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1

Subdecoherent Information Encoding in a Quantum-Dot Array

A potential implementation of quantum-information schemes in semiconductor nanostructures is studied. To this end, the formal theory of quantum encoding for avoiding errors is recalled and the existence of noiseless states for model systems is discussed. Based on this theoretical framework, we analize the possibility of designing noiseless quantum codes in realistic semiconductor structures. In the specific implementation considered, information is encoded in the lowest energy sector of charge excitations of a linear array of quantum dots. The decoherence channel considered is electron-phonon coupling We show that besides the well-known phonon bottleneck, reducing single-qubit decoherence, suitable many-qubit initial preparation as well as register design may enhance the decoherence time by several orders of magnitude. This behaviour stems from the effective one-dimensional character of the phononic environment in the relevant region of physical parameters.

Zanardi, P; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

1999-01-01

2

Abstract algebra, projective geometry and time encoding of quantum information

Algebraic geometrical concepts are playing an increasing role in quantum applications such as coding, cryptography, tomography and computing. We point out here the prominent role played by Galois fields viewed as cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo a prime characteristic $p$. They can be used to generate efficient cyclic encoding, for transmitting secrete quantum keys, for quantum state recovery and for error correction in quantum computing. Finite projective planes and their generalization are the geometric counterpart to cyclotomic concepts, their coordinatization involves Galois fields, and they have been used repetitively for enciphering and coding. Finally the characters over Galois fields are fundamental for generating complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, a generic concept of quantum information processing and quantum entanglement. Gauss sums over Galois fields ensure minimum uncertainty under such protocols. Some Galois rings which are cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo 4 are al...

Planat, M R P; Planat, Michel R. P.; Saniga, Metod

2005-01-01

3

Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries {[}Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that...

Olejnik, L

2011-01-01

4

Deterministically encoding quantum information using 100-photon Schrödinger cat states.

In contrast to a single quantum bit, an oscillator can store multiple excitations and coherences provided one has the ability to generate and manipulate complex multiphoton states. We demonstrate multiphoton control by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a waveguide cavity resonator with a highly ideal off-resonant coupling. This dispersive interaction is much greater than decoherence rates and higher-order nonlinearities to allow simultaneous manipulation of hundreds of photons. With a tool set of conditional qubit-photon logic, we mapped an arbitrary qubit state to a superposition of coherent states, known as a "cat state." We created cat states as large as 111 photons and extended this protocol to create superpositions of up to four coherent states. This control creates a powerful interface between discrete and continuous variable quantum computation and could enable applications in metrology and quantum information processing. PMID:24072821

Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Leghtas, Zaki; Nigg, Simon E; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

2013-11-01

5

Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

6

Decoherence of encoded quantum registers

In order to eliminate disturbing effects of decoherence, encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces has been suggested. We analyze the benefits of this concept for a quantum register that is realized in a spin chain in contact with a common bosonic bath. Within a dissipationless model, we provide explicit analytical results for the average fidelity of plain and encoded quantum registers. For the investigation of dissipative spin-boson couplings, we employ a master equation of Bloch-Redfield type.

Borghoff, Stefan; Klesse, Rochus

2008-01-01

7

Quantum Repeater with Encoding

We propose a new approach to implement quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communication. Our protocol generates a backbone of encoded Bell pairs and uses the procedure of classical error correction during simultaneous entanglement connection. We illustrate that the repeater protocol with simple Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) encoding can significantly extend the communication distance, while still maintaining a fast key generation rate.

Jiang, Liang; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J; Van Meter, Rodney; Lukin, Mikhail D

2008-01-01

8

Multi-party quantum secret sharing with the single-particle quantum state to encode the information

We present a three-party quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme via the entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. In this scheme, the sender Alice encodes her arbitrary secret information by means of preparing a single-particle quantum state. The agent Bob obtains his shared information according to his hobby, while Charlie can easily calculate his shared information. The proposed scheme is secure. It is shown that even a dishonest agent, who may avoid the security checking, cannot obtain any useful information. Moreover, we further investigate the multi-party QSS scheme which allows most agents to predetermine their information.

Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Zhou, Xin-Jie; Yang, Yi-Xian

2013-01-01

9

Decoherence of encoded quantum registers

In order to eliminate disturbing effects of decoherence, encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces has been suggested. We analyze the benefits of this concept for a quantum register that is realized in a spin chain in contact with a common bosonic bath. Within a dissipation-less model we provide explicit analytical results for the average fidelity of plain and encoded quantum registers. For the investigation of dissipative spin-boson couplings we employ a master equation of Bloch-Redfield type.

Borghoff, Stefan

2007-01-01

10

Optimal quantum source coding with quantum information at the encoder and decoder

Consider many instances of an arbitrary quadripartite pure state of four quantum systems ACBR. Alice holds the AC part of each state, Bob holds B, while R represents all other parties correlated with ACB. Alice is required to redistribute the C systems to Bob while asymptotically retaining the purity of the global states. We prove that this is possible using Q qubits of communication and E ebits of shared entanglement between Alice and Bob provided that Q < I(R;C|B)/2 and Q + E < H(C|B). This matches the outer bound for this problem given in quant-ph/0611008. The optimal qubit rate provides the first known operational interpretation of quantum conditional mutual information. We also show how our protocol leads to a fully operational proof of strong subaddivity and uncover a general organizing principle, in analogy to thermodynamics, which underlies the optimal rates.

Yard, Jon

2007-01-01

11

Strong connections between quantum encodings, nonlocality, and quantum cryptography

Encoding information in quantum systems can offer surprising advantages but at the same time there are limitations that arise from the fact that measuring an observable may disturb the state of the quantum system. In our work, we provide an in-depth analysis of a simple question: What happens when we perform two measurements sequentially on the same quantum system? This question touches upon some fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty principle and the complementarity of quantum measurements. Our results have interesting consequences, for example, they can provide a simple proof of the optimal quantum strategy in the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game. Moreover, we show that the way information is encoded in quantum systems can provide a different perspective in understanding other fundamental aspects of quantum information, like nonlocality and quantum cryptography. We prove some strong equivalences between these notions and provide a number of applications in all areas.

Sikora, Jamie; Chailloux, André; Kerenidis, Iordanis

2014-02-01

12

Protecting Quantum Information Encoded in Decoherence Free States Against Exchange Errors

The exchange interaction between identical qubits in a quantum information processor gives rise to unitary two-qubit errors. It is shown here that decoherence free subspaces (DFSs) for collective decoherence undergo Pauli errors under exchange, which however do not take the decoherence free states outside of the DFS. In order to protect DFSs against these errors it is sufficient to employ a recently proposed concatenated DFS-quantum error correcting code scheme [D.A. Lidar, D. Bacon and K.B. Whaley, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol 82, 4556 (1999)

Lidar, D A; Lidar, Daniel A.

2000-01-01

13

Ca+ quantum bits for quantum information processing

With trapped ions quantum information can be encoded in various two-level systems or quantum bits (qubits). Here, we present an overview on qubit encoding with Ca+ and several state-of-the-art operations involving two and three qubits. The use of decoherence-free subspaces and encoding logical qubits using two physical qubits may offer an advantageous route towards implementing scalable quantum information processing.

Benhelm, J.; Kirchmair, G.; Gerritsma, R.; Zähringer, F.; Monz, T.; Schindler, P.; Chwalla, M.; Hänsel, W.; Hennrich, M.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.

2009-12-01

14

Ca+ quantum bits for quantum information processing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With trapped ions quantum information can be encoded in various two-level systems or quantum bits (qubits). Here, we present an overview on qubit encoding with Ca+ and several state-of-the-art operations involving two and three qubits. The use of decoherence-free subspaces and encoding logical qubits using two physical qubits may offer an advantageous route towards implementing scalable quantum information processing.

15

Minimal-memory, non-catastrophic, polynomial-depth quantum convolutional encoders

Quantum convolutional coding is a technique for encoding a stream of quantum information before transmitting it over a noisy quantum communication channel. Two important goals in the design of quantum convolutional encoders are to minimize the memory required by them and to avoid the catastrophic propagation of errors. In a previous companion paper, we determined minimal-memory, non-catastrophic, polynomial-depth encoders for a few exemplary quantum convolutional codes. In this paper, we elucidate a general technique for finding an encoder of an arbitrary quantum convolutional code such that the encoder possesses these desirable properties. Additionally, we apply our technique to many quantum convolutional codes from the literature.

Houshmand, Monireh; Wilde, Mark M

2011-01-01

16

Encoded Universality in Physical Implementations of a Quantum Computer

We revisit the question of universality in quantum computing and propose a new paradigm. Instead of forcing a physical system to enact a predetermined set of universal gates (e.g., single-qubit operations and CNOT), we focus on the intrinsic ability of a system to act as a universal quantum computer using only its naturally available interactions. A key element of this approach is the realization that the fungible nature of quantum information allows for universal manipulations using quantum information encoded in a subspace of the full system Hilbert space, as an alternative to using physical qubits directly. Starting with the interactions intrinsic to the physical system, we show how to determine the possible universality resulting from these interactions over an encoded subspace. We outline a general Lie-algebraic framework which can be used to find the encoding for universality and give several examples relevant to solid-state quantum computing.

Bacon, D J; Lidar, D A; Whaley, K B; Di Vincenzo, D P

2001-01-01

17

Quantum information- the subject- is a new and exciting area of science, which brings together physics, information theory, computer science and mathematics. "Quantum Information"- the book- is based on two successful lecture courses given to advanced undergraduate and beginning postgraduate students in physics. The intention is to introduce readers at this level to the fundamental, but offer rather simple, ideas behind ground-breaking developments including quantum cryptography,teleportation and quantum computing. The text is necessarily rather mathematical in style, but the mathema

Barnett, Stephen M

2009-01-01

18

Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n2) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

19

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

20

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

Rodgers, P

1998-03-01

21

Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in na...

Wang, Yazhen

2012-01-01

22

Decoherence-Insensitive Quantum Communication by Optimal C^*-Encoding

The central issue in this article is to transmit a quantum state in such a way that after some decoherence occurs, most of the information can be restored by a suitable decoding operation. For this purpose, we incorporate redundancy by mapping a given initial quantum state to a messenger state on a larger-dimensional Hilbert space via a $C^*$-algebra embedding. Our noise model for the transmission is a phase damping channel which admits a noiseless or decoherence-free subspace or subsystem. More precisely, the transmission channel is obtained from convex combinations of a set of lowest rank yes/no measurements that leave a component of the messenger state unchanged. The objective of our encoding is to distribute quantum information optimally across the noise-susceptible component of the transmission when the noiseless component is not large enough to contain all the quantum information to be transmitted. We derive simple geometric conditions for optimal encoding and construct examples.

Bodmann, B G; Paulsen, V I; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kribs, David W.; Paulsen, Vern I.

2006-01-01

23

Quantum information processing with trapped ions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

angled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)

24

Restrictions on Transversal Encoded Quantum Gate Sets

Transversal gates play an important role in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation due to their simplicity and robustness to noise. By definition, transversal operators do not couple physical subsystems within the same code block. Consequently, such operators do not spread errors within code blocks and are, therefore, fault tolerant. Nonetheless, other methods of ensuring fault tolerance are required, as it is invariably the case that some encoded gates cannot be implemented transversally. This observation has led to a long-standing conjecture that transversal encoded gate sets cannot be universal. Here we show that the ability of a quantum code to detect an arbitrary error on any single physical subsystem is incompatible with the existence of a universal, transversal encoded gate set for the code.

Eastin, Bryan

2008-01-01

25

Controlling quantum information

Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local quantum processing due to the topological properties of the quantum error correcting codes upon which they are built. I show that each protocol's fault-dependence behavior exhibits an order-disorder phase transition when mapped onto an associated statistical-mechanical model. I review the critical error rates of these protocols found by numerical study of the associated models, and I present new analytic bounds for them using a self-avoiding random walk argument. Moreover, I discuss fault-tolerant procedures for encoding, error-correction, computing, and decoding quantum information using these protocols, and calculate the accuracy threshold of fault-tolerant quantum memory for protocols using them. I end by presenting a new class of quantum algorithms that solve combinatorial optimization problems solely by measurement. I compute the running times of these algorithms by establishing an explicit dynamical model for the measurement process. This model, the digitized version of von Neumann's measurement model, is recognized as Kitaev's phase estimation algorithm. I show that the running times of these algorithms are closely related to the running times of adiabatic quantum algorithms. Finally, I present a two-measurement algorithm that achieves a quadratic speedup for Grover's unstructured search problem.

Landahl, Andrew John

26

Encoding information into precipitation structures

Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- ? C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

2008-12-01

27

Encoding information into precipitation structures

Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A^{+} + B^{-} -> C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

Martens, Kirsten; Droz, Michel; Racz, Zoltan

2008-01-01

28

Encoding information into precipitation structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B– ? C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

29

Quantum Optics, Quantum Nanophysics, Quantum Information

This site contains the research news and project descriptions of the work in quantum physics by the research group of Prof. Anton Zeilinger. This includes quantum methods of teleportation and cryptography, quantum information, and entangled states.

Zeilinger, Anton

2003-10-10

30

Encoding qubits into quantum noise resistant states

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intention of the proposed scheme is to protect information of an unknown pure qubit against effects of quantum noise represented by a quantum channel. By applying the proposed scheme before and after the qubit passes the channel the resulting fidelity will be higher than the fidelity without protection. The effect of a phase damping channel, for example, can be reduced by coupling and decoupling an additional qubit to the unknown initial state.

Heim, Dennis; Gleisberg, Ferdinand; Freyberger, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-07-01

31

Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum Control Group

... Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum Control Group institute,physics,iop,quantum,information,optics,control,groups Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum ...Education Activities Careers Policy Resources You are here Activities Groups All Groups Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum Control Group Groups All Groups ... Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum Control Group Committee Contact Group calendar Newsletter Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Quantum Control Group Over ...so a vigorous new research community has emerged in the field of Quantum optics - Quantum information - Quantum control, QQQ. (...

32

Quantum gloves: Quantum states that encode as much as possible chirality and nothing else

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Communicating a physical quantity cannot be done using information only—i.e., using abstract cbits and?or qubits. Rather one needs appropriate physical realizations of cbits and?or qubits. We illustrate this by considering the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates and introduce the natural concept of quantum gloves—i.e., rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing...

Collins, Daniel Geoffrey; Dio?si, L.; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.

2005-01-01

33

Quantum information to the home

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information encoded on individual quanta will play an important role in our future lives, much as classically encoded digital information does today. Combining quantum information carried by single photons with classical signals encoded on strong laser pulses in modern fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks is a significant challenge, the solution to which will facilitate the global distribution of quantum information to the home and with it a quantum internet. In real-world networks, spontaneous Raman scattering in the optical fibre would induce crosstalk between the high-power classical channels and a single-photon quantum channel, such that the latter is unable to operate. Here, we show that the integration of quantum and classical information on an FTTH network is possible by performing quantum key distribution (QKD) on a network while simultaneously transferring realistic levels of classical data. Our novel scheme involves synchronously interleaving a channel of quantum data with the Raman scattered photons from a classical channel, exploiting the periodic minima in the instantaneous crosstalk and thereby enabling secure QKD to be performed.

Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D, E-mail: paul.townsend@tyndall.ie [Photonic Systems Group, Tyndall National Institute and Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

2011-06-15

34

Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

Trapped ions constitute a well-isolated small quantum system that offers low decoherence rates and excellent opportunities for quantum control and measurement by laser-induced manipulation of the ions. These properties make trapped ions an attractive system for experimental investigations of quantum information processing. In the following, the basics of storing, manipulating and measuring quantum information encoded in a string of trapped ions will be discussed. Based on these techniques, entanglement can be created and simple quantum protocols like quantum teleportation be realized. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the use of entangling laser-ion interactions for quantum simulations and quantum logic spectroscopy.

Roos, Christian

35

Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation.

We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication. PMID:24946906

Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J; Dür, W

2014-01-01

36

Source Coding With Encoder Side Information

We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information studied by Wyner and Ziv, which depends on the source but does not involve the distortion measure. Furthermore, when both types of side information are present, we characterize the penalty for deviating from the configuration of encoder-only distortion side information and decoder-only signal side information, which in many cases is as good as full side information knowledge.

Martinian, E; Zamir, R; Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram

2004-01-01

37

Continuous-variable quantum information processing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.

Andersen, Ulrik Lund

2010-01-01

38

The science of quantum information has arisen over the last two decades centered on the manipulation of individual quanta of information, known as quantum bits or qubits. Quantum computers, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation are among the most celebrated ideas that have emerged from this new field. It was realized later on that using continuous-variable quantum information carriers, instead of qubits, constitutes an extremely powerful alternative approach to quantum information processing. This review focuses on continuous-variable quantum information processes that rely on any combination of Gaussian states, Gaussian operations, and Gaussian measurements. Interestingly, such a restriction to the Gaussian realm comes with various benefits, since on the theoretical side, simple analytical tools are available and, on the experimental side, optical components effecting Gaussian processes are readily available in the laboratory. Yet, Gaussian quantum information processing opens the way to a wide vari...

Weedbrook, Christian; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Cerf, Nicolas J; Ralph, Timothy C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Lloyd, Seth

2011-01-01

39

Information encoding in homoclinic chaotic systems

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we describe a simple method of encoding information at real time in the inter-spike intervals of a homoclinic chaotic system. This has been experimentally tested by means of an instantaneous synchronization between the laser intensity of a CO2 laser with feedback in the regime of Sil'nikov chaos and an external pulsed signal of very low power. The information is previously encoded in the temporal intervals between consecutive pulses of the external signal. The v...

Marino, I. P.; Allaria, E.; Meucci, R.; Boccaletti, S.; Arecchi, F. T.

2001-01-01

40

Controlling Quantum Information

Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local qu...

Landahl, A J

2002-01-01

41

Quantum Information An Introduction

Recently, quantum information theory has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields. This requires that understanding of basic results on diverse topics, and derived from different disciplinary perspectives, is required for appreciating the overall picture. Intended to merge key topics from both the information-theoretic and quantum- mechanical viewpoints, this graduate-level textbook provides a unified viewpoint of quantum information theory and lucid explanations of those basic results, so that the reader fundamentally grasps advances and challenges. For example, advanced topics in quantum communication such as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum state transmission (quantum error-correction), and quantum encryption especially benefit from this unified approach. Unlike earlier treatments, the text requires knowledge of only linear algebra, probability theory, and quantum mechanics, while it treats the topics of quantum hypothesis testing and the discrimination of q...

Hayashi, Masahito

2006-01-01

42

Quantum Private Comparison Based on Phase Encoding of Single Photons

In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum private comparison using phase encoding. The analysis indicates that the scheme is secure, and can prevent some familiar attacks. With the use of error-correcting code (ECC), it achieves a limited fault tolerant quantum private comparison. The scheme is easy to be realized in current experiments.

Li, Yan-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jie; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-shuo

2014-09-01

43

Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

2014-03-01

44

Efficient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band Single Photons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose an efficient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key information is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal waveform. We show that when the technique is applied to the conventional single photon phase-encoding BB84 and differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation efficiencies can be improved by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. For N(?3)-period DPS systems, the key generation efficiency can be improved by a factor of N. The technique is suitable for quantum-memory-based long-distance fiber communication systems. (general)

45

Photonic Quantum Information Processing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)

46

Universal Quantum Information Compression

Suppose that a quantum source is known to have von Neumann entropy less than or equal to S but is otherwise completely unspecified. We describe a method of universal quantum data compression which will faithfully compress the quantum information of any such source to S qubits per signal (in the limit of large block lengths).

Jozsa, R; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Jozsa, Richard; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard

1998-01-01

47

In this thesis I present a short review of ideas in quantum information theory. The first chapter contains introductory material, sketching the central ideas of probability and information theory. Quantum mechanics is presented at the level of advanced undergraduate knowledge, together with some useful tools for quantum mechanics of open systems. In the second chapter I outline how classical information is represented in quantum systems and what this means for agents trying to extract information from these systems. The final chapter presents a new resource: quantum information. This resource has some bewildering applications which have been discovered in the last ten years, and continually presents us with unexpected insights into quantum theory and the universe. The treatment is pedagogical and suitable for beginning graduates in the field.

Schumann, R H

2000-01-01

48

Quantum Information Science Workshop (Proceedings)

... Quantum Complexity Classes Quantum Searching and Lower Bounds Quantum Communication Complexity ... information. There are a number of web sites that contain both historical and current research ...

49

Introduction to quantum information science

This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleport...

Hayashi, Masahito; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro

2015-01-01

50

Quantum Information and Entropy

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermodynamic entropy is not an entirely satisfactory measure of information of a quantum state. This entropy for an unknown pure state is zero, although repeated measurements on copies of such a pure state do communicate information. In view of this, we propose a new measure for the informational entropy of a quantum state that includes information in the pure states and the thermodynamic entropy. The origin of information is explained in terms of an interplay between unita...

Kak, Subhash

2006-01-01

51

Lectures on quantum information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum Information Processing is a young and rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of physics, mathematics, and computer science. Its ultimate goal is to harness quantum physics to conceive - and ultimately build - 'quantum' computers that would dramatically overtake the capabilities of today's 'classical' computers. One example of the power of a quantum computer is its ability to efficiently find the prime factors of a large integer, thus shaking the supposedly secure foundations of standard encryption schemes. This comprehensive textbook on the rapidly advancing field introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of information theory and quantum entanglement, taking into account the current state of research and development. It thus covers all current concepts in quantum computing, both theoretical and experimental, before moving on to the latest implementations of quantum computing and communication protocols. With its series of exercises, this is ideal reading for students and lecturers in physics and informatics, as well as experimental and theoretical physicists, and physicists in industry. (orig.)

52

Quantum Information and Computing

Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An infinite dimensional Laplacian acting on some class of Lévy white noise functionals / K. Saitô -- Structure of linear processes / Si Si and Win Win Htay -- Group theory of dynamical maps / E. C. G. Sudarshan -- On quantum analysis, quantum transfer-matrix method, and effective information entropy / M. Suzuki -- Nonequilibrium steady states for a harmonic oscillator interacting with two bose fields-stochastic limit approach and C* algebraic approach / S. Tasaki and L. Accardi -- Control of decoherence with multipulse application / C. Uchiyama -- Quantum entanglement, purification, and linear-optics quantum gates with photonic qubits / P. Walther and A. Zeilinger -- On quantum mutual type measures and capacity / N. Watanabe.

Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.

2006-03-01

53

Quantum encodings in spin systems and harmonic oscillators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that higher-dimensional versions of qubits, or qudits, can be encoded into spin systems and into harmonic oscillators, yielding important advantages for quantum computation. Whereas qubit-based quantum computation is adequate for analyses of quantum vs classical computation, in practice qubits are often realized in higher-dimensional systems by truncating all but two levels, thereby reducing the size of the precious Hilbert space. We develop natural qudit gates for universal quantum computation, and exploit the entire accessible Hilbert space. Mathematically, we give representations of the generalized Pauli group for qudits in coupled spin systems and harmonic oscillators, and include analyses of the qubit and the infinite-dimensional limits

54

Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective.

Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication. PMID:25043763

Bylicka, B; Chru?ci?ski, D; Maniscalco, S

2014-01-01

55

Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective

Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.

Bylicka, B.; Chru?ci?ski, D.; Maniscalco, S.

2014-07-01

56

Quantum information with Gaussian states

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states

57

Quantum Key Distribution Scheme Based on Dense Encoding in Entangled States

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum key distribution protocol, based on the quantum dense encoding in entangled states, is presented. In this protocol, we introduce an encoding process to encode two classical bits information into one of the four one-qubit unitary operations implemented by Alice and the Bell states measurement implemented by Bob in stead of direct measuring the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs by both of the distant parties, Alice and Bob. Considering the practical application we can get the conclusion that our protocol has some advantages. It not only simplifies the measurement which may induce potential errors, but also improves the effectively transmitted rate of the generated qubits by the raw key. Here we also discuss eavesdropping attacks against the scheme and the channel loss.

58

Efficient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band Single Photons

We propose an efficient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key information is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal waveform without using any passive beam splitters or optical switches. We show that, when the technique is applied to the conventional fiber-based phase-encoding BB84 and differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation efficiencies can be improved by a factor of 2 and 3, respectively. For N(>3)-period DPS systems, the key generation efficiency can be improved by a factor of N. The technique is suitable for quantum memory-based long-distance fiber communication system.

Yan, Hui; Du, Shengwang

2010-01-01

59

Unified approach to topological quantum computation with anyons: From qubit encoding to Toffoli gate

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topological quantum computation may provide a robust approach for encoding and manipulating information utilizing the topological properties of anyonic quasiparticle excitations. We develop an efficient means to map between dense and sparse representations of quantum information (qubits) and a simple construction of multiqubit gates, for all anyon models from Chern-Simons-Witten SU(2)k theory that support universal quantum computation by braiding (k?3, k?4). In the process, we show how the constructions of topological quantum memory and gates for k=2,4 connect naturally to those for k?3, k?4, unifying these concepts in a simple framework. Furthermore, we illustrate potential extensions of these ideas to other anyon models outside of Chern-Simons-Witten field theory.

60

Lectures on quantum information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantum Information Processing is a young and rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of physics, mathematics, and computer science. Its ultimate goal is to harness quantum physics to conceive - and ultimately build - 'quantum' computers that would dramatically overtake the capabilities of today's 'classical' computers. One example of the power of a quantum computer is its ability to efficiently find the prime factors of a large integer, thus shaking the supposedly secure foundations of standard encryption schemes. This comprehensive textbook on the rapidly advancing field introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of information theory and quantum entanglement, taking into account the current state of research and development. It thus covers all current concepts in quantum computing, both theoretical and experimental, before moving on to the latest implementations of quantum computing and communication protocols. With its series of exercises, this is ideal reading for students and lecturers in physics and informatics, as well as experimental and theoretical physicists, and physicists in industry. (orig.)

