Subdecoherent Information Encoding in a Quantum-Dot Array
Zanardi, P; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
1999-01-01
A potential implementation of quantum-information schemes in semiconductor nanostructures is studied. To this end, the formal theory of quantum encoding for avoiding errors is recalled and the existence of noiseless states for model systems is discussed. Based on this theoretical framework, we analize the possibility of designing noiseless quantum codes in realistic semiconductor structures. In the specific implementation considered, information is encoded in the lowest energy sector of charge excitations of a linear array of quantum dots. The decoherence channel considered is electron-phonon coupling We show that besides the well-known phonon bottleneck, reducing single-qubit decoherence, suitable many-qubit initial preparation as well as register design may enhance the decoherence time by several orders of magnitude. This behaviour stems from the effective one-dimensional character of the phononic environment in the relevant region of physical parameters.
Optimal Encoding of Classical Information in a Quantum Medium
Elron, N; Eldar, Yonina C.; Elron, Noam
2006-01-01
We investigate optimal encoding and retrieval of digital data, when the storage/communication medium is described by quantum mechanics. We assume an m-ary alphabet with arbitrary prior distribution, and an n-dimensional quantum system. Under these constraints, we seek an encoding-retrieval setup, comprised of code-states and a quantum measurement, which maximizes the probability of correct detection. In our development, we consider two cases. In the first, the measurement is predefined and we seek the optimal code-states. In the second, optimization is performed on both the code-states and the measurement. We show that one cannot outperform `pseudo-classical transmission', in which we transmit n symbols with orthogonal code-states, and discard the remaining symbols. However, such pseudo-classical transmission is not the only optimum. We fully characterize the collection of optimal setups, and briefly discuss the links between our findings and applications such as quantum key distribution and quantum computing...
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)
2011-08-15
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Ca+ quantum bits for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With trapped ions quantum information can be encoded in various two-level systems or quantum bits (qubits). Here, we present an overview on qubit encoding with Ca+ and several state-of-the-art operations involving two and three qubits. The use of decoherence-free subspaces and encoding logical qubits using two physical qubits may offer an advantageous route towards implementing scalable quantum information processing.
Quantum logical operations on encoded qubits
Zurek, W H; Zurek, Wojciech Hubert; Laflamme, Raymond
1996-01-01
We show how to carry out quantum logical operations (controlled-not and Toffoli gates) on encoded qubits for several encodings which protect against various 1-bit errors. This improves the reliability of these operations by allowing one to correct for one bit errors which either preexisted or occurred in course of operation. The logical operations we consider allow one to cary out the vast majority of the steps in the quantum factoring algorithm. Thus, our results help bring quantum factoring and other quantum computations closer to reality
Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n2) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)
Decoherence-Insensitive Quantum Communication by Optimal C^*-Encoding
Bodmann, B G; Paulsen, V I; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kribs, David W.; Paulsen, Vern I.
2006-01-01
The central issue in this article is to transmit a quantum state in such a way that after some decoherence occurs, most of the information can be restored by a suitable decoding operation. For this purpose, we incorporate redundancy by mapping a given initial quantum state to a messenger state on a larger-dimensional Hilbert space via a $C^*$-algebra embedding. Our noise model for the transmission is a phase damping channel which admits a noiseless or decoherence-free subspace or subsystem. More precisely, the transmission channel is obtained from convex combinations of a set of lowest rank yes/no measurements that leave a component of the messenger state unchanged. The objective of our encoding is to distribute quantum information optimally across the noise-susceptible component of the transmission when the noiseless component is not large enough to contain all the quantum information to be transmitted. We derive simple geometric conditions for optimal encoding and construct examples.
Barnett, Stephen M
2009-01-01
Quantum information- the subject- is a new and exciting area of science, which brings together physics, information theory, computer science and mathematics. "Quantum Information"- the book- is based on two successful lecture courses given to advanced undergraduate and beginning postgraduate students in physics. The intention is to introduce readers at this level to the fundamental, but offer rather simple, ideas behind ground-breaking developments including quantum cryptography,teleportation and quantum computing. The text is necessarily rather mathematical in style, but the mathema
Encoding qubits into quantum noise resistant states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heim, Dennis; Gleisberg, Ferdinand; Freyberger, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2009-07-01
The intention of the proposed scheme is to protect information of an unknown pure qubit against effects of quantum noise represented by a quantum channel. By applying the proposed scheme before and after the qubit passes the channel the resulting fidelity will be higher than the fidelity without protection. The effect of a phase damping channel, for example, can be reduced by coupling and decoupling an additional qubit to the unknown initial state.
Quantum gloves: Quantum states that encode as much as possible chirality and nothing else
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Communicating a physical quantity cannot be done using information only - i.e., using abstract cbits and/or qubits. Rather one needs appropriate physical realizations of cbits and/or qubits. We illustrate this by considering the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates and introduce the natural concept of quantum gloves - i.e., rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Classical and quantum information
Marinescu, Dan C
2011-01-01
A new discipline, Quantum Information Science, has emerged in the last two decades of the twentieth century at the intersection of Physics, Mathematics, and Computer Science. Quantum Information Processing is an application of Quantum Information Science which covers the transformation, storage, and transmission of quantum information; it represents a revolutionary approach to information processing. This book covers topics in quantum computing, quantum information theory, and quantum error correction, three important areas of quantum information processing. Quantum information theory an
A photonic quantum information interface
Tanzilli, S; Halder, M; Alibart, O; Baldi, P; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, H; Tanzilli, Sebastien; Tittel, Wolfgang; Halder, Matthaeus; Alibart, Olivier; Baldi, Pascal; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo
2005-01-01
Quantum communication is the art of transferring quantum states, or quantum bits of information (qubits), from one place to another. On the fundamental side, this allows one to distribute entanglement and demonstrate quantum nonlocality over significant distances. On the more applied side, quantum cryptography offers, for the first time in human history, a provably secure way to establish a confidential key between distant partners. Photons represent the natural flying qubit carriers for quantum communication, and the presence of telecom optical fibres makes the wavelengths of 1310 and 1550 nm particulary suitable for distribution over long distances. However, to store and process quantum information, qubits could be encoded into alkaline atoms that absorb and emit at around 800 nm wavelength. Hence, future quantum information networks made of telecom channels and alkaline memories will demand interfaces able to achieve qubit transfers between these useful wavelengths while preserving quantum coherence and en...
Quantum information and computation
Bub, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics.
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Task unrelated thought whilst encoding information.
Smallwood, Jonathan M; Baracaia, Simona F; Lowe, Michelle; Obonsawin, Marc
2003-09-01
Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of TUT and higher levels of word-fragment completion whilst encoding categorical relative to random stimuli, supporting the role of a distributed resource in the maintenance of TUT. In addition the results of all three experiments suggested that experiencing TUT during study had a measurable effect on subsequent retrieval. TUT was associated with increased frequency of false alarms at retrieval (Experiment One). In the subsequent experiments TUT was associated with no advantage to retrieval based on recollection, by manipulating instructions at encoding (Experiment Two), and/or at retrieval (Experiment Three). The implications of the results of all three experiments are discussed in terms of recent accounts of memory retrieval and conscious awareness. PMID:12941287
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port i...
Quantum teleportation and quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The scheme of quantum teleportation is described in a mathematically rigorous way, including analysis of the role and importance of quantum entanglement. The experiments with quantum teleportation performed in Innsbruck and in Rome are described in detail, and some differences between the two approaches are discussed. The elements of quantum information theory are introduced and compared with Shannon's classical information theory. The phenomenon of quantum teleportation is placed into a wider context of the developing quantum information theory, which enables quantum teleportation to be described by using the particle physics language. (Z.J.)
Nielsen, M. A.
2000-01-01
Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel lim...
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, K
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capable of arbitrary U(2) transformations. Basic to all these considerations is quantum theory, in particular Hilbert space quantum mechanics.
Quantum biological information theory
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-01-01
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.
Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui
2016-03-15
Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. PMID:26520251
Quantum Information An Overview
Jaeger, Gregg
2007-01-01
This book is a comprehensive yet concise overview of quantum information science, which is a rapidly developing area of interdisciplinary investigation that now plays a significant role in physics, information technology and engineering. It is a handy reference for practitioners and students covering quantum mechanics, quantum key distribution, quantum computation and quantum communication, as well as explicating foundational issues of these topics. Specific protocols for quantum coding, quantum teleportation, quantum key distribution, quantum data compression and entanglement purification are discussed, as are quantum algorithms, including the Deutsch-Jozsa, Shor and Grover algorithms. Appendices on the mathematics of quantum information science and postulates of quantum mechanics are included. The book contains more than 25 illustrations that encapsulate essential ideas and fundamental constructs of quantum information science. The bibliography contains more than 400 articles from the literature of quantum ...
Cognitive Structural Organization at Encoding and Retrieval of Textual Information.
Backman, Jarl
1980-01-01
Three experiments (which used adults and 14-year-old children) studied the congruence between textual input at encoding and output in the form of memory reproductions. Results verified a very close correspondence between encoding and retrieval regarding hierarchically structural operations on the information in simple stories. (AN)
Quantum information processing with trapped Ca(+) ions.
Gulde, S; Häffner, H; Riebe, M; Lancaster, G; Becher, C; Eschner, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Chuang, I L; Blatt, R
2003-07-15
Quantum information processing is performed with single trapped Ca(+) ions, stored in a linear Paul trap and laser-cooled to the ground state of their harmonic quantum motion. Composite laser-pulse sequences were used to implement SWAP gate, phase gate and controlled-NOT gate operations. Stark shifts on the quantum-bit transitions were precisely measured and compensated. For a demonstration of quantum information processing, a Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been implemented using two quantum bits encoded on a single ion. PMID:12869313
Quantum information processing with trapped Ca+ ions
Gulde, S.; Häffner, H.; Riebe, M.; et al.
2003-07-01
Quantum information processing is performed with single trapped Ca+ ions, stored in a linear Paul trap and laser-cooled to the ground state of their harmonic quantum motion. Composite laser-pulse sequences were used to implement SWAP gate, phase gate and controlled-NOT gate operations. Stark shifts on the quantum-bit transitions were precisely measured and compensated. For a demonstration of quantum information processing, a Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been implemented using two quantum bits encoded on a single ion.
Quantum information causality.
Pitalúa-García, Damián
2013-05-24
How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844
Decoherence-Insensitive Quantum Communication by Optimal C^*-Encoding
Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kribs, David W; Paulsen, Vern I.
2006-01-01
The central issue in this article is to transmit a quantum state in such a way that after some decoherence occurs, most of the information can be restored by a suitable decoding operation. For this purpose, we incorporate redundancy by mapping a given initial quantum state to a messenger state on a larger-dimensional Hilbert space via a $C^*$-algebra embedding. Our noise model for the transmission is a phase damping channel which admits a noiseless or decoherence-free subspa...
Encoded Universality of Quantum Computations on the Multi-Atomic Ensembles in the QED Cavity
Ablayev, Farid; Andrianov, Sergey; Moiseev, Sergey; Vasiliev, Alexander
2011-01-01
We propose an effective set of elementary quantum gates which provide an encoded universality and demonstrate the physical feasibility of these gates for the solid-state quantum computer based on the multi-atomic systems in the QED cavity. We use the two-qubit encoding and swapping-based operations to simplify a physical realization of universal quantum computing and add the immunity to a number of errors. This approach allows to implement any encoded single-qubit operation ...
Photonic Quantum Information Processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Quantum Particles From Quantum Information
Görnitz, T.; Schomäcker, U.
2012-08-01
Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mind-body-interaction. Instead of any kind of "small elementary building bricks", the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.
Quantum Particles From Quantum Information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mind-body-interaction. Instead of any kind of 'small elementary building bricks', the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.
Entanglement and non local correlations: quantum resources for information processing
Prettico, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
Quantum Information Theory (QIT) studies how information can be processed and transmitted when encoded on quantum states. Practically, it can be understood as the effort to generalize Classical Information Theory to the quantum world. Interestingly, the fact that very-small scale Physics differs considerably from that of macroscopic objects offers a richer structure to the new theory. Among other phenomena, entanglement is at the heart of many quantum information protocols. It is the most spe...
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Elements of quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elements of Quantum Information introduces the reader to the fascinating field of quantum information processing, which lives on the interface between computer science, physics, mathematics, and engineering. This interdisciplinary branch of science thrives on the use of quantum mechanics as a resource for high potential modern applications. With its wide coverage of experiments, applications, and specialized topics - all written by renowned experts - Elements of Quantum Information provides and indispensable, up-to-date account of the state of the art of this rapidly advancing field and takes the reader straight up to the frontiers of current research. The articles have first appeared as a special issue of the journal 'Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics'. Since then, they have been carefully updated. The book will be an inspiring source of information and insight for anyone researching and specializing in experiments and theory of quantum information. Topics addressed in Elements of Quantum Information include - Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics - Segmented Paul Traps - Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microtraps, Optical Lattices, and on Atom Chips - Rydberg Gases - Factorization of Numbers with Physical Systems - Entanglement of Continuous Variables - NMR and Solid State Quantum Computation - Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Machines - Complexity Theory - Quantum Crytography. (orig.)
Information Leakage of Heterogeneous Encoded Correlated Sequences over Eavesdropped Channel
Balmahoon, R; Cheng, L.
2015-01-01
Correlated sources are present in communication systems where protocols ensure that there is some predetermined information for sources. Here correlated sources across an eavesdropped channel that incorporate a heterogeneous encoding scheme and their effect on the information leakage when some channel information and a source have been wiretapped is investigated. The information leakage bounds for the Slepian-Wolf scenario are provided. Thereafter, the Shannon cipher system ...
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. ??A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Schumann, R H
2000-01-01
In this thesis I present a short review of ideas in quantum information theory. The first chapter contains introductory material, sketching the central ideas of probability and information theory. Quantum mechanics is presented at the level of advanced undergraduate knowledge, together with some useful tools for quantum mechanics of open systems. In the second chapter I outline how classical information is represented in quantum systems and what this means for agents trying to extract information from these systems. The final chapter presents a new resource: quantum information. This resource has some bewildering applications which have been discovered in the last ten years, and continually presents us with unexpected insights into quantum theory and the universe. The treatment is pedagogical and suitable for beginning graduates in the field.
Encoding techniques for complex information structures in connectionist systems
Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli
1990-01-01
Two general information encoding techniques called relative position encoding and pattern similarity association are presented. They are claimed to be a convenient basis for the connectionist implementation of complex, short term information processing of the sort needed in common sense reasoning, semantic/pragmatic interpretation of natural language utterances, and other types of high level cognitive processing. The relationships of the techniques to other connectionist information-structuring methods, and also to methods used in computers, are discussed in detail. The rich inter-relationships of these other connectionist and computer methods are also clarified. The particular, simple forms are discussed that the relative position encoding and pattern similarity association techniques take in the author's own connectionist system, called Conposit, in order to clarify some issues and to provide evidence that the techniques are indeed useful in practice.
Color schemes for encoding information in digital maps
Zeng, Ruzhu; Zeng, Huanzhao
2010-01-01
Color schemes have been used in maps to visually distinguish different regions or to approximately represent the magnitude of a property. Since human eyes are not able to translate a color to a numerical scale, colors on a traditional map can only be used to visually estimate magnitudes. As maps are represented more and more digitally, a properly designed color scheme may be able to use color to encode numbers and to accurately translate colors into numerical scales of a property. As a mouse (or other pointers) points to a location, the color of the location can be translated into the original encoded number and therefore the numerical property of the location may be displayed. In this paper, method to encode information in digital maps using color schemes is investigated. A hue-based color scheme was developed to encode and decode numerical scales for digital maps. Color gamut issues between display and print are investigated as well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporao, G P; Von der Weid, J P [Centre for Telecommunication Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro-R Marques de Sao Vicente 225 Gavea, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H [GAP-Optique, University of Geneva, rue de l' Ecole-de-Medecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: guix@opto.cetuc.puc-rio.br
2009-04-15
In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40{pi} rad s{sup -1} are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40? rad s-1 are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.
Introduction to quantum information science
Hayashi, Masahito; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro
2015-01-01
This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleport...
Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.
Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel
2013-12-01
Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends. PMID:23958646
Encoded Universality of Quantum Computations on the Multi-Atomic Ensembles in the QED Cavity
Ablayev, Farid; Moiseev, Sergey; Vasiliev, Alexander
2011-01-01
We propose an effective set of elementary quantum gates which provide an encoded universality and demonstrate the physical feasibility of these gates for the solid-state quantum computer based on the multi-atomic systems in the QED cavity. We use the two-qubit encoding and swapping-based operations to simplify a physical realization of universal quantum computing and add the immunity to a number of errors. This approach allows to implement any encoded single-qubit operation by three elementary gates and the encoded controlled- NOT operation can be performed in a single step. The considerable advantages are also shown for implementing some commonly used controlled gates.
Quantum Information is Physical
DiVincenzo, David P.; Loss, Daniel
1997-01-01
We discuss a few current developments in the use of quantum mechanically coherent systems for information processing. In each of these developments, Rolf Landauer has played a crucial role in nudging us and other workers in the field into asking the right questions, some of which we have been lucky enough to answer. A general overview of the key ideas of quantum error correction is given. We discuss how quantum entanglement is the key to protecting quantum states from decohe...
Isotope - based Quantum Information
Plekhanov, Vladimir G.
2009-01-01
This paper is brief review of three aspects of the isotope - based quantum information: computation, teleportation and cryptography. Our results demonstrate not only that entanglement exists in elementary excitation of isotope - mixed solids but also it can be used for quantum information processing.
Hybrid quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)
2014-12-04
I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.
Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.
Lectures on quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Information Processing is a young and rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of physics, mathematics, and computer science. Its ultimate goal is to harness quantum physics to conceive - and ultimately build - 'quantum' computers that would dramatically overtake the capabilities of today's 'classical' computers. One example of the power of a quantum computer is its ability to efficiently find the prime factors of a large integer, thus shaking the supposedly secure foundations of standard encryption schemes. This comprehensive textbook on the rapidly advancing field introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of information theory and quantum entanglement, taking into account the current state of research and development. It thus covers all current concepts in quantum computing, both theoretical and experimental, before moving on to the latest implementations of quantum computing and communication protocols. With its series of exercises, this is ideal reading for students and lecturers in physics and informatics, as well as experimental and theoretical physicists, and physicists in industry. (orig.)
On the Automation of Encoding Processes in the Quantum IO Monad
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Barratt
2012-10-01
Full Text Available It is now clear that the use of resilient encoding schemes will be required for any quantum computing device to be realised. However, quantum programmers of the future will not wish to be tied up in the particulars of such encoding schemes. Quantum programming languages and libraries are already being developed, one of which is the Quantum IO Monad. QIO, as it is often abbreviated to, provides an interface to define and simulate quantum computations via a library of functions written in Haskell, a purely functional programming language. A solution is presented that takes an arbitrary QIO program and returns an equivalent program incorporating some specified quantum error correction techniques.
Identifying mechanisms in the control of quantum dynamics through Hamiltonian encoding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A variety of means are now available to design control fields for manipulating the evolution of quantum systems. However, the underlying physical mechanisms often remain obscure, especially in the cases of strong fields and high quantum state congestion. This paper proposes a method to quantitatively determine the various pathways taken by a quantum system in going from the initial state to the final target. The mechanism is revealed by encoding a signal in the system Hamiltonian and decoding the resultant nonlinear distortion of the signal in the system time-evolution operator. The relevant interfering pathways determined by this analysis give insight into the physical mechanisms operative during the evolution of the quantum system. A hierarchy of mechanism identification algorithms with increasing ability to extract more detailed pathway information is presented. The mechanism identification concept is presented in the context of analyzing computer simulations of controlled dynamics. As illustrations of the concept, mechanisms are identified in the control of several simple, discrete-state quantum systems. The mechanism analysis tools reveal the roles of multiple interacting quantum pathways to maximally take advantage of constructive and destructive interference. Similar procedures may be applied directly in the laboratory to identify control mechanisms without resort to computer modeling, although this extension is not addressed in this paper
Quantum Information is Physical
Di Vincenzo, D P; Vincenzo, David P. Di; Loss, Daniel
1998-01-01
We discuss a few current developments in the use of quantum mechanically coherent systems for information processing. In each of these developments, Rolf Landauer has played a crucial role in nudging us and other workers in the field into asking the right questions, some of which we have been lucky enough to answer. A general overview of the key ideas of quantum error correction is given. We discuss how quantum entanglement is the key to protecting quantum states from decoherence in a manner which, in a theoretical sense, is as effective as the protection of digital data from bit noise. We also discuss five general criteria which must be satisfied to implement a quantum computer in the laboratory, and we illustrate the application of these criteria by discussing our ideas for creating a quantum computer out of the spin states of coupled quantum dots.
Quantum information processing with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single Ca+ ions and crystals of Ca+ ions are confined in a linear Paul trap and are investigated for quantum information processing. Here we report on recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with such a system. Laser-cooled trapped ions are ideally suited systems for the investigation and implementation of quantum information processing as one can gain almost complete control over their internal and external degrees of freedom. The combination of a Paul type ion trap with laser cooling leads to unique properties of trapped cold ions, such as control of the motional state down to the zero-point of the trapping potential, a high degree of isolation from the environment and thus a very long time available for manipulations and interactions at the quantum level. The very same properties make single trapped atoms and ions well suited for storing quantum information in long lived internal states, e.g. by encoding a quantum bit (qubit) of information within the coherent superposition of the S1/2 ground state and the metastable D5/2 excited state of Ca+. Recently we have achieved the implementation of simple algorithms with up to 3 qubits on an ion-trap quantum computer. We will report on methods to implement single qubit rotations, the realization of a two-qubit universal quantum gate (Cirac-Zoller CNOT-gate), the deterministic generation of multi-particle entangled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)
A simple encoding of a quantum circuit amplitude as a matrix permanent
Rudolph, Terry
2009-01-01
A simple construction is presented which allows computing the transition amplitude of a quantum circuit to be encoded as computing the permanent of a matrix which is of size proportional to the number of quantum gates in the circuit. This opens up some interesting classical monte-carlo algorithms for approximating quantum circuits.
Introduction to quantum information science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2010-04-12
The Bell states preparation circuit is a basic circuit required in quantum teleportation. We describe how to implement it in all-fiber technology. The basic building blocks for its implementation are directional couplers and highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF). Because the quantum information processing is based on delicate superposition states, it is sensitive to quantum errors. In order to enable fault-tolerant quantum computing the use of quantum error correction is unavoidable. We show how to implement in all-fiber technology encoders and decoders for sparse-graph quantum codes, and provide an illustrative example to demonstrate this implementation. We also show that arbitrary set of universal quantum gates can be implemented based on directional couplers and HNLFs. PMID:20588656
Accessible Information and Quantum operations
Cai, Qing-yu
2003-01-01
The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.
Yepez, Jeffrey
Presented is a study of quantum entanglement from the perspective of the theory of quantum information dynamics. We consider pairwise entanglement and present an analytical development using joint ladder operators, the sum of two single-particle fermionic ladder operators. This approach allows us to write down analytical representations of quantum algorithms and to explore quantum entanglement as it is manifested in a system of qubits. We present a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a super-braid. The crossing of world lines may be either classical or quantum mechanical in nature, and in the latter case most conveniently expressed with our analytical expressions for entangling quantum gates. At a quantum mechanical crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. We present quantum skein relations that allow complicated superbraids to be recursively reduced to alternate classical histories. If the superbraid is closed, then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Also, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example the Jones polynomial for the square root of a knot. We present measurement-based quantum computing based on our joint number operators. We take expectation values of the joint number operators to determine kinetic-level variables describing the quantum information dynamics in the qubit system at the mesoscopic scale. We explore the issue of reversibility in quantum maps at this scale using a quantum Boltzmann equation. We then present an example of quantum information processing using a qubit system comprised of nuclear spins. We also discuss quantum propositions cast in terms of joint number operators. We review the well known dynamical equations governing superfluidity, with a focus on self-consistent dynamics supporting quantum vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Furthermore, we review the mutual vortex-vortex interaction and the consequent Kelvin wave instability. We derive an effective equation of motion for a Fermi condensate that is the basis of our qubit representation of superfluidity. We then present our quantum lattice gas representation of a superfluid. We explore aspects of our model with two qubits per point, referred to as a Q2 model, particularly its usefulness for carrying out practical quantum fluid simulations. We find that it is perhaps the simplest yet most comprehensive model of superfluid dynamics. As a prime application of Q2, we explore the power-law regions in the energy spectrum of a condensate in the low-temperature limit. We achieved the largest quantum simulations to date of a BEC and, for the first time, Kolmogorov scaling in superfluids, a flow regime heretofore only obtainably by classical turbulence models. Finally, we address the subject of turbulence regarding information conservation on the small scales (both mesoscopic and microscopic) underlying the flow dynamics on the large hydrodynamic (macroscopic) scale. We present a hydrodynamic-level momentum equation, in the form of a Navier-Stokes equation, as the basis for the energy spectrum of quantum turbulence at large scales. Quantum turbulence, in particular the representation of fluid eddies in terms of a coherent structure of polarized quantum vortices, offers a unique window into the heretofore intractable subject of energy cascades.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
The decoupling approach to quantum information theory
Dupuis, Frédéric
2010-04-01
Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and have as corollaries entanglement-assisted and unassisted asymptotic coding theorems. The entanglement-assisted asymptotic versions can, in both cases, be considered as quantum versions of the best coding theorems known for the classical versions of these problems. The last chapter deals with a purely quantum phenomenon called locking. We demonstrate that it is possible to encode a classical message into a quantum state such that, by removing a subsystem of logarithmic size with respect to its total size, no measurement can have significant correlations with the message. The message is therefore "locked" by a logarithmic-size key. This thesis presents the first locking protocol for which the success criterion is that the trace distance between the joint distribution of the message and the measurement result and the product of their marginals be sufficiently small.
Introduction to Quantum Information Processing
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R; BARNUM, H; Dalvit, D.; Dziarmaga, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gurvits, L.; Ortiz, G.; VIOLA, L.; Zurek, W. H.
2002-01-01
As a result of the capabilities of quantum information, the science of quantum information processing is now a prospering, interdisciplinary field focused on better understanding the possibilities and limitations of the underlying theory, on developing new applications of quantum information and on physically realizing controllable quantum devices. The purpose of this primer is to provide an elementary introduction to quantum information processing, and then to briefly expla...
Ablayev, F. M.; Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.; Vasiliev, A.V.
2013-01-01
We propose an effective realization of the universal set of elementary quantum gates in solid state quantum computer based on macroscopic (or mesoscopic) resonance systems - multi-atomic coherent ensembles, squids or quantum dots in quantum electrodynamic cavity. We exploit an encoding of logical qubits by the pairs of the macroscopic two- or three-level atoms that is working in a Hilbert subspace of all states inherent to these atomic systems. In this subspace, logical sing...
Byrd, M S; Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2002-01-01
Proposals for physical systems to act as quantum computers are inevitably plagued by the unavoidable coupling with the environment (bath) that causes decoherence, and by technological difficulties connected with the controllability of quantum states. Several techniques exist for achieving reliable quantum computation by countering the effects of decoherence. At this time, however, not one, by itself, will serve as a panacea for error correction. In this paper, we introduce a method that combines system-bath decoupling operations with error avoidance or active error correction to address these major concerns. By using an empirical approach to error correction based on experimental data, and an efficient set of decoupling operations that will serve to protect encoded quantum information, we are able to propose a comprehensive method for reducing the adverse effects of decoherence, in particular in scalable solid state quantum computing devices. Our method has the added benefit of significantly reducing design c...
