Optimal Encoding of Classical Information in a Quantum Medium
Elron, N; Eldar, Yonina C.; Elron, Noam
2006-01-01
We investigate optimal encoding and retrieval of digital data, when the storage/communication medium is described by quantum mechanics. We assume an m-ary alphabet with arbitrary prior distribution, and an n-dimensional quantum system. Under these constraints, we seek an encoding-retrieval setup, comprised of code-states and a quantum measurement, which maximizes the probability of correct detection. In our development, we consider two cases. In the first, the measurement is predefined and we seek the optimal code-states. In the second, optimization is performed on both the code-states and the measurement. We show that one cannot outperform `pseudo-classical transmission', in which we transmit n symbols with orthogonal code-states, and discard the remaining symbols. However, such pseudo-classical transmission is not the only optimum. We fully characterize the collection of optimal setups, and briefly discuss the links between our findings and applications such as quantum key distribution and quantum computing...
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Strong connections between quantum encodings, nonlocality, and quantum cryptography
Sikora, Jamie; Chailloux, André; Kerenidis, Iordanis
2014-02-01
Encoding information in quantum systems can offer surprising advantages but at the same time there are limitations that arise from the fact that measuring an observable may disturb the state of the quantum system. In our work, we provide an in-depth analysis of a simple question: What happens when we perform two measurements sequentially on the same quantum system? This question touches upon some fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty principle and the complementarity of quantum measurements. Our results have interesting consequences, for example, they can provide a simple proof of the optimal quantum strategy in the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game. Moreover, we show that the way information is encoded in quantum systems can provide a different perspective in understanding other fundamental aspects of quantum information, like nonlocality and quantum cryptography. We prove some strong equivalences between these notions and provide a number of applications in all areas.
The quantum capacity is properly defined without encodings
Barnum, H.; Smolin, J. A.; Terhal, B. M.
1997-01-01
We show that no source encoding is needed in the definition of the capacity of a quantum channel for carrying quantum information. This allows us to use the coherent information maximized over all sources and and block sizes, but not encodings, to bound the quantum capacity. We perform an explicit calculation of this maximum coherent information for the quantum erasure channel and apply the bound in order find the erasure channel's capacity without relying on an unproven ass...
Encoding information into precipitation structures
Martens, Kirsten; Droz, Michel; Racz, Zoltan
2008-01-01
Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A^{+} + B^{-} -> C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.
Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n2) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)
Source Coding With Encoder Side Information
Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram
2004-01-01
We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information ...
Source Coding With Encoder Side Information
Martinian, E; Zamir, R; Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram
2004-01-01
We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information studied by Wyner and Ziv, which depends on the source but does not involve the distortion measure. Furthermore, when both types of side information are present, we characterize the penalty for deviating from the configuration of encoder-only distortion side information and decoder-only signal side information, which in many cases is as good as full side information knowledge.
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information
WANG, YAZHEN
2012-01-01
Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in na...
Quantum information and computation
Bub, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics.
Quantum information to the home
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D, E-mail: paul.townsend@tyndall.ie [Photonic Systems Group, Tyndall National Institute and Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
2011-06-15
Information encoded on individual quanta will play an important role in our future lives, much as classically encoded digital information does today. Combining quantum information carried by single photons with classical signals encoded on strong laser pulses in modern fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks is a significant challenge, the solution to which will facilitate the global distribution of quantum information to the home and with it a quantum internet. In real-world networks, spontaneous Raman scattering in the optical fibre would induce crosstalk between the high-power classical channels and a single-photon quantum channel, such that the latter is unable to operate. Here, we show that the integration of quantum and classical information on an FTTH network is possible by performing quantum key distribution (QKD) on a network while simultaneously transferring realistic levels of classical data. Our novel scheme involves synchronously interleaving a channel of quantum data with the Raman scattered photons from a classical channel, exploiting the periodic minima in the instantaneous crosstalk and thereby enabling secure QKD to be performed.
Efficient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band Single Photons
Yan, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Du, Shengwang
2010-01-01
We propose an efficient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key information is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal waveform without using any passive beam splitters or optical switches. We show that, when the technique is applied to the conventional fiber-based phase-encoding BB84 and differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation efficiencies...