Bruss, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik III; Leuchs, G. (eds.) [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Optik, Information und Photonik

2007-07-01

61

Minimal memory requirements for pearl necklace encoders of quantum convolutional codes

One of the major goals in quantum computer science is to reduce the overhead associated with the implementation of quantum computers, and inevitably, routines for quantum error correction will account for most of this overhead. A particular technique for quantum error correction that may be useful in the outer layers of a concatenated scheme for fault tolerance is quantum convolutional coding. The encoder for a quantum convolutional code has a representation as a convolutional encoder or as a "pearl necklace" encoder. In the pearl necklace representation, it has not been particularly clear in the research literature how much quantum memory such an encoder would require for implementation. Here, we offer an algorithm that answers this question. The algorithm first constructs a weighted, directed acyclic graph where each vertex of the graph corresponds to a gate string in the pearl necklace encoder, and each path through the graph represents a non-commutative path through gates in the encoder. We show that the ...

Houshmand, Monireh; Wilde, Mark M

2010-01-01

62

Computational approach to quantum encoder design for purity optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we address the problem of designing a quantum encoder that maximizes the minimum output purity of a given decohering channel, where the minimum is taken over all possible pure inputs. This problem is cast as a max-min optimization problem with a rank constraint on an appropriately defined matrix variable. The problem is computationally very hard because it is nonconvex with respect to both the objective function (output purity) and the rank constraint. Despite this difficulty, we provide a tractable computational algorithm that produces the exact optimal solution for codespace of dimension 2. Moreover, this algorithm is easily extended to cover the general class of codespaces, in which case the solution is suboptimal in the sense that the suboptimized output purity serves as a lower bound of the exact optimal purity. The algorithm consists of a sequence of semidefinite programmings and can be performed easily. Two typical quantum error channels are investigated to illustrate the effectiveness of our method

63

Stabilizing Quantum Information

The algebraic structure underlying all the schemes for quantum information stabilization is argued to be fully contained in the reducibility of the operator algebra describing the interaction with the environment of the coding quantum system. This property amounts to the existence of a non-trivial group of symmetries for the global dynamics. We provide a unified framework which allows us to build sistematically new classes of (non-additive) error correcting codes and noiseless subsystems. Moreover relations between noiseless subsystems (and codes) and decoupling strategies are clarified.

Zanardi, P

2001-01-01

64

Quantum information distribution via entanglement

We present a generalization of quantum teleportation that distributes quantum information from a sender's $d$-level particle to $N_o$ particles held by remote receivers via an initially shared multiparticle entangled state. This entangled state functions as a multiparty quantum information distribution channel between the sender and the receivers. The structure of the distribution channel determines how quantum information is processed. Our generalized teleportation scheme allows multiple receivers at arbitrary locations, and can be used for applications such as optimal quantum information broadcasting, asymmetric telecloning, and quantum error correction.

Murao, M; Vedral, V; Murao, Mio; Plenio, Martin B.; Vedral, Vlatko

2000-01-01

65

Recycling of quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

Given a finite number of copies of an unknown qubit state that have already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? We give a positive answer to this question and quantify the information obtainable by a given observer as a function of the number of copies in the ensemble, and of the number of independent observers that, one after the other, have independently measured the same ensemble of qubits before him. The optimality of the protocol is proven and extensions to other states and encodings are also studied. According to the general lore, the state after a measurement has no information about the state before the measurement. Our results manifestly show that this statement has to be taken with a grain of salt, specially in situations where the quantum states encode confidential information.

Rapcan, Peter; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon; Bagan, Emilio; Buzek, Vladimir

2007-01-01

66

Immunity of information encoded in decoherence-free subspaces to particle loss

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We demonstrate that for an ensemble of qudits, subjected to collective decoherence in the form of perfectly correlated random SU(d) unitaries, quantum superpositions stored in the decoherence-free subspace are fully immune against the removal of one particle. This provides a feasible scheme to protect quantum information encoded in the polarization state of a sequence of photons against both collective depolarization and one-photon loss and can be demonstrated with photon quadruplets using currently available technology.

Migdal, Piotr [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Wydzial Fizyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warszawa (Poland); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Castelldefels, ES-08860 Barcelona (Spain); Banaszek, Konrad [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Wydzial Fizyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warszawa (Poland)

2011-11-15

67

Immunity of information encoded in decoherence-free subspaces to particle loss

We demonstrate that for an ensemble of qudits, subjected to collective decoherence in the form of perfectly correlated random SU(d) unitaries, quantum superpositions stored in the decoherence free subspace are fully immune against the removal of one particle. This provides a feasible scheme to protect quantum information encoded in the polarization state of a sequence of photons against both collective depolarization and one photon loss, and can be demonstrated with photon quadruplets using currently available technology.

Migda?, Piotr

2011-01-01

68

Immunity of information encoded in decoherence-free subspaces to particle loss

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that for an ensemble of qudits, subjected to collective decoherence in the form of perfectly correlated random SU(d) unitaries, quantum superpositions stored in the decoherence-free subspace are fully immune against the removal of one particle. This provides a feasible scheme to protect quantum information encoded in the polarization state of a sequence of photons against both collective depolarization and one-photon loss and can be demonstrated with photon quadruplets using currently available technology.

69

Immunity of information encoded in decoherence-free subspaces to particle loss

We demonstrate that for an ensemble of qudits, subjected to collective decoherence in the form of perfectly correlated random SU(d) unitaries, quantum superpositions stored in the decoherence-free subspace are fully immune against the removal of one particle. This provides a feasible scheme to protect quantum information encoded in the polarization state of a sequence of photons against both collective depolarization and one-photon loss and can be demonstrated with photon quadruplets using currently available technology.

Migda?, Piotr; Banaszek, Konrad

2011-11-01

70

In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40*pi rad/s are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.

Xavier, G B; de Faria, G Vilela; Temporao, G P; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; von der Weid, J P; 10.1088/1367-2630/11/4/045015

2009-01-01

71

Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called "one-way" mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. The system is based on the interference of phase encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilises polarisation maintaining optical fibre and photon...

Clarke, Patrick J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S

2013-01-01

72

Quantum Information and Spacetime Structure

In modern quantum information theory one deals with an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as qubit, channel, composite systems and entangled states should be formulated in space and time. In this paper some basic notions of quantum information theory are considered from the point of view of quantum field theory and general relativity. It is pointed out an important fact that in quantum field theory there is a statistical dependence between two regions in spacetime even if they are spacelike separated. A classical probabilistic representation for a family of correlation functions in quantum field theory is obtained. A noncommutative generalization of von Neumann`s spectral theorem is discussed. We suggest a new physical principle describing a relation between the mathematical formalism of Hilbert space a...

Volovich, I V

2002-01-01

73

Quantum: information theory: technological challenge

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs

74

Quantum mechanics is about quantum information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I argue that quantum mechanics is fundamentally a theory about the representation and manipulation of information, not a theory about the mechanics of nonclassical waves or particles. The notion of quantum information is to be understood as a new physical primitive -- just as, following Einstein's special theory of relativity, a field is no longer regarded as the physical manifestation of vibrations in a mechanical medium, but recognized as a new physical primitive in its ow...

Bub, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

75

Source Coding With Distortion Side Information At The Encoder

We consider lossy source coding when side information affecting the distortion measure may be available at the encoder, decoder, both, or neither. For example, such distortion side information can model reliabilities for noisy measurements, sensor calibration information, or perceptual effects like masking and sensitivity to context. When the distortion side information is statistically independent of the source, we show that in many cases (e.g, for additive or multiplicative distortion side information) there is no penalty for knowing the side information only at the encoder, and there is no advantage to knowing it at the decoder. Furthermore, for quadratic distortion measures scaled by the distortion side information, we evaluate the penalty for lack of encoder knowledge and show that it can be arbitrarily large. In this scenario, we also sketch transform based quantizers constructions which efficiently exploit encoder side information in the high-resolution limit.

Martinian, E; Zamir, R; Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram

2004-01-01

76

Thermodynamical quantum information sharing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Thermodynamical properties fully originate from classical physics and can be easily measured for macroscopic systems. On the other hand, entanglement is a widely spoken feature of quantum physics, which allows to perform certain task with efficiency unavailable with any classical resource. Therefore an interesting question is whether we can witness entanglement in a state of a macroscopic sample. We show, that some macroscopic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility, can serve as an entanglement witnesses. We also study a mutual relation between magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation. Such a complementarity exhibits quantum information sharing between these two thermodynamical quantities. Magnetization expresses properties of individual spins, while susceptibility might reveal non-classical correlations as a witness. Therefore, a rapid change of one of these two quantities may mean a phase transition also in terms of entanglement. The complementarity relation is demonstrated by an analytical solution of an exemplary model. (author)

77

Inequalities for quantum skew information

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information with respect to this order structure in the set of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations.

Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang

2008-01-01

78

Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous-variable quantum-key distribution scheme as a means to combat excess noise is also investigated.

Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

2010-01-01

79

Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use the generation of spatial squeezing light in higher order transverse Hermite-Gauss modes as a demonstration of the quality of our scheme. The squeezing in selective modes is achieved by fine tuning of the phase matching condition of the nonlinear (2) material and the cavity resonance condition of the optical parametric amplifier. By combining these modes we can now build a practical multi-mode optical quantum information system.

Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Janousek, Jirí

2007-01-01

80

Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned an...

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

2009-01-01

81

Multiple Access Channels with State Information Known at Some Encoders

A multiple access channel (MAC) with channel state information (CSI) non-causally known at some encoders is considered. For simplicity of exposition, a two-encoder model in which one of the encoders is non-causally informed of the CSI is focused. The results can in principle be extended to any number of encoders with a subset of them being informed. Inner and outer bounds for the capacity region in the general discrete memoryless case are derived and specialized to a binary noiseless case. Inner and outer bounds for the capacity region of an additive white Gaussian MAC with one encoder being informed of the CSI are also derived. For both the binary and the Gaussian inner bounds, the informed encoder uses generalized dirty paper coding (DPC) that allows arbitrary correlation between the codeword and the known CSI, with negative correlation being viewed as partial state cancellation. It appears that the generalized DPC can not completely eliminate the effect of the CSI, in contrast to the case of all encoders b...

Kotagiri, S; Kotagiri, Shivaprasad

2006-01-01

82

A computational approach to quantum encoder design for purity optimization

In this paper, we address the problem of designing a quantum encoder that maximizes the minimum output purity of a given decohering channel, where the minimum is taken over all possible pure inputs. This problem is cast as a max-min optimization problem with a rank constraint on an appropriately defined matrix variable. The problem is very hard to solve because it is non-convex with respect to both the objective function (output purity) and the rank constraint. To obtain a tractable computational algorithm, we systematically relax both of these non-convex functions to convex linear matrix inequalities, and solve this new problem using semidefinite programming. Specifically, our approach consists of two stages: one that relaxes the objective function (using the Sum-of-Squares relaxation), and one that deals with the rank constraint (using the logarithm of determinant heuristic). We characterize conditions under which the first stage of the relaxation is in fact exact and yields the optimal solution. While in g...

Yamamoto, N; Yamamoto, Naoki; Fazel, Maryam

2006-01-01

83

BRICS and Quantum Information Processing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing.

Schmidt, Erik Meineche

1998-01-01

84

Spin-based quantum-information processing with semiconductor quantum dots and cavity QED

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum-information-processing scheme is proposed with semiconductor quantum dots located in a high-Q single-mode QED cavity. The spin degrees of freedom of one excess conduction electron of the quantum dots are employed as qubits. Excitonic states, which can be produced ultrafast with optical operation, are used as auxiliary states in the realization of quantum gates. We show how properly tailored ultrafast laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effects can be used to achieve a universal encoded quantum computing

85

Isotope-based quantum information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial distribution of isotopes with nuclear spins is a prerequisite to implement the quantum bits (or qbits). Therefore, stable semiconductor isotopes are important elements in the development of solid-state quantum information. There are not only different algorithms of quantum computation discussed but also the different models of quantum computers are presented. With numerous illustrations this small book is of great interest for undergraduate students taking courses in mesoscopic physics or nanoelectronics as well as quantum information, and academic and industrial researches working in this field.

Plekhanov, Vladimir G. [Computer Science College, Tallinn (Estonia). Mathematics and Physics Dept.

2012-07-01

86

Examples of minimal-memory, non-catastrophic quantum convolutional encoders

One of the most important open questions in the theory of quantum convolutional coding is to determine a minimal-memory, non-catastrophic, polynomial-depth convolutional encoder for an arbitrary quantum convolutional code. Here, we present a technique that finds quantum convolutional encoders with such desirable properties for several example quantum convolutional codes (an exposition of our technique in full generality will appear elsewhere). We first show how to encode the well-studied Forney-Grassl-Guha (FGG) code with an encoder that exploits just one memory qubit (the former Grassl-Roetteler encoder requires 15 memory qubits). We then show how our technique can find an online decoder corresponding to this encoder, and we also detail the operation of our technique on a different example of a quantum convolutional code. Finally, the reduction in memory for the FGG encoder makes it feasible to simulate the performance of a quantum turbo code employing it, and we present the results of such simulations.

Wilde, Mark M; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

2010-01-01

87

Proposals for physical systems to act as quantum computers are inevitably plagued by the unavoidable coupling with the environment (bath) that causes decoherence, and by technological difficulties connected with the controllability of quantum states. Several techniques exist for achieving reliable quantum computation by countering the effects of decoherence. At this time, however, not one, by itself, will serve as a panacea for error correction. In this paper, we introduce a method that combines system-bath decoupling operations with error avoidance or active error correction to address these major concerns. By using an empirical approach to error correction based on experimental data, and an efficient set of decoupling operations that will serve to protect encoded quantum information, we are able to propose a comprehensive method for reducing the adverse effects of decoherence, in particular in scalable solid state quantum computing devices. Our method has the added benefit of significantly reducing design c...

Byrd, M S; Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

2002-01-01

88

Information security: from classical to quantum

Quantum cryptography was designed to provide a new approach to the problem of distributing keys for private-key cryptography. The principal idea is that security can be ensured by exploiting the laws of quantum physics and, in particular, by the fact that any attempt to measure a quantum state will change it uncontrollably. This change can be detected by the legitimate users of the communication channel and so reveal to them the presence of an eavesdropper. In this paper I explain (briefly) how quantum key distribution works and some of the progress that has been made towards making this a viable technology. With the principles of quantum communication and quantum key distribution firmly established, it is perhaps time to consider how efficient it can be made. It is interesting to ask, in particular, how many bits of information might reasonably be encoded securely on each photon. The use of photons entangled in their time of arrival might make it possible to achieve data rates in excess of 10 bits per photon.

Barnett, Stephen M.; Brougham, Thomas

2012-09-01

89

Introduction to quantum Fisher information

The subject of this paper is a mathematical transition from the Fisher information of classical statistics to the matrix formalism of quantum theory. If the monotonicity is the main requirement, then there are several quantum versions parametrized by a function. In physical applications the minimal is the most popular. There is a one-to-one correspondence between Fisher informations (called also monotone metrics) and abstract covariances. The skew information and the chi-square-divergence are treated here as particular cases.

Petz, Denes

2010-01-01

90

Physics as quantum information processing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm---"It from Bit'---prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Q...

D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

2010-01-01

91

Information-theoretical meaning of quantum-dynamical entropy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theories of noncommutative dynamical entropy and quantum symbolic dynamics for quantum-dynamical systems are analyzed from the point of view of quantum information theory. Using a general quantum-dynamical system as a communication channel, one can define different classical capacities depending on the character of resources applied for encoding and decoding procedures and on the type of information sources. It is shown that for Bernoulli sources, the entanglement-assisted classical capacity, which is the largest one, is bounded from above by the quantum-dynamical entropy defined in terms of operational partitions of unity. Stronger results are proved for the particular class of quantum-dynamical systems--quantum Bernoulli shifts. Different classical capacities are exactly computed and the entanglement-assisted one is equal to the dynamical entropy in this case

92

Quantum information and computing

The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum

Ohya, M; Watanabe, N

2006-01-01

93

Quantum information transfer for qutrits

We propose a scheme for the transfer of quantum information among distant qutrits. We apply this scheme to the distribution of entanglement among distant nodes and to the generation of multipartite antisymmetric states. We also discuss applications to quantum secret sharing.

Delgado, A; Retamal, J C

2007-01-01

94

Quantum information and convex optimization

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)

Reimpell, Michael

2008-07-01

95

Quantum information and convex optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)

96

A game theoretic approach to quantum information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this project, bridging entropy econometrics, game theory and information theory, a game theoretic approach will be investigated to quantum information, during which new mathematical definitions for quantum relative entropy, quantum mutual information, and quantum channel capacity will be given and monotonicity of entangled quantum relative entropy and additivity of quantum channel capacity will be obtained rigorously in mathematics; also quantum state will be explored in Kelly criterion, d...

Dai, Xianhua

2008-01-01

97

Chaos and quantum Fisher information in the quantum kicked top

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum Fisher information is related to the problem of parameter estimation. Recently, a criterion has been proposed for entanglement in multipartite systems based on quantum Fisher information. This paper studies the behaviours of quantum Fisher information in the quantum kicked top model, whose classical correspondence can be chaotic. It finds that, first, detected by quantum Fisher information, the quantum kicked top is entangled whether the system is in chaotic or in regular case. Secondly, the quantum Fisher information is larger in chaotic case than that in regular case, which means, the system is more sensitive in the chaotic case. (general)

98

Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

99

Dynamical error suppression for quantum information processing

Quantum information theory is based on the premise of manipulating quantum systems. Decoherence and noisy control directly limit this manipulation. Quantum error correction theory aims to understand the sources of errors in manipulation of quantum systems and to remedy the problems caused by the errors in an efficient manner. In this thesis I focus on error correction mechanisms that are based on a realistic and physical picture of the interactions of the quantum system with the environment. In chapters 1, 2, and 3, I provide a brief introduction to quantum information processing, quantum error correction, and dynamical decoupling. In chapters 4 and 5, I consider error correction of a set of qubits in the presence of spontaneous emission as the main source of errors. These results have been published in [KL:02] and [KL:03]. The quantum trajectories picture is used for describing the error processes. Two error correction schemes are provided in this scenario and are both built on simple quantum error detecting codes for detecting quantum jump errors. The qubit number overhead in this encoding is reduced in the first method [KL:02] by exploiting the symmetry of the conditional dynamics that can be used to create a decoherence free subspace. In the second method [KL:03], the conditional dynamics is canceled by applying parallel population swapping operations on the qubits. For both methods, I describe means of integrating the proposed error correction schemes with various proposals to achieve fault tolerant quantum computation. Chapters 6 and 7 are based on dynamical decoupling: a method for removal of undesired interaction terms from a Hamiltonian evolution by application of fixed unitary quantum operators. These results have been published in [KL:05] and [KL:06]. I describe general concatenated pulse sequences that are constructed recursively from simple dynamical decoupling pulse sequences. I show that using the concatenated dynamical decoupling sequences is (i) significantly more efficient than repeating traditional sequences and (ii) these sequences are more robust with respect to natural control errors [KL:05]. A comprehensive leading order analysis of dynamical decoupling efficiency is provided in the process [KL:06]. In chapter 8 (not yet published), I describe the construction of self-correcting pulse sequences for a single qubit.

Khodjasteh Lakelayeh, Kaveh

100

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his

Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

2004-04-09

101

Quantum States as Ordinary Information

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

Ken Wharton

2014-03-01

102

Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Laboratory

This website contains information on a laboratory course at the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, on quantum optics. It includes descriptions and manuals for four teaching experiments on single and entangled photons for undergraduates. It also includes a course syllabus and studentsâ assignments, reports and presentations. This work is supported by the NSF grants ECS-0420888 and DUE-0633621, the University of Rochester Kauffman Foundation Initiative, and the Spectra-Physics division of Newport Corporation.

Lukisova, Svetlana

2009-01-16

103

Location of quantum information in additive graph codes

The location of quantum information in various subsets of the qudit carriers of an additive graph code is discussed using a collection of operators on the coding space which form what we call the information group. It represents the input information through an encoding operation constructed as an explicit quantum circuit. Partial traces of these operators down to a particular subset of carriers provide an isomorphism of a subgroup of the information group, and this gives a precise characterization of what kinds of information they contain. All carriers are assumed to have the same dimension D, an arbitrary integer greater than 1.

Gheorghiu, Vlad; Looi, Shiang Yong; Griffiths, Robert B.

2010-03-01

104

Location of quantum information in additive graph codes

The location of quantum information in various subsets of the qudit carriers of an additive graph code is discussed using a collection of operators on the coding space which form what we call the information group. It represents the input information through an encoding operation constructed as an explicit quantum circuit. Partial traces of these operators down to a particular subset of carriers provide an isomorphism of a subgroup of the information group, and this gives a precise characterization of what kinds of information they contain. All carriers are assumed to have the same dimension D, an arbitrary integer greater than 1.

Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B

2009-01-01

105

Quantum gloves: Physics and Information

The slogan information is physical has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality.

Gisin, Nicolas

2004-01-01

106

Effects of nonequilibrium noise on a quantum memory encoded in Majorana zero modes

In order to increase the coherence time of topological quantum memories in systems with Majorana zero modes, it has recently been proposed to encode the logical qubit states in nonlocal Majorana operators which are immune to localized excitations involving the unpaired Majorana modes. In this encoding, a logical error only happens when the quasiparticles, subsequent to their excitation, travel a distance of the order of the spacing between the Majorana modes. Here, we study the decay time of a quantum memory encoded in a clean topological nanowire interacting with an environment with a particular emphasis on the propagation of the quasiparticles above the gap. We show that the nonlocal encoding does not provide a significantly longer coherence time than the local encoding. In particular, the characteristic speed of propagation is of the order of the Fermi velocity of the nanowire and not given by the much slower group velocity of quasiparticles which are excited just above the gap.

Konschelle, François; Hassler, Fabian

2013-08-01

107

Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

108

Quantum Information Processing with Graphs

Graph states are an elegant and powerful quantum resource for measurement based quantum computation (MBQC). They are also used for many quantum protocols (error correction, secret sharing, etc.). The main focus of this paper is to provide a structural characterization of the graph states that can be used for quantum information processing. The existence of a gflow (generalized flow) is known to be a requirement for open graphs (graph, input set and output set) to perform uniformly and strongly deterministic computations. We weaken the gflow conditions to define two new more general types of MBQC: uniform equiprobability and constant probability. These classes can be useful from a cryptographic and information point of view because even though we can not do a deterministic computation in general we can preserve the information and transfer it perfectly from the inputs to the outputs. We derive simple graph characterizations for these classes and prove that the deterministic and uniform equiprobability classes ...

Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon; Someya, Masato; Turner, Peter S

2010-01-01

109

Quantum information processing in nanostructures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of quantum dots technology is described. In so doing, the theoretical background and the practicalities required for this thesis are introduced. A discussion of the current quantum hardware used for quantum information processing is given. In particular, the solid-state proposals to date are emphasised. A detailed prescription is given, using an optically-driven coupled quantum dot system, to reliably prepare and manipulate exciton maximally entangled Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Manipulation of the strength and duration of selective light-pulses needed for producing these highly entangled states provides us with crucial elements for the processing of solid-state based quantum information. The all-optical generation of states of the so-called Bell basis for a system of two quantum dots (QDs) is exploited for performing the quantum teleportation of the excitonic state of a dot in an array of three coupled QDs. Theoretical predictions suggest that several hundred single quantum bit rotations and controlled-NOT gates could be performed before decoherence of the excitonic states takes place. In addition, the exciton coherent dynamics of a coupled QD system confined within a semiconductor single mode microcavity is reported. It is shown that this system enables the control of exciton entanglement by varying the coupling strength between the optically-driven dot system and the microcavity. The exciton entanglement shows collapses and revivals for suitable amplitudes of the incident radiation field and dot-cavity coupling strengths. The results given here could offer a new approach for the control of decoherence mechanisms arising from entangled 'artificial molecules'. In addition to these ultrafast coherent optical control proposals, an approach for reliable implementation of quantum logic gates and long decoherence times in a QD system based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is given, where the nuclear resonance is controlled by the ground state 'magic number' transitions of few-electron QDs in an external magnetic field. The dynamical evolution of quantum registers of arbitrary length in the presence of environmentally-induced decoherence effects is studied in detail. The cases of quantum bits (qubits) coupling individually to different environments ('independent decoherence'), and qubits interacting collectively with the same reservoir ('collective decoherence') are analysed in order to find explicit decoherence functions for any number of qubits. The decay of the coherences of the register is shown to strongly depend on the input states: this sensitivity is a characteristic of both types of coupling (collective and independent) and not only of the collective coupling, as has been reported previously. A non-trivial behaviour--'recoherence'-- is found in the decay of the off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix in the specific situation of independent decoherence. The results lead to the identification of decoherence-free states in the collective decoherence limit. These states belong to s

110

Information transfer through quantum channels

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

Kretschmann, D.

2007-03-12

111

Information transfer through quantum channels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

112

Persistence of Quantum Information

There is an increasing interest in the role of macroscopic environments to our understanding of the basics of quantum theory. The knowledge of the implications of the quantum theory to other theories, especially to the statistical mechanics and the domain of validity has captivated scientists from the beginning of quantum description. In such a context, the presence of an environment is commonly thought as entanglement, decohering and mixing properties of quantum system. Generically, an environment is assumed to be a noisy reservoir or a heat bath. Whereas in common interpretation of statistical mechanics the heat bath is unspecified, in quantum systems a heat bath can also provide an indirect interaction between otherwise totally decoupled subsystems and consequently a means to entangle them \\cite{cdkl,dvclp,bfp}. In simple example for the entanglement between two qubits due to the interaction with a common heat bath has been explicitly shown in \\cite{b}. Whereas in that paper the bath is described by a coll...