Probabilistic quantum encoder for single-photon qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe an experiment in which a physical qubit represented by the polarization state of a single photon was probabilistically encoded in the logical state of two photons. The experiment relied on linear optics, postselection, and three-photon interference effects produced by a parametric down-conversion photon pair and a weak coherent state. An interesting consequence of the encoding operation was the ability to observe entangled three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states
Concentrating Tripartite Quantum Information.
Streltsov, Alexander; Lee, Soojoon; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-17
We introduce the concentrated information of tripartite quantum states. For three parties Alice, Bob, and Charlie, it is defined as the maximal mutual information achievable between Alice and Charlie via local operations and classical communication performed by Charlie and Bob. We derive upper and lower bounds to the concentrated information, and obtain a closed expression for it on several classes of states including arbitrary pure tripartite states in the asymptotic setting. We show that distillable entanglement, entanglement of assistance, and quantum discord can all be expressed in terms of the concentrated information, thus revealing its role as a unifying informational primitive. We finally investigate quantum state merging of mixed states with and without additional entanglement. The gap between classical and quantum concentrated information is proven to be an operational figure of merit for mixed state merging in the absence of additional entanglement. Contrary to the pure state merging, our analysis shows that classical communication in both directions can provide an advantage for merging of mixed states. PMID:26230778
Spin-based quantum-information processing with semiconductor quantum dots and cavity QED
Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
A quantum-information-processing scheme is proposed with semiconductor quantum dots located in a high-Q single-mode QED cavity. The spin degrees of freedom of one excess conduction electron of the quantum dots are employed as qubits. Excitonic states, which can be produced ultrafast with optical operation, are used as auxiliary states in the realization of quantum gates. We show how properly tailored ultrafast laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effects can be used to achieve a universal encoded ...
Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view
Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Janousek, Jirí; Wagner, Kate; Bachor, Hans. A-; Lam, Ping Koy; Treps, Nikola; Buchhave, Preben; Fabre, Claude; Harb, Charles
2007-01-01
We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use the generation of spatial squeezing light in higher order transverse Hermite-Gauss modes as a demonstration of the quality of our scheme. The squeezing in selective modes is achieved by fine tuning of th...
Quantum Encoder and Decoder for Secret Key Distribution with Check Bits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Godhavari
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to develop a novel method of encoding the qubits and use as secret key in public key cryptography. In BB 84 protocol, 50% of the random number (generated at source is used as secret key and the remaining bits are used as “check bits”. The check bits are used to detect the presence of eve as well as the nature of quantum channels. In this protocol, random qubits are encoded using different type of polarizations like horizontal, veritical and diagonal. In the proposed quantum encoder, basic quantum gates are used to encode the random secret key along with the check bits. Quantum key distribution, (a cryptographic mechanism relies on the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics and serves as an option to replace techniques made vulnerable by quantum computing. However, it is still subject to clever forms of eavesdropping and poses a significant challenge to implementation. To study the challenges, quantum circuits are first simulated using QCAD.
Quantum information and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)
Quantum games of asymmetric information
Du, Jiangfeng; Li,Hui; Ju, Chenyong
2003-01-01
We investigate quantum games in which the information is asymmetrically distributed among the players, and find the possibility of the quantum game outperforming its classical counterpart depends strongly on not only the entanglement, but also the informational asymmetry. What is more interesting, when the information distribution is asymmetric, the contradictive impact of the quantum entanglement on the profits is observed, which is not reported in quantum games of symmetri...
Quantum Information and Relativity Theory
Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.
2002-01-01
Quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory are the basic foundations of theoretical physics. The acquisition of information from a quantum system is the interface of classical and quantum physics. Essential tools for its description are Kraus matrices and positive operator valued measures (POVMs). Special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems. Quantum entropy is not a Lorentz covariant concept. Lorentz...
Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.
2010-01-01
Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous-variable quantum-key distribution scheme as a means to combat excess noise is also investigated.
Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations
Lassen, M.; Delaubert, V.; Janousek, J.; Wagner, K.; Bachor, H.-A.; Lam, P. K.; Treps, N.; Buchhave, P.; Fabre, C.; Harb, C. C.
2007-02-01
We present the key elements required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multimode quantum correlations. We describe techniques for encoding, combining and detecting spatial quantum information with high efficiency in the individual transverse modes. Until now, the missing feature for the implementation of such protocols was the generation of squeezing in higher order transverse Hermite-Gauss modes. We experimentally demonstrate squeezing in selective modes by fine-tuning the phase matching condition of the nonlinear ?(2) material and the cavity resonance condition of an optical parametric amplifier. Combined, these results open the way to practical multimode optical quantum information systems.
Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent
2007-01-01
We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use the generation of spatial squeezing light in higher order transverse Hermite-Gauss modes as a demonstration of the quality of our scheme. The squeezing in selective modes is achieved by fine tuning of the phase matching condition of the nonlinear (2) material and the cavity resonance condition of the optical parametric amplifier. By combining these modes we can now build a practical multi-mode optical quantum information system.
Kwiatkowska, Monika; Swierczewski, Lukasz
2014-01-01
The work includes implementation and extraction algorithms capabilities test, without any additional data (starting position, the number of bits used, gap between the amount of data encoded) information from encoded files (mostly images). The software is written using OpenMP standard [1], which allowed them to run on parallel computers. Performance tests were carried out on computers, Blue Gene/P [2], Blue Gene/Q [3] and the system consisting of four AMD Opteron 6272 [4]. So...
Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Information
Goldstein, Sheldon
2009-01-01
Many recent results suggest that quantum theory is about information, and that quantum theory is best understood as arising from principles concerning information and information processing. At the same time, by far the simplest version of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, is concerned, not with information but with the behavior of an objective microscopic reality given by particles and their positions. What I would like to do here is to examine whether, and to what exte...
Using Patterns to Encode Color Information for Dichromats.
Sajadi, B; Majumder, A; Oliveira, M M; Schneider, R G; Raskar, R
2013-01-01
Color is one of the most common ways to convey information in visualization applications. Color vision deficiency (CVD) affects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide and considerably degrades their performance in understanding such contents by creating red-green or blue-yellow ambiguities. While several content-specific methods have been proposed to resolve these ambiguities, they cannot achieve this effectively in many situations for contents with a large variety of colors. More importantly, they cannot facilitate color identification. We propose a technique for using patterns to encode color information for individuals with CVD, in particular for dichromats. We present the first content-independent method to overlay patterns on colored visualization contents that not only minimizes ambiguities but also allows color identification. Further, since overlaying patterns does not compromise the underlying original colors, it does not hamper the perception of normal trichromats. We validated our method with two user studies: one including 11 subjects with CVD and 19 normal trichromats, and focused on images that use colors to represent multiple categories; and another one including 16 subjects with CVD and 22 normal trichromats, which considered a broader set of images. Our results show that overlaying patterns significantly improves the performance of dichromats in several color-based visualization tasks, making their performance almost similar to normal trichromats'. More interestingly, the patterns augment color information in a positive manner, allowing normal trichromats to perform with greater accuracy. PMID:22450823
Quantum: information theory: technological challenge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs
Quantum Information and Spacetime Structure
Volovich, I V
2002-01-01
In modern quantum information theory one deals with an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as qubit, channel, composite systems and entangled states should be formulated in space and time. In this paper some basic notions of quantum information theory are considered from the point of view of quantum field theory and general relativity. It is pointed out an important fact that in quantum field theory there is a statistical dependence between two regions in spacetime even if they are spacelike separated. A classical probabilistic representation for a family of correlation functions in quantum field theory is obtained. A noncommutative generalization of von Neumann`s spectral theorem is discussed. We suggest a new physical principle describing a relation between the mathematical formalism of Hilbert space a...
Efficient Computations of Encodings for Quantum Error Correction
Cleve, Richard; Gottesman, Daniel
1996-01-01
We show how, given any set of generators of the stabilizer of a quantum code, an efficient gate array that computes the codewords can be constructed. For an n-qubit code whose stabilizer has d generators, the resulting gate array consists of O(n d) operations, and converts k-qubit data (where k = n - d) into n-qubit codewords.
Recoverability in quantum information theory
Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information...
Inequalities for quantum skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted sk...
Quantum information theory of entanglement
Cerf, N J; Cerf, Nicolas J; Adami, Christoph
1996-01-01
We present a quantum information theory that allows for the consistent description of quantum entanglement. It parallels classical (Shannon) information theory but is based entirely on matrices, rather than probability distributions, for the description of quantum ensembles. We find that conditional quantum entropies can be negative for quantum entangled systems, which leads to a violation of well-known bounds in classical information theory. Such a treatment clarifies the link between classical correlation and quantum entanglement: the latter can be understood as ``super-correlation'' which can induce classical correlation, while the reverse is impossible. Furthermore negative entropy and the associated clarification of entanglement paves the way to a natural, unitary, and causal model of the measurement process, while implying all the well-known results of conventional probabilistic quantum mechanics.
Information-theoretical meaning of quantum-dynamical entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theories of noncommutative dynamical entropy and quantum symbolic dynamics for quantum-dynamical systems are analyzed from the point of view of quantum information theory. Using a general quantum-dynamical system as a communication channel, one can define different classical capacities depending on the character of resources applied for encoding and decoding procedures and on the type of information sources. It is shown that for Bernoulli sources, the entanglement-assisted classical capacity, which is the largest one, is bounded from above by the quantum-dynamical entropy defined in terms of operational partitions of unity. Stronger results are proved for the particular class of quantum-dynamical systems--quantum Bernoulli shifts. Different classical capacities are exactly computed and the entanglement-assisted one is equal to the dynamical entropy in this case
Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
2009-01-01
In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned an...
Informational derivation of Quantum Theory
Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum theory can be derived from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms-causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning-define a broad class of theories of information-processing that can be regarded as a standard. One postulate-purification-singles out quantum theory within this class. The main structures of quantum theory, such as the representation of mixed states as convex combinations of perfec...
Quantum-enhanced information processing
M. Mosca; Jozsa, R.; Steane, A.; Ekert, A.
2000-01-01
Information is stored, transmitted and processed always by physical means. Thus the concept of information and computation can be properly formulated only in the context of a physical theory and the study of information processing requires experimentation. It is clear that if computers are to become much smaller in the future, their description must be given by quantum mechanics. Somewhat more surprising is the fact that quantum information processing can be qualitatively different and much m...
Quantum information theory and quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)
Quantum information theory and quantum statistics
Petz, Dénes
2008-01-01
Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises.
BRICS and Quantum Information Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
1998-01-01
BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing.
Quantum information: primitive notions and quantum correlations
Scarani, Valerio
2009-01-01
This series of introductory lectures consists of two parts. In the first part, I rapidly review the basic notions of quantum physics and many primitives of quantum information (i.e. notions that one must be somehow familiar with in the field, like cloning, teleportation, state estimation...). The second part is devoted to a detailed introduction to the topic of quantum correlations, covering the evidence for failure of alternative theories, some aspects of the formalism of no-signaling probability distributions and some hints towards some current research topics in the field.
Quantum information as complementary classical information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the breakthrough by Calderbank, Shor, and Steane on the existence of quantum error-correcting codes, an oft-used notion in quantum information theory is that we can treat quantum information essentially as a strange combination of two types of classical information, pertaining to two complementary observables ''amplitude'' and ''phase''. Correcting errors afflicting either of these observables is sufficient to restore the quantum information to its original state. However, the central results of quantum information theory established recently, such as the achievable rate of quantum communication over a noisy channel, follow a different approach termed decoupling which has a natural origin in the study of quantum cryptography. We show that the decoupling-based results can be concretely established in the complementary classical information picture. By adopting an information-theoretic approach to complementarity, we are able to construct entanglement distillation protocols which straightforwardly seek to distill amplitude and phase correlations without venturing into decoupling. This gives new and intuitive proofs of both the noisy channel coding theorem and the asymptotic rates of both secret-key distillation and state merging
Scalable quantum information processing with atomic ensembles and flying photons
Mei, Feng; Feng, Mang; Yu, Ya-Fei; ZHANG, ZHI-MING
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) with atomic ensembles and flying photons. Using the Rydberg blockade, we encode the qubits in the collective atomic states, which could be manipulated fast and easily due to the enhanced interaction, in comparison to the single-atom case. We demonstrate that our proposed gating could be applied to generation of two-dimensional cluster states for measurement-based quantum computation. Moreover, the atomic e...
Isotope-based quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial distribution of isotopes with nuclear spins is a prerequisite to implement the quantum bits (or qbits). Therefore, stable semiconductor isotopes are important elements in the development of solid-state quantum information. There are not only different algorithms of quantum computation discussed but also the different models of quantum computers are presented. With numerous illustrations this small book is of great interest for undergraduate students taking courses in mesoscopic physics or nanoelectronics as well as quantum information, and academic and industrial researches working in this field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study quantum compression and decompression of light pulses that carry quantum information using a photon-echo quantum memory technique with controllable inhomogeneous broadening of an isolated atomic absorption line. We investigate media with differently broadened absorption profiles, transverse and longitudinal, finding that the recall efficiency can be as large as unity and that the quantum information encoded into the photonic qubits can remain unperturbed. Our results provide insight into reversible light-atom interaction and are interesting in view of future quantum communication networks, where pulse compression and decompression may play an important role in increasing the qubit rate or in mapping quantum information from photonic carriers with large optical bandwidth into atomic memories with smaller bandwidth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his 'ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mathematician G G Emch in
Physics as quantum information processing
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2010-01-01
The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm---"It from Bit'---prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Q...
Quantum information: Spooky teleportation
Walther, Philip
2006-10-01
Quantum teleportation in itself is intriguing. But now the combined states of two photons have been teleported - while preserving their entanglement - and this could bring large-scale quantum communication and computation a step closer.
Quantum Correlations, Chaos and Information
Madhok, Vaibhav
Quantum chaos is the study of quantum systems whose classical description is chaotic. How does chaos manifest itself in the quantum world? In this spirit, we study the dynamical generation of entanglement as a signature of chaos in a system of periodically kicked coupled-tops, where chaos and entanglement arise from the same physical mechanism. The long-time entanglement as a function of the position of an initially localized wave packet very closely correlates with the classical phase space surface of section - it is nearly uniform in the chaotic sea, and reproduces the detailed structure of the regular islands. The uniform value in the chaotic sea is explained by the random state conjecture. As classically chaotic dynamics take localized distributions in phase space to random distributions, quantized versions take localized coherent states to pseudo-random states in Hilbert space. Such random states are highly entangled, with an average value near that of the maximally entangled state. For a map with global chaos, we derive that value based on new analytic results for the entropy of random states. For a mixed phase space, we use the Percival conjecture to identify a "chaotic subspace" of the Hilbert space. The typical entanglement, averaged over the unitarily invariant Haar measure in this subspace, agrees with the long-time averaged entanglement for initial states in the chaotic sea. In all cases the dynamically generated entanglement is that of a random complex vector, even though the system is time-reversal invariant, and the Floquet operator is a member of the circular orthogonal ensemble. Continuing on our journey to find the footprints of chaos in the quantum world, we explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The measurement record is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top on a large ensemble of identical systems. We find an increase in the rate of information gain and hence higher fidelities in the process when the Floquet maps employed increase in chaoticity. We make predictions for the information gain using random matrix theory in the fully chaotic regime and show a remarkable agreement between the two. Finally we discuss how this approach can be used in general as a benchmark for information gain in an experimental implementation based on nonlinear dynamics of atomic spins measured weakly by the Faraday rotation of a laser probe. The last part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the nature of quantum correlations themselves. Quantum correlations are at the heart of the weirdness of quantum mechanics and at the same time serve as a resource for the potential benefits quantum information processing might provide. For example, Einstein described quantum entanglement as "spooky action at a distance". However, even entanglement does not fully capture the complete quantum character of a system. Quantum discord aims to fill this gap and captures essentially all the quantum correlations in a quantum state. There is a considerable interest in the research community about quantum discord, since there is evidence showing this very quantity as responsible for the exponential speed up of a certain class of quantum algorithms over classical ones. Now, an important question arises: Is discord just a mathematical construct or does it have a definable physical role in information processing? This thesis provides a link between quantum discord and an actual physical task involving communication between two parties. We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. We further derive a quantitative relation between the yield of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol in the presence of noise and the quantum discord of
Certainty and Uncertainty in Quantum Information Processing
Rieffel, Eleanor G.
2007-01-01
This survey, aimed at information processing researchers, highlights intriguing but lesser known results, corrects misconceptions, and suggests research areas. Themes include: certainty in quantum algorithms; the "fewer worlds" theory of quantum mechanics; quantum learning; probability theory versus quantum mechanics.
Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean
2008-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…
Introduction to relativistic quantum information
Terno, D R
2005-01-01
I discuss the role that relativistic considerations play in quantum information processing. First I describe how the causality requirements limit possible multi-partite measurements. Then the Lorentz transformations of quantum states are introduced, and their implications on physical qubits are described. This is used to describe relativistic effects in communication and entanglement.
Quantum information and convex optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimpell, Michael
2008-07-01
This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)
Quantum information and convex optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)
Quantum information and computing
Ohya, M; Watanabe, N
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum
Quantum Information Theory and Applications to Quantum Cryptography
Papadakos, Nikolaos P.
2002-01-01
Classical and quantum information theory are simply explained. To be more specific it is clarified why Shannon entropy is used as measure of classical information and after a brief review of quantum mechanics it is possible to demonstrate why the density matrix is the main tool of quantum information theory. Then von Neumann entropy is introduced and with its help a great difference between classical and quantum information theory is presented: quantum entanglement. Moreover...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)
2004-04-09
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Isotope-based quantum information
G Plekhanov, Vladimir
2012-01-01
The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...
Stabilization of Quantum Computer Calculation Basis by Qubit Encoding in Virtual Spin Representation
Kessel, A R
2002-01-01
It is proposed to map the quantum information qubit not to individual spin 1/2 states, but to the collective spin states being eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian including spin-spin interactions, which may be not small. Such an approach allows to introduce more stable calculation basis for quantum computer based on the solid state NMR systems.
Quantum Entropy and Information
Datta, Nilanjana
As seen in chapter "Classical Information Theory", classical information theory is the mathematical theory of information-processing tasks such as storage and transmission of information. It was born out of a seminal paper by Claude Shannon in 1948.
Scalable quantum information processing with atomic ensembles and flying photons
Mei, Feng; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) with atomic ensembles and flying photons. Using the Rydberg blockade, we encode the qubits in the collective atomic states, which could be manipulated fast and easily due to the enhanced interaction, in comparison to the single-atom case. We demonstrate that our proposed gating could be applied to generation of two-dimensional cluster states for measurement-based quantum computation. Moreover, the atomic ensembles also function as quantum repeaters useful for long distance quantum state transfer. We show the possibility of our scheme to work in bad cavity or in weak coupling regime, which could much relax the experimental requirement. The efficient coherent operations on the ensemble qubits enable our scheme to be switchable between quantum computation and quantum communication using atomic ensembles.
Unification of quantum information theory
Abeyesinghe, Anura
We present the unification of many previously disparate results in noisy quantum Shannon theory and the unification of all of noiseless quantum Shannon theory. More specifically we deal here with bipartite, unidirectional, and memoryless quantum Shannon theory. We find all the optimal protocols and quantify the relationship between the resources used, both for the one-shot and for the ensemble case, for what is arguably the most fundamental task in quantum information theory: sharing entangled states between a sender and a receiver. We find that all of these protocols are derived from our one-shot superdense coding protocol and relate nicely to each other. We then move on to noisy quantum information theory and give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol, or rather her generalization to the Fully Quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol (FQSW). FQSW simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim, and Winter as well as a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources, which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecessary: all protocols in the family are children of the mother.
Quantum information processing and measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Helmer, Ferdinand
2009-01-01
In this thesis, experimentally relevant aspects and open questions of quantum information processing and measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been investigated theoretically. Circuit quantum electrodynamics is a relatively young field combining superconducting transmission line resonators on-chip with superconducting quantum bits which serve as artificial atoms. Remarkable experiments have underlined the prospects of circuit QED as a possible architecture for quantum informatio...
Information transfer through quantum channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)
Information transfer through quantum channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kretschmann, D.
2007-03-12
This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)
Quantum information and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment
Persistence of Quantum Information
Schulz, M; Schulz, Michael; Trimper, Steffen
2006-01-01
There is an increasing interest in the role of macroscopic environments to our understanding of the basics of quantum theory. The knowledge of the implications of the quantum theory to other theories, especially to the statistical mechanics and the domain of validity has captivated scientists from the beginning of quantum description. In such a context, the presence of an environment is commonly thought as entanglement, decohering and mixing properties of quantum system. Generically, an environment is assumed to be a noisy reservoir or a heat bath. Whereas in common interpretation of statistical mechanics the heat bath is unspecified, in quantum systems a heat bath can also provide an indirect interaction between otherwise totally decoupled subsystems and consequently a means to entangle them \\cite{cdkl,dvclp,bfp}. In simple example for the entanglement between two qubits due to the interaction with a common heat bath has been explicitly shown in \\cite{b}. Whereas in that paper the bath is described by a coll...
Negative entropy and information in quantum mechanics
Cerf, N J
1997-01-01
We describe a consistent framework for information theory in quantum mechanics. Unlike in classical (Shannon) information theory, conditional entropies can be negative when considering quantum entangled systems. This has the remarkable consequence that negative virtual information can be carried by particles. Accordingly, quantum informational processes can be described by diagrams, much like particle physics reactions, involving quantum bits and antibits. This allows us to reinterpret quantum teleportation and superdense coding in a fully consistent way.
Quantum information with Rydberg atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original ...
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Endophysical information transfer in quantum processes
Eakins, J; Eakins, Jon; Jaroszkiewicz, George
2004-01-01
We give a mathematical criterion for the concept of information flow within closed quantum systems described by quantum registers. We define the concepts of separations and entanglements over quantum registers and use them with the quantum zip properties of inner products over quantum registers to establish the concept of partition change, which is fundamental to our criterion of endophysical information exchange within such quantum systems.
Information in Quantum Description and Gate Implementation
Krishnan, Gayathre
2006-01-01
This note considers Kak's observer-reference model of quantum information, where it is shown that qubits carry information that is sqrt n / ln n times classical information, where n is the number of components in the measurement system, to analyze information processing in quantum gates. The obverse side of this exponential nature of quantum information is that the computational complexity of implementing unconditionally reliable quantum gates is also exponential.
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that ...
Fractal states in quantum information processing
Jaeger, Gregg
2007-01-01
The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.
Negative entropy and information in quantum mechanics
Cerf, N. J.; C. Adami
1995-01-01
A framework for a quantum mechanical information theory is introduced that is based entirely on density operators, and gives rise to a unified description of classical correlation and quantum entanglement. Unlike in classical (Shannon) information theory, quantum (von Neumann) conditional entropies can be negative when considering quantum entangled systems, a fact related to quantum non-separability. The possibility that negative (virtual) information can be carried by entan...
Information Tracking and Encoding in Early L1: Linguistic Competence vs. Cognitive Limitations
De Cat, Cecile
2011-01-01
This study provides experimental evidence for preschool children's competence in basic information structure, with particular attention to the notions of topic and focus. It investigates their mastery of structural and definiteness distinctions to encode the information status of discourse referents, and seeks to distinguish linguistic competence…
Information theoretic approach to tactile encoding and discrimination
Saal, Hannes
2011-01-01
The human sense of touch integrates feedback from a multitude of touch receptors, but how this information is represented in the neural responses such that it can be extracted quickly and reliably is still largely an open question. At the same time, dexterous robots equipped with touch sensors are becoming more common, necessitating better methods for representing sequentially updated information and new control strategies that aid in extracting relevant features for object man...
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach
Djordjevic, Ivan
2012-01-01
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Channel simulation with quantum side information
Luo, Z; Devetak, Igor; Luo, Zhicheng
2006-01-01
We study and solve the problem of classical channel simulation with quantum side information at the receiver. This is a generalization of both the classical reverse Shannon theorem, and the classical-quantum Slepian-Wolf problem. The optimal noiseless communication rate is found to be reduced from the mutual information between the channel input and output by the Holevo information between the channel output and the quantum side information. Our main theorem has two important corollaries. The first is a quantum generalization of the Wyner-Ziv problem: rate-distortion theory with quantum side information. The second is an alternative proof of the trade-off between classical communication and common randomness distilled from a quantum state. The fully quantum generalization of the problem considered is quantum state redistribution. Here the sender and receiver share a mixed quantum state and the sender wants to transfer part of her state to the receiver using entanglement and quantum communication. We present o...
Information ?ow in quantum teleportation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Andrew Whitaker
2002-08-01
The ?ow of information is discussed in the context of quantum teleportation. Situations are described which use a sequence of systems of particles in which, though there is no claim of faster-than-light signaling, it is plausible to suggest that information about measurement procedures in one wing of the apparatus does reach the other end in a non-local manner. The de?nition of the term ’parameter dependence’ is discussed.
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2015-03-01
In this paper, we develop a new optical information authentication system based on compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response (QR) codes, where the parameters of optical lightwave are used as keys for optical decryption and the QR code is a key for verification. An input image attached with QR code is first optically encoded in a simplified double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme without using interferometric setup. From the single encoded intensity pattern recorded by a CCD camera, a compressed double-random-phase-encoded image, i.e., the sparse phase distribution used for optical decryption, is generated by using an iterative phase retrieval technique with QR code. We compare this technique to the other two methods proposed in literature, i.e., Fresnel domain information authentication based on the classical DRPE with holographic technique and information authentication based on DRPE and phase retrieval algorithm. Simulation results show that QR codes are effective on improving the security and data sparsity of optical information encryption and authentication system. PMID:25836845
The decoupling approach to quantum information theory
Dupuis, Frédéric
2010-01-01
Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and ha...
Information and Computation: Classical and Quantum Aspects
Galindo, A; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2001-01-01
Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportat...
Non-compression of quantum phase information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We raise a general question of quantum information theory: whether quantum phase information can be compressed and retrieved. A general qubit contains both amplitude and phase information, while an equatorial qubit contains only phase information. We study whether it is possible to compress the phase information of n equatorial qubits into m general qubits, with m being less than n, and still perfectly retrieve that information. We prove that this process is not allowed by quantum mechanics. (paper)
How much a quantum measurement is informative?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Arno, Michele [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, Massimiliano F. [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (INF-CNR), P.zza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)
2014-12-04
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.
How much a quantum measurement is informative?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power
Identification of Vibrotactile Patterns Encoding Obstacle Distance Information.
