, R.; Raychaudhuri, B.C.

1986-01-01

430

Apparatus for collecting solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-