Schulz, M; Schulz, Michael; Trimper, Steffen

2006-01-01

113

Renormalization group and quantum information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The renormalization group is a tool that allows one to obtain a reduced description of systems with many degrees of freedom while preserving the relevant features. In the case of quantum systems, in particular, one-dimensional systems defined on a chain, an optimal formulation is given by White's 'density matrix renormalization group'. This formulation can be shown to rely on concepts of the developing theory of quantum information. Furthermore, White's algorithm can be connected with a peculiar type of quantization, namely, angular quantization. This type of quantization arose in connection with quantum gravity problems, in particular, the Unruh effect in the problem of black-hole entropy and Hawking radiation. This connection highlights the importance of quantum system boundaries, regarding the concentration of quantum states on them, and helps us to understand the optimal nature of White's algorithm.

Gaite, Jose [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2006-06-23

114

Quantum information and relativity theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment

115

Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that ...

Gyongyosi, Laszlo

2014-01-01

116

Mismatched Quantum Filtering and Entropic Information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum filtering is a signal processing technique that estimates the posterior state of a quantum system under continuous measurements and has become a standard tool in quantum information processing, with applications in quantum state preparation, quantum metrology, and quantum control. If the filter assumes a nominal model that differs from reality, however, the estimation accuracy is bound to suffer. Here I derive identities that relate the excess error caused by quantum...

Tsang, Mankei

2013-01-01

117

Information encoding and reconstruction from the phase of action potentials

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamental questions in neural coding are how neurons encode, transfer, and reconstruct information from the pattern of action potentials exchanged between different brain structures. We propose a general model of neural coding where neurons encode information by the phase of their action potentials relative to their subthreshold membrane oscillations. We demonstrate by means of simulations that action potential phase retains the spatial and temporal content of the input under the assumption that the membrane potential oscillations are coherent across neurons and between structures and have a constant spatial phase gradient. The model explains many unresolved physiological observations and makes a number of concrete, testable predictions about the relationship between action potentials, LFP, and subthreshold membrane oscillations, and provides an estimate of the spatio-temporal precision of neuronal information processing.

ZoltanNadasdy

2009-07-01

118

Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ''half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis

119

Fractal states in quantum information processing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.

Jaeger, Gregg

2007-01-01

120

Small-scale quantum information processing with linear optics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Photons are the ideal systems for carrying quantum information. Although performing large-scale quantum computation on optical systems is extremely demanding, non scalable linear-optics quantum information processing may prove essential as part of quantum communication networks. In addition efficient (scalable) linear-optical quantum computation proposal relies on the same optical elements. Here, by constructing multirail optical networks, we experimentally study two central problems in quantum information science, namely optimal discrimination between nonorthogonal quantum states, and controlling decoherence in quantum systems. Quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination between nonorthogonal states. This is one of the central features of quantum cryptography, which leads to secure communications. Quantum state discrimination is an important primitive in quantum information processing, since it determines the limitations of a potential eavesdropper, and it has applications in quantum cloning and entanglement concentration. In this work, we experimentally implement generalized measurements in an optical system and demonstrate the first optimal unambiguous discrimination between three non-orthogonal states with a success rate of 55 %, to be compared with the 25 % maximum achievable using projective measurements. Furthermore, we present the first realization of unambiguous discrimination between a pure state and a nonorthogonal mixed state. In a separate experiment, we demonstrate how decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) may be incorporated into a prototype optical quantum algorithm. Specifically, we present an optical realization of two-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in presence of random noise. By introduction of localized turbulent airflow we produce a collective optical dephasing, leading to large error rates and demonstrate that using DFS encoding, the error rate in the presence of decoherence can be reduced from 35 % to essentially its pre-noise value 7 %. (author)

121

Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations

The Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations (formerly the Centre for Quantum Computation), part of the University of Cambridge, and based within the Department for Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, conducts theoretical research into all aspects of quantum information processing, and into the implications of the quantum theory of computation for physics itself. This site contains links to current research, journal articles, educational materials (including lecture notes, puzzles and quizzes), and extensive links to the greater quantum information and computing community.

2005-11-21

122

The operational meaning of quantum conditional information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three sy...

Devetak, Igor; Yard, Jon

2006-01-01

123

Transfer and teleportation of quantum states encoded in decoherence-free subspace

Quantum state transfer and teleportation, with qubits encoded in internal states of the atoms in cavities, among spatially separated nodes of a quantum network in decoherence-free subspace are proposed, based on a cavity-assisted interaction by single-photon pulses. We show in details the implementation of a logic-qubit Hadamard gate and a two-logic-qubit conditional gate, and discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

Wei, Hua; Zhang, XiaoLong; Feng, Mang

2007-01-01

124

Transfer and teleportation of quantum states encoded in decoherence-free subspace

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum state transfer and teleportation, with qubits encoded in internal states of atoms in cavities, among spatially separated nodes of a quantum network in a decoherence-free subspace are proposed, based on a cavity-assisted interaction with single-photon pulses. We show in detail the implementation of a logic-qubit Hadamard gate and a two-logic-qubit conditional gate, and discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme

125

Transfer and teleportation of quantum states encoded in decoherence-free subspace

Quantum state transfer and teleportation, with qubits encoded in internal states of atoms in cavities, among spatially separated nodes of a quantum network in a decoherence-free subspace are proposed, based on a cavity-assisted interaction with single-photon pulses. We show in detail the implementation of a logic-qubit Hadamard gate and a two-logic-qubit conditional gate, and discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

Wei, Hua; Deng, Zhijiao; Zhang, Xiaolong; Feng, Mang

2007-11-01

126

Quantum Cloning and Deletion in Quantum Information Theory

Quantum mechanics put restriction on performing some task which we can do classically. One such restriction is that we cannot copy an arbitrary quantum state. This is known as No-cloning theorem. Although quantum mechanics forbid us to construct a perfect cloner, there is no restriction to construct an imperfect cloner. Therefore, we have constructed and studied a special kind of quantum cloning machine named as Hybrid quantum cloning machine which is nothing but a different combination of pre-existing quantum cloning machines. We showed that this hybrid quantum cloning machine sometime gives better quality copy than the pre-existing quantum cloners. Quantum entanglement is a very astonishing property in a multi-partite system and it is a very useful ingredient of quantum information theory. Therefore broadcasting (cloning) of entanglement is a very important subject to study. In this regard we have studied the broadcasting of entanglement using state dependent quantum cloning machine. Further, we have invest...

Adhikari, Satyabrata

2006-01-01

127

Encoding Visual Information in Retinal Ganglion Cells with Prosthetic Stimulation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike t...

Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F.; Fried, Shelley I.

2011-01-01

128

Quantum-information distribution via entanglement

We present a generalization of quantum teleportation that distributes quantum information from a sender's d-level particle to No particles held by remote receivers via an initially shared multiparticle entangled state. This entangled state functions as a multiparty quantum information distribution channel between the sender and the receivers. The structure of the distribution channel determines how quantum information is processed. Our generalized teleportation scheme allows multiple receivers at arbitrary locations, and can be used for applications such as optimal quantum information broadcasting, asymmetric telecloning, and quantum error correction.

Murao, Mio; Plenio, Martin B.; Vedral, Vlatko

2000-03-01

129

Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

130

Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

Holevo, Alexander S.

2012-07-01

131

Decoherence-free quantum information processing with four-photon entangled states.

Decoherence-free states protect quantum information from collective noise, the predominant cause of decoherence in current implementations of quantum communication and computation. Here we demonstrate that spontaneous parametric down conversion can be used to generate four-photon states which enable the encoding of one qubit in a decoherence-free subspace. The immunity against noise is verified by quantum state tomography of the encoded qubit. We show that particular states of the encoded qubit can be distinguished by local measurements on the four photons only. PMID:15089244

Bourennane, Mohamed; Eibl, Manfred; Gaertner, Sascha; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adán; Weinfurter, Harald

2004-03-12

132

Decoherence-Free Quantum Information Processing with Four-Photon Entangled States

Decoherence-free states protect quantum information from collective noise, the predominant cause of decoherence in current implementations of quantum communication and computation. Here we demonstrate that spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be used to generate four-photon states which enable the encoding of one qubit in a decoherence-free subspace. The immunity against noise is verified by quantum state tomography of the encoded qubit. We show that particular states of the encoded qubit can be distinguished by local measurements on the four photons only.

Bourennane, M; Gaertner, S; Kurtsiefer, C; Cabello, A; Weinfurter, H; Bourennane, Mohamed; Eibl, Manfred; Gaertner, Sascha; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adan; Weinfurter, Harald

2004-01-01

133

Quantum Information in Space and Time

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many important results in modern quantum information theory have been obtained for an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as the notions of composite systems, entangled states and the channel should be formulated in space and time. We emphasize the importance of the inv...

Volovich, Igor V.

2001-01-01

134

Relativistic quantum information theory and quantum reference frames

This thesis is a compilation of research in relativistic quantum information theory, and research in quantum reference frames. The research in the former category provides a fundamental construction of quantum information theory of localised qubits in curved spacetimes. For example, this concerns quantum experiments on free-space photons and electrons in the vicinity of the Earth. From field theory a description of localised qubits that traverse classical trajectories in curved spacetimes is obtained, for photons and massive spin-1/2 fermions. The equations governing the evolution of the two-dimensional quantum state and its absolute phase are determined. Quantum information theory of these qubits is then developed. The Stern-Gerlach measurement formalism for massive spin-1/2 fermions is also derived from field theory. In the latter category of research, the process of changing reference frames is considered for the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. As part of this process, it is shown that...

Palmer, Matthew C

2013-01-01

135

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantu...

D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

2011-01-01

136

Universal factorization law in quantum information processing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We identify a universal factorization law in quantum information processing protocols such as the quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-non-locality violation and particularly dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This factorization law shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figure of merits for different protocols demonstrate a universal factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We find a family of quantum stat...

Hu, Ming-liang; Fan, Heng

2014-01-01

137

Information-theoretic characterization of quantum chaos

Hypersensitivity to perturbation is a criterion for chaos based on the question of how much information about a perturbing environment is needed to keep the entropy of a Hamiltonian system from increasing. We demonstrate numerically that hypersensitivity to perturbation is present in the following quantum maps: the quantum kicked top, the quantum baker's map, the quantum lazy baker's map, and the quantum sawtooth and cat maps.

Schack, R

1995-01-01

138

Quantum Information Theoretical Analysis of Quantum Secret Sharing

Quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes are analyzed from an information theoretical perspective centered on the Araki—Lieb inequality. Based on this inequality, mathematical characterizations of QSS schemes and quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) are given. Furthermore, we present a proof of the relation between QSS schemes and QECCs. This information theoretic description of QSS schemes is used to derive the quantum Singleton bound.

Xiao, He-Ling; Guo, Wang-Mei; Wang, Xiao

2012-11-01

139

Quantum Information Theoretical Analysis of Quantum Secret Sharing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes are analyzed from an information theoretical perspective centered on the Araki—Lieb inequality. Based on this inequality, mathematical characterizations of QSS schemes and quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) are given. Furthermore, we present a proof of the relation between QSS schemes and QECCs. This information theoretic description of QSS schemes is used to derive the quantum Singleton bound

140

Quantum information and special relativity

Relativistic effects affect nearly all notions of quantum information theory. The vacuum behaves as a noisy channel, even if the detectors are perfect. The standard definition of a reduced density matrix fails for photon polarization because the transversality condition behaves like a superselection rule. We can however define an effective reduced density matrix which corresponds to a restricted class of positive operator-valued measures. There are no pure photon qubits, and no exactly orthogonal qubit states. Reduced density matrices for the spin of massive particles are well-defined, but are not covariant under Lorentz transformations. The spin entropy is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning. The distinguishability of quantum signals and their entanglement depend on the relative motion of observers.

Peres, A; Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

2003-01-01

141

Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity

The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local...

Gyongyosi, Laszlo

2014-01-01

142

Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

This thesis is a contribution to the debate on the implications of quantum information theory for the foundations of quantum mechanics. In Part 1, the logical and conceptual status of various notions of information is assessed. It is emphasized that the everyday notion of information is to be firmly distinguished from the technical notions arising in information theory; however it is maintained that in both settings `information' functions as an abstract noun, hence does not refer to a particular or substance (the worth of this point is illustrated in application to quantum teleportation). The claim that `Information is Physical' is assessed and argued to face a destructive dilemma. Accordingly, the slogan may not be understood as an ontological claim, but at best, as a methodological one. The reflections of Bruckner and Zeilinger (2001) and Deutsch and Hayden (2000) on the nature of information in quantum mechanics are critically assessed and some results presented on the characterization of entanglement in ...

Timpson, C G

2004-01-01

143

Amplification, redundancy, and quantum Chernoff information.

Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment. PMID:24765928

Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H

2014-04-11

144

Philosophy of quantum information and entanglement

Recent work in quantum information science has produced a revolution in our understanding of quantum entanglement. Scientists now view entanglement as a physical resource with many important applications. These range from quantum computers, which would be able to compute exponentially faster than classical computers, to quantum cryptographic techniques, which could provide unbreakable codes for the transfer of secret information over public channels. These important advances in the study of quantum entanglement and information touch on deep foundational issues in both physics and philosophy. This interdisciplinary volume brings together fourteen of the world's leading physicists and philosophers of physics to address the most important developments and debates in this exciting area of research. It offers a broad spectrum of approaches to resolving deep foundational challenges - philosophical, mathematical, and physical - raised by quantum information, quantum processing, and entanglement. This book is ideal f...

Jaeger, Gregg

2010-01-01

145

Aspects of multistation quantum information broadcasting

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study quantum information transmission over multiparty quantum channel. In particular, we show an equivalence of different capacity notions and provide a multiletter characterization of a capacity region for a general quantum channel with k senders and m receivers. We point out natural generalizations to the case of two-way classical communication capacity.

146

Quantum computing and information extraction for a dynamical quantum system

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the simulation of a complex dynamical system, the so-called quantum sawtooth map model, on a quantum computer. We show that a quantum computer can be used to efficiently extract relevant physical information for this model. It is possible to simulate the dynamical localization of classical chaos and extract the localization length of the system with quadratic speed up with respect to any known classical computation. We can also compute with algebraic speed up the ...

Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Montangero, Simone

2004-01-01

147

A quantum information approach to statistical mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

circuits, which allows us to determine the quantum computational complexity of the partition function by studying the corresponding quantum circuit. Finally, we outline the possibility of applying quantum information concepts and tools to certain models of dis- crete quantum gravity. The latter provide a natural route to generalize our results, insofar as the central quantity has the form of a partition function, and as classical spin models are used as toy models of matter. (author)

148

Information causality in the quantum and post-quantum regime.

Quantum correlations can be stronger than anything achieved by classical systems, yet they are not reaching the limit imposed by relativity. The principle of information causality offers a possible explanation for why the world is quantum and why there appear to be no even stronger correlations. Generalizing the no-signaling condition it suggests that the amount of accessible information must not be larger than the amount of transmitted information. Here we study this principle experimentally in the classical, quantum and post-quantum regimes. We simulate correlations that are stronger than allowed by quantum mechanics by exploiting the effect of polarization-dependent loss in a photonic Bell-test experiment. Our method also applies to other fundamental principles and our results highlight the special importance of anisotropic regions of the no-signalling polytope in the study of fundamental principles. PMID:25378182

Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Berry, Dominic W; White, Andrew G

2014-01-01

149

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum communication, and indeed quantum information in general, has changed the way we think about quantum physics. In 1984 and 1991, the first protocol for quantum cryptography and the first application of quantum non-locality, respectively, attracted a diverse field of researchers in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics and computer science. Since then we have seen a fundamental shift in how we understand information when it is encoded in quantum systems. We...

Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob

2007-01-01

150

The Quantum Information of Cosmological Correlations

It has been shown that the primordial perturbations sourced by inflation are driven to classicality by unitary evolution alone. However, their coupling with the environment such as photons and subsequent decoherence renders the cosmological correlations quantum, losing primordial information in the process. We argue that the quantumness of the resulting cosmological correlations is given by quantum discord, which captures non-classical behavior beyond quantum entanglement. By considering the environment as a quantum channel in which primordial information contained in the perturbations is transmitted to us, we can then ask how much of this information is inaccessible. We show that this amount of information is given by the discord of the joint primordial perturbations-environment system. To illustrate these points, we model the joint system as a mixed bi-modal Gaussian state, and show that quantum discord is dependent on the basis which decoherence occurs.

Lim, Eugene A

2014-01-01

151

Distinguishability and accessible information in quantum theory

This document focuses on translating various information-theoretic measures of distinguishability for probability distributions into measures of distin- guishability for quantum states. These measures should have important appli- cations in quantum cryptography and quantum computation theory. The results reported include the following. An exact expression for the quantum fidelity between two mixed states is derived. The optimal measurement that gives rise to it is studied in detail. Several upper and lower bounds on the quantum mutual information are derived via similar techniques and compared to each other. Of note is a simple derivation of the important upper bound first proved by Holevo and an explicit expression for another (tighter) upper bound that appears implicitly in the same derivation. Several upper and lower bounds to the quan- tum Kullback relative information are derived. The measures developed are also applied to ferreting out the extent to which quantum systems must be disturbed by information...

Fuchs, C

1996-01-01

152

Encoding mutually unbiased bases in orbital angular momentum for quantum key distribution

We encode mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) using the higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom and illustrate how these states are encoded on a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). We perform (d - 1)- mutual unbiased measurements in both a classical prepare and measure scheme and on entangled photon pairs for dimensions ranging from d = 2 to 5. The calculated average error rate, mutual information and secret key rate show an increase in information capacity as well as higher generation rates as the dimension increases.

Dudley, A.; Mafu, M.; Goyal, S.; Giovannini, D.; McLaren, M.; Konrad, T.; Padgett, M. J.; Petruccione, F.; Lütkenhaus, N.; Forbes, A.

2014-02-01

153

Towards Nonadditive Quantum Information Theory

A definition of the nonadditive (nonextensive) conditional entropy indexed by q is presented. Based on the composition law in terms of it, the Shannon-Khinchin axioms are generalized and the uniqueness theorem is established for the Tsallis entropy. The nonadditive conditional entropy, when considered in the quantum context, is always positive for separable states but takes negative values for entangled states, indicating its utility for characterizing entanglement. A criterion deduced from it for separability of the density matrix is examined in detail by using a bipartite spin-half system. It is found that the strongest criterion for separability obtained by Peres using an algebraic method is recovered in the present information-theoretic approach.

Abe, S; Abe, Sumiyoshi

2000-01-01

154

Simulation of the Burgers equation by NMR quantum information processing

We report on the implementation of Burgers equation as a type-II quantum computation on an NMR quantum information processor. Since the flow field evolving under the Burgers equation develops sharp features over time, this is a better test of liquid state NMR implementations of type-II quantum computers than the previous examples using the diffusion equation. In particular, we show that Fourier approximations used in the encoding step are not the dominant error. Small systematic errors in the collision operator accumulate and swamp all other errors. We propose, and demonstrate, that the accumulation of this error can be avoided to a large extent by replacing the single collision operator with a set of operators with random errors and similar fidelities. Experiments have been implemented on 16 two-qubit sites for eight successive time steps for the Burgers equation.

Chen, Z; Cory, D G; Chen, Zhiying; Yepez, Jeffrey; Cory, David G.

2004-01-01

155

We demonstrate the first implementation of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), which is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. Active phase randomization of each individual pulse is implemented to protect against attacks on imperfect sources. By optimizing the parameters in the decoy state protocol, we show that it is feasible to implement polarization encoding MDI-QKD with commercial off-the-shelf devices. A rigorous finite key analysis is applied to estimate the secure key rate. Our work paves the way for the realization of a MDI-QKD network, in which the users only need compact and low-cost state-preparation devices and can share complicated and expensive detectors provided by an untrusted network server.

Tang, Zhiyuan; Liao, Zhongfa; Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

2014-05-01

156

Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective

We summarize important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramér–Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrelated noise limits the highest achievable precision in very general metrological tasks. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

Tóth, Géza; Apellaniz, Iagoba

2014-10-01

157

Photonic Communications and Quantum Information Storage Capacities

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents photonic communications and data storage capacitates for classical and quantum communications over a quantum channel. These capacities represent a generalization of Shannon’s classical channel capacity and coding theorem in two ways. First, it extends classical results for bit communication transport to all frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum. Second, it extends the results to quantum bit (qubit transport as well as a hybrid of classical and quantum communications. Nature’s limits on the rate at which classical and/or quantum information can be sent error-free over a quantum channel using classical and/or quantum error-correcting codes are presented as a function of the thermal background light level and Einstein zero-point energy. Graphical results are given as well as numerical results regarding communication rate limits using Planck’s natural frequency and time-interval units!

William C. Lindsey

2013-06-01

158

Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective dens [...] ity matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end.

J. D., Bulnes; F. A., Bonk; R. S., Sarthour; E. R. de, Azevedo; J. C. C., Freitas; T. J., Bonagamba; I. S., Oliveira.

2005-09-01

159

Quantum Realism, Information, and Epistemological Modesty

It is usually asserted that physical theories, in particular quantum mechanics, support a certain view of what the world really is. To such claims I oppose an attitude of epistemological modesty. Ontological statements on the nature of reality, when made on the basis of quantum mechanics, appear unwarranted. I suggest that an epistemic loop connects physical theory grounded in informational notions, and a theory of information developed through a theoretical account of the physical support of information.

Grinbaum, Alexei

2014-03-01

160

Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations

161

Multiple hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct visual information.

Environmental illumination profoundly influences mammalian physiology and behaviour through actions on a master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and other hypothalamic nuclei. The retinal and central mechanisms that shape daily patterns of light-evoked and spontaneous activity in this network of hypothalamic cells are still largely unclear. Similarly, the exact nature of the sensory information conveyed by such cells is unresolved. Here we set out to address these issues, through multielectrode recordings from the hypothalamus of red cone knockin mice (Opn1mwR). With this powerful mouse model, the photoreceptive origins of any response can be readily identified on the basis of their relative sensitivity to short and long wavelength light. Our experiments revealed that the firing pattern of many hypothalamic cells was influenced by changes in light levels and/or according to the steady state level of illumination. These ‘contrast' and ‘irradiance' responses were driven primarily by cone and melanopsin photoreceptors respectively, with rods exhibiting a much more subtle influence. Individual hypothalamic neurons differentially sampled from these information streams, giving rise to four distinct response types. The most common response phenotype in the SCN itself was sustained activation. Cells with this behaviour responded to all three photoreceptor classes in a manner consistent with their distinct contributions to circadian photoentrainment. These ‘sustained' cells were also unique in our sample in expressing circadian firing patterns with highest activity during the mid projected day. Surprisingly, we also found a minority of SCN neurons that lacked the melanopsin-derived irradiance signal and responded only to light transitions, allowing for the possibility that rod–cone contrast signals may be routed to SCN output targets without influencing neighbouring circadian oscillators. Finally, an array of cells extending throughout the periventricular hypothalamus and ventral thalamus were excited or inhibited solely according to the activity of melanopsin. These cells appeared to convey a filtered version of the visual signal, suitable for modulating physiology/behaviour purely according to environmental irradiance. In summary, these findings reveal unexpectedly widespread hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct qualities of visual information. PMID:21224225

Brown, Timothy M; Wynne, Jonathan; Piggins, Hugh D; Lucas, Robert J

2011-03-01

162

Quantum Information Processing at the Attosecond Timescale

Coherent processing of quantum information and attosecond science had so far little in common. We here show that recent data in high harmonic emission reveal quantum information processing at the attosecond timescale. High harmonic generation in the strong-field regime is governed by tunneling ionization followed by the motion of the electron in the continuum and its re-collision in the atomic core. Before the actual photon detection the electron-photon state exhibits a high degree of quantum coherence and entanglement, that has so far remained elusive. By observing the interference pattern created by the spatiotemporal overlap of photons emitted by two interfering electron paths we generate a photon Hadamard gate and thus erase the electron-trajectory information. This allows the measurement of the relative phase in electron-trajectory quantum superpositions and establishes the era of electron-photon quantum coherence and entanglement at the attosecond timescale of high-field physics.

Kominis, I K; Charalambidis, D; Tzallas, P

2013-01-01

163

Towards a quantum information technology industry

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research fields of quantum information processing and communication are now well established, although still growing and developing. It was realized early on that there is significant potential for new technologies and applications, leading to the vision of a whole new quantum information technology industry. The vision is not yet reality, and there are many open questions with regard to how it might become so. This article raises some of these questions, and gives a viewpoint on how we might proceed, from where we are today towards a quantum information technology industry in the future. (viewpoint)

Spiller, T P; Munro, W J [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom)

2006-01-11

164

Nanomechanics and superconducting qubits for quantum information

There has been tremendous progress in the capabilities of superconducting quantum circuits, both for fundamental quantum science as well as for applications in quantum information. Superconducting qubits are based on the Josephson junction, which provides the fundamental inductive nonlinearity that affords full quantum control of otherwise quite simple electrical circuits. I will outline how a superconducting qubit can be used to measure and control the quantum state of a nanomechanical system [1], completely control multi-photon states in superconducting resonators [2,3], factor the number 15 using a von Neumann-style computing architecture [4,5], and possibly allow the transfer of a GHz-frequency quantum state to an optical signal.[4pt] [1] A.D. O'Connell et al., ``Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,'' Nature 464, 697-703 (2010)[0pt] [2] M. Hofheinz et al., ``Generation of Fock states in a superconducting quantum circuit,'' Nature 454, 310-314 (2008)[0pt] [3] M. Hofheinz et al., ``Synthesizing arbitrary quantum states in a superconducting resonator,'' Nature 459, 546-549 (2009)[0pt] [4] M. Mariantoni et al., ``Implementing the quantum von Neumann architecture with superconducting circuits,'' Science 334, 61 (2011) [0pt] [5] E. Lucero et al., ``Computing prime factors with a Josephson phase qubit quantum processor,'' Nature Physics 8, 719 (2012)

Cleland, Andrew

2013-03-01

165

Experimental demonstration of decoherence-free one-way quantum information processing

In recent years, one-way quantum computing has become an exciting alternative to existing proposals for quantum computers. In this specific model, coherent quantum information processing (QIP) is accomplished via a sequence of single-qubit measurements applied to an entangled resource known as cluster state. However, there has so far been no experimental realization of noise-resilient quantum computation in the one-way model. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a one-way quantum processor reliably operating under the effects of decoherence. Information is protected by a properly designed decoherence-free subspace in which the cluster states reside. We demonstrate our scheme in an all-optical setup by encoding the information into the polarization states of four photons. A one-way information-transfer protocol is performed with the photons exposed to severe symmetric phase damping noise. Remarkable protection of information is accomplished, delivering nearly ideal computational outcomes.