Kim, Yeongmi; Harders, Matthias; Gassert, Roger
2015-01-01
Delivering distance information of nearby obstacles from sensors embedded in a white cane-in addition to the intrinsic mechanical feedback from the cane-can aid the visually impaired in ambulating independently. Haptics is a common modality for conveying such information to cane users, typically in the form of vibrotactile signals. In this context, we investigated the effect of tactile rendering methods, tactile feedback configurations and directions of tactile flow on the identification of obstacle distance. Three tactile rendering methods with temporal variation only, spatio-temporal variation and spatial/temporal/intensity variation were investigated for two vibration feedback configurations. Results showed a significant interaction between tactile rendering method and feedback configuration. Spatio-temporal variation generally resulted in high correct identification rates for both feedback configurations. In the case of the four-finger vibration, tactile rendering with spatial/temporal/intensity variation also resulted in high distance identification rate. Further, participants expressed their preference for the four-finger vibration over the single-finger vibration in a survey. Both preferred rendering methods with spatio-temporal variation and spatial/temporal/intensity variation for the four-finger vibration could convey obstacle distance information with low workload. Overall, the presented findings provide valuable insights and guidance for the design of haptic displays for electronic travel aids for the visually impaired. PMID:25807569
Quantum Gravity Sensor by Curvature Energy: their Encoding and Computational Models*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Bulnes
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Through of the concept of curvature energy encoded in non-harmonic signals due to the effect that characterizes the curvature as a deformation of field in the corresponding resonance space ( and an obstruction to the displacement to the corresponding shape operator is developed and designed a sensor of quantum gravity considering the quantized version of curvature as observable of gravitational field where the space is distorted by the strong interactions between particles, interpreting their observable in this case, as light fields deformations obtained on space-time background. To the application of this measurement we use a hypothetical particle graviton modeled as a magnetic dilaton which must be gauge graviton (gauge boson. Also are obtained several computational models of these photonic measurements, likewise their prototype photonic devices
Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information
Wallden, Petros; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika
2013-01-01
Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for mixed states of t...
Philosophy of Quantum Information and Entanglement
Bokulich, Alisa; Jaeger, Gregg
2010-06-01
Preface; Introduction; Part I. Quantum Entanglement and Nonlocality: 1. Nonlocality beyond quantum mechanics Sandu Popescu; 2. Entanglement and subsystems, entanglement beyond subsystems, and all that Lorenza Viola and Howard Barnum; 3. Formalism locality in quantum theory and quantum gravity Lucien Hardy; Part II. Quantum Probability: 4. Bell's inequality from the contextual probabilistic viewpoint Andrei Khrennikov; 5. Probabilistic theories: what is special about quantum mechanics? Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; 6. What probabilities tell about quantum systems, with application to entropy and entanglement John Myers and Hadi Madjid; 7. Bayesian updating and information gain in quantum measurements Leah Henderson; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Schumacher information and the philosophy of physics Arnold Duwell; 9. From physics to information theory and back Wayne Myrvold; 10. Information, immaterialism, and instrumentalism: old and new in quantum information Chris Timpson; Part IV. Quantum Communication and Computing: 11. Quantum computation: where does the speed-up come from? Jeff Bub; 12. Quantum mechanics, quantum computing and quantum cryptography Tai Wu.
The operational meaning of quantum conditional information
Devetak, I; Devetak, Igor; Yard, Jon
2006-01-01
With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three systems, where Alice holds two and Bob holds one, what is the cost, in terms of quantum communication and entanglement, for Alice to give one of her parts to Bob? The communication cost gives the first operational interpretation to quantum conditional mutual information. The optimal procedure is self-dual under time reversal and is perfectly composable. This generalizes known protocols such as the state merging and fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocols, from which almost every known protocol in quantum Shannon theory can be derived.
The role of quantum discord in quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum correlations beyond entanglement - in particular represented by quantum discord - have become a major research field in the last few years. In this talk we report on the role of quantum discord in several fundamental tasks in quantum information theory. Starting with the role of quantum discord in the quantum measurement process, we also discuss its role in the tasks of information sharing and entanglement distribution. Finally, we also show the limits of these results and present possible ways to go beyond these limits.
Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces
Zhang, Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...
Quantum Information in Space and Time
Volovich, Igor V.
2001-01-01
Many important results in modern quantum information theory have been obtained for an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as the notions of composite systems, entangled states and the channel should be formulated in space and time. We emphasize the importance of the inv...
Quantum entanglement as information theoretic resource
Dugic, M.
2004-01-01
We address the following criterion for quantifying the quantum information resources: classically simulable {\\it vs.} classically non-simulable information processing. This approach gives rise to existence of a deeper level of quantum information processing--which we refer to as "quantum communication channel". We particularly show, that following the recipes of the standard theory of entanglement measures does not necessarily give rise to un-locking the quantum communicatio...
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2015-04-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
Quantum States as Objective Informational Bridges
Healey, Richard
2015-09-01
A quantum state represents neither properties of a physical system nor anyone's knowledge of its properties. The important question is not what quantum states represent but how they are used—as informational bridges. Knowing about some physical situations (its backing conditions), an agent may assign a quantum state to form expectations about other possible physical situations (its advice conditions). Quantum states are objective: only expectations based on correct state assignments are generally reliable. If a quantum state represents anything, it is the objective probabilistic relations between its backing conditions and its advice conditions. This paper offers an account of quantum states and their function as informational bridges, in quantum teleportation and elsewhere.
Pragmatic Information in Quantum Mechanics
Roederer, Juan G
2015-01-01
An objective definition of pragmatic information and the consideration of recent results about information processing in the human brain can help overcome some traditional difficulties with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Rather than attempting to define information ab initio, I introduce the concept of interaction between material bodies as a primary concept. Two distinct categories can be identified: 1) Interactions which can always be reduced to a superposition of physical interactions (forces) between elementary constituents; 2) Interactions between complex bodies which cannot be reduced to a superposition of interactions between parts, and in which patterns and forms (in space and/or time) play the determining role. Pragmatic information is then defined as the correspondence between a given pattern and the ensuing pattern-specific change. I will show that pragmatic information is a biological concept that plays no active role in the purely physical domain; it only does so when a living organism ...
Basic concepts in quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum information theory provides a framework for the description of quantum systems and their applications in the context of quantum computation and quantum communication. Although several of the basic concepts on which such theory is built are reminiscent of those of (classical) Information Theory, the new rules provided by quantum mechanics introduce properties which have no classical counterpart and that are responsible for most of the applications. In particular, entangled states appear as one of the basic resources in this context. In this lecture I will introduce the basic concepts and applications in Quantum Information, particularly stressing the definition of entanglement, its quantification, and its applications. (author)
Quantum Parallelism in Quantum Information Processing
Dugic, Miroljub; Cirkovic, Milan M.
2002-01-01
We investigate distinguishability (measured by fidelity) of the initial and the final state of a qubit, which is an object of the so-called nonideal quantum measurement of the first kind. We show that the fidelity of a nonideal measurement can be greater than the fidelity of the corresponding ideal measurement. This result is somewhat counterintuitive, and can be traced back to the quantum parallelism in quantum operations, in analogy with the quantum parallelism manifested ...
Quantum information how much information in a state vector?
Caves, C M; Caves, Carlton M; Fuchs, Christopher A
1996-01-01
Quantum information refers to the distinctive information-processing properties of quantum systems, which arise when information is stored in or retrieved from nonorthogonal quantum states. More information is required to prepare an ensemble of nonorthogonal quantum states than can be recovered from the ensemble by measurements. Nonorthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished reliably, cannot be copied or cloned, and do not lead to exact predictions for the results of measurements. These properties contrast sharply with those of information stored in the microstates of a classical system.
Channel simulation with quantum side information
Luo, Zhicheng; Devetak, Igor
2006-01-01
We study and solve the problem of classical channel simulation with quantum side information at the receiver. This is a generalization of both the classical reverse Shannon theorem, and the classical-quantum Slepian-Wolf problem. The optimal noiseless communication rate is found to be reduced from the mutual information between the channel input and output by the Holevo information between the channel output and the quantum side information. Our main theorem has two import...
The Significance of Information in Quantum Theory
Grinbaum, Alexei
2004-01-01
We propose a system of information-theoretic axioms from which we derive the formalism of quantum theory. Part I is devoted to the conceptual foundations of the information-theoretic approach. We argue that this approach belongs to the epistemological framework depicted as a loop of existences. In Part II we derive the quantum formalism from information-theoretic axioms and we analyze the twofold role of observer as physical system and as informational agent. Quantum logical...
Nonorthogonal Quantum States Maximize Classical Information Capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I demonstrate that, rather unexpectedly, there exist noisy quantum channels for which the optimal classical information transmission rate is achieved only by signaling alphabets consisting of nonorthogonal quantum states. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Quantum Information in Communication and Imaging
Simon, David S.; Jaeger, Gregg; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2015-10-01
A brief introduction to quantum information theory in the context of quantum optics is presented. After presenting the fundamental theoretical basis of the subject, experimental evaluation of entanglement measures are discussed, followed by applications to communication and imaging.
Quantum information and physics: some future directions
Preskill, John
1999-01-01
I consider some promising future directions for quantum information theory that could influence the development of 21st century physics. Advances in the theory of the distinguishability of superoperators may lead to new strategies for improving the precision of quantum-limited measurements. A better grasp of the properties of multi-partite quantum entanglement may lead to deeper understanding of strongly-coupled dynamics in quantum many-body systems, quantum field theory, an...
Entropy of quantum channel in the theory of quantum information
Roga, Wojciech
2011-01-01
Quantum channels, also called quantum operations, are linear, trace preserving and completely positive transformations in the space of quantum states. Such operations describe discrete time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with an environment. The thesis contains an analysis of properties of quantum channels and different entropies used to quantify the decoherence introduced into the system by a given operation. Part I of the thesis provides a general introduction to the subject. In Part II, the action of a quantum channel is treated as a process of preparation of a quantum ensemble. The Holevo information associated with this ensemble is shown to be bounded by the entropy exchanged during the preparation process between the initial state and the environment. A relation between the Holevo information and the entropy of an auxiliary matrix consisting of square root fidelities between the elements of the ensemble is proved in some special cases. Weaker bounds on the Holevo information are also es...
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Machta, J.
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclu...
Integrated Information-Induced Quantum Collapse
Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André
2015-08-01
We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experimentally tested against quantum theory.
Introduction to quantum physics and information processing
Vathsan, Radhika
2015-01-01
An Elementary Guide to the State of the Art in the Quantum Information FieldIntroduction to Quantum Physics and Information Processing guides beginners in understanding the current state of research in the novel, interdisciplinary area of quantum information. Suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics, mathematics, or engineering, the book goes deep into issues of quantum theory without raising the technical level too much.The text begins with the basics of quantum mechanics required to understand how two-level systems are used as qubits. It goes on to show how quant
Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob
2007-01-01
Quantum communication, and indeed quantum information in general, has changed the way we think about quantum physics. In 1984 and 1991, the first protocol for quantum cryptography and the first application of quantum non-locality, respectively, attracted a diverse field of researchers in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics and computer science. Since then we have seen a fundamental shift in how we understand information when it is encoded in quantum systems. We...
Quantum-information processing in semiconductor quantum dots
Troiani, Filippo; Hohenester, Ulrich; Molinari, Elisa
2001-01-01
We propose an all-optical implementation of quantum-information processing in semiconductor quantum dots, where electron-hole excitations (excitons) serve as the computational degrees of freedom (qubits). The strong dot confinement leads to a strong renormalization of excitonic states, which, in analogy to NMR-based implementations of quantum-information processing, can be exploited for performing conditional and unconditional qubit operations.
Unified meta-theory of information, consciousness, time and the classical-quantum universe
Green, Martin A
2013-01-01
As time advances in our perceived real world, existing information is preserved and new information is added to history. All the information that may ever be encoded in history must be about some fundamental, unique, atemporal and pre-physical structure: the bare world. Scientists invent model worlds to efficiently explain aspects of the real world. This paper explores the features of and relationships between the bare, real, and model worlds. Time -- past, present and future -- is naturally explained. Both quantum uncertainty and state reduction are needed for time to progress, since unpredictable new information must be added to history. Deterministic evolution preserves existing information. Finite, but steadily increasing, information about the bare world is jointly encoded in equally uncertain spacetime geometry and quantum matter. Because geometry holds no information independent of matter, there is no need to quantize gravity. At the origin of time, information goes to zero and geometry and matter fade...
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local...
Philosophy of quantum information and entanglement
Jaeger, Gregg
2010-01-01
Recent work in quantum information science has produced a revolution in our understanding of quantum entanglement. Scientists now view entanglement as a physical resource with many important applications. These range from quantum computers, which would be able to compute exponentially faster than classical computers, to quantum cryptographic techniques, which could provide unbreakable codes for the transfer of secret information over public channels. These important advances in the study of quantum entanglement and information touch on deep foundational issues in both physics and philosophy. This interdisciplinary volume brings together fourteen of the world's leading physicists and philosophers of physics to address the most important developments and debates in this exciting area of research. It offers a broad spectrum of approaches to resolving deep foundational challenges - philosophical, mathematical, and physical - raised by quantum information, quantum processing, and entanglement. This book is ideal f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)
Albouy, Philippe; Cousineau, Marion; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara; Peretz, Isabelle
2016-01-01
Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participants' performance in discrimination and short-term memory. Our results show that amusics' performance in such tasks scales with the duration available to encode acoustic information. This suggests that in auditory neuro-developmental disorders, abnormalities in early steps of the auditory processing can underlie the high-level deficits (here musical disabilities). Observing that the slowing down of temporal dynamics improves amusics' pitch abilities allows considering this approach as a potential tool for remediation in developmental auditory disorders. PMID:26732511
Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2011-01-01
Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantu...
Gaze patterns in navigation: Encoding information in large-scale environments
Hamid, Sahar N.; Stankiewicz, Brian; Hayhoe, Mary
2010-01-01
We investigated the role of gaze in encoding of object landmarks in navigation. Gaze behavior was measured while participants learnt to navigate in a virtual large-scale environment in order to understand the sampling strategies subjects use to select visual information during navigation. The results showed a consistent sampling pattern. Participants preferentially directed gaze at a subset of the available object landmarks with a preference for object landmarks at the end of hallways and T-j...
A New Approach to Encoding and Hiding Information in an Image
Fadhil Salman Abed
2011-01-01
The information age brings some unique challenges to society. New technology and new applications bring new threats and force us to invent new protection mechanisms. So every few years, computer security needs to reinvent itself. In this paper we propose a new image encoding system utilizing fractal theories; this approach exploits the main feature of fractals generated by IFS techniques. Two levels of encryption and decryption methods performed to enhance the security of the system, this is ...
Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W
2015-10-01
Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retrieval cues. The remember/know/new procedure was used to classify memories as recollection-based or familiarity-based, and gaze behavior was monitored throughout the task to measure attentional allocation. We found that a bias in sustained attention during recollection-based, but not familiarity-based, retrieval predicted subsequent memory bias toward positive versus negative material following encoding. Thus, during emotional memory retrieval, attention affects controlled forms of retrieval (i.e., recollection) but does not modulate relatively automatic, familiarity-based retrieval. These findings enhance understanding of how distinct components of attention regulate the emotional content of memories. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25775233
Holography, Quantum Geometry and Quantum Information Theory
Zizzi, P A
2000-01-01
We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits). N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labeled by the spin-1/2 representation of SU(2), which are in a superposed quantum state of spin "up" and spin "down". The formalism is applied in particular to de Sitter horizons, which leads to a quantum-computing picture of the early inflationary universe. A discrete micro-causality emerges, where the time parameter is given in terms of the discrete increase of entropy. Then, the model is analysed in the framework of the theory of presheaves (varying sets on a causal set) and we get a quantum history. A (bosonic) Fock space of the whole history is considered. The Fock space wavefunction, which resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate, undergoes decoherence at the end of inflation. This fact seems to be responsible for the rather low entropy of our universe.
Encoding of temporal information by timing, rate, and place in cat auditory cortex.
Imaizumi, Kazuo; Priebe, Nicholas J; Sharpee, Tatyana O; Cheung, Steven W; Schreiner, Christoph E
2010-01-01
A central goal in auditory neuroscience is to understand the neural coding of species-specific communication and human speech sounds. Low-rate repetitive sounds are elemental features of communication sounds, and core auditory cortical regions have been implicated in processing these information-bearing elements. Repetitive sounds could be encoded by at least three neural response properties: 1) the event-locked spike-timing precision, 2) the mean firing rate, and 3) the interspike interval (ISI). To determine how well these response aspects capture information about the repetition rate stimulus, we measured local group responses of cortical neurons in cat anterior auditory field (AAF) to click trains and calculated their mutual information based on these different codes. ISIs of the multiunit responses carried substantially higher information about low repetition rates than either spike-timing precision or firing rate. Combining firing rate and ISI codes was synergistic and captured modestly more repetition information. Spatial distribution analyses showed distinct local clustering properties for each encoding scheme for repetition information indicative of a place code. Diversity in local processing emphasis and distribution of different repetition rate codes across AAF may give rise to concurrent feed-forward processing streams that contribute differently to higher-order sound analysis. PMID:20657832
Quantum Information Processing with Semiconductor Macroatoms
Iotti, Rita Claudia; Rossi, Fausto
2000-01-01
An all optical implementation of quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms is proposed. Our quantum hardware consists of an array of quantum dots and the computational degrees of freedom are energy-selected interband optical transitions. The quantum-computing strategy exploits exciton-exciton interactions driven by ultrafast multicolor laser pulses. Contrary to existing proposals based on charge excitations, our approach does not require time-dependent electric fields, thus...
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-01-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911?nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances. PMID:26597223
Distinguishability and accessible information in quantum theory
Fuchs, C
1996-01-01
This document focuses on translating various information-theoretic measures of distinguishability for probability distributions into measures of distin- guishability for quantum states. These measures should have important appli- cations in quantum cryptography and quantum computation theory. The results reported include the following. An exact expression for the quantum fidelity between two mixed states is derived. The optimal measurement that gives rise to it is studied in detail. Several upper and lower bounds on the quantum mutual information are derived via similar techniques and compared to each other. Of note is a simple derivation of the important upper bound first proved by Holevo and an explicit expression for another (tighter) upper bound that appears implicitly in the same derivation. Several upper and lower bounds to the quan- tum Kullback relative information are derived. The measures developed are also applied to ferreting out the extent to which quantum systems must be disturbed by information...
Interface between path and OAM entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information
Fickler, Robert; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton
2014-01-01
Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the setup as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum (OAM) possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a non-linear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the OAM degree of freedom. Thus our results show a novel, flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chi...
Generating the Depth Map from the Motion Information of H.264-Encoded 2D Video Sequence
Pourazad MahsaT; Nasiopoulos Panos; Ward RababK
2010-01-01
An efficient method that estimates the depth map of a 3D-scene using the motion information of the H.264-encoded 2D-video is presented. The motion information of the video-frames captured via a single camera is either directly used or modified to approximate the displacement (disparity) that exists between the right and left images when the scene is captured by stereoscopic cameras. Then, depth is estimated based on its inverse relation with disparity. The low-complexity of this met...
Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage
Hege, Amanda C. G.; Dodson, Chad S.
2004-01-01
Two accounts explain why studying pictures reduces false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995). The impoverished relational-encoding account suggests that studying pictures interferes with the encoding of relational information, which is the primary basis for false memories…
NMR Quantum Information Processing and Entanglement
Laflamme, R; Negrevergne, C; Viola, L; Laflamme, Raymond; Cory, David G.; Negrevergne, Camille; Viola, Lorenza
2001-01-01
In this essay we discuss the issue of quantum information and recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. We explain why these experiments should be regarded as quantum information processing (QIP) despite the fact that, in present liquid state NMR experiments, no entanglement is found. We comment on how these experiments contribute to the future of QIP and include a brief discussion on the origin of the power of quantum computers.
Integrated Information-induced quantum collapse
Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André
2014-01-01
We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experi...
Private Quantum Channels and the Cost of Randomizing Quantum Information
Mosca, Michele; Tapp, Alain; de Wolf, Ronald
2000-01-01
We investigate how a classical private key can be used by two players, connected by an insecure one-way quantum channel, to perform private communication of quantum information. In particular we show that in order to transmit n qubits privately, 2n bits of shared private key are necessary and sufficient. This result may be viewed as the quantum analogue of the classical one-time pad encryption scheme. From the point of view of the eavesdropper, this encryption process can be...
Quantum-information-processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A potential quantum-information processor is proposed using an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N-C60 or 31P-C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.
Towards Nonadditive Quantum Information Theory
Abe, S; Abe, Sumiyoshi
2000-01-01
A definition of the nonadditive (nonextensive) conditional entropy indexed by q is presented. Based on the composition law in terms of it, the Shannon-Khinchin axioms are generalized and the uniqueness theorem is established for the Tsallis entropy. The nonadditive conditional entropy, when considered in the quantum context, is always positive for separable states but takes negative values for entangled states, indicating its utility for characterizing entanglement. A criterion deduced from it for separability of the density matrix is examined in detail by using a bipartite spin-half system. It is found that the strongest criterion for separability obtained by Peres using an algebraic method is recovered in the present information-theoretic approach.
On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei 23Na in C10H21NaO4S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)
On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azevedo, E.R. de; Bonk, F.A.; Vidoto, E.L.G.; Bonagamba, T.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Sarthour, R.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Oliveira, I.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2003-07-01
Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei {sup 23}Na in C{sub 10}H{sub 21}NaO{sub 4}S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)
Elimination of information leakage in quantum information channels
Jacobsen, Christian S.; Madsen, Lars S.; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip}, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2014-01-01
In all lossy communication channels realized to date, information is inevitably leaked to a potential eavesdropper. Here we present a communication protocol that does not allow for any information leakage to a potential eavesdropper. By encoding information into a restricted Gaussian alphabet of squeezed states we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the Holevo information between the eavesdropper and the intended recipient can be exactly zero in a purely lossy ...
Holography, Quantum Geometry, and Quantum Information Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Zizzi
2000-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits. N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labelled by the spin-Ã‚Â½ representation of SU(2, which are in a superposed quantum state of spin "up" and spin "down". The formalism is applied in particular to de Sitter horizons, and leads to a picture of the early inflationary universe in terms of quantum computation. A discrete micro-causality emerges, where the time parameter is being defined by the discrete increase of entropy. Then, the model is analysed in the framework of the theory of presheaves (varying sets on a causal set and we get a quantum history. A (bosonic Fock space of the whole history is considered. The Fock space wavefunction, which resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate, undergoes decoherence at the end of inflation. This fact seems to be responsible for the rather low entropy of our universe.
Quantum Causality, Stochastics, Trajectories and Information
Belavkin, V P
2002-01-01
A history of the discovery of quantum mechanics and paradoxes of its interpretation is reconsidered from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. It is argued that in the orthodox quantum mechanics there is no place for quantum phenomenology such as events. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, and Bell's conceptual critics of hidden variable theories indicated a possibility for resolution of this crisis. This can be done by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and an extended algebra of the potential (quantum) and the actual (classical) observables. The latter, called beables, form the center of the algebra of all observables, as the only visible (macroscopic) observables must be compatible with any hidden (microscopic) observable. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated within an extended quantum mechanics (eventum mechanics) in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the consistent hi...
Quantum Information and Quantum Black Holes
Bekenstein, Jacob D.
2001-01-01
First, the relation between black holes and limitations on information of other systems is developed. After reviewing the relation of entropy to information, we derive the entropy bound, review its applications to cosmology and its extensions to higher dimensions, and discuss why black holes behave as 1-D objects when emitting entropy. We also discuss fundamental limitations on the information of pulses in curved space, and on the rate of disposal of information into a black...
Information free quantum bus for universal quantum computation
Devitt, S J; Hollenberg, L C L; Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C.L.
2005-01-01
Long range transport of quantum information is of huge importance to the physical realisation of large scale quantum computers. This letter introduces a transport bus that deterministically mediates entanglment pairwise between isolated data qubits, while the bus itself never carries information. We demonstrate how this scheme generates standard two qubit operator measurements and its application to the preparation of linear cluster states and teleportation based universal computation.
A Quantum Information Retrieval Approach to Memory
Kitto, Kirsty; Bruza, Peter; Gabora, Liane
2013-01-01
As computers approach the physical limits of information storable in memory, new methods will be needed to further improve information storage and retrieval. We propose a quantum inspired vector based approach, which offers a contextually dependent mapping from the subsymbolic to the symbolic representations of information. If implemented computationally, this approach would provide exceptionally high density of information storage, without the traditionally required physica...
Cavity mode entanglement in relativistic quantum information
Friis, Nicolai
2013-01-01
A central aim of relativistic quantum information (RQI) is the investigation of quantum information tasks and resources taking into account the relativistic aspects of nature. More precisely, it is of fundamental interest to understand how the storage, manipulation, and transmission of information utilizing quantum systems are influenced by the fact that these processes take place in a relativistic spacetime. In particular, many studies in RQI have been focused on the effects of non-uniform motion on entanglement, the main resource of quantum information protocols. Early investigations in this direction were performed in highly idealized settings that prompted questions as to the practical accessibility of these results. To overcome these limitations it is necessary to consider quantum systems that are in principle accessible to localized observers. In this thesis we present such a model, the rigid relativistic cavity, and its extensions, focusing on the effects of motion on entanglement and applications such...
Quantum nondemolition measurements for quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the characterization and properties of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements on qubit systems. We introduce figures of merit which can be applied to systems of any Hilbert space dimension, thus providing universal criteria for characterizing QND measurements. The controlled-NOT gate and an optical implementation are examined as examples of QND devices for qubits. We also consider the QND measurement of weak values
Quantum Realism, Information, and Epistemological Modesty
Grinbaum, Alexei
2014-03-01
It is usually asserted that physical theories, in particular quantum mechanics, support a certain view of what the world really is. To such claims I oppose an attitude of epistemological modesty. Ontological statements on the nature of reality, when made on the basis of quantum mechanics, appear unwarranted. I suggest that an epistemic loop connects physical theory grounded in informational notions, and a theory of information developed through a theoretical account of the physical support of information.
Quantum information, cognition, and music
Dalla Chiara, Maria L.; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139
Quantum information, cognition, and music.
Dalla Chiara, Maria L; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139
Critique of Fault-Tolerant Quantum Information Processing
Alicki, Robert
2013-01-01
This is a chapter in a book \\emph{Quantum Error Correction} edited by D. A. Lidar and T. A. Brun, and published by Cambridge University Press (2013)\\\\ (http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/physics/quantum-physics-quantum-information-and-quantum-computation/quantum-error-correction)\\\\ presenting the author's view on feasibility of fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Data link system via Financial Information Exchange protocol using Simple Binary Encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kashkynbek Islam
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this project is to make transactions faster between stock exchange and traders. Financial Information Exchange (FIX is a dominant standard for data link between the participants of exchange trades in real time around the world, but binary protocols such as ProtocolBuffer, Simple Binary Encoding (SBE have takenrevolution among high-programmers. To get a faster trading platform and comply with the international standards of the stock market,this project combines FIX with a new binary protocol SBE.
Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information
Cabello, A
2000-01-01
This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measurements), quantum information (cryptography, cloning, dense coding, teleportation), and quantum computation.
Encoding a qudit in an oscillator
Gottesman, D; Preskill, J; Gottesman, Daniel; Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John
2001-01-01
Quantum error-correcting codes are constructed that embed a finite-dimensional code space in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a system described by continuous quantum variables. These codes exploit the noncommutative geometry of phase space to protect against errors that shift the values of the canonical variables q and p. In the setting of quantum optics, fault-tolerant universal quantum computation can be executed on the protected code subspace using linear optical operations, squeezing, homodyne detection, and photon counting; however, nonlinear mode coupling is required for the preparation of the encoded states. Finite-dimensional versions of these codes can be constructed that protect encoded quantum information against shifts in the amplitude or phase of a d-state system. Continuous-variable codes can be invoked to establish lower bounds on the quantum capacity of Gaussian quantum channels.
Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J. D., Bulnes; F. A., Bonk; R. S., Sarthour; E. R. de, Azevedo; J. C. C., Freitas; T. J., Bonagamba; I. S., Oliveira.
2005-09-01
Full Text Available We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective dens [...] ity matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end.
Complementarity and Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory
Tessier, T E
2004-01-01
The restrictions that nature places on the distribution of correlations in a multipartite quantum system play fundamental roles in the evolution of such systems, and yield vital insights into the design of protocols for the quantum control of ensembles with potential applications in the field of quantum computing. We show how this entanglement sharing behavior may be studied in increasingly complex systems of both theoretical and experimental significance and demonstrate that entanglement sharing, as well as other unique features of entanglement, e.g. the fact that maximal information about a multipartite quantum system does not necessarily entail maximal information about its component subsystems, may be understood as specific consequences of the phenomenon of complementarity extended to composite quantum systems. We also present a local hidden-variable model supplemented by an efficient amount of classical communication that reproduces the quantum-mechanical predictions for the entire class of Gottesman-Kni...
Quantum correlations require multipartite information principles
Gallego, Rodrigo; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel
2011-01-01
Identifying which correlations among distant observers are possible within our current description of Nature, based on quantum mechanics, is a fundamental problem in Physics. Recently, information concepts have been proposed as the key ingredient to characterize the set of quantum correlations. Novel information principles, such as, information causality or non-trivial communication complexity, have been introduced in this context and successfully applied to some concrete scenarios. We show in this work a fundamental limitation of this approach: no principle based on bipartite information concepts is able to single out the set of quantum correlations for an arbitrary number of parties. Our results reflect the intricate structure of quantum correlations and imply that new and intrinsically multipartite information concepts are needed for their full understanding.
Operator Quantum Error Correcting Subsystems for Self-Correcting Quantum Memories
Bacon, Dave
2005-01-01
The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error correcting subspace any correctable er...
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We summarize important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramér–Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrelated noise limits the highest achievable precision in very general metrological tasks. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review)
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza
2015-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrela...
Quantum causality, stochastics, trajectories and information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A history of the discovery of 'new' quantum mechanics and the paradoxes of its probabilistic interpretation are briefly reviewed from the modern point of view of quantum probability and information. Modern quantum theory, which has been developed during the last 20 years for the treatment of quantum open systems including quantum noise, decoherence, quantum diffusions and spontaneous jumps occurring under continuous in time observation, is not yet a part of the standard curriculum of quantum physics. It is argued that the conventional formalism of quantum mechanics is insufficient for the description of quantum events, such as spontaneous decays say, and the new experimental phenomena related to individual quantum measurements, but they have all received an adequate mathematical treatment in quantum stochastics of open systems. Moreover, the only reasonable probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics put forward by Max Born was, in fact, in irreconcilable contradiction with traditional mechanical reality and causality. This led to numerous quantum paradoxes, some of them due to the great inventors of quantum theory such as Einstein and Schroedinger. They are reconsidered in this paper from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, indicated a possibility for resolution of this interpretational crisis by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or Bell's beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the actual histories with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements ensuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of dynamical commutation relations leads to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate, and also to the more general reductions, instantaneous, spontaneous, and even continuous in time. This gives a dynamical solution, in the form of the quantum stochastic filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroedinger and Bohr. It has been recently proved that the quantum stochastic model for the continuous in time measurements is equivalent to a Dirac type boundary-value problem for the secondary quantized input 'offer waves from future' in one extra dimension, and to a reduction of the algebra of the consistent histories of past events to an Abelian subalgebra for the 'trajectories of the output particles'. This supports the corpuscular-wave duality in the form of the thesis that everything in the future are quantized waves, while everything in the past are trajectories of the recorded particles. (author)
Gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information.
So, Wing-Chee; Shum, Priscilla Lok-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi
2015-12-01
The present research investigates whether producing gestures with and without speech facilitates route learning at different levels of route complexity and in learners with different levels of spatial skills. It also examines whether the facilitation effect of gesture is stronger than that of spatial language. Adults studied routes with 10, 13, and 16 steps and reconstructed them with sticks, either without rehearsal or after rehearsal by producing gestures with speech, gestures alone, or speech only. For all levels of route complexity and spatial skills, participants who were encouraged to gesture (with or without speech) during rehearsal had the best recall. Additionally, we found that number of steps rehearsed in gesture, but not that rehearsed in speech, predicted the recall accuracy. Thus, gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information, and thereby enhancing spatial recall. These results further corroborate the beneficial nature of gesture in processing spatial information. PMID:25671654
Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.
Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li
2009-03-01
A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique. PMID:19259163
Information, disturbance and Hamiltonian quantum feedback control
Doherty, Andrew C.; Jacobs, Kurt; Jungman, Gerard
2000-01-01
We consider separating the problem of designing Hamiltonian quantum feedback control algorithms into a measurement (estimation) strategy and a feedback (control) strategy, and consider optimizing desirable properties of each under the minimal constraint that the available strength of both is limited. This motivates concepts of information extraction and disturbance which are distinct from those usually considered in quantum information theory. Using these concepts we identif...
Thermodynamical cost of accessing quantum information
K. Maruyama; Brukner, C.; V. Vedral
2005-01-01
Thermodynamics is a macroscopic physical theory whose two very general laws are independent of any underlying dynamical laws and structures. Nevertheless, its generality enables us to understand a broad spectrum of phenomena in physics, information science and biology. Recently, it has been realised that information storage and processing based on quantum mechanics can be much more efficient than their classical counterpart. What general bound on storage of quantum informati...
Reconstruction of Quantum Mechanics with Information Operators
Takano, Ken'ichi
2008-01-01
We reconstruct quantum mechanics by introducing "information operators" and excluding the concept of wave functions. Multiple information operators simultaneously describe a single system and continuously develop in time even in the process of a measurement. We also introduce the concept of condensation for a system with many degrees of freedom in a rather general meaning. In terms of the multiplicity of description and the condensation, we explain quantum phenomena including measurements without the collapse of the wave function.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution
Giddings, Steven B
2012-01-01
The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...
A quantum information processor with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. In this work we present a small-scale quantum information processor based on a string of 40Ca+ ions confined in a macroscopic linear Paul trap. We review our set of operations which includes non-coherent operations allowing us to realize arbitrary Markovian processes. In order to build a larger quantum information processor it is mandatory to reduce the error rate of the available operations which is only possible if the physics of the noise processes is well understood. We identify the dominant noise sources in our system and discuss their effects on different algorithms. Finally we demonstrate how our entire set of operations can be used to facilitate the implementation of algorithms by examples of the quantum Fourier transform and the quantum order finding algorithm. (paper)
Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval
Zapatrin, Roman
2012-01-01
Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.
Principles of quantum computation and information
Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano
2004-01-01
Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.
Quantum information processing : science & technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David
2010-09-01
Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.
Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks
Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús
2013-01-01
We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2015-12-01
A novel asymmetric multiple information encoding using superposition of two beams and Fresnel transform, is proposed. In this scheme, each channel of individual user image is separately phase encoded and then modulated by random phase mask. The three modulated user channels are independently multiplied to produce three complex user channels. They are individually multiplied with three channels of carrier image and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to produce first set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. Now each channel of secret image is normalized, phase-only masked, and then independently multiplied by corresponding modulated user channels. The three resultant channels are separately multiplied to construct three complex secret channels. Afterward, the three encrypted channels are multiplied with corresponding three complex secret channels and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain second set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. The wavelengths and propagation distances of two Fresnel transforms, and two asymmetric keys are common keys to all authorized-users, while two individual keys are provided to each authorized-user. The encryption process is implemented digitally while the decryption process can be performed optoelectronically. The proposed method is asymmetric, noniterative and larger multiplexing capacity without any cross-talk noise effects. Owing to the individual user image based method, high robustness against existing attacks can be achieved. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient.
Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav I. Yukalov
2009-12-01
Full Text Available A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention interference. The self-consistent procedure of decision making, in the frame of the quantum decision theory, takes into account both the available objective information as well as subjective contextual effects. This quantum approach avoids any paradox typical of classical decision theory. Conditional maximization of entropy, equivalent to the minimization of an information functional, makes it possible to connect the quantum and classical decision theories, showing that the latter is the limit of the former under vanishing interference terms.
Canonical Relational Quantum Mechanics from Information Theory
Munkhammar, Joakim
2011-01-01
In this paper we construct a theory of quantum mechanics based on Shannon information theory. We define a few principles regarding information-based frames of reference, including explicitly the concept of information covariance, and show how an ensemble of all possible physical states can be setup on the basis of the accessible information in the local frame of reference. In the next step the Bayesian principle of maximum entropy is utilized in order to constrain the dynami...
Covariance and Fisher information in quantum mechanics
Petz, Denes
2001-01-01
Variance and Fisher information are ingredients of the Cramer-Rao inequality. We regard Fisher information as a Riemannian metric on a quantum statistical manifold and choose monotonicity under coarse graining as the fundamental property of variance and Fisher information. In this approach we show that there is a kind of dual one-to-one correspondence between the candidates of the two concepts. We emphasis that Fisher informations are obtained from relative entropies as cont...
Towards the quantification of the semantic information encoded in written language
Montemurro, Marcelo A
2009-01-01
Written language is a complex communication signal capable of conveying information encoded in the form of ordered sequences of words. Beyond the local order ruled by grammar, semantic and thematic structures affect long-range patterns in word usage. Here, we show that a direct application of information theory quantifies the relationship between the statistical distribution of words and the semantic content of the text. We show that there is a characteristic scale, roughly around a few thousand words, which establishes the typical size of the most informative segments in written language. Moreover, we find that the words whose contributions to the overall information is larger, are the ones more closely associated with the main subjects and topics of the text. This scenario can be explained by a model of word usage that assumes that words are distributed along the text in domains of a characteristic size where their frequency is higher than elsewhere. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of a large data...
Quantum information processing with graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)
Quantum Mechanics as Information Fusion
Chapline, George
1999-01-01
We provide evidence that quantum mechanics can be interpreted as a rational algorithm for finding the least complex description for the correlations in the outputs of sensors in a large array. In particular, by comparing the self-organization approach to solving the Traveling Salesman Problem with a solution based on taking the classical limit of a Feynman path integral, we are led to a connection between the quantum mechanics of motion in a magnetic field and self-organized...
Weedbrook, C; Weedbrook, Christian; Gu, Mile
2005-01-01
A quantum password is a quantum mechanical analogue of the classical password. Our proposal is completely quantum mechanical in nature, i.e. at no point is information stored and manipulated classically. We show that, in contrast to quantum protocols that encode classical information, we are able to prevent the distribution of reusable passwords even when Alice actively cooperates with Eve. This allows us to confront and address security issues that are unavoidable in classical protocols.
Laser information encoded in atomic asymmetrical ionization in few-cycle laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pulse duration and carry-envelope phase (CEP) are two important parameters to characterize a few-cycle intense laser. We systematically study asymmetrical ionization of Ar in few-cycle laser fields with different pulse durations (3-7 fs) and laser intensities (1013-1014 W/cm2) by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Analyzing the CEP-dependent asymmetry of above-threshold ionization as a function of the photoelectron energy, we find that the qualitative global features of CEP-dependent asymmetry are insensitive to the pulse duration. But the fine structures of the asymmetry are sensitive to the laser pulse duration. Changing Ar to H atoms, we find that the information encoded in asymmetry is insensitive to target atoms at a moderate laser intensity.
Teleportation of a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Manoj K; Prakash, Hari, E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.co, E-mail: prakash_hari123@rediffmail.co [Department of physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India)
2010-09-28
We propose a scheme to teleport a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information, which is better than the two schemes recently proposed by Liao and Kuang (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1183) and by Phien and Nguyen (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 2825) in that our scheme gives higher value of minimum assured fidelity and minimum average fidelity without using any nonlinear interactions. For involved coherent states | {+-} {alpha}), minimum average fidelity in our case is {>=}0.99 for |{alpha}| {>=} 1.6 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 2.6), while previously proposed schemes referred above report the same for |{alpha}| {>=} 5 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 25). Since it is very challenging to produce superposed coherent states of high coherent amplitude (|{alpha}|), our teleportation scheme is at the reach of modern technology.
The Nature and Location of Quantum Information
Griffiths, R B
2002-01-01
Quantum information is defined by applying the concepts of ordinary (Shannon) information theory to a quantum sample space consisting of a single framework or consistent family. A classical analogy for a spin-half particle and other arguments show that the infinite amount of information needed to specify a precise vector in its Hilbert space is not a measure of the information carried by a quantum entity with a $d$-dimensional Hilbert space; the latter is, instead, bounded by log d bits (1 bit per qubit). The two bits of information transmitted in dense coding are located not in one but in the correlation between two qubits, consistent with this bound. A quantum channel can be thought of as a "structure" or collection of frameworks, and the physical location of the information in the individual frameworks can be used to identify the location of the channel. Analysis of a quantum circuit used as a model of teleportation shows that the location of the channel depends upon which structure is employed; for ordina...
Multi-user multiplexed scheme for decoding modulated-encoded sequential information
Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto
2011-08-01
Encrypting procedures with multiplexed operations exhibit an inherent noise. We presented options to avoid background noise arising from the non-decoded images. We have a coding mask corresponding to each single input object, thus resulting in a static decrypting mechanism. Besides, if we manage the spatial destination of each decoded output, then we avoid the noise superposition. In those schemes, the displaying output order was irrelevant. However, when we face a sequence of events including multi-users, we need to develop another strategy. We present a multi-user encrypting scheme with a single encoding mask that removes the background noise, also showing the decrypted data in a prescribed sequence. The multiplexing scheme is based on the 4f double random phase encryption architecture and a theta modulation method, which consists in superposing each encrypted information with a determined sinusoidal grating. Afterwards we proceed to the completely encoded data multiplexing. In a multi-user scheme, we employ different encrypting masks in the 4f optical setup for each user, and the same mask is employed for the user sequence. We store the encrypted data in the single medium. After a Fourier transform operation and an appropriate filtering procedure, we reach the sequence of isolated encrypted spots corresponding to the right user. With the aid of the pertaining decoding mask, the user can decrypt the sequence. We avoid the noise by the appropriate choice of the modulating gratings pitch as to elude the overlapping of spots at the Fourier plane, which is the cause of information degradation.
Quantum One Go Computation and the Physical Computation Level of Biological Information Processing
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2010-02-01
By extending the representation of quantum algorithms to problem-solution interdependence, the unitary evolution part of the algorithm entangles the register containing the problem with the register containing the solution. Entanglement becomes correlation, or mutual causality, between the two measurement outcomes: the string of bits encoding the problem and that encoding the solution. In former work, we showed that this is equivalent to the algorithm knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution it will find in the future, which explains the quantum speed up. Mutual causality between bits of information is also equivalent to seeing quantum measurement as a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine whose normalized coordinates represent the qubit populations. This “hidden machine” represents the problem to be solved. The many body interaction (measurement) satisfies all the constraints of a nonlinear Boolean network “together and at the same time”—in one go—thus producing the solution. Quantum one go computation can formalize the physical computation level of the theories that place consciousness in quantum measurement. In fact, in visual perception, we see, thus recognize, thus process, a significant amount of information “together and at the same time”. Identifying the fundamental mechanism of consciousness with that of the quantum speed up gives quantum consciousness, with respect to classical consciousness, a potentially enormous evolutionary advantage.
Li, Huibin
2011-10-01
This paper proposes a novel approach for 3D face recognition by learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information. To comprehensively describe 3D facial surface, three components, in X, Y, and Z-plane respectively, of normal vector are encoded locally to their corresponding normal pattern histograms. They are finally fed to a sparse representation classifier enhanced by learning based spatial weights. Experimental results achieved on the FRGC v2.0 database prove that the proposed encoded normal information is much more discriminative than original normal information. Moreover, the patch based weights learned using the FRGC v1.0 and Bosphorus datasets also demonstrate the importance of each facial physical component for 3D face recognition. © 2011 IEEE.
Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)
2013-11-08
Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.
Information Theoretic Resources in Quantum Theory
Meznaric, Sebastian
2013-01-01
Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted. For an important class of errors we find a linear relationship between the usual and effective higher dimensional genera...
Information Theoretic Axioms for Quantum Theory
Zaopo, Marco
2012-01-01
In this paper we derive the complex Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory from four simple information theoretic axioms. It is shown that quantum theory is the only non classical probabilistic theory satisfying the following axioms: distinguishability, conservation, reversibility, composition. The new results of this reconstruction compared to other reconstructions by other authors are: (i) we get rid of axiom "subspace" in favor of axiom conservation eliminating mathema...
Atomic wave packet basis for quantum information
Muthukrishnan, Ashok; Stroud Jr, C. R.
2001-01-01
We propose a wave packet basis for storing and processing several qubits of quantum information in a single multilevel atom. Using radially localized wave packet states in the Rydberg atom, we construct an orthogonal basis that is related to the usual energy level basis by a quantum Fourier transform. A transform-limited laser pulse that is short compared with the classical Kepler period of the system interacts mainly with the wave packet state localized near the atomic core...
Theory of solid state quantum information processing
Burkard, Guido
2004-01-01
Recent theoretical work on solid-state proposals for the implementation of quantum computation and quantum information processing is reviewed. The differences and similarities between microscopic and macroscopic qubits are highlighted and exemplified by the spin qubit proposal on one side and the superconducting qubits on the other. Before explaining the spin and supercondcuting qubits in detail, some general concepts that are relevant for both types of solid-state qubits ar...
A quantum information processor with trapped ions
Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Julio T. Barreiro; Martinez, Esteban; Wang, Shannon X.; Quint, Stephan; Brandl, Matthias F.; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Roos, Christian F; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer
2013-01-01
Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. In this work we present a small-scale quantum information processor based on a string of [superscript 40]Ca[superscript +] ions confined in a macroscopic linear Paul trap. We review our set of operations which includes non-coherent operations allowing us to realize arbitra...
Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun, E-mail: xwwang0826@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China)
2011-02-14
We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.
The Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor
Steane, Andrew M.
1996-01-01
An introductory review of the linear ion trap is given, with particular regard to its use for quantum information processing. The discussion aims to bring together ideas from information theory and experimental ion trapping, to provide a resource to workers unfamiliar with one or the other of these subjects. It is shown that information theory provides valuable concepts for the experimental use of ion traps, especially error correction, and conversely the ion trap provides a...
Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapcan, P. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Bagan, E. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Buzek, V. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)
2011-09-15
Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system collapses into a postmeasurement state from which the same observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or can scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and we study the classical limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements, we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimates the state with equal fidelity, regardless of their position in the measurement sequence and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparatuses (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.
Quantum dot - nanocavity QED for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single quantum dots (QDs) in photonic crystal nanocavities are interesting both as a testbed for fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments, as well as a platform for quantum and classical information processing. In addition to providing a scalable, on-chip, platform, these systems also enable large dipole-field interaction strengths, as a result of the localization of the field to very small optical volumes. Such a platform could be employed to demonstrate a number of devices, including nonclassical light sources, electro-optic modulators and switches operating at the single photon level, and quantum gates. QD-cavity QED systems also exhibit interesting phonon-assisted off-resonant interaction between the QD and the cavity which can be employed for spectral filtering, as well as for coherent optical spectroscopy and quantum dot state readout, thereby overcoming issues coming from quantum dot inhomogeneous broadening. In order to make the platform compatible with fiber-optic telecommunication wavelengths, the intrinsic optical nonlinearity of the semiconductor employed to make a nanocavity can be employed for frequency conversion.
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give simple examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C
Quantum Information: an invitation for mathematicians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Information is the science that aims to use the unusual behavior of the microscopic world, governed by the laws of Quantum Mechanics, in order to improve the way in which we compute or communicate information. Though the first ideas in this direction come from the early 80's, it is in the last decade when Quantum Information has suffered an spectacular development. It is impossible to resume in a paper like this one the importance and complexity of the field. Therefore, I will limit to briefly explain some of the initial ideas (considered classical by now), and to briefly suggest some of the modern lines of research. By the nature of this exposition, I have decided to avoid rigor and to concentrate more in ideas and intuitions. Anyhow, I have tried to provide with enough references, in such a way that an interested reader could find there proper theorems and proofs.
Oggier, Frederique
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a generic approach for providing enhanced security to communication systems which encode their data for reliability before encrypting it through a stream cipher for security. We call this counter-intuitive technique the {\\em encoding-encryption} paradigm, and use as motivating example the standard for mobile telephony GSM. The enhanced security is based on a dedicated homophonic or wire-tap channel coding that introduces pure randomness, combined with the randomness of the noise occurring over the communication channel. Security evaluation regarding recovery of the secret key employed in the keystream generator is done through an information theoretical approach. We show that with the aid of a dedicated wire-tap encoder, the amount of uncertainty that the adversary must face about the secret key given all the information he could gather during different passive or active attacks he can mount, is a decreasing function of the sample available for cryptanalysis. This means that the wire-tap e...
Preparation of Information-Containing Macromolecules by Ligation of Dyad-Encoded Oligomers.
Trinh, Thanh Tam; Oswald, Laurence; Chan-Seng, Delphine; Charles, Laurence; Lutz, Jean-François
2015-08-17
A simplified strategy for preparing non-natural information-containing polymers is reported. The concept relies on the successive ligation of oligomers that contain minimal sequence motifs. It was applied here to the synthesis of digitally-encoded poly(triazole amide)s, in which propyl and 2-methyl propyl motifs are used to code 0 and 1, respectively. A library of four oligo(triazole amide)s containing the information dyads 00, 01, 10, and 11 was prepared. These oligomers contain two reactive functions, that is, an alkyne and a carboxylic acid. Thus, they can be linked to another with the help of a reactive spacer containing azide and amine functions. Using two successive chemoselective steps, that is, azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and carboxylic acid-amine coupling, monodisperse polymers can be obtained. In particular, the library of dyads permits the implementation of any desired sequence using a small number of steps. As a proof-of-concept, the synthesis of molecular bytes 00000000 and 00000110 is described. PMID:26230871
A New Approach to Encoding and Hiding Information in an Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadhil Salman Abed
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The information age brings some unique challenges to society. New technology and new applications bring new threats and force us to invent new protection mechanisms. So every few years, computer security needs to reinvent itself. In this paper we propose a new image encoding system utilizing fractal theories; this approach exploits the main feature of fractals generated by IFS techniques. Two levels of encryption and decryption methods performed to enhance the security of the system, this is based on the fact that all fractal functions use real number to ensure satisfaction of contraction property. If the cryptosystem parameters are based on real numbers (a continuous infinite interval then the search space is massive. Hence, many well known attacks fail to solve the nonlinear systems and find the imprecise secret key parameter from the given public one. Even if it is theoretically possible, it is computationally not feasible. The encrypted date represents the attractor generated by the IFS transformation, Collage theorem is used to find the IFS for decrypting data. The proposed method gives the possibility to hide maximum amount of data in an image that represent the attractor of the IFS without degrading its quality. Also to make the hidden data robust enough to withstand known cryptographic attacks and image processing techniques which do not change the appearance of image. The security level is high because the jointly coded images cannot be correctly reconstructed without all the required information.
Mutual and coherent informations for infinite-dimensional quantum channels
Holevo, A S; Shirokov, M. E.
2010-01-01
The work is devoted to study of quantum mutual information and coherent information -- the two important characteristics of quantum communication channel. Appropriate definitions of these quantities in the infinite-dimensional case are given and their properties are studied in detail. Basic identities relating quantum mutual information and coherent information of a pair of complementary channels are proved. An unexpected continuity property of quantum mutual information and...
Protection of information in quantum qatabases
Ozhigov, Yuri
1997-01-01
The conventional protection of information by cryptographical keys makes no sense if a key can be quickly discovered by an unauthorized person. This way of penetration to the protected systems was made possible by a quantum computers in view of results of P.Shor and L.Grover. This work presents the method of protection of an information in a database from a spy even he knows all about its control system and has a quantum computer, whereas a database can not distinguish betwe...
Quantum information and computation for chemistry
Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A
2014-01-01
Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science
Hollén, L I; Manser, M B
2007-01-01
In contrast to historical assumptions about the affective nature of animal vocalizations, it is now clear that many vertebrates are capable of producing specific alarm calls in response to different predators, calls that provide information that goes beyond the motivational state of a caller. However, although these calls function referentially, it does not mean that they are devoid of motivational content. Studies on meerkats (Suricata suricatta) directly support this conclusion. The acousti...
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks
Xavier, G B; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P
2007-01-01
A real-time polarization control system employing two nonorthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, can be achieved with response times smaller than 10 ms, without significant introduction of noise counts in the quantum channel.
Black holes, information, and Hilbert space for quantum gravity
Nomura, Yasunori; Varela, Jaime; Weinberg, Sean J.
2013-04-01
A coarse-grained description for the formation and evaporation of a black hole is given within the framework of a unitary theory of quantum gravity preserving locality, without dropping the information that manifests as macroscopic properties of the state at late times. The resulting picture depends strongly on the reference frame one chooses to describe the process. In one description based on a reference frame in which the reference point stays outside the black hole horizon for sufficiently long time, a late black hole state becomes a superposition of black holes in different locations and with different spins, even if the back hole is formed from collapsing matter that had a well-defined classical configuration with no angular momentum. The information about the initial state is partly encoded in relative coefficients—especially phases—of the terms representing macroscopically different geometries. In another description in which the reference point enters into the black hole horizon at late times, an S-matrix description in the asymptotically Minkowski spacetime is not applicable, but it still allows for an “S-matrix” description in the full quantum gravitational Hilbert space including singularity states. Relations between different descriptions are given by unitary transformations acting on the full Hilbert space, and they in general involve superpositions of “distant” and “infalling” descriptions. Despite the intrinsically quantum mechanical nature of the black hole state, measurements performed by a classical physical observer are consistent with those implied by general relativity. In particular, the recently-considered firewall phenomenon can occur only for an exponentially fine-tuned (and intrinsically quantum mechanical) initial state, analogous to an entropy decreasing process in a system with large degrees of freedom.
Schlosser, Ralf G. M.; Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Nenadic, Igor; Roebel, Martin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Axer, Martina; Schultz, Christoph; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich
2008-01-01
Working memory deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Previous working memory studies suggest a load dependent storage deficit. However, explicit studies of higher executive working memory processes are limited. Moreover, few studies have examined whether subcomponents of working memory such as encoding and maintenance of information are…
Numerical algorithms for use in quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum information theory is the new field of physics and electrical engineering that arose from the application of fundamental physics concepts in communications and computing. In this paper, aiming to calculate some properties of quantum communication systems and the quantum entanglement measure, for C2·C2 systems, based on relative entropy, two numerical algorithms are presented. The first one is based on the codification of the possible solution in a binary string and in the application, in that string, of an assembly algorithm, such as one used in DNA construction. The second one is the construction of a genetic algorithm where a string of density matrices and quantum gates in the reproduction stage are used. Both algorithms are used in situations where the best solution needs to be found. Numerical simulations are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of the algorithms are discussed
Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing
Bergou, János A
2013-01-01
Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.
Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information
Wallden, Petros; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika
2014-03-01
Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for certain mixed states of those same pure states. For pure symmetric states it turns out that for a certain class of cost matrices, the minimum-cost measurement is the square-root measurement. That is, the optimal minimum-cost measurement is in this case the same as the minimum-error measurement. These results are in agreement with Nakahira and Usuda (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 062305). Finally, we consider sequences of individual uncorrelated systems, and examine when the global minimum-cost measurement is a sequence of optimal local measurements. We consider an example where the global minimum-cost measurement is, perhaps counter-intuitively, not a sequence of local measurements, and discuss how this is related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph argument for the nature of the wave function.