Prevedel, Robert; Tame, Mark S.; Stefanov, André.; Paternostro, Mauro; Kim, Myungshik; Zeilinger, Anton

2008-03-01

166

A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers

Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.

Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying

2014-07-01

167

Quantum Information Processing in Disordered and Complex Quantum Systems

We investigate quantum information processing and manipulations in disordered systems of ultracold atoms and trapped ions. First, we demonstrate generation of entanglement and local realization of quantum gates in a quantum spin glass system. Entanglement in such systems attains significantly high values, after quenched averaging, and has a stable positive value for arbitrary times. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ion chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be modeled by neural network Hamiltonians. In such systems, we find the characteristic time of persistence of quenched averaged entanglement, and also find the time of its revival.

De, A S; Ahufinger, V; Briegel, H J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

2005-01-01

168

Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the set-up as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a nonlinear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Thus our results show a flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips.

Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Padgett, Miles J.; Zeilinger, Anton

2014-07-01

169

Interface between path and OAM entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information

Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the setup as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum (OAM) possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a non-linear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the OAM degree of freedom. Thus our results show a novel, flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chi...

Fickler, Robert; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton

2014-01-01

170

Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the set-up as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a nonlinear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Thus our results show a flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips. PMID:25073906

Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton

2014-01-01

171

Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

Krueger, O.

2006-04-06

172

Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

173

Quantum information processing : science & technology.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

2010-09-01

174

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of mutual entropy (information) and capacity in classica l system was extensively done after Shannon by several authors like Kolmogor ov and Gelfand. In quantum systems, there have been several definitions of t he mutual entropy for classical input and quantum output. In 1983, the autho r defined the fully quantum mechanical mutual entropy by means of the relati ve entropy of Umegaki, and it has been used to compute the capacity of quant um channel for quantum comm...

Ohya, Masanori

1998-01-01

175

Optimal generalized variance and quantum Fisher information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We define the generalized variance based on requiring that (i) it equals the usual variance for pure states and (ii) it is concave. For a quantum system of any size, we show that the usual variance is the smallest generalized variance, which makes it optimal for using it in entanglement criteria based on uncertainty relations. Similarly, we define the generalized quantum Fisher information, replacing the requirement of concavity by convexity. For rank-2 density matrices, we show that the quantum Fisher information is the largest among generalized quantum Fisher informations. We relate our findings to the results of [D. Petz, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35, 79 (2003); P. Gibilisco, F. Hiai and D. Petz, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 55, 439 (2009)].

176

Predictive Information for Quantum Bio-Systems

We consider the evolution of a quantum bio-system that interacts with an external environment in a stochastic manner. We ask an important question: when can a bio-system be more predictive to a changing environment? We prove that the non-predictive information for a driven quantum bio-system is lower bounded by the change in the quantum correlation and upper bounded by the entropy production in the system and the environment. We argue that for a system to have more predictive information, it must retain the quantum correlation. This shows that at a fundamental level if a biological system has to be energetically efficient, it must minimize the loss of quantum correlation.

Pati, Arun Kumar

2014-07-01

177

Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution

The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...

Giddings, Steven B

2012-01-01

178

Principles of quantum computation and information

Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.

Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano

2004-01-01

179

Towards scalable gated quantum dots for quantum information applications

A crucial pre-requisite for quantum information applications is the ability to produce a scalable quantum system that can be controllably manipulated. We present a technique that promises the practical realization of a scalable system with arrays of gated quantum dots (QDs) emitting at wavelengths suitable for fibre based quantum cryptography. We show how the random nature of the nucleation site for self-assembled QDs can be overcome by a nanotemplate deposition technique such that further processing around these dots can be performed. By knowing exactly where the QD is, we position electrostatic gates around the dot with better than 30 nm accuracy. With these gates and a Si n-doped back gate, we demonstrate from both simulation and experiment that we can control the electron number of the dot via vertical electric fields.

Reimer, M. E.; McKinnon, W. R.; Lapointe, J.; Dalacu, D.; Poole, P. J.; Aers, G. C.; Kim, D.; Korkusi?ski, M.; Hawrylak, P.; Williams, R. L.

2008-04-01

180

Information gap for classical and quantum communication in a Schwarzschild spacetime

Communication between a free-falling observer and an observer hovering above the Schwarzschild horizon of a black hole suffers from Unruh-Hawking noise, which degrades communication channels. Ignoring time dilation, which affects all channels equally, we show that for bosonic communication using single- and dual-rail encoding, the classical channel capacity reaches a finite value and the quantum coherent information tends to zero. We conclude that classical correlations still exist at infinite acceleration, whereas the quantum coherence is fully removed.

Hosler, Dominic; van de Bruck, Carsten; Kok, Pieter

2012-04-01

181

Quantum information-flow, concretely, and axiomatically

This paper surveys joint work with Samson Abramsky. I will somewhat informally discuss the main results of a series of papers in a pedestrian not too technical way. These include: . 'The logic of entanglement', that is, the identification and abstract axiomatization of the 'quantum information-flow' which enables protocols such as quantum teleportation. To this means we define strongly compact closed categories which abstractly capture the behavioral properties of quantum entanglement. . 'Postulates for an abstract quantum formalism' in which classical information-flow (e.g. token exchange) is part of the formalism. As an example, we provide a purely formal description of quantum teleportation and prove correctness in abstract generality. In this formalism types reflect kinds contra the essentially typeless von Neumann formalism. Hence even concretely this formalism manifestly improves on the usual one. .'Towards a high-level approach to quantum informatics'. Indeed the above discussed work can be conceived as aiming to solve: ???/von Neumann quantum formalism ~ high-level language/low-level language

Coecke, Bob

2005-06-01

182

Information sharing in quantum complex networks

We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity, thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a by-product, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows one to determine the network topology.

Cardillo, Alessio; Galve, Fernando; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

2013-05-01

183

Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks

We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.

Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

2013-01-01

184

Heterogeneous 3D Assembly of DNA-encoded Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles

We report the heterogeneous assembly of quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into three-dimensional (3D) superlattices by means of DNA encoding. CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs were functionalized with stranded (ss) DNA to obtain a stable aqueous dispersion of QD-DNA conjugates, which maintains the optical properties of the original QDs. By introducing AuNPs modified by complementary ssDNA, QD-AuNP aggregates were assembled. Using synchrotron-based small angel X-ray scattering, we found that QD-AuNP assemblies form a body center cubic (BCC) lattice, while each nanoparticle type, QD and AuNP, are positioned in a simple cubic (SC) manner. Distance-dependent optical property of QDs in heterogeneous superlattices was studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The potential applications of the above optically-active nanosystems will also be discussed.

Sun, Dazhi Peter; Gang, Oleg

2012-02-01

185

Nature and location of quantum information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum information is defined by applying the concepts of ordinary (Shannon) information theory to a quantum sample space consisting of a single framework or consistent family. A classical analogy for a spin-half particle and other arguments show that the infinite amount of information needed to specify a precise vector in its Hilbert space is not a measure of the information carried by a quantum entity with a d-dimensional Hilbert space; the latter is, instead, bounded by log2d bits (one bit per qubit). The two bits of information transmitted in dense coding are located not in one but in the correlation between two qubits, consistent with this bound. A quantum channel can be thought of as a structure or collection of frameworks, and the physical location of the information in the individual frameworks can be used to identify the location of the channel. Analysis of a quantum circuit used as a model of teleportation shows that the location of the channel depends upon which structure is employed; for ordinary teleportation it is not (contrary to Deutsch and Hayden) present in the two bits resulting from the Bell-basis measurement, but in correlations of these with a distant qubit. In neither teleportation nor dense coding does information travel backwards in time, nor is it transmitted by nonlocal (superluminal) influences. It is (tentatively) proposed that all aspects of quantum information can in principle be understood in terms of the (basically classical) behavior of information in a particular framework, along with the framework dependence of this information

186

Quantum dot - nanocavity QED for quantum information processing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single quantum dots (QDs) in photonic crystal nanocavities are interesting both as a testbed for fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments, as well as a platform for quantum and classical information processing. In addition to providing a scalable, on-chip, platform, these systems also enable large dipole-field interaction strengths, as a result of the localization of the field to very small optical volumes. Such a platform could be employed to demonstrate a number of devices, including nonclassical light sources, electro-optic modulators and switches operating at the single photon level, and quantum gates. QD-cavity QED systems also exhibit interesting phonon-assisted off-resonant interaction between the QD and the cavity which can be employed for spectral filtering, as well as for coherent optical spectroscopy and quantum dot state readout, thereby overcoming issues coming from quantum dot inhomogeneous broadening. In order to make the platform compatible with fiber-optic telecommunication wavelengths, the intrinsic optical nonlinearity of the semiconductor employed to make a nanocavity can be employed for frequency conversion.

187

The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean

2008-01-01

188

Quantum-information-processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A potential quantum-information processor is proposed using an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N-C60 or 31P-C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.

189

Decoherence-free quantum information in the presence of dynamical evolution

We analyze decoherence-free (DF) quantum information in the presence of an arbitrary non-nearest-neighbor bath-induced system Hamiltonian using a Markovian master equation. We show that the most appropriate encoding for N qubits is probably contained within the ~(2/9) N excitation subspace. We give a timescale over which one would expect to apply other methods to correct for the system Hamiltonian. In order to remain applicable to experiment, we then focus on small systems, and present examples of DF quantum information for three and four qubits. We give an encoding for four qubits that, while quantum information remains in the two-excitation subspace, protects against an arbitrary bath-induced system Hamiltonian. Although our results are general to any system of qubits that satisfies our assumptions, throughout the paper we use dipole-coupled qubits as an example physical system.

Brooke, Peter G; Patra, Manas K

2008-01-01

190

Decoherence-free quantum information in the presence of dynamical evolution

We analyze decoherence-free (DF) quantum information in the presence of an arbitrary non-nearest-neighbor bath-induced system Hamiltonian using a Markovian master equation. We show that the most appropriate encoding for N qubits is probably contained within the ˜(2)/(9)N excitation subspace. We give a time scale over which one would expect to apply other methods to correct for the system Hamiltonian. In order to remain applicable to experiment, we then focus on small systems, and present examples of DF quantum information for three and four qubits. We give an encoding for four qubits that, while quantum information remains in the two-excitation subspace, protects against an arbitrary bath-induced system Hamiltonian. Although our results are general to any system of qubits that satisfies our assumptions, throughout the paper we use dipole-coupled qubits as an example physical system.

Brooke, Peter G.; Cresser, James D.; Patra, Manas K.

2008-06-01

191

Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

192

Quantum information reclaiming after amplitude damping

We investigate the quantum information reclaim from the environment after amplitude damping has occurred. In particular we address the question of optimal measurement on the environment to perform the best possible correction on two and three dimensional quantum systems. Depending on the dimension we show that the entanglement fidelity (the measure quantifying the correction performance) is or is not the same for all possible measurements and uncover the optimal measurement leading to the maximum entanglement fidelity.

Memarzadeh, Laleh; Mancini, Stefano

2010-01-01

193

Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics

After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

Ohya, M

2004-01-01

194

Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL

2010-01-01

195

Calculating a maximizer for quantum mutual information

We obtain a maximizer for the quantum mutual information for classical information sent over the quantum qubit amplitude damping channel. This is achieved by limiting the ensemble of input states to antipodal states, in the calculation of the product-state capacity for the channel, the resulting maximizing ensemble consisting of just two non-orthogonal states. We also consider the product-state capacity of a convex combination of two memoryless channels and demonstrate in particular that it is in general not given by the minimum of the capacities of the respective memoryless channels.

Dorlas, Tony

2011-01-01

196

Quantum information and computation for chemistry

Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science

Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A

2014-01-01

197

Quantum gravity and the Information Loss Problem

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the standard picture of black hole evaporation and the ensuing Information Loss Problem. Next, we describe an alternative view of the evaporation process due to Ashtekar and Bojowald (AB) which rests on the assumption of singularity resolution in quantum gravity. To endow the AB proposal with precision as well as to test it in a quantitative setting, we consider the Callen-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) toy model of 2-dimensional black holes. We propose a quantum framework in which to understand this model and show that the proposed framework implies that the classical spacetime manifold acquires a quantum extension, as in the AB paradigm. We show that asymptotic analysis coupled with the quantum framework suggests a unitary picture of black hole evaporation consistent with early (on the extended null infinity) time Hawking radiation.

198

On Grover's Search Algorithm from a Quantum Information Geometry Viewpoint

We present an information geometric characterization of Grover's quantum search algorithm. First, we quantify the notion of quantum distinguishability between parametric density operators by means of the Wigner-Yanase quantum information metric. We then show that the quantum searching problem can be recast in an information geometric framework where Grover's dynamics is characterized by a geodesic on the manifold of the parametric density operators of pure quantum states constructed from the continuous approximation of the parametric quantum output state in Grover's algorithm. We also discuss possible deviations from Grover's algorithm within this quantum information geometric setting.

Cafaro, Carlo

2011-01-01

199

Information-technology approach to quantum feedback control

Quantum control theory is profitably reexamined from the perspective of quantum information, two results on the role of quantum information technology in quantum feedback control are presented and two quantum feedback control schemes, teleportation-based distant quantum feedback control and quantum feedback control with quantum cloning, are proposed. In the first feedback scheme, the output from the quantum system to be controlled is fed back into the distant actuator via teleportation to alter the dynamics of system. The result theoretically shows that it can accomplish some tasks such as distant feedback quantum control that Markovian or Bayesian quantum feedback can't complete. In the second feedback strategy, the design of quantum feedback control algorithms is separated into a state recognition step, which gives "on-off" signal to the actuator through recognizing some copies from the cloning machine, and a feedback (control) step using another copies of cloning machine. A compromise between information a...

Dong, D Y; Chen, Z H; Zhang, Chen-Bin; Chen, Zong-Hai

2005-01-01

200

Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing

Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.

Bergou, János A

2013-01-01

201

Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world

Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.

Fayngold, Moses

2013-01-01

202

Quantum Noise and Information in Quantum Search Algorithm

External influences in the form of quantum noise on Grover's search algorithm are investigated. The study shows that the algorithm can be robust under such external dissipation. The effect of noise is described by a completely positive trace preserving map, acting on an unsorted N-dimensional database made of projective density matrices. To evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm two figures of merit are used, the radial fidelity giving the projection between the Bloch vectors of target and final density operators, and the cosine of angular fidelity between the same vectors. Explicitly we prove that the resulting search positive map depends on x, the strength of the coupling to the environment, and that there are infinitely many x values, named good x's and bad x's, for which search is successful after O(?N ) queries, or fails, respectively . Next we study the information theoretic aspects of the dissipative quantum search algorithm. To this end we view the initial state as a pure qubit signal entering through a cascade of quantum channels, each channel described by a completely positive map, and corresponds to the iterations of the algorithm. This map is identical to the dissipative search map of the algorithm for which the parameter x now characterizes the influence of the noisy channel exercised upon the incoming quantum signal. The process of searching is understood as transmission of the initial signal/item through the composite channel made by O(?N ) elementary channels. The quality of this transmission corresponds to the fidelity of targeting the wanted item in the quantum database, and is studied in terms of the majorization/quantum entropy of the input-output density matrix, and by the entropy exchanged between the qubit signal/item and an external environment.

Ellinas, D.; Konstandakis, Ch.

2004-11-01

203

Parallel information transfer in a multinode quantum information processor.

We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel. PMID:22540778

Borneman, T W; Granade, C E; Cory, D G

2012-04-01

204

Noise, errors and information in quantum amplification

We analyze and compare the characterization of a quantum device in terms of noise, transmitted bit-error-rate (BER) and mutual information, showing how the noise description is meaningful only for Gaussian channels. After reviewing the description of a quantum communication channel, we study the insertion of an amplifier. We focus attention on the case of direct detection, where the linear amplifier has a 3 decibels noise figure, which is usually considered an unsurpassable limit, referred to as the standard quantum limit (SQL). Both noise and BER could be reduced using an ideal amplifier, which is feasible in principle. However, just a reduction of noise beyond the SQL does not generally correspond to an improvement of the BER or of the mutual information. This is the case of a laser amplifier, where saturation can greatly reduce the noise figure, although there is no corresponding improvement of the BER. Such mechanism is illustrated on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations.

D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L

1997-01-01

205

Quantum Dialogue Without Information Leakage Using a Single Quantum Entangled State

At present, a lot of quantum dialogue protocols have the problem of information leakage, especially the ones merely using a single quantum state as the quantum resource. In this paper, the author successfully puts forward a novel kind of information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocol merely using a single quantum entangled state. This kind of quantum dialogue protocol uses the measurement correlation property of a single quantum entangled state to prevent the information leakage problem. Its Bell state version is illustrated in detail at first in this paper, then it is generalized to the cases of three-particle, four-particle and five-particle quantum entangled states. Different from those previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the proposed protocol needs neither the auxiliary quantum state nor the entanglement swapping technology of quantum state.

Ye, Tian-Yu

2014-11-01

206

Two-way quantum communication: 'secure quantum information exchange'

In this paper, we present a new idea of two-way quantum communication called 'secure quantum information exchange' (SQIE). If there are two arbitrary unknown quantum states |?rangIA and |?rangIB, initially with Alice and Bob, respectively, then SQIE protocol leads to the simultaneous exchange of these states between Alice and Bob with the aid of the special kind of six-qubit entangled (SSE) state and classical assistance of the third party, Charlie. The term 'secure' signifies the fact that SQIE protocol either faithfully exchanges the unknown quantum states proceeding in a prescribed way or, in case of any irregularity, the process generates no results. For experimental realization of the SQIE protocol, we have suggested an efficient scheme for generating SSE states using the interaction between highly detuned ?-type three-level atoms and the optical coherent field. By theoretical calculations, we found that SSE states of almost unit fidelity with perfect success rates for appreciable mean photon numbers (Fav >= 0.999 for |?|2 >= 1.5) can be generated by our scheme. Further, we have discussed possible experimental imperfections, such as atomic-radiative time, cavity damping time, atom-cavity interaction time, and the efficiency of discrimination between the coherent field and the vacuum state shows that our SQIE protocol is within the reach of technology presently available.

Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

2011-06-01

207

Quantum Information through Angular momentum of Photon

The angular momentum of photons is the key source of quantum information. The transfer of angular momentum is possible as circularly polarized light is passed through wave plates. The passage of LCP through two consecutive half wave plates traces a closed curve on Poincare sphere. As a result the geometric phase is developed associated with gain of orbital angular momentum.

Banerjee, Dipti

2014-01-01

208

Fractals in Quantum Information Process

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the recent work of Kiss et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 100501], the evolvement of two-qubit quantum states in a measurement-based purification process is studied. As they pointed out, the purification results manifest sensitivity to the applied initial states. The convergence regions to different stable circles are depicted on a complex plane. Because of the result patterns' likeness to typical fractals, we make further study on the interesting patterns' connection to fractals. Finally, through a numerical method we conclude that the boundaries of different islands of the patterns are fractals, which possess a non-integral fractal dimension. Also, we show that the fractal dimension would vary with the change of the portion of the noise added to the initial states

209

Quantum information processing with optical vortices

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)

Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

210

Quantum information processing with optical vortices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)

211

Information Hiding Method Based on Block DWT Sub-Band Feature Encoding

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For realizing of long text information hiding and covert communication, a binary watermark sequence was obtained firstly from a text file and encoded by a redundant encoding method. Then, two neighboring blocks were selected at each time from the Hilbert scanning sequence of carrier image blocks, and transformed by 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT). And then the double block based JNDs (just noticeable difference) were calculated with a visual model. According to the different cod...

Yan, Wenying; Dai, Hong; Ma, Wenxin; Sun, Qiudong

2009-01-01

212

Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference). Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, i...

Raisinghani, Mahesh S.

2001-01-01

213

Information Theoretical Analysis of Quantum Optimal Control

We study the relations between classical information and the feasibility of accurate manipulation of quantum system dynamics. We show that if an efficient classical representation of the dynamics exists, optimal control problems on many-body quantum systems can be solved efficiently with finite precision. In particular, one-dimensional slightly entangled dynamics can be efficiently controlled. We provide a bound for the minimal time necessary to perform the optimal process given the bandwidth of the control pulse, which is the continuous version of the Solovay-Kitaev theorem. Finally, we quantify how noise affects the presented results.

Lloyd, S.; Montangero, S.

2014-07-01

214

There are several views about the organization of memory functions in the human prefrontal cortex. One view assumes a process-specific brain lateralization according to different memory subprocesses, that is, encoding and retrieval. An alternative view emphasizes content-specific lateralization of brain systems involved in memory processes. This study addresses this apparent inconsistency between process- and content-specific lateralization of brain activity by investigating the effects of verbal and nonverbal encoding on prefrontal activations during encoding and retrieval of environmental novel sounds using fMRI. An intentional memory task was applied in which subjects were required either to judge the sounds' loudness (nonverbal encoding task) or to indicate whether or not a sound can be verbally described (verbal encoding task). Retrieval processes were examined in a subsequent yes/no recognition test. In the study phase the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was activated in both tasks. During verbal encoding additional activation of the left dorsolateral PFC was obtained. Retrieval-related fMRI activity varied as a function of encoding task: For the nonverbal task we detected an activation focus in the right posterior dorsolateral PFC whereas an activation in the left dorsolateral PFC was observed for the verbal task. These findings indicate that the right dorsolateral PFC is engaged in encoding of auditory information irrespective of encoding task. The lateralization of PFC activity during retrieval was shown to depend on the availability of verbal codes, with left hemispheric involvement for verbally and right hemispheric activation for nonverbally coded information. PMID:10753975

Opitz, B; Mecklinger, A; Friederici, A D

2000-01-01

215

Quantum error correcting codes and one-way quantum computing: Towards a quantum memory

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For realizing a quantum memory we suggest to first encode quantum information via a quantum error correcting code and then concatenate combined decoding and re-encoding operations. This requires that the encoding and the decoding operation can be performed faster than the typical decoherence time of the underlying system. The computational model underlying the one-way quantum computer, which has been introduced by Hans Briegel and Robert Raussendorf, provides a suitable conc...

Schlingemann, Dirk

2003-01-01

216

Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

Hiesmayr, B C

2014-01-01

217

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public-key cryptosystems for quantum messages are considered from two aspects: public-key encryption and public-key authentication. Firstly, we propose a general construction of quantum public-key encryption scheme, and then construct an information-theoretic secure instance. Then, we propose a quantum public-key authentication scheme, which can protect the integrity of quantum messages. This scheme can both encrypt and authenticate quantum messages. It is information-theore...

Liang, Min; Yang, Li

2012-01-01

218

Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation

219

Information Divergence and Distance Measures for Quantum States

Both information divergence and distance are measures of closeness of two quantum states which are widely used in the theory of information processing and quantum cryptography. For example, the quantum relative entropy and trace distance are well known. Here we introduce a number of new quantum information divergence and distance measures into the literature and discuss their relations and properties. We also propose a method to analyze the properties and relations of various distance and pseudo-distance measures.

Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Zhaozhi

2014-07-01

220

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum-information theory predicts that when the transmission resource is doubled in quantum channels, the amount of information transmitted can be increased more than twice by quantum-channel coding technique, whereas the increase is at most twice in classical information theory. This remarkable feature, the superadditive quantum-coding gain, can be implemented by appropriate choices of code words and corresponding quantum decoding which requires a collective quantum measurement. Recently, an experimental demonstration was reported [M. Fujiwara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167906 (2003)]. The purpose of this paper is to describe our experiment in detail. Particularly, a design strategy of quantum-collective decoding in physical quantum circuits is emphasized. We also address the practical implication of the gain on communication performance by introducing the quantum-classical hybrid coding scheme. We show how the superadditive quantum-coding gain, even in a small code length, can boost the communication performance of conventional coding techniques

221

Lesion studies have suggested that the prefrontal cortex is involved in memory for contextual details surrounding the prior observation of objects or events, but it is unknown whether it is crucial for encoding details about the location at which cues are experienced, or for recall of that information. We used intracranial infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol in rodents to directly assess the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during incidental encoding and retrieval of information about the location of a cue during a spatial sensory preconditioning procedure. Rats experienced a single, discrete, sensory cue as they explored an open platform, and then were tested after a 24 h delay on recollection of the prior location of the cue. Activity in the mPFC was suppressed with muscimol during either encoding or retrieval of the information, with a control group receiving saline infusions before both phases. We found that mPFC suppression during the encoding phase blocked the formation of incidental memory about the cues but mPFC suppression during retrieval had no effect. Moreover, animals with suppressed frontal cortical activity in the encoding phase expressed smaller cue-directed orienting responses, indicating they attended less to the cue. These results suggest that the frontal cortex may be required to sustain attention to incidental cues in order to later recollect the location in which they have been previously experienced, but that once the location information is encoded the frontal cortex is not required for retrieval of that information. PMID:22504146

Parnell, Rebecca; Grasby, Katrina; Talk, Andrew

2012-06-15

222

PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.

Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

2007-07-01

223

Byuons, Quantum Information Channel, Consciousness and Universe

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physics of consciousness and universal mind is shown on the base of theory of byuons, the theory of “life’ of special unobservable discrete objects—byuons from which the surrounding space and the world of elementary particles are formed. An essential distinction of that theory from the modern models in the classical and quantum field theories is that the potentials of physical fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, asf. gain exactly fixable, measurable values. Basic axioms and some conclusions of this theory are discussed. The theory of byuons predicts the existence of a new force and a new quantum information channel in nature. All objects of the Universe are shown to be united into the unique information field due to the huge interval of uncertainty in the coordinate (?x = L = 10^{28} cm of objects 4b (object formed during four-contact byuon-byuon interaction ( mc^{2}_{4b} = 33 eV forming the surrounding physical space. It is a new quantum information channel.

Y. A. Baurov

2011-08-01

224

Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum

In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

2009-01-01

225

Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users

226

Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users.

Li Yongmin; Zhang Kuanshou; Peng Kunchi

2004-04-26

227

Quantum information processing with nanomechanical qubits.

We introduce an approach to quantum information processing where the information is stored in the motional degrees of freedom of nanomechanical devices. The qubits of our approach are formed by the two lowest energy levels of mechanical resonators, which are tuned to be strongly anharmonic by suitable electrostatic fields. Single qubit rotations are conducted by radio-frequency voltage pulses that are applied to individual resonators. Two-qubit entangling gates in turn are implemented via a coupling of two qubits to a common optical resonance of a high finesse cavity. We find that gate fidelities exceeding 99% can be achieved for realistic experimental parameters. PMID:25166784

Rips, Simon; Hartmann, Michael J

2013-03-22

228

Information, computing technology, and quantum computing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information has long been described by physical structures. The spectacularly successful modern computers use silicon transistors to hold and process information. A number of attempts to repeat the success with other kinds of solid-state devices have failed. The reasons for the unique success of silicon transistors are found in the requirements of computing, the properties of transistors, and the variability in devices manufactured in the large quantities needed to build large computing systems. New challenges will be met in building quantum computers to meet the same requirements. (topical review)

Keyes, Robert W [IBM Research Division, Yorktown, NY 10598 (United States)

2006-05-31

229

Quantum information processing beyond ten ion-qubits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful processing of quantum information is, to a large degree, based on two aspects: a) the implementation of high-fidelity quantum gates, as well as b) avoiding or suppressing decoherence processes that destroy quantum information. The presented work shows our progress in the field of experimental quantum information processing over the last years: the implementation and characterisation of several quantum operations, amongst others the first realisation of the quantum Toffoli gate in an ion-trap based quantum computer. The creation of entangled states with up to 14 qubits serves as basis for investigations of decoherence processes. Based on the realised quantum operations as well as the knowledge about dominant noise processes in the employed apparatus, entanglement swapping as well as quantum operations within a decoherence-free subspace are demonstrated. (author)

230

Continuous-variable quantum-information distributor: Reversible telecloning

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We first classify the quantum clone into irreversible and reversible types from the perspective of quantum-information distribution. We propose a scheme of continuous-variable reversible telecloning, which broadcast the information of an unknown state without loss from a sender to several spatially separated receivers exploiting multipartite entanglement as quantum channels. In this scheme, the quantum information of an unknown state is distributed into M optimal clones and M-1 anticlones using 2M-partite entanglement. For the perfect quantum-information distribution that is optimal cloning, 2M-partite entanglement is required to be a maximum two-party entanglement

231

Continuous-variable quantum-information distributor: Reversible telecloning

We first classify the quantum clone into irreversible and reversible types from the perspective of quantum-information distribution. We propose a scheme of continuous-variable reversible telecloning, which broadcast the information of an unknown state without loss from a sender to several spatially separated receivers exploiting multipartite entanglement as quantum channels. In this scheme, the quantum information of an unknown state is distributed into M optimal clones and M-1 anticlones using 2M -partite entanglement. For the perfect quantum-information distribution that is optimal cloning, 2M -partite entanglement is required to be a maximum two-party entanglement.

Zhang, Jing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

2006-04-01

232

Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.

Calixto, M.

2001-07-01

233

QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: A NEW GENERATION OF INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantum Cryptography is an approach to securing communications by applying the phenomena of quantum physics. Unlike traditional classical cryptography, which uses mathematical techniques to restrict eavesdroppers, quantum cryptography is focused on the physics of information. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. The quantum cryptography relies on two important elements of quantum mechanics-the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle and the principle of photon polarization. This paper summarizes the current state of quantum cryptography and the real–world application implementation of this technology.

Ritesh Kumar Jain

2012-12-01

234

Quantum information processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube

A potential quantum information processor is proposed using a fullerene peapod, i.e., an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N@C60 or 31P@C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.

Yang, Wan Li; Wei, Hua; Feng, Mang; Suter, Dieter

2010-01-01

235

Information gap for classical and quantum communication in a Schwarzschild spacetime

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Communication between a free-falling observer and an observer hovering above the Schwarzschild horizon of a black hole suffers from Unruh-Hawking noise, which degrades communication channels. Ignoring time dilation, which affects all channels equally, we show that for bosonic communication using single and dual rail encoding the classical channel capacity reaches a finite value and the quantum coherent information tends to zero. We conclude that classical correlations still ...

Hosler, Dominic; Bruck, Carsten; Kok, Pieter

2011-01-01

236

Quantum-information processing in decoherence-free subspace with low-Q cavities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the input-output process with low-Q cavities confining atoms for quantum-information processing, based on a general expression for reflection coefficient of the single photon. Focusing on the qubit encoding in decoherence-free subspace (DFS), we propose entanglement generation, universal quantum computing, and multiqubit controlled phase flip, using individual photon input and output from the cavities. Because of the DFS and no requirement for high-Q cavities, our schemes are not only immune to dephasing but also feasible with currently available technology.

237

Quantum-information processing in decoherence-free subspace with low-Q cavities

We consider the input-output process with low-Q cavities confining atoms for quantum-information processing, based on a general expression for reflection coefficient of the single photon. Focusing on the qubit encoding in decoherence-free subspace (DFS), we propose entanglement generation, universal quantum computing, and multiqubit controlled phase flip, using individual photon input and output from the cavities. Because of the DFS and no requirement for high-Q cavities, our schemes are not only immune to dephasing but also feasible with currently available technology.

Chen, Qiong; Feng, Mang

2010-11-01

238

Quantum correlations beyond entanglement and their role in quantum information theory

Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.

Streltsov, Alexander

2015-01-01

239

Locally Accessible Information of Multisite Quantum Ensembles Violates Monogamy

Locally accessible information is a useful information-theoretic physical quantity of an ensemble of multiparty quantum states. We find it has properties akin to quantum as well as classical correlations of single multiparty quantum states. It satisfies monotonicity under local quantum operations and classical communication. However we show that it does not follow monogamy, an important property usually satisfied by quantum correlations, and actually violates any such relation to the maximal extent. Violation is obtained even for locally indistinguishable, but globally orthogonal, multisite ensembles. The results assert that while single multiparty quantum states are monogamous with respect to their shared quantum correlations, ensembles of multiparty quantum states may not be so. The results have potential implications for quantum communication systems.

De, Aditi Sen

2011-01-01

240

Monodispersed quantum dots (QDs)-encoded polymer microbeads were generated using a simple capillary fluidic device (CFD). The polymer and QDs solution was emulsified into monodispersed microdroplets by the CFD and obtained droplets were solidified via solvent evaporation. Polymer microbeads can be fabricated in a range of different sizes through changing the flow rates of the two immiscible phases, and have a highly narrow size distribution and uniform shape. QDs-encoding capacity of the microbeads was investigated through adjusting the concentrations and ratios of QDs in the polymer solution. Mono-color encoded microbeads with five intensities and a dual-color QDs-encoded 5×5 microbeads array were obtained, and the spectral profiles of the microbeads were examined by a fluorescent microscope coupled with a spectral imaging system. QDs-tagged microbeads prepared with this method were more stable than the porous beads swollen with QDs in the buffer with various pH and crosslinking chemicals. Finally, the application of such microbeads for biomolecule detection was demonstrated by conjugation of rabbit IgG molecules on the surface of the microbeads via carboxyl groups, which were then detected by fluorophores-labeled goat-anti-rabbit IgG antibodies. PMID:22863065

Zhang, Pengfei; He, Yuan; Ruan, Zhi; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Yang, Jun

2012-11-01

241

Decoding reality the universe as quantum information

In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...

Vedral, Vlatko

2010-01-01

242

Quantum information transfer in degenerate Raman regime

The interaction of a three level Rydberg atom of $\\Lambda$-type with a single mode optical field at large detuning and far from resonance can be described by an effective degenerate Raman model, where the atomic state can be treated as a two-level system. Using this approximation, we propose a quantum information transfer of an one-qubit state from the Rydberg atom to the single-mode field, where the field is initially in a coherent state and before the interaction and atomic measurement it is subject to a Hadamard gate operation.

Prudencio, Thiago

2011-01-01

243

Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook.

The performance of superconducting qubits has improved by several orders of magnitude in the past decade. These circuits benefit from the robustness of superconductivity and the Josephson effect, and at present they have not encountered any hard physical limits. However, building an error-corrected information processor with many such qubits will require solving specific architecture problems that constitute a new field of research. For the first time, physicists will have to master quantum error correction to design and operate complex active systems that are dissipative in nature, yet remain coherent indefinitely. We offer a view on some directions for the field and speculate on its future. PMID:23471399

Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

2013-03-01

244

Towards quantum information processing with impurity spins in silicon

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finding of algorithms for factoring and data base search that promise substantially increased computational power, as well as the expectation for efficient simulation of quantum systems have spawned an intense interest in the realization of quantum information processors [1]. Solid state implementations of quantum computers scaled to >1000 quantum bits ('qubits') promise to revolutionize information technology, but requirements with regard to sources of decoherence in solid state environments are sobering. Here, we briefly review basic approaches to impurity spin based qubits and present progress in our effort to form prototype qubit test structures. Since Kane's bold silicon based spin qubit proposal was first published in 1998 [2], several groups have taken up the challenge of fabricating elementary building blocks [3-5], and several exciting variations of single donor qubit schemes have emerged [6]. Single donor atoms, e. g. 31P, are 'natural quantum dots' in a silicon matrix, and the spins of electrons and nuclei of individual donor atoms are attractive two level systems for encoding of quantum information. The coupling to the solid state environment is weak, so that decoherence times are long (hours for nuclear spins, and ?60 ms for electron spins of isolated P atoms in silicon [7]), while control over individual spins for one qubit operations becomes possible when individual qubits are aligned to electrodes that allow shifting of electron spin resonances in global magnetic fields by application of control voltages. Two qubit operations require an interaction that couples, and entangles qubits. The exchange interaction, J, is a prime candidate for mediation of two qubit operations, since it can be turned on and off by variation of the wave function overlap between neighboring qubits, and coherent manipulation of quantum information with the exchange interaction alone has been shown to be universal [8]. However, detailed band structure calculations and theoretical analysis of J coupling between electrons bound to phosphorus atoms at low temperatures in silicon revealed strong oscillations of the coupling strength as a function of donor spacing on a sub-nm length scale [9]. These oscillations translate into scattering of interaction strength for ensembles of qubit spacings which in turn poses a serious obstacle to scalability [10]. Two alternatives to J coupling are dipolar coupling [11] and spin coherent shuttling of electrons between donor sites [12]. Readout of single electron spins poses another critical challenge [13, 14], and inferring spin orientations from charge measurements in spin dependent charge transfer reactions seems to be viable route to single shot single spin readout. This readout can be accomplished with single electron transistors, which are used as sensitive electrometers [15]. Impurity spin based qubit schemes in silicon have to overcome a significant nanofabrication challenge so that a test bed regime can be entered where fundamental properties and rudimentary operations can be investigated. In order to form such test devices, three key components have to be integrated: (1) an array of single dopant atoms has to be formed; (2) single dopant atoms are aligned to control gates; and (3) single dopant atoms are also aligned to a readout device

245

We experimentally show a two-way transmission of polarization encoded pseudo-single photons between two remote parties separated by a single 23 km optical fiber spool. Two optical classical channels are wavelength multiplexed in the same fiber and used as feedback to an active polarization drift compensation scheme. One of the classical channels contains a 10 Gb/s data stream simulating real telecom traffic. The feasibility of quantum communication is demonstrated in the fiber's two opposite directions of propagation over 6 hours of continuous operation, as well as a classical error rate in the data channel better than 1.0 x 10-9. The results are extended to show the estimated maximum transmission distance for the quantum signals based on the noise generated through Raman spontaneous scattering by up to 16 classical channels present in the fiber.

Xavier, G B; da Silva, T Ferreira; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P

2009-01-01

246

Bell Length as Mutual Information in Quantum Interference

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The necessity of a rigorously operative formulation of quantum mechanics, functional to the exigencies of quantum computing, has raised the interest again in the nature of probability and the inference in quantum mechanics. In this work, we show a relation among the probabilities of a quantum system in terms of information of non-local correlation by means of a new quantity, the Bell length.

Ignazio Licata

2014-04-01

247

Information leakage resistant quantum dialogue against collective noise

In this paper, two information leakage resistant quantum dialogue (QD) protocols over a collective-noise channel are proposed. Decoherence-free subspace (DFS) is used to erase the influence from two kinds of collective noise, i.e., collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, where each logical qubit is composed of two physical qubits and free from noise. In each of the two proposed protocols, the secret messages are encoded on the initial logical qubits via two composite unitary operations. Moreover, the single-photon measurements rather than the Bell-state measurements or the more complicated measurements are needed for decoding, making the two proposed protocols easier to implement. The initial state of each logical qubit is privately shared between the two authenticated users through the direct transmission of its auxiliary counterpart. Consequently, the information leakage problem is avoided in the two proposed protocols. Moreover, the detailed security analysis also shows that Eve's several famous active attacks can be effectively overcome, such as the Trojan horse attack, the intercept-resend attack, the measure-resend attack, the entangle-measure attack and the correlation-elicitation (CE) attack.

Ye, TianYu

2014-09-01

248

Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)

2010-11-01

249

Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

250

Practical realization of a quantum cryptography protocol exploiting polarization encoding in qutrits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose and discuss a specific scheme allowing realization of a quantum cryptography qutrit protocol. This protocol exploits the polarization properties of single-frequency and single-spatial-mode biphotons

251

Conservation of information and the foundations of quantum mechanics

We review a recent approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics inspired by quantum information theory. The approach is based on a general framework, which allows one to address a large class of physical theories which share basic information-theoretic features. We first illustrate two very primitive features, expressed by the axioms of causality and purity-preservation, which are satisfied by both classical and quantum theory. We then discuss the axiom of purification, which expresses a strong version of the Conservation of Information and captures the core of a vast number of protocols in quantum information. Purification is a highly non-classical feature and leads directly to the emergence of entanglement at the purely conceptual level, without any reference to the superposition principle. Supplemented by a few additional requirements, satisfied by classical and quantum theory, it provides a complete axiomatic characterization of quantum theory for finite dimensional systems.

Chiribella, G

2014-01-01

252

A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks.

Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The atomic coherence, produced through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the ?-type configuration, acts as the QIP and has full functions of quantum beam splitter, quantum frequency converter, quantum entangler, and quantum repeater. By employing EIT-based nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes, the generation, exchange, distribution, and manipulation of light-light, atom-light, and atom-atom multipartite entanglement can be efficiently and flexibly achieved in a deterministic way with only coherent light fields. This method greatly facilitates the operations in quantum information processing, and holds promising applications in realistic scalable quantum communication and quantum networks. PMID:25316514

Yang, Xihua; Xue, Bolin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao

2014-01-01

253

Quantum Theory, namely the pure and reversible theory of information

After more than a century since its birth, Quantum Theory still eludes our understanding. If asked to describe it, we have to resort to abstract and ad hoc principles about complex Hilbert spaces. How is it possible that a fundamental physical theory cannot be described using the ordinary language of Physics? Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes.

Chiribella, G; Perinotti, P

2012-01-01

254

Single-Photon Secure Quantum Dialogue Protocol Without Information Leakage

Combining the idea of ping-pong protocol with Controlled-NOT operation, we propose a secure quantum dialogue protocol based on single-photonss. Bob obtains the information of the encrypted quantum state by performing Controlled-NOT operation on the auxiliary particle and the encrypted single-photonss. Unlike the previous quantum dialogue protocols based on single-photonss, the proposed protocol not only overcomes information leakage but also possesses an acceptable efficiency.

Zhou, Nan-Run; Hua, Tian-Xiang; Wu, Gui-Tong; He, Chao-Sheng; Zhang, Ye

2014-11-01

255

Adaptive Measurements in the Optical Quantum Information Laboratory

Adaptive techniques make practical many quantum measurements that would otherwise be beyond current laboratory capabilities. For example: they allow discrimination of nonorthogonal states with a probability of error equal to the Helstrom bound; they allow measurement of the phase of a quantum oscillator with accuracy approaching (or in some cases attaining) the Heisenberg limit; and they allow estimation of phase in interferometry with a variance scaling at the Heisenberg limit, using only single qubit measurement and control. Each of these examples has close links with quantum information, in particular experimental optical quantum information: the first is a basic quantum communication protocol; the second has potential application in linear optical quantum computing; the third uses an adaptive protocol inspired by the quantum phase estimation algorithm. We discuss each of these examples, and their implementation in the laboratory, but concentrate upon the last, which was published most recently [Higgins {\\...

Wiseman, H M; Bartlett, S D; Higgins, B L; Pryde, G J

2009-01-01

256

There is accumulating evidence implicating a set of key brain regions in encoding rewarding and punishing outcomes, including the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, anterior insula, and anterior cingulate. However, it has proved challenging to reach consensus concerning the extent to which different brain areas are involved in differentially encoding rewarding and punishing outcomes. Here, we show that many of the brain areas involved in outcome processing represent multiple outcome components: encoding the value of outcomes (whether rewarding or punishing) and informational coding, i.e. signaling whether a given outcome is rewarding or punishing, ignoring magnitude or experienced utility. In particular, we report informational signals in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insular cortex that respond to both rewarding and punishing feedback, even though value-related signals in these areas appear to be selectively driven by punishing feedback. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account features of outcomes other than value when characterising the contributions of different brain regions in outcome processing. PMID:24863104

Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

2014-06-01

257

A new method for encoding color information based on Arnold transform and double structured phase encoding in gyrator transform domain is introduced. The phase function of Fresnel zone plate is used as structured phase mask. Prior to the encryption, the decomposed red, green, and blue components of the color image are independently permutated by Arnold transform, transmitted through structured phase mask, and then performed gyrator transform. The system parameters of Arnold transform, structured phase mask, and gyrator transform in each component image provide as encryption keys of the scheme. The proposed system avoids problems arising from misalignment. The optical implementation has also been proposed. Numerical simulations' results are presented to verify the security, validity, and possibility of the proposed approach.

Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

2013-02-01

258

Objectivity in a noisy photonic environment through quantum state information broadcasting.

Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form-a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment. PMID:24724630

Korbicz, J K; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R

2014-03-28

259

Bounds on the Information Rate of Quantum Secret Sharing Schemes

An important metric of the performance of a quantum secret sharing scheme is its information rate. Beyond the fact that the information rate is upper bounded by one, very little is known in terms of bounds on the information rate of quantum secret sharing schemes. Further, not every scheme can be realized with rate one. In this paper we derive new upper bounds for the information rates of quantum secret sharing schemes. We show that there exist quantum access structures on $n$ players for which the information rate cannot be better than $O((\\log_2 n)/n)$. These results are the quantum analogues of the bounds for classical secret sharing schemes proved by Csirmaz.

Sarvepalli, Pradeep

2010-01-01

260

Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond

Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.

Nemoto, Kae; Trupke, Michael; Devitt, Simon J.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Buczak, Kathrin; Nöbauer, Tobias; Everitt, Mark S.; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J.

2014-07-01

261

Generalized protocol for distribution and concentration of Quantum information

Alice can distribute a quantum state $|\\phi>$ to $N$ spatially separated parties(say Bobs) by telecloning. It is possible for Charlie to reconstruct the quantum state to him if he shares same kind of telecloning quantum channel with Bobs using only LOCC. For N=3 reconstruction can be done faithfully using Smolin's 4 party unlockable bound entangled state as shared channel. In this note we investigate, in multiparty setting, the general structure of quantum channel and protocol by which faithful distribution and concentration of quantum information can be done.

Mukhopadhyay, P

2003-01-01

262

A real-time polarization control system employing two nonorthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, can be achieved with response times smaller than 10 ms, without significant introduction of noise counts in the quantum channel.

Xavier, G B; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P

2007-01-01

263

Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks

264

Towards Quantum Information Theory in Space and Time

Modern quantum information theory deals with an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as qubit, channel, composite systems and entangled states should be formulated in space and time. In particlular we suggest that instead of a two level system (qubit) the basic notion in a relativistic quantum information theory should be a notion of an elementary quantum system, i.e. an infinite dimensional Hilbert space $H$ invariant under an irreducible representation of the Poincare group labeled by $[m,s]$ where $m\\geq 0$ is mass and $s=0,1/2,1,...$ is spin. We emphasize an importance of consideration of quantum information theory from the point of view of quantum field theory. We point out and discuss a fundamental fact that in quantum field theory there is a statistical dependence between two regions in spacetime e...

Volovich, I V

2002-01-01

265

Simple scheme for expanding photonic cluster states for quantum information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show how an entangled cluster state encoded in the polarization of single photons can be straightforwardly expanded by deterministically entangling additional qubits encoded in the path degree of freedom of the constituent photons. This can be achieved using a polarization-path controlled-phase gate. We experimentally demonstrate a practical and stable realization of this approach by using a Sagnac interferometer to entangle a path qubit and polarization qubit on a single photon. We demonstrate precise control over phase of the path qubit to change the measurement basis and experimentally demonstrate properties of measurement-based quantum computing using a two-photon, three-qubit cluster state.

Kalasuwan, P.; Laing, A.; Coggins, J.; Callaway, M.; O' Brien, J. L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Mendoza, G. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Nagata, T.; Takeuchi, S. [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Stefanov, A. [Federal Office of Metrology METAS, Laboratory Time and Frequency, Lindenweg 50, 3084 Wabern (Switzerland)

2010-06-15

266

Information gain in tomography--a quantum signature of chaos.

We find quantum signatures of chaos in various metrics of information gain in quantum tomography. We employ a quantum state estimator based on weak collective measurements of an ensemble of identically prepared systems. The tomographic measurement record consists of a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator that evolves under repeated application of the Floquet map of the quantum kicked top. We find an increase in information gain and, hence, higher fidelities in the reconstruction algorithm when the chaoticity parameter map increases. The results are well predicted by random matrix theory. PMID:24483900

Madhok, Vaibhav; Riofrío, Carlos A; Ghose, Shohini; Deutsch, Ivan H

2014-01-10

267

Photonic crystal chips for optical communications and quantum information processing

We discuss recent our recent progress on functional photonic crystals devices and circuits for classical and quantum information processing. For classical applications, we have demonstrated a room-temperature-operated, low threshold, nanocavity laser with pulse width in the picosecond regime; and an all-optical switch controlled with 60 fJ pulses that shows switching time on the order of tens of picoseconds. For quantum information processing, we discuss the promise of quantum networks on multifunctional photonic crystals chips. We also discuss a new coherent probing technique of quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal nanocavities and demonstrate amplitude and phase nonlinearities realized with control beams at the single photon level.

Englund, Dirk; Fushman, Ilya; Faraon, Andrei; Ellis, Bryan; Vu?kovi?, Jelena

2008-08-01

268

Unified Quantum Convolutional Coding

We outline a quantum convolutional coding technique for protecting a stream of classical bits and qubits. Our goal is to provide a framework for designing codes that approach the ``grandfather'' capacity of an entanglement-assisted quantum channel for sending classical and quantum information simultaneously. Our method incorporates several resources for quantum redundancy: fresh ancilla qubits, entangled bits, and gauge qubits. The use of these diverse resources gives our technique the benefits of both active and passive quantum error correction. We can encode a classical-quantum bit stream with periodic quantum gates because our codes possess a convolutional structure. We end with an example of a ``grandfather'' quantum convolutional code that protects one qubit and one classical bit per frame by encoding them with one fresh ancilla qubit, one entangled bit, and one gauge qubit per frame. We explicitly provide the encoding and decoding circuits for this example.

Wilde, Mark M

2008-01-01

269

Continuous-Variable Quantum Information Distributor: Reversible Telecloning

We propose a scheme of continuous-variable reversible telecloning, which broadcast the information of an unknown state without loss from a sender to several spatially separated receivers exploiting multipartite entanglement as quantum channels. In this scheme, quantum information of an unknown state is distributed into $M$ optimal clones and $M-1$ anticlones using $2M$% -partite entanglement. For the perfect quantum information distribution that is optimal cloning, $2M$-partite entanglement is required to be a maximum two-party entanglement. Comparing with the quantum telecloning proposed by Loock and Braunstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247901 (2001)], this protocol produces the anticlones (or time-reversed state) of the unknown quantum state, thus, keep all information of an unknown state.

Zhang, J; Xie, C; Peng, Kunchi; Xie, Changde; Zhang, Jing

2005-01-01

270

Pseudo-random unitary operators for quantum information processing.

In close analogy to the fundamental role of random numbers in classical information theory, random operators are a basic component of quantum information theory. Unfortunately, the implementation of random unitary operators on a quantum processor is exponentially hard. Here we introduce a method for generating pseudo-random unitary operators that can reproduce those statistical properties of random unitary operators most relevant to quantum information tasks. This method requires exponentially fewer resources, and hence enables the practical application of random unitary operators in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor, we were able to realize pseudorandom unitary operators that reproduce the expected random distribution of matrix elements. PMID:14684815

Emerson, Joseph; Weinstein, Yaakov S; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G

2003-12-19

271

Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol

Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

2014-08-01

272

Experimental Demonstration of Localization on a Quantum Information Processor

Quantum computers will be a unique tool for understanding complex quantum systems. We report an experimental implementation of a sensitive, quantum coherence-dependent localization phenomenon on a prototype of a quantum computer, a quantum information processor (QIP). The localization effect is demonstrated by simulating the dynamics of the quantum sawtooth map on a three qubit liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device. The degree to which the system is delocalized by experimental noise and decoherence is well accounted for by a previously determined error model for NMR QIPs. We further show how the stability of the localization effect provides a benchmark of practical relevance for determining the overall degree of coherent quantum control and for identifying the relative significance of different noise mechanisms affecting the system.