Covariance and Fisher information in quantum mechanics
Petz, D
2002-01-01
Variance and Fisher information are ingredients of the Cramer-Rao inequality. We regard Fisher information as a Riemannian metric on a quantum statistical manifold and choose monotonicity under coarse graining as the fundamental property of variance and Fisher information. In this approach we show that there is a kind of dual one-to-one correspondence between the candidates of the two concepts. We emphasis that Fisher informations are obtained from relative entropies as contrast functions on the state space and argue that the scalar curvature might be interpreted as an uncertainty density on a statistical manifold.
Retrieving and routing quantum information in a quantum network
Sazim, S.; Chiranjeevi, V.; Chakrabarty, I.; Srinathan, K.
2015-09-01
In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network (uc(qnet)) it cannot be retrieved, even if the dealer wishes that his/her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of the two uc(qnet)s, say {{Q}}_1 and {{Q}}_2 and he/she subsequently finds that {{Q}}_2 is more reliable than {{Q}}_1 , he/she may wish to transfer all her secrets from {{Q}}_1 to {{Q}}_2 . Known protocols are inadequate to address such a revocation. In this work we address this problem by designing a protocol that enables the source/dealer to bring back the information shared in the network, if desired. Unlike classical revocation, the no-cloning theorem automatically ensures that the secret is no longer shared in the network. The implications of our results are multi-fold. One interesting implication of our technique is the possibility of routing qubits in asynchronous uc(qnets). By asynchrony we mean that the requisite data/resources are intermittently available (but not necessarily simultaneously) in the uc(qnet). For example, we show that a source S can send quantum information to a destination R even though (a) S and R share no quantum resource, (b) R's identity is unknown to S at the time of sending the message, but is subsequently decided, (c) S herself can be R at a later date and/or in a different location to bequeath her information (`backed-up' in the uc(qnet)) and (d) importantly, the path chosen for routing the secret may hit a dead end due to resource constraints, congestion, etc., (therefore the information needs to be back-tracked and sent along an alternate path). Another implication of our technique is the possibility of using insecure resources. For instance, if the quantum memory within an organization is insufficient, it may safely store (using our protocol) its private information with a neighboring organization without (a) revealing critical data to the host and (b) losing control over retrieving the data. Putting the two implications together, namely routing and secure storage, it is possible to envision applications like quantum mail (qmail) as an outsourced service.
Quantum Symmetrically-Private Information Retrieval
Kerenidis, I; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Wolf, Ronald de
2003-01-01
Private information retrieval systems (PIRs) allow a user to extract an item from a database that is replicated over k>=1 servers, while satisfying various privacy constraints. We exhibit quantum k-server symmetrically-private information retrieval systems (QSPIRs) that use sublinear communication, do not use shared randomness among the servers, and preserve privacy against honest users and dishonest servers. Classically, SPIRs without shared randomness do not exist at all.
Geometrical identification of quantum and information theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interrelation of quantum and information theories is investigation on the base of the conception of cross-entropy. It is assumed that ''complex information geometry'' may serve as a tool for ''technological transfer'' from one research field to the other which is not connected directly with the first one. It is pointed out that the ''infinitesimal distance'' ds2 and ''infinitesimal cross-entropy'' dHsub(c) coincide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Hennig
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly’s visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell’s most conspicuous property: Its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly’s saccadic flight and gaze strategy: The FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects - irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined - by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble.
Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information
Cabello, Adan
2000-01-01
This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, web sites, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breuer, Reinhard (comp.)
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche
Martin, F.; Carminati, F.; Galli Carminati, G.
2010-05-01
In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to “read” the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolution shows how for example the unconscious can influence consciousness. In a process like mourning the influence of the unconscious on consciousness, as the influence of consciousness on the unconscious, are in agreement with what is observed in psychiatry.
Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche
Martin, F; Carminati, G Galli
2010-01-01
In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to ``read{''} the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi o...
Quantum information processing with optical vortices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: Are They Related to Quantum Paradoxology?
Gyftopoulos, E P; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Spakovsky, Michael R. von
2004-01-01
We review both the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) paper about the completeness of quantum theory, and Schrodinger's responses to the EPR paper. We find that both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses, including the cat paradox, are not consistent with the current understanding of quantum theory and thermodynamics. Because both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses play a leading role in discussions of the fascinating and promising fields of quantum computation and quantum information, we hope our review will be helpful to researchers in these fields.
Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world
Fayngold, Moses
2013-01-01
Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.
Classical information capacity of a quantum channel
Hausladen, Paul; Jozsa, Richard; Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael; Wootters, William K.
1996-09-01
We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel. The channel is defined by an ``alphabet'' of quantum states, e.g., certain photon polarizations, together with a specified set of probabilities with which these states must be sent. If the receiver is restricted to making separate measurements on the received ``letter'' states, then the Kholevo theorem implies that the amount of information transmitted per letter cannot be greater than the von Neumann entropy H of the letter ensemble. In fact the actual amount of transmitted information will usually be significantly less than H. We show, however, that if the sender uses a block coding scheme consisting of a choice of code words that respects the a priori probabilities of the letter states, and the receiver distinguishes whole words rather than individual letters, then the information transmitted per letter can be made arbitrarily close to H and never exceeds H. This provides a precise information-theoretic interpretation of von Neumann entropy in quantum mechanics. We apply this result to ``superdense'' coding, and we consider its extension to noisy channels.
Quantum information processing based on cavity QED with mesoscopic systems
Lukin, Mikhail; Fleischhauer, Michael; Imamoglu, Atac
2000-01-01
Introduction: Recent developments in quantum communication and computing [1-3] stimulated an intensive search for physical systems that can be used for coherent processing of quantum information. It is generally believed that quantum entanglement of distinguishable quantum bits (qubits) is at the heart of quantum information processing. Significant efforts have been directed towards the design of elementary logic gates, which perform certain unitary processes on pairs of qubits. These gates m...
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference). Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, i...
How to take turns: the fly's way to encode and decode rotational information
Esteves, Ingrid M.; Fernandes, Nelson M.; Köberle, Roland
2011-01-01
Sensory systems take continuously varying stimuli as their input and encode features relevant for the organism's survival into a sequence of action potentials - spike trains. The full dynamic range of complex dynamical inputs has to be compressed into a set of discrete spike times and the question, facing any sensory system, arises: which features of the stimulus are thereby encoded and how does the animal decode them to recover its external sensory world? Here we study...
Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states
Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V
2005-01-01
We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)
2012-11-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Beyond bits: The future of quantum information processing
Steane, AM; Rieffel, EG
2000-01-01
Quantum information theory seeks to unite some of the most influential ideas of 20th century science: quantum mechanics, computer science and information theory. The development of quantum information theory has only begun, and only a few applications are known, mostly in quantum system control and data security. The future of the theory is hard to predict, but it seems poised to contribute to some of the most exciting ideas of the 21st century. This theory gives an ideal framework for develo...
Quantum Information Processing with Finite Resources - Mathematical Foundations
Tomamichel, Marco
2015-01-01
One of the predominant challenges when engineering future quantum information processors is that large quantum systems are notoriously hard to maintain and control accurately. It is therefore of immediate practical relevance to investigate quantum information processing with limited physical resources, for example to ask: How well can we perform information processing tasks if we only have access to a small quantum device? Can we beat fundamental limits imposed on informatio...
Synchronicity, Quantum Information and the Psyche
Martin, Francois; Galli Carminati, Giuliana
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe synchronicity phenomena. As an explanation of these phenomena we propose quantum entanglement between the psychic realm known as the "unconscious" and also the classical illusion of the collapse of the wave-function. Then, taking the theory of quantum information as a model we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qu-bits). We analyze how there can be communication between these various qu-bit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this manner we build quantum processes that permit consciousness to "read" the unconscious and vice-versa. The most elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qu-bit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolu...
PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013
2014-11-01
Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Geometric information in eight dimensions vs. quantum information
Tarkhanov, Victor I
2008-01-01
Complementary idempotent paravectors and their ordered compositions, are used to represent multivector basis elements of geometric Clifford algebra for 3D Euclidean space as the states of a geometric byte in a given frame of reference. Two layers of information, available in real numbers, are distinguished. The first layer is a continuous one. It is used to identify spatial orientations of similar geometric objects in the same computational basis. The second layer is a binary one. It is used to manipulate with 8D structure elements inside the computational basis itself. An oriented unit cube representation, rather than a matrix one, is used to visualize an inner structure of basis multivectors. Both layers of information are used to describe unitary operations -- reflections and rotations -- in Euclidian and Hilbert spaces. The results are compared with ones for quantum gates. Some consequences for quantum and classical information technologies are discussed.
Quantum non-locality Fundamentals and Applications in Quantum Information Science
Brunner, Nicolas
2007-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of quantum non-locality, in the framework of quantum information science. The research presented here includes both theoretical works on some fundamental concepts, such as the measurement process and quantum correlations, as well as some applications in modern quantum optics. As it is often the case in quantum information science, the joint study of fundamental notions and applications is very productive. While a better understanding of the fundamental conc...
Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kastoryano, Michael; Eisert, Jens [FU Berlin (Germany); Wolf, Michael [TU Muenchen (Germany)
2013-07-01
Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource, and consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger and time dissipative operations, while keeping the system Liouvillian time-independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.
Some Novel Thought Experiments Involving Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information
Akhavan, Omid
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we have proposed some novel thought experiments involving foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory, using quantum entanglement property. Concerning foundations of quantum mechanics, we have suggested some typical systems including two correlated particles which can distinguish between the two famous theories of quantum mechanics, i.e. the standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics, at the individual level of pair of particles. Meantime, the...
Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory
Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Didier Sornette
2008-01-01
A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions,...
Multiparty data hiding of quantum information
Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie; Smith, Graeme
2004-01-01
We present protocols for multiparty data hiding of quantum information that implement all possible threshold access structures. Closely related to secret sharing, data hiding has a more demanding security requirement: that the data remain secure against unrestricted LOCC attacks. In the limit of hiding a large amount of data, our protocols achieve an asymptotic rate of one hidden qubit per local physical qubit. That is, each party holds a share that is the same size as the h...
Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukasz-Andrzej Glinka
2007-09-01
Full Text Available We present basics of conceptually new-type way for explaining of the origin, evolution and current physical properties of our Universe from the graviton-matter gas viewpoint. Quantization method for the Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe based on the canonical Hamilton equations of motion is proposed and quantum information theory way to physics of the Universe is showed. The current contribution from the graviton-matter gas temperature in quintessence approximation is discussed.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.
Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
2009-01-01
In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.
Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users
Remembering in tool-use tasks in children and apes: the role of the information at encoding.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M; Call, Josep
2014-01-01
Providing adults with relevant information (knowledge that they will be tested at some future time) increases motivation to remember. Research has shown that it is more effective to have this information prior to, rather than after, an encoding phase. We investigated this effect in apes and children in the context of tool-use tasks. In Experiment 1 we presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos with two tool-use tasks and three different two-tool sets. We had two conditions: prospective (PP) and retrospective (RP). In the PP subjects were shown the task that they would have to solve before they were shown the tools with which they could solve it. In the RP this order was reversed. Apes remembered the location of the useful tool better in the PP than in the RP. In Experiment 2 we presented 3- and 4-year-olds with the same conditions. Both age groups remembered the location of the correct tool in the PP, but only the 4-year-olds did so in the RP. Thus providing apes and preschool children with relevant information prior to, rather than after, the encoding phase enhances memory. These results have important implications for the understanding of the evolution of memory in general, and encoding mechanisms in particular. PMID:23767928
Quantum thermodynamic processes energy and information flow at the nanoscale
Mahler, Guenter
2015-01-01
The point of departure of this book is a triad of themes: information theory, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. These are related: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics form the basis of quantum thermodynamics; information and quantum mechanics underly, inter alia, the notorious quantum measurement problem; and information and thermodynamics have much to say about control limits in the tension between micro- and macro-descriptions.Why does the world around us typically look thermal-from cosmology down to individual embedded spins? Do informational measures constitute additional (independen
Quantum state disturbance vs. information gain uncertainty relations for quantum information
Fuchs, C; Fuchs, Christopher A; Peres, Asher
1995-01-01
When an observer wants to identify a quantum state, which is known to be one of a given set of non-orthogonal states, the act of observation causes a disturbance to that state. We investigate the tradeoff between the information gain and that disturbance. This issue has important applications in quantum cryptography. The optimal detection method, for a given tolerated disturbance, is explicitly found in the case of two equiprobable non-orthogonal pure states.
A quantum information approach to ultrafast spectroscopy
Yuen-Zhou, Joel
In the first part of the dissertation, we develop a theoretical approach to analyze nonlinear spectroscopy experiments based on the formalism of quantum state (QST) and process tomography (QPT). In it, a quantum system is regarded as a black box which can be systematically tested in its performance, very much like an electric circuit is tested by sending a series of inputs and measuring the corresponding outputs, but in the quantum sense. We show how to collect a series of pump-probe or photon-echo experiments, and by varying polarizations and frequency components of the perturbations, reconstruct the quantum state (density matrix) of the probed system for a set of different initial conditions, hence simultaneously achieving QST and QPT. Furthermore, we establish the conditions under which a set of two-dimensional optical spectra also yield the desired results. Simulations of noisy experiments with inhomogeneous broadening show the feasibility of the protocol. A spin-off of this work is our suggestion of a "witness" that distinguishes between spectroscopic time-oscillations corresponding to vibronic only coherences against their electronic counterparts. We conclude by noting that the QST/QPT approach to nonlinear spectroscopy sheds light on the amount of quantum information contained in the output of an experiment, and hence, is a convenient theoretical and experimental paradigm even when the goal is not to perform a full QPT. In the second part of the thesis, we discuss a methodology to study the electronic dynamics of complex molecular systems, such as photosynthetic units, in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). By treating the electronic degrees of freedom as the system and the nuclear ones as the bath, we develop an open quantum systems (OQS) approach to TD-DFT. We formally extend the theoretical backbone of TD-DFT to OQS, and suggest a Markovian bath functional which can be readily included in electronic structure codes.
Some Novel Thought Experiments Involving Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information
Akhavan, O
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we have proposed some novel thought experiments involving foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory, using quantum entanglement property. Concerning foundations of quantum mechanics, we have suggested some typical systems including two correlated particles which can distinguish between the two famous theories of quantum mechanics, i.e. the standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics, at the individual level of pair of particles. Meantime, the two theories present the same predictions at the ensemble level of particles. Regarding quantum information theory, two theoretical quantum communication schemes including quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation schemes have been proposed by using entangled spatial states of two EPR particles shared between two parties. It is shown that the rate of classical information gain in our dense coding scheme is greater than some previously proposed multi-qubit protocols by a logarithmic factor dependent on the dimension of Hilbert space. ...
The Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor
Steane, A M
1996-01-01
An introductory review of the linear ion trap is given, with particular regard to its use for quantum information processing. The discussion aims to bring together ideas from information theory and experimental ion trapping, to provide a resource to workers unfamiliar with one or the other of these subjects. It is shown that information theory provides valuable concepts for the experimental use of ion traps, especially error correction, and conversely the ion trap provides a valuable link between information theory and physics, with attendant physical insights. Example parameters are given for the case of calcium ions. Passive stabilisation will allow about 200 computing operations on 10 ions; with error correction this can be greatly extended.
The role of relative entropy in quantum information theory
V. Vedral
2002-01-01
Quantum mechanics and information theory are among the most important scientific discoveries of the last century. Although these two areas initially developed separately, it has emerged that they are in fact intimately related. In this review the author shows how quantum information theory extends traditional information theory by exploring the limits imposed by quantum, rather than classical, mechanics on information storage and transmission. The derivation of many key results differentiates...
The Physics of Quantum Information: Complementarity, Uncertainty, and Entanglement
Joseph M. Renes
2012-01-01
The overarching goal of this thesis is to demonstrate that complementarity is at the heart of quantum information theory, that it allows us to make (some) sense of just what information "quantum information" refers to, and that it is useful in understanding and constructing quantum information processing protocols. The detailed research results which form the basis of these claims are to be found in the included papers, and the aim here is to present an overview comprehensib...
Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M.
2001-07-01
The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.
Controlling the flow of information in quantum cloners: Asymmetric cloning
Buzek, V; Hillery, M.; Bednik, R.
1998-01-01
We show that the distribution of information at the output of the quantum cloner can be efficiently controlled via preparation of the quantum cloner. We present a universal cloning network with the help of which asymmetric cloning can be performed.
A dynamical point of view of Quantum Information: Wigner measures
Baraviera, A; Lopes, A O; Cunha, M Terra
2011-01-01
We analyze a known version of the discrete Wigner function and some connections with Quantum Iterated Funcion Systems. This paper is a follow up of "A dynamical point of view of Quantum Information: entropy and pressure" by the same authors.
Quantifying non-Gaussianity for quantum information
Genoni, Marco
2010-01-01
We address the quantification of non-Gaussianity of states and operations in continuous-variable systems and its use in quantum information. We start by illustrating in details the properties and the relationships of two recently proposed measures of non-Gaussianity based on the Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) distance and the quantum relative entropy (QRE) between the state under examination and a reference Gaussian state. We then evaluate the non-Gaussianities of several families of non-Gaussian quantum states and show that the two measures have the same basic properties and also share the same qualitative behaviour on most of the examples taken into account. However, we also show that they introduce a different relation of order, i.e. they are not strictly monotone each other. We exploit the non-Gaussianity measures for states in order to introduce a measure of non-Gaussianity for quantum operations, to assess Gaussification and de-Gaussification protocols, and to investigate in details the role played by non-Gaussia...
Distinctive Information and False Recognition: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Factors
Arndt, Jason
2006-01-01
Four experiments evaluated the role of encoding-based and retrieval-based factors in the production of false recognition. The association of unusual fonts with study items, the match between study and test font, and the duration of retrieval time allotted to subjects to make recognition memory decisions were varied in order to examine the role…
Bounds on Information and the Security of Quantum Cryptography
Biahm, E.; Mor, T
1996-01-01
Strong attacks against quantum key distribution use quantum memories and quantum gates to attack directly the final key. In this paper we extend a novel security result recently obtained, to demonstrate proofs of security against a wide class of such attacks. To reach this goal we calculate information-dependent reduced density matrices, we study the geometry of quantum mixed states, and we find bounds on the information leaked to an eavesdropper. Our result suggests that qu...
Quantum Corrections to Holographic Mutual Information
Agón, Cesar
2015-01-01
We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy \\cite{Cardy:2013nua}. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal\\cite{Faulkner:2013ana} this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.
Quantum information paradox: Real or fictitious?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhas Mitra
2009-09-01
One of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics is whether quantum information indeed gets lost in the case of black hole (BH) evaporation or accretion. Let us recall that quantum mechanics (QM) demands an upper limit on the acceleration of a test particle. On the other hand, it is pointed out here that, if a Schwarzschild BH exists, the acceleration of the test particle would blow up at the event horizon in violation of QM. Thus the concept of an exact BH is in contradiction with QM and quantum gravity (QG). It is also reminded that the mass of a BH actually appears as an integration constant of Einstein equations. And it has been shown that the value of this integration constant is actually zero! Thus even classically, there cannot be finite mass BHs though zero mass BH is allowed. It has been further shown that during continued gravitational collapse, radiation emanating from the contracting object gets trapped within it by the runaway gravitational field. As a consequence, the contracting body attains a quasi-static state where outward trapped radiation pressure gets balanced by inward gravitational pull and the ideal classical BH state is never formed in a finite proper time. In other words, continued gravitational collapse results in an `eternally collapsing object' which is a ball of hot plasma and which is asymptotically approaching the true BH state with $M = 0$ after radiating away its entire mass energy. And if we include QM, this contraction must halt at a radius suggested by the highest QM acceleration. In any case no event horizon (EH) is ever formed and in reality, there is no quantum information paradox.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2015-01-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB) -- one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of inf...
Decoding reality the universe as quantum information
Vedral, Vlatko
2010-01-01
In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...
Fritz, Jonathan B.; David, Stephen V.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Yin, Pingbo; Shamma, Shihab A.
2010-01-01
Top-down signals from frontal cortex (FC) are conjectured to play a critical role in cognitive control of sensory processing. To explore this interaction, we compared activity in ferret FC and primary auditory cortex (A1) during auditory and visual tasks requiring discrimination between classes of reference and target stimuli. FC responses were behaviorally-gated, selectively encoded the timing and invariant behavioral meaning of target stimuli, could be rapid in onset, and sometimes persiste...
Entropy of quantum channel in the theory of quantum information
Roga, Wojciech
2011-01-01
Quantum channels, also called quantum operations, are linear, trace preserving and completely positive transformations in the space of quantum states. Such operations describe discrete time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with an environment. The thesis contains an analysis of properties of quantum channels and different entropies used to quantify the decoherence introduced into the system by a given operation. Part I of the thesis provides a general introduc...
Self-Assembled Wigner Crystals as Mediators of Spin Currents and Quantum Information
Antonio, Bobby; Bayat, Abolfazl; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato
2015-11-01
Technological applications of many-body structures that emerge in gated devices under minimal control are largely unexplored. Here we show how emergent Wigner crystals in a semiconductor quantum wire can facilitate a pivotal requirement for a scalable quantum computer, namely, transmitting quantum information encoded in spins faithfully over a distance of micrometers. The fidelity of the transmission is remarkably high, faster than the relevant decohering effects, independent of the details of the spatial charge configuration in the wire, and realizable in dilution refrigerator temperatures. The transfer can evidence near unitary many-body nonequilibrium dynamics hitherto unseen in a solid-state device. It could also be useful in spintronics as a method for pure spin current over a distance without charge movement.
Multiparty data hiding of quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present protocols for multiparty data hiding of quantum information that implement all possible threshold access structures. Closely related to secret sharing, data hiding has a more demanding security requirement: that the data remain secure against unrestricted attacks via local operation and classical communication. In the limit of hiding a large amount of data, our protocols achieve an asymptotic rate of one hidden qubit per local physical qubit. That is, each party holds a share that is the same size as the hidden state to leading order, with accuracy and security parameters incurring an overhead that is asymptotically negligible. The data-hiding states have very unusual entanglement properties, which we briefly discuss
Mascarenhas, E; Cavalcanti, D; Cunha, M Terra; Santos, M França
2010-01-01
We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.
Quantum correlations beyond entanglement and their role in quantum information theory
Streltsov, Alexander
2015-01-01
Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.
Quantum Information Paradox: Real or Fictitious?
Mitra, Abhas
2009-01-01
One of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics is whether quantum information indeed gets lost in the case of Black Hole (BH) evaporation or accretion. Let us recall that Quantum Mechanics (QM) demands an upper limit on the acceleration of a test particle. On the other hand, it is pointed out here that, if a Schwarzschild BH would exist, the acceleration of the test particle would blow up at the event horizon in violation of QM. Thus the concept of an exact BH is in contradiction of QM and quantum gravity (QG). It is also reminded that the mass of a BH actually appears as an INTEGRATION CONSTANT of Einstein equations. And it has been shown that the value of this integration constant is actually zero. Thus even classically, there cannot be finite mass BHs though zero mass BH is allowed. It has been further shown that during continued gravitational collapse, radiation emanating from the contracting object gets trapped within it by the runaway gravitational field. As a consequence, the contracting body at...
Verma, Vikram; Prakash, Hari
2015-11-01
We explicitly present precise and simple protocols for standard quantum teleportation and controlled quantum teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit information state and analyse the case of perfect teleportation using general quantum channels and measurement bases. We find condition on resource quantum channel and Bell states for achieving perfect quantum teleportation. We also find the unitary transformation required to be done by Bob for perfect quantum teleportation and discuss the connection with others related works. We also discuss how perfect controlled quantum teleportation demands a correct choice of the measurement basis of additional party.
Berti, Stefan; Roeber, Urte
2013-01-01
Encoding and maintenance of information in visual working memory in an S1-S2 task with a 1500?ms retention phase were investigated by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants were asked to decide whether two visual stimuli were physically identical (identity comparison (IC) task) or belonged to the same set or category of equivalent patterns (category comparison (CC) task). The stimuli differ with regard to two features. (1) Each pattern can belong to a set of either four (ESS 4) or eight (ESS 8) equivalent patterns, mirroring differences in the complexity with regard to the representational structure of each pattern (i.e., equivalence set size (ESS)). (2) The set of patterns differ with regard to the rated complexity. Memory performance obtained the effects of the task instructions (IC versus CC) and the ESS (ESS 4 versus ESS 8) but not of the rated complexity. ERPs in the retention interval reveal that the stimulus-related factors (subjective complexity and ESS) affect the encoding of the stimuli as mirrored by the pronounced P3b amplitude in ESS 8 compared to ESS 4 patterns. Importantly, these effects are independent of task instructions. The pattern of results suggests an automatic processing of the ESS in the encoding phase. PMID:26317085
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2015-10-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2015-07-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.
Preskill, J
1997-01-01
The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. A quantum computer storing about 10^6 qubits, with a probability of error per quantum gate of order 10^{-6}, would be a formidable factoring engine. Even a smaller, less accurate quantum computer would be able to perform many useful tasks. (This paper is based on a talk presented at the ITP Conference on Quantum Coherence and Decoherence, 15-18 December 1996.)
Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-01-01
In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vitanyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.
Ensuring the integrity of information resources based methods dvooznakovoho structural data encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
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2009-01-01
Full Text Available Developed methods of estimation of noise stability and correction of structural code constructions to distortion in comunication of data in informatively communication systems and networks taking into account providing of integrity of informative resource.
Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source, or a sender of the signal, because each receiver can become a sender as well. An observer receives a signal by performing certain measurements synchronized with the measurements of the others. This means that the signal is uniformly and simultaneously distributed over the observers in a decentralized way. The signals transmit no intentional information that would favor one agent over another. All the sequence of signals received by different observers are not only statistically equivalent, but are also point-by-point identical. It is important to assume that each agent knows that the other agent simultaneously receives the identical signals. The sequences of the signals are true random, so that no agent could predict the next step with the probability different from those described by the density. Under these quite general assumptions, the entangled observers-agents can perform non-trivial tasks that include transmission of conditional information from one agent to another, simple paradigm of cooperation, etc. The problem of behavior of intelligent agents correlated by identical random messages in a decentralized way has its own significance: it simulates evolutionary behavior of biological and social systems correlated only via simultaneous sensoring sequences of unexpected events.
On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism
Bynum, Terrell Ward
2013-01-01
In The Philosophy of Information (2011 book), Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls "Informational Structural Realism", a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information ("dedomena") as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi's defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of "Digital Ontology" (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi's ontology as a starting point, the present essay adds quantum features to dedomena, yielding an ontological theory for our own universe, Quantum Informational Structural Realism, which provides a metaphysical interpretation of key quantum phenomena, and diminishes the "weirdness" or "spookiness" of quantum mechanics. Key Words: digital ontology, dedomena, structural realism, quantum information, primordial qubit
Quantum information processing with finite resources mathematical foundations
Tomamichel, Marco
2016-01-01
This book provides the reader with the mathematical framework required to fully explore the potential of small quantum information processing devices. As decoherence will continue to limit their size, it is essential to master the conceptual tools which make such investigation possible. A strong emphasis is given to information measures that are essential for the study of devices of finite size, including Rényi entropies and smooth entropies. The presentation is self-contained and includes rigorous and concise proofs of the most important properties of these measures. The first chapters will introduce the formalism of quantum mechanics, with particular emphasis on norms and metrics for quantum states. This is necessary to explore quantum generalizations of Rényi divergence and conditional entropy, information measures that lie at the core of information theory. The smooth entropy framework is discussed next and provides a natural means to lift many arguments from information theory to the quantum setting. F...