Henry, M K; Emerson, J; Cory, David G.; Emerson, Joseph; Henry, Michael K.

2005-01-01

273

The mother of all protocols: Restructuring quantum information's family tree

We give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol of quantum information theory. In this new formulation, it is easy to see that the mother, or rather her generalization to the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol, simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim and Winter, a fully quantum reverse Shannon theorem, and a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol whose children provide the quantum capacity and the entanglement-assisted capacity of a quantum channel, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecess...

Abeyesinghe, A; Hayden, P; Winter, A; Abeyesinghe, Anura; Devetak, Igor; Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas

2006-01-01

274

School on Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications

The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with the University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat and the COST Action MP1006, is organizing a "School in Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications" from 15 to 19 September 2014, followed by the "3rd Quantum Africa Conference: Advances in Quantum Sciences", from 22 to 26 Sep 2014, both events to be held at University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat, Morocco. The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, including metrology, nano-devices development, biophysics together with computation, communication and cryptography. Topics as quantum entanglement, quantum coherence and decohering phenomena both in microscopic and mesoscopic systems have been attracting the interest of a growing number of researchers, especially young ones from developing countries. A School on these themes would provide an invaluable focus on the interdiscipl...

2014-01-01

275

The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead, implying that the quantum state itself survives unharmed beyond the horizon. These results together...

Bradler, Kamil

2013-01-01

276

Quantum Key Distribution in Large Scale Quantum Network Assisted by Classical Routing Information

Recently, small-scale Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) networks have been demonstrated and continuously operated in field environment. However, nodes of these QKD networks are less than 10 nodes. When the scale and structure of these networks becomes large and complex, such networks will subject to problem of intractable routing selection and limited transmission distance. We present a novel quantum network model and the corresponding protocol to solve these problems. The proposed quantum network model integrates classical communication network with quantum key distribution layer. Nodes in this quantum network model are divided into communication nodes for classical communication and quantum nodes for quantum key distribution. We use atomic ensembles to create entangled photons inside quantum nodes. Quantum repeaters are used to establish entanglement between remote quantum nodes so the maximum distribution distance of entangled photons can be extended. The main idea is to establish an appropriate key distribution path in the quantum key distribution layer based on the routing information obtained by the upper classical communication network. After the entanglement has been established between remote quantum nodes, these nodes will use the Ekert91 or BBM92 protocol to generate secret keys shared between each other. Then, these keys can be used to ensure the security of communication in the classical communication network.

Wu, Diance; Yu, Wanrong; Zhao, Baokang; Wu, Chunqing

2014-10-01

277

On population encoding and decoding of auditory information for bat echolocation.

In this article, we study the neural encoding of acoustic information for FM-bats (such as Eptesicus fuscus) in simulation. In echolocation research, the frequency-time sound representation as expressed by the spectrogram is often considered as input. The rationale behind this is that a similar representation is present in the cochlea, i.e. the receptor potential of the inner hair cells (IHC) along the length of the cochlea, and hence similar acoustic information is relayed to the brain. In this article, we study to what extent the latter assumption is true. The receptor potential is converted into neural activity of the synapting auditory nerve cells (ANC), and information might be lost in this conversion process. Especially for FM-bats, this information transmission is not trivial: in contrast to other mammals, they detect short transient signals, and consequently neural activity can only be integrated over very limited time intervals. To quantify the amount of information transmitted we design a neural network-based algorithm to reconstruct the IHC receptor potentials from the spiking activity of the synapting auditory neurons. Both the receptor potential and the resulting neural activity are simulated using Meddis' peripheral model. Comparing the reconstruction to the IHC receptor potential, we quantify the information transmission of the bat hearing system and investigate how this depends on the intensity of the incoming signal, the distribution of auditory neurons, and previous masking stimulation (adaptation). In addition, we show how this approach allows to inspect which spectral features survive neural encoding and hence can be relevant for echolocation. PMID:20204397

Reijniers, Jonas; Peremans, H

2010-04-01

278

Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.

279

Immunizing quantum information against decoherence via decoherence-free environments

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We construct decoherence-free environments (DFEs) within the Hamiltonian formalism and derive an exact equation of motion for a quantum subsystem interacting with a DFE. We discuss the feasibility of DFEs as a means to protect the quantum information in subsystem degrees of freedom. By studying a number of examples we show how to avoid entanglement-induced decoherence as well as decoherence induced by incoherence dynamics in a quantum subsystem coupled to a DFE.

280

Immunizing quantum information against decoherence via decoherence-free environments

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We construct decoherence-free environments (DFEs) within the Hamiltonian formalism and derive an exact equation of motion for a quantum subsystem interacting with a DFE. We discuss the feasibility of DFEs as a means to protect the quantum information in subsystem degrees of freedom. By studying a number of examples we show how to avoid entanglement-induced decoherence as well as decoherence induced by incoherence dynamics in a quantum subsystem coupled to a DFE.

Cetinbas, Murat; Leach, Gary W, E-mail: cetinbas@sfu.ca [Laboratory for Advanced Spectroscopy and Imaging Research, 4D LABS and Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

2011-04-01

281

Helical multiferroics for electric field controlled quantum information processing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetoelectric coupling in helical multiferroics allows to steer spin order with electric fields. Here we show theoretically that in a helical multiferroic chain quantum information processing as well as quantum phases are highly sensitive to electric (E) field. Applying E-field, the quantum state transfer fidelity can be increased and made directionally dependent. We also show that E field transforms the spin-density-wave/nematic or multipolar phases of frustrated ferrom...

Azimi, M.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Greschner, S.; Vekua, T.; Berakdar, J.

2013-01-01

282

Experimental quantum deletion in an NMR quantum information processor

We report an NMR experimental realization of a rapid quantum deletion algorithm that deletes marked states in an unsorted database. Unlike classical deletion, where search and deletion are equivalent, quantum deletion can be implemented with only a single query, which achieves exponential speed-up compared to the optimal classical analog. In the experimental realization, the GRAPE algorithm was used to obtain an optimized NMR pulse sequence, and the efficient method of maximum-likelihood has been used to reconstruct the experimental output state.

Long, Yu; Feng, GuanRu; Pearson, Jasong; Long, GuiLu

2014-07-01

283

Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)

Furusawa, Akira [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Loock, Peter van [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Optik

2011-07-01

284

Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)

285

Multiplexed CV quantum teleportation for high rates in quantum communication

A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols which encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode vs. multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, significantly increasing the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but als...

Christ, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine

2012-01-01

286

Quantum secret sharing based on quantum error-correcting codes

Quantum secret sharing(QSS) is a procedure of sharing classical information or quantum information by using quantum states. This paper presents how to use a [2k - 1, 1, k] quantum error-correcting code (QECC) to implement a quantum (k, 2k - 1) threshold scheme. It also takes advantage of classical enhancement of the [2k - 1, 1, k] QECC to establish a QSS scheme which can share classical information and quantum information simultaneously. Because information is encoded into QECC, these schemes can prevent intercept-resend attacks and be implemented on some noisy channels.

Zhang, Zu-Rong; Liu, Wei-Tao; Li, Cheng-Zu

2011-05-01

287

Quantum secret sharing based on quantum error-correcting codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum secret sharing(QSS) is a procedure of sharing classical information or quantum information by using quantum states. This paper presents how to use a [2k ? 1, 1, k] quantum error-correcting code (QECC) to implement a quantum (k, 2k ? 1) threshold scheme. It also takes advantage of classical enhancement of the [2k ? 1, 1, k] QECC to establish a QSS scheme which can share classical information and quantum information simultaneously. Because information is encoded into QECC, these schemes can prevent intercept-resend attacks and be implemented on some noisy channels. (general)

288

Two quantum analogues of Fisher information from a large deviation viewpoint of quantum estimation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss two quantum analogues of the Fisher information, the symmetric logarithmic derivative Fisher information and Kubo-Mori-Bogoljubov Fisher information from a large deviation viewpoint of quantum estimation and prove that the former gives the true bound and the latter gives the bound of consistent superefficient estimators. As another comparison, it is shown that the difference between them is characterized by the change of the order of limits. (author)

289

Semi-quantum information splitting using GHZ-type states

By using a generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state in which is locally unitarily connected with standard GHZ state as a communication channel, semi-quantum key distribution is extended to study semi-quantum information splitting protocols for secret sharing of quantum information. In our scheme, quantum Alice splits arbitrary two, three and N-qubit states with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to reconstruct Alice's original states only under the condition of which she/he obtains the help from another one, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are helpful for both secure against certain eavesdropping attacks and economical in processing of quantum information.

Nie, Yi-you; Li, Yuan-hua; Wang, Zi-sheng

2013-01-01

290

Quantum Teleportation with an Accelerated Observer and Black Hole Information

Nonperturbative analysis of quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation protocol using oscillator variables carried by observers in relativistic motion under the continuous influence of the environment is given. The full time evolution of quantum entanglement among static and accelerated observers is studied. The environment plays a dual role. While it creates bipartite and tripartite entanglement among observers even when the initial state is separable, it suppresses the entanglement via decoherence. Motivated by the black hole information problem, we consider quantum teleportation between static and accelerated observers. Acceleration of the observer suppresses fidelity of teleportation. Some of the quantum information escapes outside of the horizon in the form of bipartite and tripartite entanglement during the teleportation process. Explicit calculation of information loss is provided. In addition to the loss due to the interaction with the environment, there is an intrinsic loss originated in a measur...

Shiokawa, K

2009-01-01

291

Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

Université de Genève

2011-01-01

292

Quantum information processing using strongly-dipolar coupled nuclear spins

Dipolar coupled homonuclear spins present challenging, yet useful systems for quantum information processing. In such systems, eigenbasis of the system Hamiltonian is the appropriate computational basis and coherent control can be achieved by specially designed strongly modulating pulses. In this letter we describe the first experimental implementation of the quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation on the eigenbasis of a four spin system.

Mahesh, T S; Suter, Dieter

2006-01-01

293

Information flow and quantum cryptography using statistical fluctuations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure is formulated, using the quantum teleportation arrangement, that communicates knowledge of an apparatus setting between the wings of the experiment, using statistical fluctuations in a sequence of measurement results. It requires an entangled state, and transmission of classical information totally unrelated to the apparatus setting actually communicated. Our procedure has conceptual interest, and has applications to quantum cryptography

294

On the reversible extraction of classical information from a quantum source

Consider a source E of pure quantum states with von Neumann entropy S. By the quantum source coding theorem, arbitrarily long strings of signals may be encoded asymptotically into S qubits/signal (the Schumacher limit) in such a way that entire strings may be recovered with arbitrarily high fidelity. Suppose that classical storage is free while quantum storage is expensive and suppose that the states of E do not fall into two or more orthogonal subspaces. We show that if E can be compressed with arbitrarily high fidelity into A qubits/signal plus any amount of auxiliary classical storage then A must still be at least as large as the Schumacher limit S of E. Thus no part of the quantum information content of E can be faithfully replaced by classical information. If the states do fall into orthogonal subspaces then A may be less than S, but only by an amount not exceeding the amount of classical information specifying the subspace for a signal from the source.

Barnum, H N; Jozsa, R; Winter, A; Barnum, Howard; Hayden, Patrick; Jozsa, Richard; Winter, Andreas

2000-01-01

295

BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information

Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsäcker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn’s play `Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Lüst indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Göttingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Götz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and G\\"ottingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsäcker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsäcker: `If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsäcker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsäcker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: `The measure of sloppiness in Weizsäcker’s work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsäcker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a `theory of everything' based on his `ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mat

Turner, Leaf

2004-04-01

296

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

297

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the “minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

2012-12-01

298

How not to R\\'enyi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the relation between the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information and the quantum $\\alpha$-R\\'enyi divergences. We show how not to Renyi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information by considering the totally antisymmetric state.

Erker, Paul

2014-01-01

299

The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender's quantum state and the receiver's reconstructed quantum state.

Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

2014-05-01

300

Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing

Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.

Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.

301

Exponential speed-up with a single bit of quantum information: Testing the quantum butterfly effect

We present an efficient quantum algorithm to measure the average fidelity decay of a quantum map under perturbation using a single bit of quantum information. Our algorithm scales only as the complexity of the map under investigation, so for those maps admitting an efficient gate decomposition, it provides an exponential speed up over known classical procedures. Fidelity decay is important in the study of complex dynamical systems, where it is conjectured to be a signature of quantum chaos. Our result also illustrates the role of chaos in the process of decoherence.

Poulin, D; Laflamme, R; Ollivier, H; Poulin, David; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Laflamme, Raymond; Ollivier, Harold

2003-01-01

302

The slogan "information is physical" has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates, and introduce the natural concept of "quantum gloves", i.e. rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more.

Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, S; Popescu, S

2004-01-01

303

Quantum communication with photons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)

304

Helical multiferroics for electric field controlled quantum information processing

Magnetoelectric coupling in helical multiferroics allows us to steer spin order with electric fields. Here we show theoretically that in a helical multiferroic chain quantum information processing as well as quantum phases are highly sensitive to electric (E) field. Applying E field, the quantum state transfer fidelity can be increased and made directionally dependent. We also show that E field transforms the spin-density-wave/nematic or multipolar phases of a frustrated ferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain in chiral phase with a strong magnetoelectric coupling. We find sharp reorganization of the entanglement spectrum as well as a large enhancement of fidelity susceptibility at Ising quantum phase transition from nematic to chiral states driven by electric field. These findings point to a tool for quantum information with low power consumption.

Azimi, M.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Greschner, S.; Vekua, T.; Berakdar, J.

2014-01-01

305

Decoherence-free quantum information in Markovian systems

Decoherence in Markovian systems can result indirectly from the action of a system Hamiltonian which is usually fixed and unavoidable. Here, we show that in general in Markovian systems, because of the system Hamiltonian, quantum information decoheres. We give conditions for the system Hamiltonian that must be satisfied if coherence is to be preserved. Finally, we show how to construct robust subspaces for quantum information processing.

Patra, Manas K

2008-01-01

306

Smooth R\\'enyi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

We prove that the average smooth Renyi entropy rate will approach the entropy rate of a stationary, ergodic information source, which is equal to the Shannon entropy rate for a classical information source and the von Neumann entropy rate for a quantum information source.

Schoenmakers, Berry; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

2007-01-01

307

Localization in the quantum sawtooth map emulated on a quantum-information processor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computers will be unique tools for understanding complex quantum systems. We report an experimental implementation of a sensitive, quantum coherence-dependent localization phenomenon on a quantum information processor (QIP). The localization effect was studied by emulating the dynamics of the quantum sawtooth map in the perturbative regime on a three-qubit QIP. Our results show that the width of the probability distribution in momentum space remained essentially unchanged with successive iterations of the sawtooth map, a result that is consistent with localization. The height of the peak relative to the baseline of the probability distribution did change, a result that is consistent with our QIP being an ensemble of quantum systems with a distribution of errors over the ensemble. We further show that the previously measured distributions of control errors correctly account for the observed changes in the probability distribution

308

Information Theory of Quantum Systems with some hydrogenic applications

The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schrodinger probability density ?(r???). First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.

Dehesa, J. S.; Manzano, D.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Yáñez, R. J.

2011-03-01

309

Complete methods set for scalable ion trap quantum information processing

Large-scale quantum information processors must be able to transport and maintain quantum information, and repeatedly perform logical operations. Here we demonstrate a combination of all the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing using qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions. We quantify the repeatability of a multi-qubit operation, observing no loss of performance despite qubit transport over macroscopic distances. Key to these results is the use of different pairs of beryllium ion hyperfine states for robust qubit storage, readout and gates, and simultaneous trapping of magnesium re-cooling ions along with the qubit ions.

Home, J P; Jost, J D; Amini, J M; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

2009-01-01

310

Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.

311

Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

Sabuncu, Metin

2009-10-29

312

Quantum Algorithms Entanglement Enhanced Information Processing

We discuss the fundamental role of entanglement as the essential nonclassical feature providing the computational speed-up in the known quantum algorithms. We review the construction of the Fourier transform on an Abelian group and the principles underlying the fast Fourier transform algorithm. We describe the implementation of the FFT algorithm for the group of integers modulo 2^n in the quantum context, showing how the group-theoretic formalism leads to the standard quantum network and identifying the property of entanglement that gives rise to the exponential speedup (compared to the classical FFT). Finally we outline the use of the Fourier transform in extracting periodicities, which underlies its utility in the known quantum algorithms.

Ekert, A K; Ekert, Artur; Jozsa, Richard

1998-01-01

313

Information functional for quantum random matrix ensembles

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Random matrix ensembles (RME) of quantal statistical Hamiltonian operators, e.g. Gaussian random matrix ensembles (GRME) and Ginibre random matrix ensembles (Ginibre RME), had been applied in literature in study of following quantal statistical systems: molecular systems, nuclear systems, disordered materials, random Ising spin systems, quantal chaotic systems, and two-dimensional electron systems (Wigner-Dyson electrostatic analogy). Measures of quantum chaos and quantum in...

Duras, Maciej M.

2003-01-01

314

Experimental quantum error rejection for long-distance quantum communication

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We report an experimental realization of bit-flip error rejection for error-free transfer of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. In the experiment, an unknown state to be transmitted is encoded into a two- photon entangled state, which is then sent through the engineered noisy quantum channel. At the final stage, the unknown state was decoded by a quantum parity measurement, successfully rejecting the erroneous transmission over the noisy quantum channel. (author)

315

Adiabatic topological quantum computing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the...

Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice

2014-01-01

316

QIS-XML: A metadata specification for Quantum Information Science

While Quantum Information Science (QIS) is still in its infancy, the ability for quantum based hardware or computers to communicate and integrate with their classical counterparts will be a major requirement towards their success. Little attention however has been paid to this aspect of QIS. To manage and exchange information between systems, today's classic Information Technology (IT) commonly uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and its related tools. XML is composed of numerous specifications related to various fields of expertise. No such global specification however has been defined for quantum computers. QIS-XML is a proposed XML metadata specification for the description of fundamental components of QIS (gates & circuits) and a platform for the development of a hardware independent low level pseudo-code for quantum algorithms. This paper lays out the general characteristics of the QIS-XML specification and outlines practical applications through prototype use cases.

Heus, Pascal

2007-01-01

317

State reduction, information and entropy in quantum measurement processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information obtained by a quantum measurement process performed on a physical system and the entropy change of the measured physical system are considered in detail. It is shown that the condition for the amount of information obtained by the quantum measurement process to be represented by the Shannon mutual entropy is that the intrinsic observable of the measured physical system commutes with the operational observable defined by the quantum measurement process. When some measurement outcome is obtained, the decrease of the Shannon entropy of the measured system is compared with that of the von Neumann entropy. Furthermore, a condition is established under which the amount of information that can be established by the quantum measurement process becomes equal to the decrease of the Shannon entropy of the measured physical system. (author)

318

Initialization and Readout of Spin Chains for Quantum Information Transport

Linear chains of spins acting as quantum wires are a promising approach to achieve scalable quantum information processors. Nuclear spins in apatite crystals provide an ideal test-bed for the experimental study of quantum information transport, as they closely emulate a one-dimensional spin chain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be used to drive the spin chain dynamics and probe the accompanying transport mechanisms. Here we demonstrate initialization and readout capabilities in these spin chains, even in the absence of single-spin addressability. These control schemes enable preparing desired states for quantum information transport and probing their evolution under the transport Hamiltonian. We further optimize the control schemes by a detailed analysis of $^{19}$F NMR lineshape.

Kaur, Gurneet

2011-01-01

319

A Quantum Rosetta Stone for the Information Paradox

The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando

2014-01-01

320

Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird.

Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Etienne; Wagner, Richard H

2014-01-01

321

Teleportation of a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a scheme to teleport a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information, which is better than the two schemes recently proposed by Liao and Kuang (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1183) and by Phien and Nguyen (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 2825) in that our scheme gives higher value of minimum assured fidelity and minimum average fidelity without using any nonlinear interactions. For involved coherent states | {+-} {alpha}), minimum average fidelity in our case is {>=}0.99 for |{alpha}| {>=} 1.6 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 2.6), while previously proposed schemes referred above report the same for |{alpha}| {>=} 5 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 25). Since it is very challenging to produce superposed coherent states of high coherent amplitude (|{alpha}|), our teleportation scheme is at the reach of modern technology.

Mishra, Manoj K; Prakash, Hari, E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.co, E-mail: prakash_hari123@rediffmail.co [Department of physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India)

2010-09-28

322

Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird

Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Étienne; Wagner, Richard H.

2014-01-01

323

QUBIT4MATLAB V3.0: A program package for quantum information science and quantum optics for MATLAB

A program package for MATLAB is introduced that helps calculations in quantum information science and quantum optics. It has commands for the following operations: (i) Reordering the qudits of a quantum register, computing the reduced state of a quantum register. (ii) Defining important quantum states easily. (iii) Formatted input and output for quantum states and operators. (iv) Constructing operators acting on given qudits of a quantum register and constructing spin chain Hamiltonians. (v) Partial transposition, matrix realignment and other commands related to the detection of quantum entanglement. (vi) Generating random state vectors, random density matrices and random unitaries.

Tóth, Géza

2007-01-01

324

Multi-user multiplexed scheme for decoding modulated-encoded sequential information

Encrypting procedures with multiplexed operations exhibit an inherent noise. We presented options to avoid background noise arising from the non-decoded images. We have a coding mask corresponding to each single input object, thus resulting in a static decrypting mechanism. Besides, if we manage the spatial destination of each decoded output, then we avoid the noise superposition. In those schemes, the displaying output order was irrelevant. However, when we face a sequence of events including multi-users, we need to develop another strategy. We present a multi-user encrypting scheme with a single encoding mask that removes the background noise, also showing the decrypted data in a prescribed sequence. The multiplexing scheme is based on the 4f double random phase encryption architecture and a theta modulation method, which consists in superposing each encrypted information with a determined sinusoidal grating. Afterwards we proceed to the completely encoded data multiplexing. In a multi-user scheme, we employ different encrypting masks in the 4f optical setup for each user, and the same mask is employed for the user sequence. We store the encrypted data in the single medium. After a Fourier transform operation and an appropriate filtering procedure, we reach the sequence of isolated encrypted spots corresponding to the right user. With the aid of the pertaining decoding mask, the user can decrypt the sequence. We avoid the noise by the appropriate choice of the modulating gratings pitch as to elude the overlapping of spots at the Fourier plane, which is the cause of information degradation.

Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

2011-08-01

325

Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

326

Generating the Depth Map from the Motion Information of H.264-Encoded 2D Video Sequence

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient method that estimates the depth map of a 3D-scene using the motion information of the H.264-encoded 2D-video is presented. The motion information of the video-frames captured via a single camera is either directly used or modified to approximate the displacement (disparity that exists between the right and left images when the scene is captured by stereoscopic cameras. Then, depth is estimated based on its inverse relation with disparity. The low-complexity of this method and its compatibility with future broadcasting networks allow its real-time implementation at the receiver; thus 3D-signal is constructed at no additional burden to the network. Performance evaluations show that this method outperforms the other existing H.264-based technique by up to 1.98?dB PSNR, providing more realistic depth information of the scene. Moreover subjective comparisons of the results, obtained by viewers watching the generated stereo video sequences on a 3D-display system, confirm the superiority of our method.

Pourazad MahsaT

2010-01-01

327

An improved derivation of minimum information quantum gravity

It is shown that, in minimum information quantum gravity (MIQG), the action can be derived using a more elegant and straight-forward method than has been used in the first existence proof. Assumptions regarding the quantum boxes, the exact differential of the entropy variation and the role of the boundary can be omitted, and the model structure requirements can be reduced. Moreover, the open problem of the quantum occupation number per box is solved. Thus, the arguments in favour of MIQG become even more stringent. The remaining assumptions are 1. the principle of optimization of the resulting per imposed degrees of freedom, 2. abstract quantum number conservation, 3. the validity of the laws of thermodynamics, 4. identification of a macroscopic parametrization with space-time and 6. unspecific interactions. Even though the assuptions are considerably reduced, all former results remain valid. In particular, no explicite microscopic quantum structure is required in order to recover all well established physics...

Mandrin, Pierre A

2014-01-01

328

Optomechanical transducers for quantum-information processing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the implementation of optical quantum networks where the interface between stationary and photonic qubits is realized by optomechanical transducers [K. Stannigel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 220501 (2010)]. This approach does not rely on the optical properties of the qubit and thereby enables optical quantum communication applications for a wide range of solid-state spin- and charge-based systems. We present an effective description of such networks for many qubits and give a derivation of a state transfer protocol for long-distance quantum communication. We also describe how to mediate local on-chip interactions by means of the optomechanical transducers that can be used for entangling gates. We finally discuss experimental systems for the realization of our proposal.

Stannigel, K.; Zoller, P. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rabl, P. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Soerensen, A. S. [QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Lukin, M. D. [Physics Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-10-15

329

Optomechanical transducers for quantum information processing

We discuss the implementation of optical quantum networks where the interface between stationary and photonic qubits is realized by optomechanical transducers [K. Stannigel et al., PRL 105, 220501 (2010)]. This approach does not rely on the optical properties of the qubit and thereby enables optical quantum communication applications for a wide range of solid-state spin- and charge-based systems. We present an effective description of such networks for many qubits and give a derivation of a state transfer protocol for long-distance quantum communication. We also describe how to mediate local on-chip interactions by means of the optomechanical transducers that can be used for entangling gates. We finally discuss experimental systems for the realization of our proposal.

Stannigel, K; Sørensen, A S; Lukin, M D; Zoller, P

2011-01-01

330

Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing

Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells. This opens the door for the engineering of nano-scaled chemical reactions to the study of temperature dependent biological processes. Finally, a novel technique is introduced that facilitates optical spin detection with nanoscale resolution based on an optical far-field technique; by combining this with a 'quantum Zeno' like effect coherent manipulation of nominally identical spins at a nanoscale is achieved.

Maurer, Peter

331

Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.

Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo

1993-01-01

332

Information as a resource in distributed quantum systems

We develop a paradigm for distributed quantum systems, where not only quantum communication, but also information is a valuable resource. We construct a scheme for manipulating information in analogy to entanglement theory. In this scheme, instead of maximally entangled states, Alice and Bob distill product states. We then show that the main tools of entanglement theory are general enough to work also in this opposite scheme. We obtain, up to a plausible assumption, that the amount of information that must be lost during a concentration protocol can be expressed as the relative entropy distance from some set of states.

Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Oppenheim, J; Sen, A; Sen, U; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

2003-01-01

333

We define the task of {\\it quantum tagging}, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, which we first discussed in 2002 and described in a 2006 patent (for an insecure protocol). The possibility has recently been reconsidered by other authors. All the more recently discussed protoco...

Kent, Adrian; Spiller, Tim

2010-01-01

334

Quantum Private Information Retrieval with Sublinear Communication Complexity

This note presents a quantum protocol for private information retrieval, in the single-server case and with information-theoretical privacy, that has O(\\sqrt{n})-qubit communication complexity, where n denotes the size of the database. In comparison, it is known that any classical protocol must use \\Omega(n) bits of communication in this setting.

Gall, François Le

2011-01-01

335

Optically controlled semiconductor spin qubits for quantum information processing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementations of quantum information processing systems based on optically controlled electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are particulary appealing due to several features. These features include inherent ultrafast gate operation times, reasonably long decoherence times, small optical control power and a natural ability to link to optical fiber communication networks. We will discuss the current state of the art in the experimental implementations of the main elements of semiconductor spin qubits: qubit initialization, single-qubit gates, two-qubit gates, entanglement distribution, projective measurement, quantum memory and indistinguishable single-photon generation.

336

A natural metric for quantum information theory

We propose a very natural metric between quantum states. This proposal has two basic ingredients: entropy and purification. The metric is defined as the square root of the entropy of the average of representative purifications of the concomitant mixed states. Some basic properties are studied and its relation with other distances is investigated.

Lamberti, P W; Sparacino, J

2008-01-01

337

On positive maps in quantum information

Using the Grothendieck approach to the tensor product of locally convex spaces, we review a characterization of positive maps as well as Belavkin-Ohya characterization of PPT states. Moreover, within this scheme, a generalization of the idea of Choi matrices for genuine quantum systems will be presented.

Majewski, W. A.

2014-07-01

338

Quantum theory from Hamilton's Principle with imperfect information

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many quantization schemes rely on analogs of classical mechanics where the connections with classical mechanics are indirect. In this work I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where the quantum mechanical propagator is derived from a variational principle. This principle allows a physical system to have imperfect information, i.e., there is incomplete knowledge of the physical state, and many paths are allowed.

Hegseth, John

2007-01-01

339

A New Approach to Encoding and Hiding Information in an Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The information age brings some unique challenges to society. New technology and new applications bring new threats and force us to invent new protection mechanisms. So every few years, computer security needs to reinvent itself. In this paper we propose a new image encoding system utilizing fractal theories; this approach exploits the main feature of fractals generated by IFS techniques. Two levels of encryption and decryption methods performed to enhance the security of the system, this is based on the fact that all fractal functions use real number to ensure satisfaction of contraction property. If the cryptosystem parameters are based on real numbers (a continuous infinite interval then the search space is massive. Hence, many well known attacks fail to solve the nonlinear systems and find the imprecise secret key parameter from the given public one. Even if it is theoretically possible, it is computationally not feasible. The encrypted date represents the attractor generated by the IFS transformation, Collage theorem is used to find the IFS for decrypting data. The proposed method gives the possibility to hide maximum amount of data in an image that represent the attractor of the IFS without degrading its quality. Also to make the hidden data robust enough to withstand known cryptographic attacks and image processing techniques which do not change the appearance of image. The security level is high because the jointly coded images cannot be correctly reconstructed without all the required information.

Fadhil Salman Abed

2011-09-01

340

Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of

Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M

2008-01-01

341

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum Fourier transform is a key factor in achieving exponential speedup relative to classical algorithms. We implemented the phase estimation algorithm, which is the very basic application example of the quantum Fourier transform, on a three-bit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processor. The algorithm was applied to one-bit Grover operators to estimate eigenvalues. We also demonstrated the counting algorithm with the same operators to obtain the number of the marked states. The results of projective measurements required by the algorithms were obtained from the split peak positions in the spectra

342

This paper proposes a generic approach for providing enhanced security to communication systems which encode their data for reliability before encrypting it through a stream cipher for security. We call this counter-intuitive technique the {\\em encoding-encryption} paradigm, and use as motivating example the standard for mobile telephony GSM. The enhanced security is based on a dedicated homophonic or wire-tap channel coding that introduces pure randomness, combined with the randomness of the noise occurring over the communication channel. Security evaluation regarding recovery of the secret key employed in the keystream generator is done through an information theoretical approach. We show that with the aid of a dedicated wire-tap encoder, the amount of uncertainty that the adversary must face about the secret key given all the information he could gather during different passive or active attacks he can mount, is a decreasing function of the sample available for cryptanalysis. This means that the wire-tap e...

Oggier, Frederique

2010-01-01

343

Thulium doped crystals for quantum information storage

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optically driving nuclear spin waves in a Tm:YAG crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a three-level ? system in this material, which is a foundation step in the prospect of quantum memory investigations. Varying the spin state splitting with an external magnetic field, we show that the nuclear spin coherence lifetime remains close to 350?s over a wide range of variation of this splitting. Finally, we demonstrate fast coherent population transfer between the spin states.

344

Thulium doped crystals for quantum information storage

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optically driving nuclear spin waves in a Tm:YAG crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a three-level {Lambda} system in this material, which is a foundation step in the prospect of quantum memory investigations. Varying the spin state splitting with an external magnetic field, we show that the nuclear spin coherence lifetime remains close to 350mus over a wide range of variation of this splitting. Finally, we demonstrate fast coherent population transfer between the spin states.

Lauro, R., E-mail: romain.lauro@lac.u-psud.f [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Univ Paris Sud, Batiment 505, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Ruggiero, J.; Louchet, A.; Alexander, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Lorgere, I.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.; Le Gouet, J.-L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Univ Paris Sud, Batiment 505, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

2009-12-15

345

Area laws in quantum systems: mutual information and correlations

The holographic principle states that on a fundamental level the information content of a region should depend on its surface area rather than on its volume. This counterintuitive idea which has its roots in the nonextensive nature of black-hole entropy serves as a guiding principle in the search for the fundamental laws of Planck-scale physics. In this paper we show that a similar phenomenon emerges from the established laws of classical and quantum physics: the information contained in part of a system in thermal equilibrium obeys an area law. While the maximal information per unit area depends classically only on the number of microscopic degrees of freedom, it may diverge as the inverse temperature in quantum systems. A rigorous relation between area laws and correlations is established and their explicit behavior is revealed for a large class of quantum many-body states beyond equilibrium systems.

Wolf, M M; Hastings, M B; Cirac, J I

2007-01-01

346

The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were related to the target item but never actually studied. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied 1 category member (e.g., onion) from a variety of different categories and at test were presented with an unstudied category label (e.g., vegetable) to probe memory for item and source information. In Experiments 3 and 4, 1 member of unidirectional (e.g., credit or card) or bidirectional (e.g., salt or pepper) associates was studied, whereas the other unstudied member served as a test probe. When recall failed, source information was accessible only when items were processed deeply during encoding (Experiments 1 and 2) and when there was strong forward associative strength between the retrieval cue and target (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings suggest that a retrieval probe diagnostic of semantically related item information reinstantiates information bound in memory during encoding that results in reactivation of associated contextual information, contingent upon sufficient learning of the item itself and the association between the item and its context information. PMID:24933700

Ball, B Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R; Knight, Justin B; Hicks, Jason L

2014-09-01

347

Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states. Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot be extracted by local measurements due to the limitations dictated by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. We experimentally characterize the evolution of the discord of EPR states and mixtures of coherent states in an attenuating channel. We demonstrate that the discord can grow by local dissipation in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current commercially available equipment. However the performance in terms of achievable distance is highly limited. We first experimentally demonstrate that the boundaries of coherent states can be surpassed using modulated entangled states. A simplied experiment is also presented where the modulation of a single-mode squeezed state gives a very reconciliation efficiency robust protocol. All of this is done to achieve higher key rates at the current limits of the coherent state protocols and to extend the boundaries for tolerable channel noise, loss and reconciliation efficiency. As any degree of squeezing improves the performance the extra effort of implementing squeezing in commercial devices is overshadowed by the extended range and increased security margin achieved. Still using the same experimental setup, but now in the context of polarization we have experimentally bridged the gab between the states with very low photon numbers and the states where one of Stokes parameters is highly excited. To describe the polarization of these state we introduce several new polarization measures which take into account the covariance of the polarization and resolve the polarization manifolds. We experimentally demonstrate states for which the polarization is hidden in the unresolved measures and as well a state which is unpolarized for both first order polarization measures. Finally we illustrate the polarization with SU2 Wigner functions to give a richer picture, not only of the degree of polarization but also its distribution among the manifolds.

Madsen, Lars Skovgaard

2012-01-01

348

Quantum information approach to normal representation of extensive games

We modify the concept of quantum strategic game to make it useful for extensive form games. We prove that our modification allows to consider the normal representation of any finite extensive game using the fundamental concepts of quantum information. The Selten's Horse game and the general form of two-stage extensive game with perfect information are studied to illustrate a potential application of our idea. In both examples we use Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein approach as well as Marinatto-Weber approach to quantization of games.

Fr\\kackiewicz, Piotr

2011-01-01

349

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se propone el uso de sincronización entre mapas hipercaóticos para codificar y decodificar información. La información a ser codificada es introducida al transmisor como una perturbación externa. La señal transmitida es empleada tanto para la sincronización y como portadora de la inf [...] ormación codificada. Una vez que el receptor esta sincronizado con el transmisor, el primero decodifica la información mediante la reconstrucción de la perturbación externa. En términos generales, se diseñó un esquema sencillo para codificar y decodificar datos, enfocado como un problema inverso. El desempeño del esquema mostró ser muy satisfactorio, como se comprobó en la implantación numérica. Los resultados obtenidos se usaron para construir una aplicación para comunicación segura en línea sobre internet. Abstract in english In this work we propose to use hyperchaotic maps synchronization to encode and decode information. The information to be encode is input to the transmitter as an external perturbation. The transmitted signal is used for synchronization and as the encode information carrier. Once the receiver is sync [...] hronized with the transmitter, the former decode the information by reconstruct the external perturbation. Roughly speaking, we design a simple schema to encode and decode data, as a simple inverse problem approach. The schema performance shows to be quite satisfactory, as assess from the numerical implementation. We use the results to build an application to establish secure on-line communication over Internet.

Carlos, Aguilar-Ibáñez; Miguel S., Suárez-Castañón; Humberto, Sossa-Azuela; Ricardo, Barrón-Fernández.

350

Quantum Information Processing with Delocalized Qubits under Global Control

Any technology for quantum information processing (QIP) must embody within it quantum bits (qubits) and maintain control of their key quantum properties of superposition and entanglement. Typical QIP schemes envisage an array of physical systems, such as electrons or nuclei, with each system representing a given qubit. For adequate control, systems must be distinguishable either by physical separation or unique frequencies, and their mutual interactions must be individually manipulable. These difficult requirements exclude many nanoscale technologies where systems are densely packed and continuously interacting. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm: restricting ourselves to global control pulses we permit systems to interact freely and continuously, with the consequence that qubits can become delocalized over the entire device. We realize this using NMR studies of three carbon-13 nuclei in alanine, demonstrating all the key aspects including a quantum mirror, one- and two-qubit gates, permutation of densely pac...

Fitzsimons, J; Benjamin, S C; Jones, J A; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Xiao, Li; Benjamin, Simon C.; Jones, Jonathan A.

2006-01-01

351

Continuous-Variable Quantum Computing in Optical Time-Frequency Modes Using Quantum Memories

We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

Humphreys, Peter C.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

2014-09-01

352

Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.

We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures. PMID:25302876

Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

2014-09-26

353

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly’s visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell’s most conspicuous property: Its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly’s saccadic flight and gaze strategy: The FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects - irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined - by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble.

PatrickHennig

2012-03-01

354

We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly's visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell's most conspicuous property: its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly's saccadic flight and gaze strategy: the FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects-irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined-by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble. PMID:22461769

Hennig, Patrick; Egelhaaf, Martin

2012-01-01

355

The encoding of individual identity in dolphin signature whistles: how much information is needed?

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) produce many vocalisations, including whistles that are unique to the individual producing them. Such "signature whistles" play a role in individual recognition and maintaining group integrity. Previous work has shown that humans can successfully group the spectrographic representations of signature whistles according to the individual dolphins that produced them. However, attempts at using mathematical algorithms to perform a similar task have been less successful. A greater understanding of the encoding of identity information in signature whistles is important for assessing similarity of whistles and thus social influences on the development of these learned calls. We re-examined 400 signature whistles from 20 individual dolphins used in a previous study, and tested the performance of new mathematical algorithms. We compared the measure used in the original study (correlation matrix of evenly sampled frequency measurements) to one used in several previous studies (similarity matrix of time-warped whistles), and to a new algorithm based on the Parsons code, used in music retrieval databases. The Parsons code records the direction of frequency change at each time step, and is effective at capturing human perception of music. We analysed similarity matrices from each of these three techniques, as well as a random control, by unsupervised clustering using three separate techniques: k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and an adaptive resonance theory neural network. For each of the three clustering techniques, a seven-level Parsons algorithm provided better clustering than the correlation and dynamic time warping algorithms, and was closer to the near-perfect visual categorisations of human judges. Thus, the Parsons code captures much of the individual identity information present in signature whistles, and may prove useful in studies requiring quantification of whistle similarity. PMID:24194893

Kershenbaum, Arik; Sayigh, Laela S; Janik, Vincent M

2013-01-01

356

Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications

The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.

Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J

2010-01-01

357

H1 photonic crystal cavities for hybrid quantum information protocols.

Hybrid quantum information protocols are based on local qubits, such as trapped atoms, NV centers, and quantum dots, coupled to photons. The coupling is achieved through optical cavities. Here we demonstrate far-field optimized H1 photonic crystal membrane cavities combined with an additional back reflection mirror below the membrane that meet the optical requirements for implementing hybrid quantum information protocols. Using numerical optimization we find that 80% of the light can be radiated within an objective numerical aperture of 0.8, and the coupling to a single-mode fiber can be as high as 92%. We experimentally prove the unique external mode matching properties by resonant reflection spectroscopy with a cavity mode visibility above 50%. PMID:23187235

Hagemeier, Jenna; Bonato, Cristian; Truong, Tuan-Anh; Kim, Hyochul; Beirne, Gareth J; Bakker, Morten; van Exter, Martin P; Luo, Yunqiu; Petroff, Pierre; Bouwmeester, Dirk

2012-10-22

358

H1 photonic crystal cavitites for hybrid quantum information protocols

Hybrid quantum information protocols are based on local qubits, such as trapped atoms, NV centers, and quantum dots, coupled to photons. The coupling is achieved through optical cavities. Here we demonstrate far-field optimized H1 photonic crystal membrane cavities combined with an additional back reflection mirror below the membrane that meet the optical requirements for implementing hybrid quantum information protocols. Using numerical optimization we find that 80% of the light can be radiated within an objective numerical aperture of 0.8, and the coupling to a single-mode fiber can be as high as 92%. We experimentally prove the unique external mode matching properties by resonant reflection spectroscopy with a cavity mode visibility above 50%.

Hagemeier, Jenna; Truong, Tuan-Anh; Kim, Hyochul; Beirne, Gareth J; Bakker, Morten; van Exter, Martin P; Luo, Yunqiu; Petroff, Pierre; Bouwmeester, Dirk

2012-01-01

359

Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond

The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...

Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R

2014-01-01

360

Principles of quantum computation and information volume II

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory', 'Decoherence', 'Quantum Error Correction', and 'First Experimental Implementations'. The first volume covers the basics of classical computation, quantum mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum communication. Chapter five starts with the density matrix formalism, and proceeds with the development of the Kraus representation, POVMs, von Neuman entropy, quantum data compression, the Holevo bound, the partial transpose criterion, and it ends with a very nice section on the various entropies that play a role in modern physics. This includes not only the thermodynamical and statistical entropy, but also the dynamical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, which is used in quantum chaos in chapter 6. On the whole, I think that this is a really clear and well-presented chapter. A minor drawback is that the concept of CP maps is not explained as well as it could have been, for example by relating it to the partial transpose criterion. Chapter six continues with the high standard set in chapter five, and presents a very thorough exposition of decoherence in general. It introduces the different decoherence channels, and gives truly excellent explanations of the master equation (tied in with the Kraus representation), quantum jumps, and the quantum trajectory formalism. It also has an elegant explanation for the sensitivity of Schroedinger cats to decoherence. The chapter ends with two sections on quantum chaos. Since the authors are experts in this fascinating area, this is a welcome addition to the canon of topics typically covered in quantum information. Unfortunately, the section is quite hard to follow, and as a result it is a bit of a missed opportunity. There is a section on chaos in the first volume of this series, and this may provide the required background. Chapter seven on quantum error correction is disappointing, and I have the feeling that the authors went through the motions without a real passion for the subject matter. The chapter describes various error correction codes, including Hamming codes and CSS codes, but it is virtually silent on fault tolerance; it does not give examples of universal sets of fault tolerant gates, and it does not mention the Solovay-Kitaev theorem. Also, it does not present the stabilizer formalism. All of these are serious omissions in a textbook on quantum information theory. Chapter eight gives a rough sketch of the early simulations and implementations of quantum gates. The readers of this journal will have no trouble following this chapter, but the undergraduate in computer science or mathematics will be completely lost. The chapter covers NMR, cavity QED, ion traps, solid state qubits, and optical implementations of quantum communication. I would have liked to see a more bold choice for the topics covered in the last chapter. For example, whereas liquid-state NMR was an important step in the development of quantum technologies, and many current techniques were invented for it, it does no longer play a role in the design of quantum computers. It would have been better to introduce these techniques in a section on condensed matter systems. Also, as a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information, I really miss extensive sections on the one-way model of quantum computing and topological quantum computing. In conclusion, the second volume of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information' is a partial success. The first two chapters are very good, and I would happily pay Pounds 22 for these two chapters alone. However, for a text o

361

This monograph provides a mathematical foundation to the theory of quantum information and computation, with applications to various open systems including nano and bio systems. It includes introductory material on algorithm, functional analysis, probability theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Apart from standard material on quantum information like quantum algorithm and teleportation, the authors discuss findings on the theory of entropy in C*-dynamical systems, space-time dependence of quantum entangled states, entangling operators, adaptive dynamics, relativistic quantum information, and a new paradigm for quantum computation beyond the usual quantum Turing machine. Also, some important applications of information theory to genetics and life sciences, as well as recent experimental and theoretical discoveries in quantum photosynthesis are described.

Ohya, Masanori

2011-01-01

362

It has consistently been reported that "negative" subsequent memory effects-lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items-are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item-context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the item's encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude of the effects correlated with source memory performance. It is concluded that negative item effects do not reflect processes necessary for the successful encoding of item-context associations in older subjects. Negative source effects, in contrast, appear to reflect the engagement of processes that are equally important for successful episodic encoding in older and younger individuals. PMID:23904464

Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D

2014-12-01

363

The Data Compression Theorem for Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

We extend the data compression theorem to the case of ergodic quantum information sources. Moreover, we provide an asymptotically optimal compression scheme which is based on the concept of high probability subspaces. The rate of this compression scheme is equal to the von Neumann entropy rate.

Bjelakovic, I; Bjelakovic, Igor; Szkola, Arleta

2003-01-01

364

A lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information

In this paper, a lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information is obtained by employing the Peierls–Bogoliubov inequality and the Golden–Thompson inequality. Comparison with the bounds obtained by other researchers indicates that our result is independent of any measurements. It may give some new insights into squashed entanglement and perturbations of Markov chain states.

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Junde

2014-10-01

365

Fabrication Strategies for Practical Diamond Based Quantum Information Processing Devices

Optically emitting defect centres in diamond display a range of unique quantum properties that offer exciting possibilities for the construction of quantum devices which employ optical single-spin read-out. Indeed diamond is an ideal material for use in the fabrication of (i) single photon sources for quantum communications, (ii) optical fibre-based single spin read out systems, (iii) photonic platforms for the investigation of quantum entanglement in solid state systems and (iv) optical regenerators and non-linear quantum gates. The toolkit of available fabrication strategies which are used to engineer devices taking advantage of these unique properties will be presented. Our most recent results include demonstrations of (i) optical fibre based single photon sources based on Nickel and Nitrogen optical centres, (ii) waveguiding of light in structures hewn from single crystal diamond, (iii) Electrical Stark shift of the frequency of single optical emitters, (iv) coupling between the spins between single NV and N atoms in devices engineered by ion implantation, and (v) electromagnetically induced transparency in single NV centres. These crucial demonstrations establish the feasibility of a defect tolerant architecture for the fabrication of a few (˜10-50 ) qubit diamond based quantum information processor. We will present one such possible architecture and explain the specific role for ion beam processing in the creation of qubits and the engineering of diamond photonic devices.

Prawer, Steven

2008-03-01

366

The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

Fritzsche, S.

2014-06-01

367

Semiclassical gravity from the perspective of quantum information theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Quantum field theory in curved spacetimes makes remarkable predictions about the behavior of quantum fields in the presence of strong gravitational fields. Nevertheless, these striking discoveries raises several issues. The development of a theory at the interface between relativity, quantum mechanics, and information theory could not only shed new light on such questions as well as allowing to uncover new low-energy quantum gravity effects. In this talk I will review several results in this new field. In particular it will be shown that the Bell inequalities can be satisfied rather than violated by quantum mechanics if the detectors making the measurements are set in relativistic motion. It will also be shown that the entanglement between a pair of quits can suffer a sudden death when one of the quits accelerates uniformly for a finite proper time. This result will be used to analyze the behavior of entanglement in the vicinity of a nonrotating chargeless black hole. I will end with a discussion about the prospects of the field, emphasizing the so called 'black hole information paradox' and the question of what is the microscopic origin of the black hole entropy. (author)

368

Concatenating bang-bang control with decoherence-free subspaces for quantum computation

A scheme to implement a quantum computer subjected to decoherence and governed by un-tunable qubit-qubit interaction is presented. By concatenating bang-bang (BB) control and decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) encoding, we protect the quantum computer from environment-induced docoherence that result in quantum information dissipating into the environment. For the un-tunable qubit-qubit interaction in the quantum system, BB control plus DFSs encoding will stabilize encoded quantum states. We show how this quantum system to implement universal quantum computation.

Zhang, Y; Yu, B; Guo, G C; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Yu, Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

2004-01-01

369

The structure of preserved information in quantum processes

We introduce a general characterization of information-preserving structures -- including noiseless subsystems, decoherence-free subspaces, pointer bases, and error-correcting codes -- in terms of the fixed points of quantum processes. We prove that the fixed states and observables of an arbitrary process are linearly isomorphic to a matrix algebra, which unifies the Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures and rules out unphysical kinds of information. We construct a simple algorithm for efficiently finding all noiseless as well as unitarily noiseless subsystems.

Blume-Kohout, Robin; Poulin, David; Viola, Lorenza

2007-01-01

370

Time in quantum gravity and black-hole information paradox

The fact that canonical quantum gravity does not possess a fundamental notion of time implies that the theory is unitary in a trivial sense. At the fundamental level, this trivial unitarity leaves no room for a black-hole information loss. Yet, a phenomenological loss of information may appear when some matter degrees of freedom are reinterpreted as a clock-time. This explains how both fundamental unitarity and phenomenological information loss may peacefully coexist, which offers a resolution of the black-hole information paradox.

Nikolic, H

2011-01-01

371

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation plays an important role in cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI. Nevertheless, the systems-level characterization of inflammation proteins in MI remains incomplete. There is a need to demonstrate the potential value of molecular network-based approaches to translational research. We investigated the interplay of inflammation proteins and assessed network-derived knowledge to support clinical decisions after MI. The main focus is the prediction of clinical outcome after MI. Methods We assembled My-Inflamome, a network of protein interactions related to inflammation and prognosis in MI. We established associations between network properties, disease biology and capacity to distinguish between prognostic categories. The latter was tested with classification models built on blood-derived microarray data from post-MI patients with different outcomes. This was followed by experimental verification of significant associations. Results My-Inflamome is organized into modules highly specialized in different biological processes relevant to heart repair. Highly connected proteins also tend to be high-traffic components. Such bottlenecks together with genes extracted from the modules provided the basis for novel prognostic models, which could not have been uncovered by standard analyses. Modules with significant involvement in transcriptional regulation are targeted by a small set of microRNAs. We suggest a new panel of gene expression biomarkers (TRAF2, SHKBP1 and UBC with high discriminatory capability. Follow-up validations reported promising outcomes and motivate future research. Conclusion This study enhances understanding of the interaction network that executes inflammatory responses in human MI. Network-encoded information can be translated into knowledge with potential prognostic application. Independent evaluations are required to further estimate the clinical relevance of the new prognostic genes.