Secure sequential transmission of quantum information
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan
2015-09-01
We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of n-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission protocol in depth.
Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks
Ming-Xing Luo; Gang Xu; Xiu-Bo Chen; Yi-Xian Yang; Xiaojun Wang
2014-01-01
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transfor...
Spin-based quantum information processing with semiconductor quantum dots and cavity QED
Feng, Mang; D'Amico, Irene; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2002-01-01
A quantum information processing scheme is proposed with semiconductor quantum dots located in a high-Q single mode QED cavity. The spin degrees of freedom of one excess conduction electron of the quantum dots are employed as qubits. Excitonic states, which can be produced ultrafastly with optical operation, are used as auxiliary states in the realization of quantum gates. We show how properly tailored ultrafast laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effects, can be used to achieve...
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)
2010-11-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Diagrams of States in Quantum Information: an Illustrative Tutorial
Felloni, Sara; Strini, Giuliano
2009-01-01
We present "Diagrams of States", a way to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during the execution of quantum circuits. This introductory tutorial illustrates the basics, providing useful examples of quantum computations: elementary operations in single-qubit, two-qubit and three-qubit systems, immersions of gates on higher dimensional spaces, generation of single and multi-qubit states, procedures to synthesize unitary, controlled and diagonal matrices. To perform the analysis of quantum processes, we directly derive diagrams of states from physical implementations of quantum circuits associated to the processes. Complete diagrams are then rearranged into simplified diagrams, to visualize the overall effects of computations. Conversely, diagrams of states help to conceive new quantum algorithms, by schematically describing desired manipulations of quantum information with intuitive diagrams and then by guessing the equivalent complete diagrams, from which the corresponding...
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza; Apellaniz, Iagoba
2014-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scali...
Quantum Logic circuits for solid-state quantum information processing
Del Duce, A.
2010-01-01
This thesis describes research on the design of quantum logic circuits suitable for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit quantum computation prototype. The design is based on a proposal for optically controlled, solid-state quantum logic gates. In this proposal, typically referred to as SFG model, the qubits are stored in the electron spin of donors in a solid-state substrate while the interactions between them are mediated through the optical excitation of control particles placed...
Towards Quantum Information Theory in Space and Time
Volovich, I V
2002-01-01
Modern quantum information theory deals with an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as qubit, channel, composite systems and entangled states should be formulated in space and time. In particlular we suggest that instead of a two level system (qubit) the basic notion in a relativistic quantum information theory should be a notion of an elementary quantum system, i.e. an infinite dimensional Hilbert space $H$ invariant under an irreducible representation of the Poincare group labeled by $[m,s]$ where $m\\geq 0$ is mass and $s=0,1/2,1,...$ is spin. We emphasize an importance of consideration of quantum information theory from the point of view of quantum field theory. We point out and discuss a fundamental fact that in quantum field theory there is a statistical dependence between two regions in spacetime e...
Continuous-Variable Quantum Information Distributor: Reversible Telecloning
Zhang, J; Xie, C; Peng, Kunchi; Xie, Changde; Zhang, Jing
2005-01-01
We propose a scheme of continuous-variable reversible telecloning, which broadcast the information of an unknown state without loss from a sender to several spatially separated receivers exploiting multipartite entanglement as quantum channels. In this scheme, quantum information of an unknown state is distributed into $M$ optimal clones and $M-1$ anticlones using $2M$% -partite entanglement. For the perfect quantum information distribution that is optimal cloning, $2M$-partite entanglement is required to be a maximum two-party entanglement. Comparing with the quantum telecloning proposed by Loock and Braunstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247901 (2001)], this protocol produces the anticlones (or time-reversed state) of the unknown quantum state, thus, keep all information of an unknown state.
Quantum communication with photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)
QIS-XML: A metadata specification for Quantum Information Science
Heus, Pascal; Gomez, Richard
2007-01-01
While Quantum Information Science (QIS) is still in its infancy, the ability for quantum based hardware or computers to communicate and integrate with their classical counterparts will be a major requirement towards their success. Little attention however has been paid to this aspect of QIS. To manage and exchange information between systems, today's classic Information Technology (IT) commonly uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and its related tools. XML is composed ...
Routing quantum information in spin chains
Paganelli, Simone; De Lorenzo, Salvatore; Apollaro, Tony J. G.; Plastina, Francesco; Giorgi, Gian Luca
2013-01-01
Two different models for performing efficiently routing of a quantum state are presented. Both cases involve an XX spin chain working as data bus and additional spins that play the role of sender and receivers, one of which is selected to be the target of the quantum state transmission protocol via a coherent quantum coupling mechanism making use of local/global magnetic fields. Quantum routing is achieved, in the first of the models considered, by weakly coupling the sender...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiming the construction of quantum computers and quantum communication systems based on optical devices, in this work we present possible implementations of quantum and classical CNOTs gates, as well an optical setup for generation and distribution of bipartite entangled states, using linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement
Quantum Interference between Transverse Spatial Waveguide Modes
Mohanty, Aseema; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal
2016-01-01
Integrated quantum optics has drastically reduced the size of table-top optical experiments to the chip-scale, allowing for demonstrations of large-scale quantum information processing and quantum simulation. However, despite these advances, practical implementations of quantum photonic circuits remain limited because they consist of large networks of waveguide interferometers that path encode information which do not easily scale. Increasing the dimensionality of current quantum systems using higher degrees of freedom such as transverse spatial field distribution, polarization, time, and frequency to encode more information per carrier will enable scalability by simplifying quantum computational architectures, increasing security and noise tolerance in quantum communication channels, and simulating richer quantum phenomena. Here we demonstrate a scalable platform for photonic quantum information processing using waveguide quantum circuit building blocks based on the transverse spatial mode degree of freedom:...
Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia
2015-01-01
Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information. PMID:26508813
Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia
2015-01-01
Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information. PMID:26508813
Gaussian Quantum Reading beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
Dall'Arno, Michele
2013-01-01
Quantum reading aims at retrieving classical information stored in an optical memory with low energy and high accuracy by exploiting the inherently quantum properties of light. We provide an optimal Gaussian strategy for quantum reading with phase-shift keying encoding that makes use of squeezed coherent light and homodyne detectors to largely outperform the Standard Quantum Limit, even in the presence of loss. This strategy, being feasible with current quantum optical techn...
A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2015-01-01
This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be be addressed as well in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall, however, also consider Heisenberg's derivation of quantum mechanics, which inspired Dirac. I argue that Heisenberg's and Dirac's work alike was guided by their adherence to and confidence in the fundamental principles of quantum theory. The final section of the article discusses the recent work by G. M. D' Ariano and his coworkers on the principles of quantum information theory, which extends quantum theory and its principles in a new direction. This extension enabled them to offer a new derivation of Dirac's equation from these principles alone...
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
School on Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications
2014-01-01
The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with the University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat and the COST Action MP1006, is organizing a "School in Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications" from 15 to 19 September 2014, followed by the "3rd Quantum Africa Conference: Advances in Quantum Sciences", from 22 to 26 Sep 2014, both events to be held at University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat, Morocco. The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, including metrology, nano-devices development, biophysics together with computation, communication and cryptography. Topics as quantum entanglement, quantum coherence and decohering phenomena both in microscopic and mesoscopic systems have been attracting the interest of a growing number of researchers, especially young ones from developing countries. A School on these themes would provide an invaluable focus on the interdiscipl...
Perfect Quantum Error Correction Code
Laflamme, Raymond; Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
1996-01-01
We present a quantum error correction code which protects a qubit of information against general one qubit errors which maybe caused by the interaction with the environment. To accomplish this, we encode the original state by distributing quantum information over five qubits, the minimal number required for this task. We give a simple circuit which takes the initial state with four extra qubits in the state |0> to the encoded state. The circuit can be converted into a decodi...
Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...
Avian egg odour encodes information on embryo sex, fertility and development.
Webster, Ben; Hayes, William; Pike, Thomas W
2015-01-01
Avian chemical communication is a rapidly emerging field, but has been hampered by a critical lack of information on volatile chemicals that communicate ecologically relevant information (semiochemicals). A possible, but as yet unexplored, function of olfaction and chemical communication in birds is in parent-embryo and embryo-embryo communication. Communication between parents and developing embryos may act to mediate parental behaviour, while communication between embryos can control the synchronicity of hatching. Embryonic vocalisations and vibrations have been implicated as a means of communication during the later stages of development but in the early stages, before embryos are capable of independent movement and vocalisation, this is not possible. Here we show that volatiles emitted from developing eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) convey information on egg fertility, along with the sex and developmental status of the embryo. Specifically, egg volatiles changed over the course of incubation, differed between fertile and infertile eggs, and were predictive of embryo sex as early as day 1 of incubation. Egg odours therefore have the potential to facilitate parent-embryo and embryo-embryo interactions by allowing the assessment of key measures of embryonic development long before this is possible through other modalities. It also opens up the intriguing possibility that parents may be able to glean further relevant information from egg volatiles, such as the health, viability and heritage of embryos. By determining information conveyed by egg-derived volatiles, we hope to stimulate further investigation into the ecological role of egg odours. PMID:25629413
Semiconductor sources of twin photons for quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A large number of scientific proposals made in the last few years are based on transport and manipulation of information using single quantum objects. Some of them make use of entanglement in pairs of particles such as twin photons. Although theoretical proposals have demonstrated highly interesting perspectives in the quantum information domain, experimental realizations and applications still suffer from the complexity of experimental set-ups and technological limitations. This paper presents various approaches aiming at efficient twin photon semiconductor sources. The emergence of these compact and integrated devices would be an important technological breakthrough in quantum information applications
Extremal properties of the variance and the quantum Fisher information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toth, Geza [Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Petz, Denes [Alfred Renyi Institute of Mathematics, Realtanoda utca 13-15, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)
2013-07-01
We show that the variance is its own concave roof. For rank-2 density matrices and operators with zero diagonal elements in the eigenbasis of the density matrix, we show analytically that the quantum Fisher information is 4 times the convex roof of the variance. Strong numerical evidence suggests that the quantum Fisher information is very close to the convex roof even for operators with nonzero diagonal elements or density matrices with a rank larger than 2. Hence, we conjecture that the quantum Fisher information is 4 times the convex roof of the variance even for the general case.
Schneider, M.; Gasper, L.; Demco, D. E.; Blümich, B.
1999-07-01
The measurements of residual dipolar couplings in elastomer system is desirable, because they reflect the hindrance to molecular motions by the cross-linking, topological constraints and the external factors like mechanical stress. Dipolar-encoded longitudinal magnetization nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) decay curves, double-quantum and triple-quantum NMR buildup intensities for measuring the residual dipolar couplings, and the associated dynamic order parameters are introduced. It is shown that in the short excitation time regime the effective dipolar network is simplified. In the limit of this model based on localized dipolar couplings, the spin response to two-dimensional pulse sequences used to record multiple-quantum (MQ) NMR coherences was evaluated for longitudinal magnetization, double-, and triple-quantum coherences of methylene, and methyl protons in synthetic 1,4-cis-polyisoprene. The dynamic order parameters can be evaluated from this NMR response using a classical scale-invariant polymer model. These dynamic order parameters were measured for a cross-link series of synthetic polyisoprene and correlated with the cross-link density. The decay rates of the Hahn-echo amplitudes reflecting residual dipolar couplings as well as effects of molecular motion are also measured for the same cross-link series. The contribution of molecular motions to the transverse relaxation can be separated from the residual dipolar couplings using a train of magic echoes. The sensitivity of these transverse relaxation rates to the cross-link density is compared to that of residual dipolar couplings. The NMR time scale is shorter for the dipolar-encoded longitudinal magnetization and MQ experiments as compared to transverse relaxation experiments leading to an increased sensitivity to cross-link density of the former approaches.
The mother of all protocols: Restructuring quantum information's family tree
Abeyesinghe, A; Hayden, P; Winter, A; Abeyesinghe, Anura; Devetak, Igor; Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas
2006-01-01
We give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol of quantum information theory. In this new formulation, it is easy to see that the mother, or rather her generalization to the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol, simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim and Winter, a fully quantum reverse Shannon theorem, and a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol whose children provide the quantum capacity and the entanglement-assisted capacity of a quantum channel, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecess...
Coding for quantum channels with side information at the transmitter
Dupuis, Frédéric
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of coding for quantum channels with side information that is available ahead of time at the transmitter but not at the receiver. We find a single-letter expression for the entanglement-assisted quantum capacity of such channels which closely parallels Gel'fand and Pinsker's solution to the classical version of the same problem. This theorem can also be used to find a lower bound on the unassisted quantum capacity of these channels.
Schroedinger cats and their power for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We outline a toolbox comprised of passive optical elements, single photon detection and superpositions of coherent states (Schroedinger cat states). Such a toolbox is a powerful collection of primitives for quantum information processing tasks. We illustrate its use by outlining a proposal for universal quantum computation. We utilize this toolbox for quantum metrology applications, for instance weak force measurements and precise phase estimation. We show in both these cases that a sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit is achievable
Schroedinger cats and their power for quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilchrist, A [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Munro, W J [Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom); Ralph, T C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Glancy, S [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Braunstein, Samuel L [Computer Science, York University, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Milburn, G J [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia)
2004-08-01
We outline a toolbox comprised of passive optical elements, single photon detection and superpositions of coherent states (Schroedinger cat states). Such a toolbox is a powerful collection of primitives for quantum information processing tasks. We illustrate its use by outlining a proposal for universal quantum computation. We utilize this toolbox for quantum metrology applications, for instance weak force measurements and precise phase estimation. We show in both these cases that a sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit is achievable.
Schrodinger cats and their power for quantum information processing
Gilchrist, A; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W. J.; Ralph, T C; Glancy, S.; Braunstein, Samuel. L.; Milburn, G J
2003-01-01
We outline a toolbox comprised of passive optical elements, single photon detection and superpositions of coherent states (Schrodinger cat states). Such a toolbox is a powerful collection of primitives for quantum information processing tasks. We illustrate its use by outlining a proposal for universal quantum computation. We utilize this toolbox for quantum metrology applications, for instance weak force measurements and precise phase estimation. We show in both these cases...
Schrodinger cats and their power for quantum information processing
Gilchrist, A; Munro, W J; Ralph, T C; Glancy, S; Braunstein, S L; Milburn, G J; Nemoto, Kae; Braunstein, Samuel. L.
2003-01-01
We outline a toolbox comprised of passive optical elements, single photon detection and superpositions of coherent states (Schrodinger cat states). Such a toolbox is a powerful collection of primitives for quantum information processing tasks. We illustrate its use by outlining a proposal for universal quantum computation. We utilize this toolbox for quantum metrology applications, for instance weak force measurements and precise phase estimation. We show in both these cases that a sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit is achievable.
Decoherence, Entanglement and Information Protection in Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, V.M; Kurizki, G; Pellegrin, S
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of articles on the contemporary status of quantum mechanics, dedicated to the fundamental issues of entanglement, decoherence, irreversibility, information processing, and control of quantum evolution, with a view of possible applications. It has multidisciplinary character and is addressed at a broad readership in physics, computer science, chemistry, and electrical engineering. It is written by the world-leading experts in pertinent fields such as quantum computing, atomic, molecular and optical physics, condensed matter physics, and statistical physics.
Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information
Majumdar, Archan S.; Pramanik, Tanumoy
2014-01-01
We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the EPR paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. Entropic uncertainty relations for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields ...
Helical multiferroics for electric field controlled quantum information processing
Azimi, M.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Greschner, S; Vekua, T.; Berakdar, J.
2013-01-01
Magnetoelectric coupling in helical multiferroics allows to steer spin order with electric fields. Here we show theoretically that in a helical multiferroic chain quantum information processing as well as quantum phases are highly sensitive to electric (E) field. Applying E-field, the quantum state transfer fidelity can be increased and made directionally dependent. We also show that E field transforms the spin-density-wave/nematic or multipolar phases of frustrated ferrom...
Diagrams of States in Quantum Information: an Illustrative Tutorial
Felloni, Sara; LEPORATI, ALBERTO; Strini, Giuliano
2009-01-01
We present "Diagrams of States", a way to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during the execution of quantum circuits. This introductory tutorial illustrates the basics, providing useful examples of quantum computations: elementary operations in single-qubit, two-qubit and three-qubit systems, immersions of gates on higher dimensional spaces, generation of single and multi-qubit states, procedures to synthesize unitary, controlled and dia...
Quantum Gravity and Recovery of Information in Black Hole Evaporation
Nozari, Kourosh; Mehdipour, S. Hamid
2008-01-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), motivated by current alternatives of quantum gravity, produces significant modifications to the Hawking radiation and the final stage of black hole evaporation. We show that incorporation of the GUP into the quantum tunneling process (based on the null-geodesic method) causes correlations between the tunneling probability of different modes in the black hole radiation spectrum. In this manner, the quantum information becomes encry...
Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol
Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan
2015-03-01
Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.
La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information
Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven
2015-05-01
Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.
A quantum information theoretic analysis of three flavor neutrino oscillations
Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2015-01-01
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavour changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum information theoretic quantities capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavour types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force.
Nonlocal quantum information transfer without superluminal signalling and communication
Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard
2015-01-01
It is a frequent assumption that - via superluminal information transfers - superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, a...
Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance
Nastasiuk, V. A.
2015-09-01
The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Cristian, López; Olimpia, Lombardi.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca ofrecer un análisis conceptual de la noción de información, a partir del modo en que es definida por las teorías formales de Claude Shannon y de Benjamin Schumacher. Contra la postura según la cual existen dos tipos de información de naturalezas diferentes, una información [...] clásica y una información cuántica (definidas por las teorías de Shannon y de Schumacher respectivamente), aquí argumentamos que no hay razones suficientes para sostener la existencia de la información cuántica como un nuevo tipo sustancialmente distinto de información. Afirmamos así que existe un único tipo de información que puede ser codificado de diversas maneras, en particular, mediante sistemas clásicos o sistemas cuánticos. Esta posición nos conducirá a concebir un concepto unificado y abstracto de información, en un contexto donde (1) la teoría de Shannon resulta neutral e independiente de las teorías físicas utilizadas para describir las partes involucradas en el proceso de transmitir información, y (2) la teoría de Schumacher no define un nuevo tipo de entidad informacional, sino una manera alternativa de codificar la información mediante estados cuánticos. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to offer a conceptual analysis of the notion of information, on the basis of the way in which it is defined by the theories of Claude Shannon and of Benjamin Schumacher. Against the position according to which there are two kinds of information of different natures, a clas [...] sical information and a quantum information (defined by the theories of Shannon and Schumacher respectively), here we argue that there are not sufficient reasons to maintain the existence of quantum information as a new and substantially different kind of information. So we claim that there is only one kind of information, which can be encoded in different ways, in particular, by means of classical or quantum systems. This position will lead us to conceive an unified and abstract concept of information in a context where (a) Shannon's theory is neutral and independent from the physical theories used to describe the stages involved in the process of transmitting information, and (b) Schumacher's theory does not define a new kind of informational entity, but a alternative way of coding information by means of quantum states.
Quantum information approach to the ultimatum game
Frackiewicz, Piotr
2011-01-01
The paper is devoted to quantization of extensive games with the use of both the Marinatto-Weber and the Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein concept of quantum game. We revise the current conception of quantum ultimatum game and we show why the proposal is unacceptable. To support our comment, we present the new idea of the quantum ultimatum game. Our scheme also makes a point of departure for a protocol to quantize extensive games.
Quantum Information Approach to the Ultimatum Game
Fra¸ckiewicz, Piotr; S?adkowski, Jan
2014-10-01
The paper is devoted to quantization of extensive games with the use of both the Marinatto-Weber and the Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein concept of quantum game. We revise the current conception of quantum ultimatum game and we show why the proposal is unacceptable. To support our approach, we present a new idea of the quantum ultimatum game. Our scheme also makes a point of departure for a general protocol for quantizing extensive games.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaari, J.S. [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wahiddin, M.R.B. [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cyberspace Security Laboratory, MIMOS Berhad, Technology Park Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mancini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy)], E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it
2008-03-17
We consider the problem of encoding classical information into unknown qudit states belonging to any basis, of a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases, by one party and then decoding by another party who has perfect knowledge of the basis. Working with qudits of prime dimensions, we point out a no-go theorem that forbids 'shift' operations on arbitrary unknown states. We then provide the necessary conditions for reliable encoding/decoding.
Quantum Key Distribution in Large Scale Quantum Network Assisted by Classical Routing Information
Wu, Diance; Yu, Wanrong; Zhao, Baokang; Wu, Chunqing
2014-10-01
Recently, small-scale Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) networks have been demonstrated and continuously operated in field environment. However, nodes of these QKD networks are less than 10 nodes. When the scale and structure of these networks becomes large and complex, such networks will subject to problem of intractable routing selection and limited transmission distance. We present a novel quantum network model and the corresponding protocol to solve these problems. The proposed quantum network model integrates classical communication network with quantum key distribution layer. Nodes in this quantum network model are divided into communication nodes for classical communication and quantum nodes for quantum key distribution. We use atomic ensembles to create entangled photons inside quantum nodes. Quantum repeaters are used to establish entanglement between remote quantum nodes so the maximum distribution distance of entangled photons can be extended. The main idea is to establish an appropriate key distribution path in the quantum key distribution layer based on the routing information obtained by the upper classical communication network. After the entanglement has been established between remote quantum nodes, these nodes will use the Ekert91 or BBM92 protocol to generate secret keys shared between each other. Then, these keys can be used to ensure the security of communication in the classical communication network.
Designing robust gate implementations for quantum information processing
Wesenberg, Janus H.
2003-01-01
Quantum information processing systems are often operated through time dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum information processing systems. As an appli...
Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Apoorva Patel
2001-06-01
Living organisms are not just random collections of organic molecules. There is continuous information processing going on in the apparent bouncing around of molecules of life. Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids, as optimal solutions of the molecular assembly process. Experiments should be able to tell whether evolution indeed took advantage of quantum dynamics or not.
Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lasse Mejling
2014-01-01
This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear materials for heralded entanglement. BS is shown to be separable in the input and output modes in the low-conversion regime, the regime of small pump powers or short interaction times. The selective frequency conversion of a signal is found to only depend on one of the pumps, while the temporal output of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre-chirping the pumps. In the high-conversion regime without the effects of NPM, exact Green functions for BS are derived. In this limit, separability is possible for conversion efficiencies up to 60 %. However, the system still allows for selective frequency conversion as well as re-shaping of the output. One way to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase shifts of the input and output modes, corresponding to shifts of the central frequencies of the fields. The trade-off is that one is only able to select which signals are converted, or change the shape of the output idler. Finally, entanglement swapping using SFG was investigated. Considering two pairs of entangled photons, the process of up-converting one photon from each pair leads to heralded entangled pairs by successful detection of the up-converted photon. It was seen that this was indeed possible in the case of anti-correlated phasematching in the up-conversion crystal. Possible ways of increasing the probability of an up-conversion event were investigated briefly.
Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furusawa, Akira [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Loock, Peter van [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Optik
2011-07-01
Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)
Retrieving and Routing Quantum Information in a Quantum Network
Sazim, Sk; Vanarasa, Chiranjeevi; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Srinathan, Kannan
2013-01-01
In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network (\\textsc{qnet}) it can not be retrieved back, even if the dealer wishes that her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of two \\textsc{qnet}s, say $\\mathcal{Q}_1$ and $\\mathcal{Q}_2$ and subsequently finds that $\\mathcal{Q}_2$ is more reliable than $\\mathcal{Q}_1$, the dealer may wish to transfer all her secrets from $\\mathcal{Q}_1$ to $\\mathc...
Information measures for inferring quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation describing a classical ensemble, one may infer a quantum dynamics using the principle of maximum uncertainty. That procedure requires an appropriate measure of uncertainty. Such a measure is constructed here from physically motivated constraints. It leads to a unique single parameter extension of the classical dynamics that is equivalent to the usual linear quantum mechanics
Designing robust gate implementations for quantum-information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum-information processing systems are often operated through time-dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum-information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare-earth-metal quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et al. [Opt. Commun. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system
Designing robust gate implementations for quantum information processing
Wesenberg, J H
2003-01-01
Quantum information processing systems are often operated through time dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare earth quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et. al. [Opt. Comm. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system.
Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.
Probabilistic Teleportation via Quantum Channel with Partial Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Desheng Liu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Two novel schemes are proposed to teleport an unknown two-level quantum state probabilistically when the sender and the receiver only have partial information about the quantum channel, respectively. This is distinct from the fact that either the sender or the receiver has entire information about the quantum channel in previous schemes for probabilistic teleportation. Theoretical analysis proves that these schemes are straightforward, efficient and cost-saving. The concrete realization procedures of our schemes are presented in detail, and the result shows that our proposals could extend the application range of probabilistic teleportation.
Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takayuki Miyadera
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vit´anyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and the quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.
A quantum Rosetta Stone for the information paradox
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.
2014-11-01
The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/conformal field theory (CFT) correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
A Quantum Rosetta Stone for the Information Paradox
Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando
2014-01-01
The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Quantum uncertainty of mixed states based on skew information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The uncertainty of a mixed state has two quite different origins: classical mixing and quantum randomness. While the classical aspect (mixedness) is significantly quantified by the von Neumann entropy, it seems that we still do not have a well accepted measure of quantum uncertainty. In terms of the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 in the context of quantum measurements, we will propose an intrinsic measure for synthesizing quantum uncertainty of a mixed state and investigate its fundamental properties. We illustrate how it arises naturally from a naive hidden-variable approach to entanglement and how it exhibits a simple relation to the notion of negativity, which is an entanglement monotone introduced quite recently. We further show that it has a dramatic nonextensive feature resembling the probability law relating operations of two events. This measure of quantum uncertainty provides an alternative quantity complementary to the von Neumann entropy for studying mixedness and quantum correlations
Do infants encode feature and geometry information in a two-dimensional space?
Lábadi, Beatrix; Horváth, Diana Á; Palotai, Róbert
2012-06-01
Geometric form perception and its role in reorienting process have been studied extensively in children, but little is known about its early origin in infancy. Here, we present findings of three experiments that used looking-time paradigm to test infants' sensitivity to geometric and feature information in two-dimensional visual display. One-year-old infants participated in spatial search tasks, which were manipulated regarding the display movement (static, visible rotation and invisible rotation) as a degree of disorientation. The results showed that infants were able to create expectation about a hiding location based on the geometry of a rectangle only in the directionally stable search space, whereas they were capable to use feature cues (color) for reorienting even in that condition when the spatial display was rotated and they were allowed to track the display motion. However, infants did not use either geometry or feature properties of 2-D space in an orientation invariant manner. The findings are discussed within the theory of reorientation with respect to the 2-dimensional space. PMID:22721741
Toolbox for reconstructing quantum theory from rules on information acquisition
Hoehn, Philipp A
2015-01-01
We develop a novel operational approach for reconstructing (qubit) quantum theory from elementary rules on information acquisition. The focus lies on an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and S's state is taken as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S. The mathematical tools of the framework are simple and we attempt to highlight all underlying assumptions to provide a handle for future generalizations. Five principles are imposed, asserting (1) a limit on the amount of information available to O; (2) the mere existence of complementary information; (3) the possibility for O's information to be `in superposition'; (4) O's information to be preserved in between interrogations; and, (5) continuity of time evolution. This approach permits a constructive derivation of quantum theory, elucidating how the ensuing independence, complementarity and compatibility structure of O's questions matches that of projective measurements in quantum theory, how entanglement and monogamy of entanglement and...
Toward an Information-based Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Quantum-Classical Transition
Roederer, Juan G
2011-01-01
I will show how an objective definition of the concept of information and the consideration of recent results about information-processing in the human brain help clarify some fundamental and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics. In particular, I will discuss entanglement, teleportation, non-interaction measurements and decoherence in the light of the fact that pragmatic information, the one our brain handles, can only be defined in the classical macroscopic domain; it does not operate in the quantum domain. This justifies viewing quantum mechanics as a discipline dealing with mathematical models and procedures aimed exclusively at predicting possible macroscopic changes and their likelihood that a given quantum system may cause when it interacts with its environment, including man-made devices such as measurement instruments. I will discuss the informational and neurobiological reasons of why counter-intuitive aspects arise whenever we attempt to construct mental images of the "inner workings...
Are problems in Quantum Information Theory (un)decidable?
Wolf, Michael M; Perez-Garcia, David
2011-01-01
This note is intended to foster a discussion about the extent to which typical problems arising in quantum information theory are algorithmically decidable (in principle rather than in practice). Various problems in the context of entanglement theory and quantum channels turn out to be decidable via quantifier elimination as long as they admit a compact formulation without quantification over integers. For many asymptotically defined properties which have to hold for all or for one integer N, however, effective procedures seem to be difficult if not impossible to find. We review some of the main tools for (dis)proving decidability and apply them to problems in quantum information theory. We find that questions like "can we overcome fidelity 1/2 w.r.t. a two-qubit singlet state?" easily become undecidable. A closer look at such questions might rule out some of the "single-letter" formulas sought in quantum information theory.
QIS-XML: A metadata specification for Quantum Information Science
Heus, Pascal
2007-01-01
While Quantum Information Science (QIS) is still in its infancy, the ability for quantum based hardware or computers to communicate and integrate with their classical counterparts will be a major requirement towards their success. Little attention however has been paid to this aspect of QIS. To manage and exchange information between systems, today's classic Information Technology (IT) commonly uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and its related tools. XML is composed of numerous specifications related to various fields of expertise. No such global specification however has been defined for quantum computers. QIS-XML is a proposed XML metadata specification for the description of fundamental components of QIS (gates & circuits) and a platform for the development of a hardware independent low level pseudo-code for quantum algorithms. This paper lays out the general characteristics of the QIS-XML specification and outlines practical applications through prototype use cases.
Quantum Theory, Namely the Pure and Reversible Theory of Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paolo Perinotti
2012-10-01
Full Text Available After more than a century since its birth, Quantum Theory still eludes our understanding. If asked to describe it, we have to resort to abstract and ad hoc principles about complex Hilbert spaces. How is it possible that a fundamental physical theory cannot be described using the ordinary language of Physics? Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information that is compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes.
The information-theoretic costs of simulating quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter’s measurement compression theorem stands as one of the most penetrating insights of quantum information theory. In addition to making an original and profound statement about measurement in quantum theory, it also underlies several other general protocols used for entanglement distillation and local purity distillation. The theorem provides for an asymptotic decomposition of any quantum measurement into noise and information. This decomposition leads to an optimal protocol for having a sender simulate many independent instances of a quantum measurement and send the measurement outcomes to a receiver, using as little communication as possible. The protocol assumes that the parties have access to some amount of common randomness, which is a strictly weaker resource than classical communication. In this review, we provide a second look at Winter’s measurement compression theorem, detailing the information processing task, giving examples for understanding it, reviewing Winter’s achievability proof, and detailing a new approach to its single-letter converse theorem. We prove an extension of the theorem to the case in which the sender is not required to receive the outcomes of the simulated measurement. The total cost of common randomness and classical communication can be lower for such a ‘non-feedback’ simulation, and we prove a single-letter converse theorem demonstrating optimality. We then review the Devetak–Winter theorem on classical data compression with quantum side information, providing new proofs of its achievability and converse parts. From there, we outline a new protocol that we call ‘measurement compression with quantum side information,’ announced previously by two of us in our work on triple trade-offs in quantum Shannon theory. This protocol has several applications, including its part in the ‘classically-assisted state redistribution’ protocol, which is the most general protocol on the static side of the quantum information theory tree, and its role in reducing the classical communication cost in a task known as local purity distillation. We also outline a connection between measurement compression with quantum side information and recent work on entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory. Finally, we prove a single-letter theorem characterizing measurement compression with quantum side information when the sender is not required to obtain the measurement outcome. (topical review)
Routing quantum information in spin chains
Paganelli, Simone; Lorenzo, Salvatore; Apollaro, Tony J. G.; Plastina, Francesco; Giorgi, Gian Luca
2013-06-01
Two different models are presented that allow for efficiently performing routing of a quantum state. Both cases involve an XX spin chain working as a data bus and additional spins that play the role of sender and receivers, one of which is selected to be the target of the quantum state transmission protocol via a coherent quantum coupling mechanism making use of local and/or global magnetic fields. Quantum routing is achieved in the first of the models considered by weakly coupling the sender and the receiver to the data bus. On the other hand, in the second model, local magnetic fields acting on additional spins located between the sender and receiver and the data bus allow us to perform high-fidelity routing.
Encoding, symbolic dynamics, cryptography and C++ implementations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate three techniques which can be used to encode information using certain types of chaotic maps and provide implementations in C++. One of the three, the variable bit length encoding technique, is a new technique for encoding information using transient chaos. We describe all three techniques, including variable bit length encoding, in detail. Finally we investigate the use of the variable bit length encoding technique as a cryptographic scheme
Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Y.; Kapon, E.
2008-01-01
The effectiveness of virtual photons (VPHs) that need neither to conserve energy nor to follow temporal sequences because of the time-energy uncertainty principle, in the electric interactions between detuned non-identical two level atoms having different size and shape is demonstrated in terms of a model of resonance dynamic multipolemultipole interaction (RDMMI), on the basis of microphotoluminescence (?-PL) experiment of a single asymmetric pair of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The ranges o...
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-11-03
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on optimizing the detection efficiency of visible light photon counters (VLPCs), a single-photon detection technology that is also capable of resolving photon number states. We report a record-breaking quantum efficiency of 91 +/- 3% observed with our detection system. Both sources and detectors are independently interesting physical systems worthy of study, but together they promise to enable entire new classes and applications of information based on quantum mechanics.
Quantum Private Information Retrieval with Sublinear Communication Complexity
Gall, François Le
2011-01-01
This note presents a quantum protocol for private information retrieval, in the single-server case and with information-theoretical privacy, that has O(\\sqrt{n})-qubit communication complexity, where n denotes the size of the database. In comparison, it is known that any classical protocol must use \\Omega(n) bits of communication in this setting.
Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.
Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2011-07-15
We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.
Transfer of Gravitational Information through a Quantum Channel
Zhang, Baocheng; Zhan, Ming-sheng
2013-01-01
Gravitational information is incorporated into an atomic state by correlation of the internal and external degrees of freedom of the atom, in the present study of the atomic interferometer. Thus it is difficult to transfer information by using a standard teleportation scheme. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for the transfer of gravitational information through a quantum channel provided by the entangled atomic state. Significantly, the existence of a quantum channel suppresses phase noise, improving the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer. Thus our proposal provides novel readout mechanism for the interferometer with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.
Weusthoff, Sarah; Baucom, Brian R; Hahlweg, Kurt
2013-04-01
The human voice is one of the sounds most frequently experienced by human beings. During couple conflict, higher fundamental frequency (f0), a physical property of human speech, has been linked to an increased risk of divorce, less beneficial response to couple therapy, and higher levels of dysfunctional communication behavior. F0 is generally considered to be a measure of emotional arousal, but it is not currently clear whether this interpretation is appropriate for understanding spouses' f0 during couple interaction. The goal of the current article is to clarify what forms of information are encoded in f0 during couple conflict by examining the relations between f0 range, physiological variables, and communication behavior during the conflict discussions of 67 German couples. In line with evolutionary models of speech production, associations emerged in the expected directions between f0 and: (a) physiological variables (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol); (b) self-reported communication behavior; and (c) observationally coded communication behavior. Additionally, simultaneous examination of physiological variables and observationally coded communication behaviors revealed that associations between both sets of variables and f0 range were largely independent of one another. Furthermore, women's range of f0 was significantly greater than men's range of f0. With regard to social signaling theories, f0 range can be understood as a nonverbal transmission of distress. Implications for future research on and use of f0 are discussed. PMID:23458696
Amselem, Elias
2012-01-01
The rapidly developing interdisciplinary field of quantum information, which merges quantum and information science, studies non-classical aspects of quantum systems. These studies are motivated by the promise that the non-classicality can be used to solve tasks more efficiently than classical methods would allow. In many quantum informational studies, non-classical behaviour is attributed to the notion of entanglement. In this thesis we use photons to experimentally investigate fundamental q...
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy@mail.dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Bao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center (CSRC), Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Zi-hong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Song-lin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, He-shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2014-07-15
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale.
Claeson, Tord; Delsing, Per; Wendin, Göran
2009-12-01
Quantum mechanics is the most ground-breaking and fascinating theoretical concept developed in physics during the past century. Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world and its extension into the macroscopic world, including modern technical applications, is based upon quantum mechanics. We have experienced a remarkable development of information and communication technology during the past two decades, to a large extent depending upon successful fabrication of smaller and smaller components and circuits. However, we are finally approaching the physical limits of component miniaturization as we enter a microscopic world ruled by quantum mechanics. Present technology is mainly based upon classical physics such as mechanics and electromagnetism. We now face a similar paradigm shift as was experienced two hundred years ago, at the time of the industrial revolution. Engineered construction of systems is currently increasingly based on quantum physics instead of classical physics, and quantum information is replacing much of classical communication. Quantum computing is one of the most exciting sub-fields of this revolution. Individual quantum systems can be used to store and process information. They are called quantum bits, or qubits for short. A quantum computer could eventually be constructed by combining a number of qubits that act coherently. Important computations can be performed much more quickly than by classical computers. However, while we control and measure a qubit, it must be sufficiently isolated from its environment to avoid noise that causes decoherence at the same time. Currently, low temperature is generally needed to obtain sufficiently long decoherence times. Single qubits of many different kinds can be built and manipulated; some research groups have managed to successfully couple qubits and perform rudimentary logic operations. However, the fundamental problems, such as decoherence, entanglement, quantum measurements and error correction, have yet to be solved. It has been predicted that quantum computers will be able to perform certain complicated computations or simulations in minutes or hours instead of years as with present computers. So far there exist very few useful quantum algorithms; however there is hope that the development of these will be stimulated once there is a breakthrough in hardware. Remarkable progress has been made in quantum engineering and quantum measurements, but a large scale quantum computer is still far off. Quantum communication and cryptography are much closer to the market than a quantum computer. The development of quantum information has meant a large push in the field of quantum physics, that previously could only be studied in the microscopic world. Artificial atoms, realized by circuit technology and mimicking the properties of 'natural' atoms, are one example of the new possibilities opened up by quantum engineering. Several different types of qubits have been suggested. Some are based upon microscopic entities, like atoms and ions in traps, or nuclear spins in molecules. They can have long coherence times (i.e. a long period allowing many operations, of the order of 10 000, to be performed before the state needs to be refreshed) but they are difficult to integrate into large systems. Other qubits are based upon solid state components that facilitate integration and coupling between qubits, but they suffer from interactions with the environment and their coherent states have a limited lifetime. Advanced experiments have been performed with superconducting Josephson junctions and many breakthroughs have been reported in the last few years. They have an advantage in the inherent coherence of superconducting Cooper pairs over macroscopic distances. We chose to focus the Nobel Symposium on Qubits for Future Quantum Information on superconducting qubits to allow for depth in discussions, but at the same time to allow comparison with other types of qubits that may prevail in the long run. The purpose of the symposium was to bring together leading resear
Correlation dynamics of quantum fields and black hole information paradox
Hu, B L
1995-01-01
In recent years a statistical mechanics description of particles, fields and spacetime based on the concept of quantum open systems and the influence functional formalism has been introduced. It reproduces in full the established theory of quantum fields in curved spacetime and contains also a microscopic description of their statistical properties, such as noise, fluctuations, decoherence, and dissipation. This new framework allows one to explore the quantum statistical properties of spacetime at the interface between the semiclassical and quantum gravity regimes, as well as important non-equilibrium processes in the early universe and black holes, such as particle creation, entropy generation, galaxy formation, Hawking radiation, gravitational collapse, backreaction and the black hole end-state and information lost issues. Here we give a summary of the theory of correlation dynamics of quantum fields and describe how this conceptual scheme coupled with scaling behavior near the infrared limit can shed light...
Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science
Band, Yehuda B
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...
Theoretical foundations of quantum information processing and communication. Selected topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on eight extensive lectures selected from those given at the renowned Chris Engelbrecht Summer School in Theoretical Physics in South Africa, this text on the theoretical foundations of quantum information processing and communication covers an array of topics, including quantum probabilities, open systems, and non-Markovian dynamics and decoherence. It also addresses quantum information and relativity as well as testing quantum mechanics in high energy physics. Because these self-contained lectures discuss topics not typically covered in advanced undergraduate courses, they are ideal for post-graduate students entering this field of research. Some of the lectures are written at a more introductory level while others are presented as tutorials that survey recent developments and results in various subfields. (orig.)
Information trade-offs for optical quantum communication
Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat
2012-01-01
Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks---classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding techniqu...
Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines
Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Wang, XiaoGuang
2014-01-01
An unknown quantum state cannot be copied on demand and broadcast freely due to the famous no-cloning theorem. Approximate cloning schemes have been proposed to achieve the optimal cloning characterized by the maximal fidelity between the original and its copies. Here, from the perspective of quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the distribution of QFI in asymmetric cloning machines which produce two nonidentical copies. As one might expect, improving the QFI of ...
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into th...
The role of entanglement in quantum measurement and information processing
Busch, P
2002-01-01
The significance of the quantum feature of entanglement between physical systems is investigated in the context of quantum measurements. It is shown that, while there are measurement couplings that leave the object and probe systems non-entangled, no information transfer from object to probe can take place unless there is there is at least some intermittent period where the two systems are entangled. PACS numbers: 03.65.Ca; 03.65.Ta; 03.65.Wj; 03.65.Ud.
Photon temporal modes: a complete framework for quantum information science
Brecht, B; Reddy, Dileep V.; Silberhorn, C.; Raymer, M G
2015-01-01
Field-orthogonal temporal modes of photonic quantum states provide a new framework for quantum information science (QIS). They intrinsically span a high-dimensional Hilbert space and lend themselves to integration into existing single-mode fiber communication networks. We show that the three main requirements to construct a valid framework for QIS -- the controlled generation of resource states, the targeted and highly efficient manipulation of temporal modes and their effic...
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into the notion of complexity of logic operations.
Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality
Dvali, Gia; Franca, Andre; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico
2015-01-01
We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the co...
Detecting large quantum Fisher information with finite measurement precision
Fröwis, Florian; Sekatski, Pavel; Dür, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
We propose an experimentally accessible scheme to determine lower bounds on the quantum Fisher information (QFI), which ascertains multipartite entanglement or usefulness for quantum metrology. The scheme is based on comparing the measurement statistics of a state before and after a small unitary rotation. We argue that, in general, limited resolution of collective observables prevents the detection of large QFI. This can be overcome by performing an additional operation pri...
Context translation and quantum information via state partitions
Svozil, K
2004-01-01
A context translation principle is introduced relating the origin of quantum randomness to the uncontrollable degrees of freedom of the quasi-classical measurement interface, thereby translating a mismatch between the state prepared and the state measured. For many-particle systems, quantum information in arbitrary base $n$ is defined by partitioning the set of states according to the outcomes of $n$-ary joined multi-particle observables.
Quantum information via state partitions and the context translation principle
Svozil, Karl
2003-01-01
For many-particle systems, quantum information in base n can be defined by partitioning the set of states according to the outcomes of n-ary (joint) observables. Thereby, k particles can carry k nits. With regards to the randomness of single outcomes, a context translation principle is proposed. Quantum randomness is related to the uncontrollable degrees of freedom of the measurement interface, thereby translating a mismatch between the state prepared and the state measured.
Information and fundamental elements of the structure of quantum theory
Brukner, Caslav; Zeilinger, Anton
2002-01-01
Niels Bohr wrote: "There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about Nature." In an analogous way, von Weizsaecker suggested that the notion of the elementary alternative, the "Ur", should play a pivotal role when constructing physics. Both approaches suggest that the concept of information should play an essential role in the fo...
Arbitrary Waveform Generator for Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions
Bowler, R; Warring, U.; Britton, J. W.; Sawyer, B. C.; Amini, J.
2013-01-01
Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for sh...
Efficient Classical Simulation of Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processes
Bartlett, S D; Braunstein, S L; Nemoto, K; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Sanders, Barry C.; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Nemoto, Kae
2002-01-01
We obtain sufficient conditions for the efficient simulation of a continuous variable quantum algorithm or process on a classical computer. The resulting theorem is an extension of the Gottesman-Knill theorem to continuous variable quantum information. For a collection of harmonic oscillators, any quantum process that begins with unentangled Gaussian states, performs only transformations generated by Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the canonical operators, and involves only measurements of canonical operators (including finite losses) and suitable operations conditioned on these measurements can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer.
Projection methods in quantum information science
Cheung, Yuen-lam; Drusvyatskiy, Dmitriy; Li, Chi-Kwong; Pelejo, Diane; Wolkowicz, Henry
2014-01-01
We consider the problem of constructing quantum operations or channels, if they exist, that transform a given set of quantum states $\\{\\rho_1, \\dots, \\rho_k\\}$ to another such set $\\{\\hat\\rho_1, \\dots, \\hat\\rho_k\\}$. In other words, we must find a {\\em completely positive linear map}, if it exists, that maps a given set of density matrices to another given set of density matrices. This problem, in turn, is an instance of a positive semi-definite feasibility problem, but with...
EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory
Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.
2010-02-01
Quantum many-body models describing natural systems or materials and physical systems assembled piece by piece in the laboratory for the purpose of realizing quantum information processing share an important feature: intricate correlations that originate from the coherent interaction between a large number of constituents. In recent years it has become manifest that the cross-fertilization between research devoted to quantum information science and to quantum many-body physics leads to new ideas, methods, tools, and insights in both fields. Issues of criticality, quantum phase transitions, quantum order and magnetism that play a role in one field find relations to the classical simulation of quantum systems, to error correction and fault tolerance thresholds, to channel capacities and to topological quantum computation, to name but a few. The structural similarities of typical problems in both fields and the potential for pooling of ideas then become manifest. Notably, methods and ideas from quantum information have provided fresh approaches to long-standing problems in strongly correlated systems in the condensed matter context, including both numerical methods and conceptual insights. Focus on quantum information and many-body theory Contents TENSOR NETWORKS Homogeneous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz tensor networks for quantum critical systems M Rizzi, S Montangero, P Silvi, V Giovannetti and Rosario Fazio Concatenated tensor network states R Hübener, V Nebendahl and W Dür Entanglement renormalization in free bosonic systems: real-space versus momentum-space renormalization group transforms G Evenbly and G Vidal Finite-size geometric entanglement from tensor network algorithms Qian-Qian Shi, Román Orús, John Ove Fjærestad and Huan-Qiang Zhou Characterizing symmetries in a projected entangled pair state D Pérez-García, M Sanz, C E González-Guillén, M M Wolf and J I Cirac Matrix product operator representations B Pirvu, V Murg, J I Cirac and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovi? Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons in an optical lattice J Schachenmayer, G Pupillo and A J Daley Implementing quantum gates using t
Statistical properties of quantum entanglement and information entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Key words: entropy, entanglement, atom-field interaction, trapped ions, cold atoms, information entropy. Objects of research: Pure state entanglement, entropy squeezing mazer. The aim of the work: Study of the new entanglement features and new measures for both pure-state and mixed state of particle-field interaction. Also, the impact of the information entropy on the quantum information theory. Method of investigation: Methods of theoretical physics and applied mathematics (statistical physics, quantum optics) are used. Results obtained and their novelty are: All the results of the dissertation are new and many new features have been discovered. Particularly: the most general case of the pure state entanglement has been introduced. Although various special aspects of the quantum entropy have been investigated previously, the general features of the dynamics, when a multi-level system and a common environment are considered, have not been treated before and our work therefore, field a gap in the literature. Specifically: 1) A new entanglement measure due to quantum mutual entropy (mixed-state entanglement) we called it DEM, has been introduced, 2) A new treatment of the atomic information entropy in higher level systems has been presented. The problem has been completely solved in the case of three-level system, 3) A new solution of the interaction between the ultra cold atoms and cavity field has been discovered, 4) Some new models of the atom-field interaction have been adopted. Practical value: The subject carries out theoretic character. Application region: Results can be used in quantum computer developments. Also, the presented results can be used for further developments of the quantum information and quantum communications. (author)
Quantum String Seal Is Insecure
Chau, H F
2006-01-01
A quantum string seal encodes the value of a (bit) string as a quantum state in such a way that everyone can extract a non-negligible amount of information on the string by a suitable measurement. Moreover, such measurement must disturb the quantum state and is likely to be detected by an authorized verifier. In this way, the intactness of the encoded quantum state plays the role of a wax seal in the digital world. Here I analyze the security of quantum string seal by studying the information disturbance tradeoff of a measurement. This information disturbance tradeoff analysis extends the earlier results of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. and Chau by concluding that all quantum string seals are insecure. Specifically, I find a way to obtain non-trivial information on the string that escapes the verifier's detection with probability at least one half.
Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics
Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M
2008-01-01
The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to avoid the risk of information leakage during the information mutual transmission between two authorized participants, i.e. Alice and Bob, a quantum dialogue protocol based on the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states and the shared secret Bell state is proposed. The proposed protocol integrates the ideas of block transmission, two-step transmission and unitary operation encoding together using the Bell states as the information carriers. Besides the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states, a shared secret Bell state is also used to overcome the information leakage problem, which not only makes Bob aware of the prepared initial state but also is used for Bob's encoding and entanglement swapping. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol can resist the general active attacks from an outside eavesdropper Eve. Moreover, the relation between the maximal amount of information Eve can gain and the detection probability is derived. (paper)
Information-theoretic implications of quantum causal structures.
Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David
2015-01-01
It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution. However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information-theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture, where a set of few-body quantum systems is distributed among some parties. PMID:25562600
Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsueda, H.; Hvam, JØrn Märcher
2008-01-01
The effectiveness of virtual photons (VPHs) that need neither to conserve energy nor to follow temporal sequences because of the time-energy uncertainty principle, in the electric interactions between detuned non-identical two level atoms having different size and shape is demonstrated in terms of a model of resonance dynamic multipolemultipole interaction (RDMMI), on the basis of microphotoluminescence (?-PL) experiment of a single asymmetric pair of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The ranges of the mediating photons in various RDMMI are estimated, proving the significance of RDMMI in the nanometer regime. Furthermore, prospective device concepts based on the RDMMI assistedby the VPHs, having possibility of autonomic routing of signals like a fallingdominoes effect not only throughout spatial extent but also over temporal differences are deiscussed.
Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; GIovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel. L.
2011-01-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generaliz...
Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing
Maurer, Peter
Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells. This opens the door for the engineering of nano-scaled chemical reactions to the study of temperature dependent biological processes. Finally, a novel technique is introduced that facilitates optical spin detection with nanoscale resolution based on an optical far-field technique; by combining this with a 'quantum Zeno' like effect coherent manipulation of nominally identical spins at a nanoscale is achieved.
Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states
Kent, Adrian; Spiller, Tim
2010-01-01
We define the task of {\\it quantum tagging}, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, which we first discussed in 2002 and described in a 2006 patent (for an insecure protocol). The possibility has recently been reconsidered by other authors. All the more recently discussed protoco...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P. [Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Information Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2011-07-15
We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.
Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this ‘quantum advantage’
Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University (Australia); Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan; Vedral, Vlatko [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ralph, Timothy C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Department of Physics, University of Queensland (Australia)
2014-12-04
Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this ‘quantum advantage’.
Quantum information approach to normal representation of extensive games
Fr\\kackiewicz, Piotr
2011-01-01
We modify the concept of quantum strategic game to make it useful for extensive form games. We prove that our modification allows to consider the normal representation of any finite extensive game using the fundamental concepts of quantum information. The Selten's Horse game and the general form of two-stage extensive game with perfect information are studied to illustrate a potential application of our idea. In both examples we use Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein approach as well as Marinatto-Weber approach to quantization of games.
Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one
Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seshadreesan, Kaushik P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2015-02-15
The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I{sub ?}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.
Troiani, Filippo; Hohenester, Ulrich; Molinari, Elisa
2000-01-01
We propose an all-optical implementation of quantum-information processing in semiconductor quantum dots, where electron-hole excitations (excitons) serve as the computational degrees of freedom (qubits). We show that the strong dot confinement leads to an overall enhancement of Coulomb correlations and to a strong renormalization of the excitonic states, which can be exploited for performing conditional and unconditional qubit operations.
LO, Hoi-Kwong
1999-01-01
We study the amount of classical communication needed for distributed quantum information processing. In particular, we introduce the concept of "remote preparation" of a quantum state. Given an ensemble of states, Alice's task is to help Bob in a distant laboratory to prepare a state of her choice. We find several examples of an ensemble with an entropy S where the remote preparation can be done with a communication cost lower than the amount (2S) required by standard telep...
Relativistic Quantum Information: Developments in quantum theory in general relativistic scenarios
Martín Martínez, Eduardo
2011-01-01
Recently, there has been increased interest in understanding entanglement and quantum communication in black hole spacetimes and in using quantum information techniques to address questions in gravity. Studies on relativistic entanglement show the emergence of conceptually important qualitative differences to a non-relativistic treatment. For instance, entanglement was found to be an observer-dependent property that changes from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetim...
A few experiments of quantum information processing.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
?ernoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.
Košice : Slovak Physical Society, 2006 - (Ková?, J.; Reiffers, M.), s. 35-36 ISBN 80-969124-2-9. [Conference of Slovak and Czech Physicists /15./. Košice (SK), 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] Grant ostatní: EU(XE) IST-2002-506813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum multimeter * interference * down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers
Entangling neutral atoms for quantum information processing
Calarco, T.; Briegel, HJ; Jaksch, D.; Cirac, JI; Zoller, P.
2000-01-01
We review recent proposals for performing entanglement manipulation via cold collisions between neutral atoms. State-dependent, time-varying trapping potentials allow one to control the interaction between atoms, so that conditional phase shifts realizing a universal quantum gate can be obtained with high fidelity. We discuss possible physical implementations with existing experimental techniques, for example optical lattices and magnetic micro-traps. © 2000 Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Malik, Mehul; Rodenburg, Brandon; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Leach, Jonathan; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Boyd, Robert W
2012-01-01
We describe an experimental implementation of a free-space 11-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) system using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. This QKD system has a maximum theoretical channel capacity of log2(11) = 3.46 bits/photon. The effects of Kolmogorov thin-phase turbulence on the OAM channel capacity of this QKD system are quantified. We find that increasing the turbulence leads to a degradation of the channel capacity of the OAM channel. We are able to mitigate the effects of turbulence by increasing the spacing between detected modes.