Devaux Yvan

2011-07-01

372

Information theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

We use a Holevo measure to study quantum information in a tripartite quantum system, including the case in which part $a$ is the input, and $b$ and $c$ the outputs of a quantum channel and its complementary channel. Specifically, we consider how the presence in $b$ of a particular type of information associated with an orthonormal basis $w$ of $a$ is linked to or constrains the presence in $c$ of a different type of information about $a$. Our first main result: For a pure tripartite state the difference between the $w$ type of information contained in $b$ and $c$ is independent of $w$. The second: a general inequality, also applying to POVMs, extending the idea that if the $w$ type of information is perfectly present in $b$, a mutually-unbiased type $u$ must be absent from $c$. The extension provides quantitative bounds when the $w$ information is not perfectly present, and the $u$ is not perfectly mutually unbiased. We also generalize other all-or-nothing theorems. As applied to complementary channels $\\EC$ ...

Coles, Patrick J; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B

2010-01-01

373

Quantum Fisher information as a signature of the superradiant quantum phase transition

The single-mode Dicke model is well known to undergo a quantum phase transition from the so-called normal phase to the superradiant phase (hereinafter called the ‘superradiant quantum phase transition’). Normally, quantum phase transitions can be identified by the critical behavior of quantities such as entanglement, quantum fluctuations, and fidelity. In this paper, we study the role of the quantum Fisher information (QFI) of both the field mode and the atoms in the ground state of the Dicke Hamiltonian. For a finite but large number of atoms, our numerical results show that near the critical atom-field coupling, the QFI of the atomic and the field subsystems can surpass their classical limits, due to the appearance of nonclassical quadrature squeezing. As the coupling increases far beyond the critical point, each subsystem becomes a highly mixed state, which degrades the QFI and hence the ultimate phase sensitivity. In the thermodynamic limit, we present the analytical results of the QFI and their relationship with the reduced variances of the field mode and the atoms. For each subsystem, we find that there is a singularity in the derivative of the QFI at the critical point, a clear signature of the quantum criticality in the Dicke model.

Wang, Teng-Long; Wu, Ling-Na; Yang, Wen; Jin, Guang-Ri; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

2014-06-01

374

Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing.

We present a detailed experimental analysis of a free-propagating light pulse prepared in a "Schrödinger kitten" state, which is defined as a quantum superposition of "classical" coherent states with small amplitudes. This kitten state is generated by subtracting one photon from a squeezed vacuum beam, and it clearly presents a negative Wigner function. The predicted influence of the experimental parameters is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The amplitude of the coherent states can be amplified to transform our "Schrödinger kittens" into bigger Schrödinger cats, providing an essential tool for quantum information processing. PMID:16527930

Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Laurat, Julien; Grangier, Philippe

2006-04-01

375

Dissipation-assisted quantum information processing with trapped ions.

We introduce a scheme to perform dissipation-assisted quantum information processing in ion traps considering realistic decoherence rates, for example, due to motional heating. By means of continuous sympathetic cooling, we overcome the trap heating by showing that the damped vibrational excitations can still be exploited to mediate coherent interactions as well as collective dissipative effects. We describe how to control their relative strength experimentally, allowing for protocols of coherent or dissipative generation of entanglement. This scheme can be scaled to larger ion registers for coherent or dissipative many-body quantum simulations. PMID:25166518

Bermudez, A; Schaetz, T; Plenio, M B

2013-03-15

376

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generaliz...

Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

2011-01-01

377

Entanglement boosts quantum turbo codes

One of the unexpected breakdowns in the existing theory of quantum serial turbo coding is that a quantum convolutional encoder cannot simultaneously be recursive and non-catastrophic. These properties are essential for a quantum turbo code to have an unbounded minimum distance and for its iterative decoding algorithm to converge, respectively. Here, we show that the entanglement-assisted paradigm gives a theoretical and practical "turbo boost" to these codes, in the sense that an entanglement-assisted quantum (EAQ) convolutional encoder can possess both of the aforementioned desirable properties, and simulation results indicate that entanglement-assisted turbo codes can operate reliably in a noise regime 5.5 dB beyond that of standard quantum turbo codes. Entanglement is the resource that enables a convolutional encoder to satisfy both properties because an encoder acting on only information qubits, classical bits, gauge qubits, and ancilla qubits cannot simultaneously satisfy them. We give several examples o...

Wilde, Mark M

2010-01-01

378

Quantum dots as single-photon sources for quantum information processing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semiconductor pillar microcavities containing quantum dots have shown promise as efficient sources of single and correlated pairs of photons, which may find applications in quantum information processing. In this paper we discuss the use of these sources to generate single photons and the use of pillars with elliptical cross-section to enhance and select a particular photon state. Single-photon interference measurements are also performed and show coherence times of up to 180 ps for quasi-resonantly pumped dots. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference measurements using a fibre interferometer indicate that individually created photons display a large degree of indistinguishability.

Unitt, D C [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Bennett, A J [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Atkinson, P [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cooper, K [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Gevaux, D [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Ward, M B [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Stevenson, R M [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom); Ritchie, D A [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Shields, A J [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WE (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

379

Brain activation during encoding and recognition of verbal and figural information in older adults.

Positron emission tomography (PET) patterns of cerebral blood flow associated with verbal and figural memory are described in relation to their value as functional probes for studying longitudinal changes that occur in the aging brain. Relative to a matching control task, verbal and figural encoding increase blood flow in prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, insular, lateral and medial temporal, occipital cortex and the cerebellum. Additionally, medial temporal regions exhibited greater activity during figural encoding relative to verbal encoding. During recognition, blood flow increases in prefrontal, cingulate, insular, and lateral temporal and Broca's areas. Analysis of hemispheric asymmetry reveals that the prefrontal cortex exhibits regionally dependent results. Prefrontal region BA 10 demonstrates more bilateral activation during encoding and retrieval, whereas BA 46 shows right greater than left activation during both encoding and retrieval. Overall, the two tasks activate diverse regions within the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes of the brain, including areas that show age-related structural changes, proving their usefulness in the longitudinal assessment of brain function in the elderly. PMID:15582751

Beason-Held, L L; Golski, S; Kraut, M A; Esposito, G; Resnick, S M

2005-02-01

380

Quantum information processing and metrology with color centers in diamonds

The Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) center is becoming a promising qubit for quantum information processing. The defect has a long coherence time at room temperature and it allows spin state initialized and read out by laser and manipulated by microwave pulses. It has been utilized as a ultra sensitive probe for magnetic fields and remote spins as well. Here, we review the recent progresses in experimental demonstrations based on NV centers. We first introduce our work on implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond. Then the quantum nature of the bath around the center spin is revealed and continuous wave dynamical decoupling has been demonstrated. By applying dynamical decoupling, a multi-pass quantum metrology protocol is realized to enhance phase estimation. In the final, we demonstrated NV center can be regarded as a ultra-sensitive sensor spin to implement nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging at nanoscale.

Zhou, Jing-Wei; Wang, Peng-Fei; Shi, Fa-Zhan; Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Xu, Xiang-Kun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xiang; Rong, Xing; Du, Jiang-Feng

2014-05-01

381

Channel representation of quantum error-correcting codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum error-correcting codes (qeccs) are essential for most of the proposed realizations of quantum computation to correct errors due to decoherence. Quantum convolutional codes (qccs) are a promising candidate for on line encoding and decoding of a flow of quantum information thus enabling the sending party to begin with the transmission of quantum information before the end of the flow (or a block) is reached. Analogously the decoding process can begin before the end of the transmission. Until now, only the noise and interaction with the environment were described in the channel formalism. We investigate qeccs and describe their encoders as channels. Block encoders are represented by memoryless channels, whereas convolutional encoders are described by memory channels. Convolutional encoders need to be ''non-catastrophic'', meaning an error on a single source qubit should only affect a finite number of target qubits. We investigate the relation between this condition and the ''forgetfulness''-property of quantum memory channels

382

Algebraic geometry informs perturbative quantum field theory

Single-scale Feynman diagrams yield integrals that are periods, namely projective integrals of rational functions of Schwinger parameters. Algebraic geometry may therefore inform us of the types of number to which these integrals evaluate. We give examples at 3, 4 and 6 loops of massive Feynman diagrams that evaluate to Dirichlet $L$-series of modular forms and examples at 6, 7 and 8 loops of counterterms that evaluate to multiple zeta values or polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity. At 8 loops and beyond, algebraic geometry informs us that polylogs are insufficient for the evaluation of terms in the beta-function of $\\phi^4$ theory. Here, modular forms appear as obstructions to polylogarithmic evaluation.

Broadhurst, David

2014-01-01

383

Quantum Subdivision Capacities and Continuous-time Quantum Coding

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum memories can be regarded as quantum channels that transmit information through time without moving it through space. Aiming at a reliable storage of information we may thus not only encode at the beginning and decode at the end, but also intervene during the transmission - a possibility not captured by the ordinary capacities in Quantum Shannon Theory. In this work we introduce capacities that take this possibility into account and study them in particular for the tr...

Mu?ller-hermes, Alexander; Reeb, David; Wolf, Michael M.

2013-01-01

384

Decoherence-free quantum-information processing using dipole-coupled qubits

We propose a quantum-information processor that consists of decoherence-free logical qubits encoded into arrays of dipole-coupled qubits. High-fidelity single-qubit operations are performed deterministically within a decoherence-free subsystem without leakage via global addressing of bichromatic laser fields. Two-qubit operations are realized locally with four physical qubits, and between separated logical qubits using linear optics. We show how to prepare cluster states using this method. We include all non-nearest-neighbor effects in our calculations, and we assume the qubits are not located in the Dicke limit. Although our proposal is general to any system of dipole-coupled qubits, throughout the paper we use nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as an experimental context for our theoretical results.

Brooke, P G

2007-01-01

385

An optical source that produces single photon pulses on demand has potential applications in linear optics quantum information processing, provided that stringent requirements on indistinguishability and collection efficiency of the generated photons are met. We show that these are conflicting requirements for anharmonic emitters that are incoherently pumped via reservoirs. As a model for a coherently pumped single photon source, we consider cavity-assisted spin-flip Raman transitions in a single charged quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. We demonstrate that using such a source, arbitrarily high collection efficiency and indistinguishability of the generated photons can be obtained simultaneously with increased cavity coupling. We analyze the role of errors that arise from distinguishability of the single photon pulses in linear optics quantum gates by relating the gate fidelity to the strength of the two-photon interference dip in photon cross-correlation measurements. We find that performing controlled ...

Kiraz, A; Imamoglu, A

2003-01-01

386

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the effects of amplitude and phase damping decoherence in d-dimensional one-way quantum computation. We focus our attention on low dimensions and elementary unidimensional cluster state resources. Our investigation shows how information transfer and entangling gate simulations are affected for d?2. To understand motivations for extending the one-way model to higher dimensions, we describe how basic qudit cluster states deteriorate under environmental noise of experimental interest. In order to protect quantum information from the environment, we consider encoding logical qubits into qudits and compare entangled pairs of linear qubit-cluster states to single qudit clusters of equal length and total dimension. A significant reduction in the performance of cluster state resources for d>2 is found when Markovian-type decoherence models are present

387

Arbitrary waveform generator for quantum information processing with trapped ions.

Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of ±10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and demonstrate some of its uses in ion-based quantum information experiments, including speed-up of ion transport and the shaping of laser and microwave pulses. PMID:23556808

Bowler, R; Warring, U; Britton, J W; Sawyer, B C; Amini, J

2013-03-01

388

Arbitrary waveform generator for quantum information processing with trapped ions

Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of ±10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and demonstrate some of its uses in ion-based quantum information experiments, including speed-up of ion transport and the shaping of laser and microwave pulses.

Bowler, R.; Warring, U.; Britton, J. W.; Sawyer, B. C.; Amini, J.

2013-03-01

389

Fault-tolerant quantum secret sharing against collective noise

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present two robust quantum secret sharing protocols against two kinds of collective noise with single logical qubits. Each logical qubit is encoded in two-qubit noiseless states and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to a collective noise. The safety of transmission is ensured by nonorthogonality of the noiseless states traveling forward and backward on the quantum channel. Moreover, we construct efficient quantum circuits to implement channel encoding and information encoding by means of primitive operations in quantum computation.

390

Fault-tolerant quantum secret sharing against collective noise

We present two robust quantum secret sharing protocols against two kinds of collective noise with single logical qubits. Each logical qubit is encoded in two-qubit noiseless states and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to a collective noise. The safety of transmission is ensured by nonorthogonality of the noiseless states traveling forward and backward on the quantum channel. Moreover, we construct efficient quantum circuits to implement channel encoding and information encoding by means of primitive operations in quantum computation.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Teng, Yi-Wei; Chai, Hai-Ping; Wen, Qiao-Yan

2011-02-01

391

Fault-tolerant quantum secret sharing against collective noise

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present two robust quantum secret sharing protocols against two kinds of collective noise with single logical qubits. Each logical qubit is encoded in two-qubit noiseless states and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to a collective noise. The safety of transmission is ensured by nonorthogonality of the noiseless states traveling forward and backward on the quantum channel. Moreover, we construct efficient quantum circuits to implement channel encoding and information encoding by means of primitive operations in quantum computation.

Yang Yuguang; Teng Yiwei; Chai Haiping [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wen Qiaoyan, E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

2011-02-15

392

Controlled Quantum State Transfer in a Spin Chain

Control of the transfer of quantum information encoded in quantum wavepackets moving along a spin chain is demonstrated. Specifically, based on a relationship with control in a paradigm of quantum chaos, it is shown that wavepackets with slow dispersion can automatically emerge from a class of initial superposition states involving only a few spins, and that arbitrary unspecified travelling wavepackets can be nondestructively stopped and later relaunched with perfection. The results establish an interesting application of quantum chaos studies in quantum information science.

Gong, J; Brumer, Paul; Gong, Jiangbin

2007-01-01

393

Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize “all-or-nothing” theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta [Nature PhysicsRMPHAT1745-247310.1038/nphys1734 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

Coles, Patrick J.; Yu, Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B.

2011-06-01

394

Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize ''all-or-nothing'' theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

395

Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance, quantum control of chemical reactions or high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy); on the other hand, an unprecedented demand for close coupling between theory and experiment, with theoretical developments becoming more and more attuned to and driven by experimental advances as different quantum technologies continue to evolve at an impressive pace in the laboratory. Altogether, these two trends account for several of the recurrent themes in this volume, as well as in the current quantum control literature as a whole: namely, the quest for control strategies that can attain the highest degree of precision and robustness possible, while striving for efficiency and, ultimately, optimality in achieving the intended control task under realistic operational constraints. From a theory standpoint, this makes it imperative to take into account increasingly more realistic control settings; to assess the quantitative impact of limited control resources and/or system knowledge; and to provide a rigorous and general foundation for existing experimental approaches in order to further enhance applicability and performance. From an experimental standpoint, renewed emphasis is in turn placed on validating theoretical predictions and benchmarking performance, so that the limiting constraints can be singled out for additional theoretical analysis and guidance. This ongoing cross-talk is clearly reflected in this collection, which brings together theoreticians and experimentalists, with a significant fraction of the papers reporting on combined quantum control theory-experiment efforts. While a precise categorization would neither be possible nor desirable, contributions to this volume have been loosely grouped into five broad sections. This grouping has been made in the hope that connections between different problems and/or technical approaches will become more transparent, facilitating the transfer of concepts and methods. The special issue opens with a section devoted to open-loop control methods, with special emphasis on dynamical decoupling (DD), which is becoming an incr

Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

2011-08-01

396

Parallel Information Transfer in a Multi-Node Quantum Information Processor

We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.

Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

2011-01-01

397

Experimental demonstration of a flexible time-domain quantum channel.

We present an experimental realization of a flexible quantum channel where the Hilbert space dimensionality can be controlled electronically. Using electro-optical modulators (EOM) and narrow-band optical filters, quantum information is encoded and decoded in the temporal degrees of freedom of photons from a long-coherence-time single-photon source. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a generic scheme for encoding and transmitting multidimensional quantum information over the existing fiber-optical telecommunications infrastructure. PMID:25401545

Xing, Xingxing; Feizpour, Amir; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M

2014-10-20

398

Coherent Manipulation of Multilevel Atoms for Quantum Information Processing

In quantum information processing, quantum cavities play an important role by providing the mechanisms to transfer information between atom qubits and photon qubits, or to couple single atoms with the optical modes of the cavity field. We explore numerically the population transfer in an atom + cavity system by using the $\\pi$-pulse and adiabatic passage methods. While the first method is very efficient transferring the atomic population for no radiative decay of the intermediate level, the second method shows very interesting nonadiabatic, resonance-like properties that can be used to achieve very large transfer efficiencies without needing very large Rabi frequencies or very long interaction times. We introduce a simple analytical model to explore the origin of these properties and describe "qualitatively" the power-law dependence of the failure probability on the product of the pulse amplitude and the interaction time. We also examine numerically the transfer of interatomic coherence in a two-atom + cavity...

Serna, Juan D

2010-01-01

399

Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics

In recent papers on 'envariance', Zurek has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch and Wallace to deriving the Born rule, on the grounds that it courts circularity. Zurek then derives the Born rule in the Schrodinger Picture using properties of the global Schrodinger state. In this paper a decision-theoretic approach to probability is used in the Heisenberg Picture to derive the Born rule. This derivation uses 'quantum Darwinism' - the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environement - following Ollivier et al. This derivation shows that envariance is not needed to derive the Born Rule and fixes the problem with the decision-theoretic approach that was pointed out by Zurek.

Forrester, A

2006-01-01

400

Correlations in complex nonlinear systems and quantum information theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamical evolution of classical complex systems such as coupled logistic maps or simple models of lattice gases and cellular automata can result in correlations between distant parts of the system. For the understanding of these systems, it is crucial to develop methods to characterize and quantify these multi-party correlations. On the other hand, the study of correlations between distant particles is also a central problem in the field of quantum information theory. There, correlations are often viewed as a resource and many tools have been developed for their characterization. In this talk, we explore the extent to which the tools from quantum information can be applied to study classical complex systems and whether they allow to study complex systems from a different perspective.

Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Galla, Tobias [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

401

Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed?loop system’s stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.

Fuyang Chen

2012-12-01

402

In a three player quantum 'Dilemma' game each player takes independent decisions to maximize his/her individual gain. The optimal strategy in the quantum version of this game has a higher payoff compared to its classical counterpart. However, this advantage is lost if the initial qubits provided to the players are from a noisy source. We have experimentally implemented the three player quantum version of the 'Dilemma' game as described by Johnson, [N.F. Johnson, Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001) 020302(R)] using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor and have experimentally verified that the payoff of the quantum game for various levels of corruption matches the theoretical payoff. PMID:17581766

Mitra, Avik; Sivapriya, K; Kumar, Anil

2007-08-01

403

Generalized information entropies in nonextensive quantum systems: The interpolation approach

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the generalized von Neumann (Tsallis) entropy and the generalized Fisher information (GFI) in nonextensive quantum systems, by using the interpolation approximation (IA) which has been shown to yield good results for the quantal distributions within $O(q-1)$ and in high- and low-temperature limits, $q$ being the entropic index [H. Hasegawa, Phys. Rev. E 80 (2009) 011126]. Three types of GFIs which have been proposed so far in the nonextensive statistics, are discu...

Hasegawa, Hideo

2009-01-01

404

Optomechanical quantum information processing with photons and phonons

We describe how strong resonant interactions in multimode optomechanical systems can be used to induce controlled nonlinear couplings between single photons and phonons. Combined with linear mapping schemes between photons and phonons, these techniques provide a universal building block for various classical and quantum information processing applications. Our approach is especially suited for nano-optomechanical devices, where strong optomechanical coupling on a single photon level is within experimental reach.

Stannigel, K; Habraken, S J M; Bennett, S D; Lukin, M D; Zoller, P; Rabl, P

2012-01-01

405

Optomechanical quantum information processing with photons and phonons.

We describe how strong resonant interactions in multimode optomechanical systems can be used to induce controlled nonlinear couplings between single photons and phonons. Combined with linear mapping schemes between photons and phonons, these techniques provide a universal building block for various classical and quantum information processing applications. Our approach is especially suited for nano-optomechanical devices, where strong optomechanical interactions on a single photon level are within experimental reach. PMID:23031105

Stannigel, K; Komar, P; Habraken, S J M; Bennett, S D; Lukin, M D; Zoller, P; Rabl, P

2012-07-01

406

Quantum Fisher Information and Phase Sensitivity in Various Initial States

I investigate the dependence of phase sensitivity on the initial input states. By adopting frozen-spin approximation, I first derive the analytical expresses of the angular momentum operators and then of quantum Fisher information, the phase sensitivity. It is shown that the initial input state with smaller value of angular momentum has the better degree of entanglement and phase sensitivity beats the Heisenberg limit.

Li, Song-Song

2014-05-01

407

Quantum Fisher Information and Phase Sensitivity in Various Initial States

I investigate the dependence of phase sensitivity on the initial input states. By adopting frozen-spin approximation, I first derive the analytical expresses of the angular momentum operators and then of quantum Fisher information, the phase sensitivity. It is shown that the initial input state with smaller value of angular momentum has the better degree of entanglement and phase sensitivity beats the Heisenberg limit.

Li, Song-Song

2014-11-01

408

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of quantum teleportation is discussed with emphasis on its physical aspects. A brief introduction into the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is followed by Bohm's reformulation of the EPR paradox for the case of a physical system of two spins in the singlet state. A description of Bell's entangled spin states of two-particle systems of standard fermions as well as polarized photons is also given. In view of the fact that quantum teleportation has been realized experimentally mainly on photons, the next part of the paper is devoted to problems of generation and detection of two-photon Bell's entangled states. A detailed description of the process of quantum teleportation exploiting quantum entangled states follows. A classical formulation of the EPR paradox is given in the Appendix. (Z.J.)

409

Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to demonstrate a new method for the experimental discrimination of different multi-partite entangled states. The new tool presented here is based on operators which are formed by the correlations between local measurement settings that are typical for the respective quantum state. (orig.)

Schmid, Christian I.T.

2008-05-30

410

Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to demonstrate a new method for the experimental discrimination of different multi-partite entangled states. The new tool presented here is based on operators which are formed by the correlations between local measurement settings that are typical for the respective quantum state. (orig.)

411

Concatenating dynamical decoupling with decoherence-free subspaces for quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme to implement a quantum computer subjected to decoherence and governed by an untunable qubit-qubit interaction is presented. By concatenating dynamical decoupling through bang-bang (BB) pulse with decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) encoding, we protect the quantum computer from environment-induced decoherence that results in quantum information dissipating into the environment. For the inherent qubit-qubit interaction that is untunable in the quantum system, BB control plus DFSs encoding will eliminate its undesired effect which spoils quantum information in qubits. We show how this quantum system can be used to implement universal quantum computation

412

Unbounded quantum Fisher information in two-path interferometry with finite photon number

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The minimum error of unbiased parameter estimation is quantified by the quantum Fisher information in accordance to the Cramér–Rao bound. We indicate that only superposed NOON states by simultaneous measurements can achieve the maximum quantum Fisher information with form 2> for a given photon number distribution by a POVM in linear two-path interferometer phase measurement. We present a series of specified superposed states with infinite quantum Fisher information but with finite average photon numbers. The advantage of this unbounded quantum Fisher information will be beneficial to many applications in quantum technology. (paper)

413

Quantum information transfer in the process of coupled atoms interacting with cavity fields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A interaction model of multi-photon process in the 'multi-coupled-atom-cavity' system is constructed. In terms of the cavity quantum electrodynamics, the properties of quantum information transfer in the process of coupled atoms interacting with cavity fields are studied, and the effect of the coupling between atoms on the quantum information transfer is analyzed. It is found that quantum information can be transferred back and forth or be preserved between the cavity fields and atoms in certain time period. The dipole interaction between atoms leads to the quantum entanglement information partially transferred and partially preserved. (authors)

414

Informação e teoria quântica / Information and quantum theory

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa em informação quântica sugere uma íntima conexão entre o conceito de informação e a teoria quântica, mas essa conexão envolve nuances cuja análise é o objeto deste trabalho. A sabedoria comum nesse campo divide-se em duas grandes áreas, não excludentes entre si. Há os que são movidos pela [...] possibilidade de uso da teoria quântica em um novo campo, o da computação, independentemente do esclarecimento de seus fundamentos, aqui incluído o conceito de "informação". Alguns consideram que estamos diante de um grande problema conceitual sem resposta satisfatória no momento, enquanto que outros, dentre os que reconhecem a magnitude do problema, têm proposto formulações com a pretensão de solução do problema. Este artigo tem pretensões modestas. Não pretendemos aportar novas soluções ao problema, nem apoiar uma das soluções existentes. Temos a expectativa de através da análise histórico-conceitual do problema mapear as diversas possibilidades, apontando o que nos parecem ser aspectos fortes e fracos nessas possibilidades. Abstract in english Research in quantum information suggests a close connection between information and quantum theory. The aim of this article is to analyze nuances involved in this connection. Scientists in this field are divided into two overlapping camps. Some are motivated only by the use of quantum features to im [...] prove information processing, in spite of concerns about the foundations of the quantum theory, while others recognize deep conceptual problems of this theory, and attempt to solve them. This article has modest ambitions. It aims only to chart, by way of historical and conceptual analysis, the diverse possibilities available, indicating the strengths and weaknesses of each of them.

Olival, Freire Junior; Ileana Maria, Greca.

2013-03-01

415

Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing

Distributed quantum communication and quantum computing offer many new opportunities for quantum information processing. Here networks based on highly nonlocal quantum resources with complex entanglement structures have been proposed for distributing, sharing and processing quantum information. Graph states in particular have emerged as powerful resources for such tasks using measurement-based techniques. We report an experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing, an important primitive for a quantum network. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information between four parties. In our experiment we demonstrate the integration of three distinct secret sharing protocols, which allow for security and protocol parameters not possible with any single protocol alone. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for sophisticated multi-layered protoc...

Bell, B A; Herrera-Martí, D A; Marin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G; Tame, M S

2014-01-01

416

Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing.

Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of