Gaussian optimizers and the additivity problem in quantum information theory
Holevo, A. S.
2015-04-01
This paper surveys two remarkable analytical problems of quantum information theory. The main part is a detailed report on the recent (partial) solution of the quantum Gaussian optimizer problem which establishes an optimal property of Glauber's coherent states -- a particular case of pure quantum Gaussian states. The notion of a quantum Gaussian channel is developed as a non-commutative generalization of an integral operator with Gaussian kernel, and it is shown that the coherent states, and under certain conditions only they, minimize a broad class of concave functionals of the output of a Gaussian channel. Thus, the output states corresponding to a Gaussian input are the `least chaotic', majorizing all the other outputs. The solution, however, is essentially restricted to the gauge-invariant case where a distinguished complex structure plays a special role. Also discussed is the related well-known additivity conjecture, which was solved in principle in the negative some five years ago. This refers to the additivity or multiplicativity (with respect to tensor products of channels) of information quantities related to the classical capacity of a quantum channel, such as the (1\\to p)-norms or the minimal von Neumann or Rényi output entropies. A remarkable corollary of the present solution of the quantum Gaussian optimizer problem is that these additivity properties, while not valid in general, do hold in the important and interesting class of gauge-covariant Gaussian channels. Bibliography: 65 titles.
Quantum-information processing with circuit quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically study single and two-qubit dynamics in the circuit QED architecture. We focus on the current experimental design [Wallraff et al., Nature (London) 431, 162 (2004); Schuster et al., ibid. 445, 515 (2007)] in which superconducting charge qubits are capacitively coupled to a single high-Q superconducting coplanar resonator. In this system, logical gates are realized by driving the resonator with microwave fields. Advantages of this architecture are that it allows for multiqubit gates between non-nearest qubits and for the realization of gates in parallel, opening the possibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconducting circuits. In this paper, we focus on one- and two-qubit gates that do not require moving away from the charge-degeneracy ''sweet spot'. This is advantageous as it helps to increase the qubit dephasing time and does not require modification of the original circuit QED. However, these gates can, in some cases, be slower than those that do not use this constraint. Five types of two-qubit gates are discussed, these include gates based on virtual photons, real excitation of the resonator, and a gate based on the geometric phase. We also point out the importance of selection rules when working at the charge degeneracy point
A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2015-10-01
This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be addressed as well, in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation of the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall also consider Heisenberg's earlier work leading him to the discovery of quantum mechanics, which inspired Dirac's work. I argue that Heisenberg's and Dirac's work was guided by their adherence to and their confidence in the fundamental principles of quantum theory. The final section of the article discusses the recent work by D'Ariano and coworkers on the principles of quantum information theory, which extend quantum theory and its principles in a new direction. This extension enabled them to offer a new derivation of Dirac's equations from these principles alone, without using the principles of relativity.
AMO Science as an Enabler of Quantum Information Technology
Heiligman, Mark
2005-05-01
This talk will present an overview on a decade's worth of innovation and progress toward developing a quantum computer, and suggest future research directions. In the eleven years since Peter Shor's quantum algorithms, quantum information science has become one of the fastest growing areas of physics. The prospect of executing quantum algorithms with no classical counterparts that accomplish tasks far beyond the capabilities of classical computers is one of the grand challenges of modern physics. The quest for quantum computing has inspired the discovery of passive and active forms of error correction, the formulation of compelling concepts for physical quantum bits, and the construction of experimental apparatus to realize them. Steady progress on both the experimental and theoretical fronts is transforming the fundamental tenets of quantum computing from a theoretical notion to a proven reality. The search for suitable physical systems has promoted the cross-pollination of ideas and language between atomic, molecular, and optical physics and solid-state physics, to the advantage of both communities.
Integrated Microsystems Approach to Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing
Kim, Jungsang
2013-05-01
Trapped atomic ions are the leading candidate physical system for quantum information processing, featuring high quality qubits capable of high fidelity operations including state preparation, detection and quantum logic gates. A major remaining challenge is the task of constructing experimental systems where all operations necessary for quantum information processing can be performed in a scalable way. I will discuss a three-tier approach to construct such scalable hardware utilizing technologies that are available today. Arbitrary qubit gate operations in a linear ion chain (implemented in a single chip trap. One can then connect a large number (~103) of such trap chips using reconfigurable photonic network. Complex microfabricated ion trap chips integrated with various optical components such as reflectors, lenses and optical cavities are crucial in realizing efficient interfaces for these experiments, and micromirrors can provide fast and flexible beam delivery system with individual addressing capability. I will present the progress in ion qubit manipulation on microfabricated chip traps, the integration effort with optical components, and potential application in scalable quantum computer and quantum repeater realization. Trapped atomic ions are the leading candidate physical system for quantum information processing, featuring high quality qubits capable of high fidelity operations including state preparation, detection and quantum logic gates. A major remaining challenge is the task of constructing experimental systems where all operations necessary for quantum information processing can be performed in a scalable way. I will discuss a three-tier approach to construct such scalable hardware utilizing technologies that are available today. Arbitrary qubit gate operations in a linear ion chain (implemented in a single chip trap. One can then connect a large number (~103) of such trap chips using reconfigurable photonic network. Complex microfabricated ion trap chips integrated with various optical components such as reflectors, lenses and optical cavities are crucial in realizing efficient interfaces for these experiments, and micromirrors can provide fast and flexible beam delivery system with individual addressing capability. I will present the progress in ion qubit manipulation on microfabricated chip traps, the integration effort with optical components, and potential application in scalable quantum computer and quantum repeater realization. This work is supported by IARPA/ARO and DARPA.
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states. Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot be extracted by local measurements due to the limitations dictated by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. We experimentally characterize the evolution of the discord of EPR states and mixtures of coherent states in an attenuating channel. We demonstrate that the discord can grow by local dissipation in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current commercially available equipment. However the performance in terms of achievable distance is highly limited. We first experimentally demonstrate that the boundaries of coherent states can be surpassed using modulated entangled states. A simplied experiment is also presented where the modulation of a single-mode squeezed state gives a very reconciliation efficiency robust protocol. All of this is done to achieve higher key rates at the current limits of the coherent state protocols and to extend the boundaries for tolerable channel noise, loss and reconciliation efficiency. As any degree of squeezing improves the performance the extra effort of implementing squeezing in commercial devices is overshadowed by the extended range and increased security margin achieved. Still using the same experimental setup, but now in the context of polarization we have experimentally bridged the gab between the states with very low photon numbers and the states where one of Stokes parameters is highly excited. To describe the polarization of these state we introduce several new polarization measures which take into account the covariance of the polarization and resolve the polarization manifolds. We experimentally demonstrate states for which the polarization is hidden in the unresolved measures and as well a state which is unpolarized for both first order polarization measures. Finally we illustrate the polarization with SU2 Wigner functions to give a richer picture, not only of the degree of polarization but also its distribution among the manifolds.
NMR Based Quantum Information Processing Achievements and Prospects
Cory, D G; Knill, E H; Viola, L; Havel, T F; Boulant, N; Boutis, G; Fortunato, E M; Lloyd, S; Martínez, R; Negrevergne, C; Pravia, M A; Sharf, Y; Teklemariam, G; Weinstein, Yu S; Zurek, W H
2000-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides an experimental setting to explore physical implementations of quantum information processing (QIP). Here we introduce the basic background for understanding applications of NMR to QIP and explain their current successes, limitations and potential. NMR spectroscopy is well known for its wealth of diverse coherent manipulations of spin dynamics. Ideas and instrumentation from liquid state NMR spectroscopy have been used to experiment with QIP. This approach has carried the field to a complexity of about 10 qubits, a small number for quantum computation but large enough for observing and better understanding the complexity of the quantum world. While liquid state NMR is the only present-day technology about to reach this number of qubits, further increases in complexity will require new methods. We sketch one direction leading towards a scalable quantum computer using spin 1/2 particles. The next step of which is a solid state NMR-based QIP capable of reaching 10-30 qub...
Method for modeling decoherence on a quantum-information processor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop and implement a method for modeling decoherence processes on an N-dimensional quantum system that requires only an N2-dimensional quantum environment and random classical fields. This model offers the advantage that it may be implemented on small quantum-information processors in order to explore the intermediate regime between semiclassical and fully quantum models. We consider in particular ?z?z system-environment couplings which induce coherence (phase) damping, although the model is directly extendable to other coupling Hamiltonians. Effective, irreversible phase damping of the system is obtained by applying an additional stochastic Hamiltonian on the environment alone, periodically redressing it and thereby irreversibliy randomizing the system phase information that has leaked into the environment as a result of the coupling. This model is exactly solvable in the case of phase damping, and we use this solution to describe the model's behavior in some limiting cases. In the limit of small stochastic phase kicks the system's coherence decays exponentially at a rate that increases linearly with the kick frequency. In the case of strong kicks we observe an effective decoupling of the system from the environment. We present a detailed implementation of the method on a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processor
Principles of quantum computation and information volume II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kok, P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2007-10-05
Any new textbook in quantum information has some pretty strong competition to contend with. Not only is there the classic text by Nielsen and Chuang from 2000, but also John Preskill's lecture notes, available for free online. Nevertheless, a proper textbook seems more enduring than online notes, and the field has progressed considerably in the seven years since Nielsen and Chuang was published. A new textbook is a great opportunity to give a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information. Therein also lies a problem: The field has expanded so much that it is impossible to cover everything at the undergraduate level. Quantum information theory is relevant to an extremely large portion of physics, from solid state and condensed matter physics to particle physics. Every discipline that has some relation to quantum mechanics is affected by our understanding of quantum information theory. Those who wish to write a book on quantum information therefore have to make some profound choices: Do you keep the ultimate aim of a quantum computer in mind, or do you focus on quantum communication and precision measurements as well? Do you describe how to build a quantum computer with all possible physical systems or do you present only the underlying principles? Do you include only the tried and tested ideas, or will you also explore more speculative directions? You don't have to take a black-or-white stance on these questions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory', 'Decoherence', 'Quantum Error Correction', and 'First Experimental Implementations'. The first volume covers the basics of classical computation, quantum mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum communication. Chapter five starts with the density matrix formalism, and proceeds with the development of the Kraus representation, POVMs, von Neuman entropy, quantum data compression, the Holevo bound, the partial transpose criterion, and it ends with a very nice section on the various entropies that play a role in modern physics. This includes not only the thermodynamical and statistical entropy, but also the dynamical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, which is used in quantum chaos in chapter 6. On the whole, I think that this is a really clear and well-presented chapter. A minor drawback is that the concept of CP maps is not explained as well as it could have been, for example by relating it to the partial transpose criterion. Chapter six continues with the high standard set in chapter five, and presents a very thorough exposition of decoherence in general. It introduces the different decoherence channels, and gives truly excellent explanations of the master equation (tied in with the Kraus representation), quantum jumps, and the quantum trajectory formalism. It also has an elegant explanation for the sensitivity of Schroedinger cats to decoherence. The chapter ends with two sections on quantum chaos. Since the authors are experts in this fascinating area, this is a welcome addition to the canon of topics typically covered in quantum information. Unfortunately, the section is quite hard to follow, and as a result it is a bit of a missed opportunity. There is a section on chaos in the first volume of this series, and this may provide the required background. Chapter seven on quantum error correction is disappointing, and I have the feeling that the authors went through the motions without a real passion for the subject matter. The chapter describes various error correction codes, including Hamming codes and CSS
Principles of quantum computation and information volume II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Any new textbook in quantum information has some pretty strong competition to contend with. Not only is there the classic text by Nielsen and Chuang from 2000, but also John Preskill's lecture notes, available for free online. Nevertheless, a proper textbook seems more enduring than online notes, and the field has progressed considerably in the seven years since Nielsen and Chuang was published. A new textbook is a great opportunity to give a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information. Therein also lies a problem: The field has expanded so much that it is impossible to cover everything at the undergraduate level. Quantum information theory is relevant to an extremely large portion of physics, from solid state and condensed matter physics to particle physics. Every discipline that has some relation to quantum mechanics is affected by our understanding of quantum information theory. Those who wish to write a book on quantum information therefore have to make some profound choices: Do you keep the ultimate aim of a quantum computer in mind, or do you focus on quantum communication and precision measurements as well? Do you describe how to build a quantum computer with all possible physical systems or do you present only the underlying principles? Do you include only the tried and tested ideas, or will you also explore more speculative directions? You don't have to take a black-or-white stance on these questions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory', 'Decoherence', 'Quantum Error Correction', and 'First Experimental Implementations'. The first volume covers the basics of classical computation, quantum mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum communication. Chapter five starts with the density matrix formalism, and proceeds with the development of the Kraus representation, POVMs, von Neuman entropy, quantum data compression, the Holevo bound, the partial transpose criterion, and it ends with a very nice section on the various entropies that play a role in modern physics. This includes not only the thermodynamical and statistical entropy, but also the dynamical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, which is used in quantum chaos in chapter 6. On the whole, I think that this is a really clear and well-presented chapter. A minor drawback is that the concept of CP maps is not explained as well as it could have been, for example by relating it to the partial transpose criterion. Chapter six continues with the high standard set in chapter five, and presents a very thorough exposition of decoherence in general. It introduces the different decoherence channels, and gives truly excellent explanations of the master equation (tied in with the Kraus representation), quantum jumps, and the quantum trajectory formalism. It also has an elegant explanation for the sensitivity of Schroedinger cats to decoherence. The chapter ends with two sections on quantum chaos. Since the authors are experts in this fascinating area, this is a welcome addition to the canon of topics typically covered in quantum information. Unfortunately, the section is quite hard to follow, and as a result it is a bit of a missed opportunity. There is a section on chaos in the first volume of this series, and this may provide the required background. Chapter seven on quantum error correction is disappointing, and I have the feeling that the authors went through the motions without a real passion for the subject matter. The chapter describes various error correction codes, including Hamming codes and CSS codes, but it is virtually silent on fault tolerance; it do
Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond
Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R
2014-01-01
The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
In this short review I present my personal reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). In general this interpretation is very attractive for me. However, its rigid coupling to the notion of irreducible quantum randomness is a very complicated issue which I plan to enlighten in more detail. This note may be useful for general public interested in quantum foundations, especially because I try to analyze essentials of the information interpretation critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages as it is commonly done). This review is written in non-physicist friendly manner. Experts actively exploring this interpretation may be interested as well - in comments of "an external observer" who have been monitoring development of this approach to QM during last 18 years. The last part of this review is devoted to the general methodology of science with references to views of de Finetti, Wigner, and Peres.
Quantum Fisher and Skew information for Unruh accelerated Dirac qubit
Banerjee, Subhashish; Omkar, S
2015-01-01
We develop a Bloch vector representation of Unruh channel for a Dirac field mode. This is used to provide a unified, analytical treatment of quantum Fisher and Skew information for a qubit subjected to the Unruh channel, both in its pure form as well as in the presence of experimentally relevant external noise channels. The time evolution of Fisher and Skew information is studied along with the impact of external environment parameters such as temperature and squeezing. The external noises are modelled by both purely dephasing phase damping as well as the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channels. An interesting interplay between the external reservoir temperature and squeezing on the Fisher and Skew information is observed, in particular, for the action of the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel. It is seen that for some regimes, squeezing can enhance the quantum information against the deteriorating influence of the ambient environment. Similar features are also observed for the analogous s...
Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
2015-08-01
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
Toward a fully relativistic theory of quantum information
Adami, Christoph
2011-01-01
Information theory is a statistical theory dealing with the relative state of detectors and physical systems. Because of this physicality of information, the classical framework of Shannon needs to be extended to deal with quantum detectors, perhaps moving at relativistic speeds, or even within curved space-time. Considerable progress toward such a theory has been achieved in the last fifteen years, while much is still not understood. This review recapitulates some milestones along this road, and speculates about future ones.
Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2008-01-01
The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose two simple transformations that under the Gaussian assumption optimally clone symmetric Gaussian distributions of coherent states as well as coherent states with known phases. Furthermore, we implement f...
Information–theoretic implications of quantum causal structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David
2014-01-01
It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution. However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information–theoretic constraints on the co...
Quantum information analysis of electronic states at different molecular structures
Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö.; Marti, K.H.; Reiher, M.
2010-01-01
We have studied transition metal clusters from a quantum information theory perspective using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We demonstrate the competition between entanglement and interaction localization. We also discuss the application of the configuration interaction based dynamically extended active space procedure which significantly reduces the effective system size and accelerates the speed of convergence for complicated molecular electronic ...
Superposition and Entanglement: Pillars of Quantum Information Processing
Prashant; Chakrabarty, Indranil
2005-01-01
This article discusses the important primitives of Superposition and Entanglement in Quantum Information Processing from physics point of view. System of spin-1/2 particles has been considered which presents itself as a logical and conceptual candidate to understand these concepts. The article is intended as a review of these important concepts and hopes to bring forth a conceptual framework in this regard.
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
Bacon, D
2003-01-01
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on ...
Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors
Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.
1970-01-01
Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.
Encoding field theories into gravities
Aoki, Sinya; Onogi, Tetsuya
2015-01-01
We propose a method, which encodes the information of a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory into a $d+1$ dimensional gravity in the $1/N$ expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field theory from the $d$ dimensional one via the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We then define the induced metric from $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large $N$ limit, in a sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as $1/N$ due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the induced metric in three dimensions, which is shown to describe De Sitter (dS) or Anti De Sitter (AdS) space in the massless limit, where the mass is dynamically generated in the O(N) non-l...
Semiclassical gravity from the perspective of quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum field theory in curved spacetimes makes remarkable predictions about the behavior of quantum fields in the presence of strong gravitational fields. Nevertheless, these striking discoveries raises several issues. The development of a theory at the interface between relativity, quantum mechanics, and information theory could not only shed new light on such questions as well as allowing to uncover new low-energy quantum gravity effects. In this talk I will review several results in this new field. In particular it will be shown that the Bell inequalities can be satisfied rather than violated by quantum mechanics if the detectors making the measurements are set in relativistic motion. It will also be shown that the entanglement between a pair of quits can suffer a sudden death when one of the quits accelerates uniformly for a finite proper time. This result will be used to analyze the behavior of entanglement in the vicinity of a nonrotating chargeless black hole. I will end with a discussion about the prospects of the field, emphasizing the so called 'black hole information paradox' and the question of what is the microscopic origin of the black hole entropy. (author)
Fidelity of an encoded [7,1,3] logical zero
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinstein, Yaakov S. [Quantum Information Science Group, Mitre, 260 Industrial Way West, Eatontown, New Jersey 07724 (United States)
2011-07-15
I calculate the fidelity of a [7,1,3] Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum error correction code logical zero state constructed in a nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment for two methods of encoding. The first method is to apply fault-tolerant error correction to an arbitrary state of seven qubits utilizing Shor states for syndrome measurement. The Shor states are themselves constructed in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment, and their fidelity depends on the number of verifications done to ensure multiple errors will not propagate into the encoded quantum information. Surprisingly, performing these verifications may lower the fidelity of the constructed Shor states. The second encoding method is to simply implement the [7,1,3] encoding gate sequence also in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment. Perfect error correction is applied after both methods to determine the correctability of the implemented errors. I find that which method attains higher fidelity depends on which of the Pauli operators errors is dominant. Nevertheless, perfect error correction applied after the encoding suppresses errors to at least first order for both methods.
Manipulating quantum information with spin torque.
Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo
2015-01-01
The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one. PMID:26648524
Introduction to NMR Quantum Information Processing
Laflamme, R; Cory, D G; Fortunato, E M; Havel, T F; Miquel, C; Martínez, R; Negrevergne, C; Ortiz, G; Pravia, M A; Sharf, Y; Sinha, S; Somma, R D; Viola, L
2002-01-01
After a general introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we give the basics of implementing quantum algorithms. We describe how qubits are realized and controlled with RF pulses, their internal interactions, and gradient fields. A peculiarity of NMR is that the internal interactions (given by the internal Hamiltonian) are always on. We discuss how they can be effectively turned off with the help of a standard NMR method called ``refocusing''. Liquid state NMR experiments are done at room temperature, leading to an extremely mixed (that is, nearly random) initial state. Despite this high degree of randomness, it is possible to investigate QIP because the relaxation time (the time scale over which useful signal from a computation is lost) is sufficiently long. We explain how this feature leads to the crucial ability of simulating a pure (non-random) state by using ``pseudopure'' states. We discuss how the ``answer'' provided by a computation is obtained by measurement and how this measurement differs f...
Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Nurunnabi, Md; Lee, Jooyoung; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Byeong-Il; Min, Jung-Joon; Park, In-Kyu
2014-04-01
We have prepared polymeric micelle-encapsulating quantum dots (QDots) for delivering the optically activatable protein Killer Red (KR) as a plasmid to cancer cells. QDots absorb light at a lower wavelength and emit light at a higher wavelength in the cell cytoplasm, activating the expressed KR. Once activated, KR triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We prepared cadmium selenide (CdSe)/zinc sulphide (ZnS) QDots and evaluated their optical properties. Subsequently, we performed morphology studies, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and measurements of particle size and surface charge of prepared QDots encapsulated in PHEA-g-PEG-bPEI (PPP-QDot). Cellular uptake of PPP-QDot and PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles was confirmed using confocal microscopy, and the cellular toxicity and transfection efficiency associated with uptake of PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles were analyzed. KR expression in normal cells and cancer cells was confirmed using confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Cellular morphologies before and after intracellular activation of KR were observed using phase contrast, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Cell fate after exposure to blue light-emitting diode lighting was determined using apoptosis staining and a cell proliferation assay, confirming a suppression in proliferation and a reduction in metabolic activity. We determined that ROS generation contributed to cellular damage after treatment with PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles and blue light exposure. PMID:24495459
Testing Information Causality for General Quantum Communication Protocols
Yu, I-Ching
2015-01-01
Information causality was proposed as a physical principle to put upper bound on the accessible information gain in a physical bi-partite communication scheme. Intuitively, the information gain cannot be larger than the amount of classical communication to avoid violation of causality. Moreover, it was shown that this bound is consistent with the Tsirelson bound for the binary quantum systems. In this paper, we test the information causality for the more general (non-binary) quantum communication schemes. In order to apply the semi-definite programming method to find the maximal information gain, we only consider the schemes in which the information gain is monotonically related to the Bell-type functions, i.e., the generalization of CHSH functions for Bell inequalities in a binary schemes. We determine these Bell-type functions by using the signal decay theorem. Our results support the proposal of information causality. We also find the maximal information gain by numerical brute-force method for the most ge...
Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico
2015-01-01
We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe the information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-$N$ limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with $N$ either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of i...
Quantum information processing and metrology with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of trapped atomic ions in the field of quantum information processing is briefly reviewed. We summarize the basic mechanisms required for logic gates and the use of the gates in demonstrating simple algorithms. We discuss the potential of trapped ions to reach fault-tolerant error levels in a large-scale system, and highlight some of the problems that will be faced in achieving this goal. Possible near-term applications in applied and basic science, such as in metrology and quantum simulation, are briefly discussed
Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing.
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Laurat, Julien; Grangier, Philippe
2006-04-01
We present a detailed experimental analysis of a free-propagating light pulse prepared in a "Schrödinger kitten" state, which is defined as a quantum superposition of "classical" coherent states with small amplitudes. This kitten state is generated by subtracting one photon from a squeezed vacuum beam, and it clearly presents a negative Wigner function. The predicted influence of the experimental parameters is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The amplitude of the coherent states can be amplified to transform our "Schrödinger kittens" into bigger Schrödinger cats, providing an essential tool for quantum information processing. PMID:16527930
Information Geometry of Entanglement Renormalization for free Quantum Fields
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier
2015-01-01
We provide an explicit connection between the differential generation of entanglement entropy in a tensor network representation of the ground states of two field theories, and a geometric description of these states based on the Fisher information metric. We show how the geometrical description remains invariant despite there is an irreducible gauge freedom in the definition of the tensor network. The results might help to understand how spacetimes may emerge from distributions of quantum states, or more concretely, from the structure of the quantum entanglement concomitant to those distributions.
Photon Temporal Modes: A Complete Framework for Quantum Information Science
Brecht, B.; Reddy, Dileep V.; Silberhorn, C.; Raymer, M. G.
2015-10-01
Field-orthogonal temporal modes of photonic quantum states provide a new framework for quantum information science (QIS). They intrinsically span a high-dimensional Hilbert space and lend themselves to integration into existing single-mode fiber communication networks. We show that the three main requirements to construct a valid framework for QIS—the controlled generation of resource states, the targeted and highly efficient manipulation of temporal modes, and their efficient detection—can be fulfilled with current technology. We suggest implementations of diverse QIS applications based on this complete set of building blocks.
Algebraic characterization of X-states in quantum information
Rau, A. R. P.
2009-01-01
A class of two-qubit states called X-states are increasingly being used to discuss entanglement and other quantum correlations in the field of quantum information. Maximally entangled Bell states and "Werner" states are subsets of them. Apart from being so named because their density matrix looks like the letter X, there is not as yet any characterization of them. The su(2) X su(2) X u(1) subalgebra of the full su(4) algebra of two qubits is pointed out as the underlying inv...
Algebraic and information-theoretic conditions for operator quantum error-correction
Nielsen, Michael A.; Poulin, David
2005-01-01
Operator quantum error-correction is a technique for robustly storing quantum information in the presence of noise. It generalizes the standard theory of quantum error-correction, and provides a unified framework for topics such as quantum error-correction, decoherence-free subspaces, and noiseless subsystems. This paper develops (a) easily applied algebraic and information-theoretic conditions which characterize when operator quantum error-correction is feasible; (b) a repr...
A Framework for Non-Asymptotic Quantum Information Theory
Tomamichel, Marco
2012-01-01
This thesis consolidates, improves and extends the smooth entropy framework for non-asymptotic information theory and cryptography. We investigate the conditional min- and max-entropy for quantum states, generalizations of classical R\\'enyi entropies. We introduce the purified distance, a novel metric for unnormalized quantum states and use it to define smooth entropies as optimizations of the min- and max-entropies over a ball of close states. We explore various properties of these entropies, including data-processing inequalities, chain rules and their classical limits. The most important property is an entropic formulation of the asymptotic equipartition property, which implies that the smooth entropies converge to the von Neumann entropy in the limit of many independent copies. The smooth entropies also satisfy duality and entropic uncertainty relations that provide limits on the power of two different observers to predict the outcome of a measurement on a quantum system. Finally, we discuss three example...
Model checking quantum Markov chains
Feng, Yuan; Ying, Mingsheng
2012-01-01
Although the security of quantum cryptography is provable based on the principles of quantum mechanics, it can be compromised by the flaws in the design of quantum protocols and the noise in their physical implementations. So, it is indispensable to develop techniques of verifying and debugging quantum cryptographic systems. Model-checking has proved to be effective in the verification of classical cryptographic protocols, but an essential difficulty arises when it is applied to quantum systems: the state space of a quantum system is always a continuum even when its dimension is finite. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a novel notion of quantum Markov chain, specially suited to model quantum cryptographic protocols, in which quantum effects are entirely encoded into super-operators labelling transitions, leaving the location information (nodes) being classical. Then we define a quantum extension of probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL) and develop a model-checking algorithm for quantum Markov c...