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port i...
Optimal Encoding Capacity of a Linear Optical Quantum Channel
Smith, Jake A; Uskov, Dmitry B.; Kaplan, Lev
2015-01-01
Here, we study the capacity of a quantum channel, assuming linear optical encoding, as a function of available photons and optical modes. First, we observe that substantial improvement is made possible by not restricting ourselves to a rail-encoded qubit basis. Then, we derive an analytic formula for general channel capacity and show that this capacity is achieved without requiring the use of entangling operations typically required for scalable universal quantum computation...
Nielsen, M. A.
2000-01-01
Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel lim...
Continuous-variable quantum information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2010-01-01
Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.
Quantum information with Rydberg atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.
2010-01-01
Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.
Information transfer and fidelity in quantum copiers
Deuar, P.; Munro, W. J.
2000-01-01
We find that very different quantum copying machines are optimal depending on the indicator used to assess their performance. Several quantum copying machine models acting on non-orthogonal input states are investigated, and assessed according to two types of criteria: Transfer of (Shannon) information encoded in the initial states to the copies, and fidelity between the copies and the initial states. Transformations which optimise information transfer for messages encoded i...
Quantal encoding of information in a retinal ganglion cell.
Freed, Michael A
2005-08-01
A retinal ganglion cell receives information about a white-noise stimulus as a flickering pattern of glutamate quanta. The ganglion cell reencodes this information as brief bursts of one to six spikes separated by quiescent periods. When the stimulus is repeated, the number of spikes in a burst is highly reproducible (variance white-noise stimulus and recording excitatory currents from a voltage-clamped, brisk-sustained ganglion cell. Quanta occurred in synchronous bursts of 3 to 65; the resulting postsynaptic currents summed to form excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The number of quanta in an EPSC was only moderately reproducible (variance = mean), quantal timing was precise to within 14 ms, and each quantum encoded 0.1-0.4 bit. In conclusion, compared to a spike, a quantum has similar temporal precision, but is less reproducible and encodes less information. Summing multiple quanta into discrete EPSCs improves the reproducibility of the overall quantal pattern and contributes to the reproducibility of the spike train. PMID:15843476
Geiger, R.; J. Lecomte; Multrus, M.; Neuendorf, M.; Spitzner, C.
2011-01-01
An audio decoder for providing a decoded audio information on the basis of an encoded audio information comprises a window-based signal transformer configured to map a time-frequency representation, which is described by the encoded audio information, to a time-domain representation. The window-based signal transformer is configured to select a window, out of a plurality of windows comprising windows of different transition slopes and windows of different transform length, on the basis of a w...
Polar codes in network quantum information theory
Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Wilde, Mark M.
2014-01-01
Polar coding is a method for communication over noisy classical channels which is provably capacity-achieving and has an efficient encoding and decoding. Recently, this method has been generalized to the realm of quantum information processing, for tasks such as classical communication, private classical communication, and quantum communication. In the present work, we apply the polar coding method to network quantum information theory, by making use of recent advances for r...
Quantum image encryption based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding
Zhou, Nan Run; Hua, Tian Xiang; Gong, Li Hua; Pei, Dong Ju; Liao, Qing Hong
2015-04-01
A quantum realization of the generalized Arnold transform is designed. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding is proposed. The pixels are scrambled by the generalized Arnold transform, and the gray-level information of images is encoded by the double random-phase operations. The keys of the encryption algorithm include the independent parameters of coefficients matrix, iterative times and classical binary sequences, and thus, the key space is extremely large. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm with good feasibility and effectiveness has lower computational complexity than its classical counterpart.
Source Coding With Distortion Side Information At The Encoder
Martinian, E; Zamir, R; Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram
2004-01-01
We consider lossy source coding when side information affecting the distortion measure may be available at the encoder, decoder, both, or neither. For example, such distortion side information can model reliabilities for noisy measurements, sensor calibration information, or perceptual effects like masking and sensitivity to context. When the distortion side information is statistically independent of the source, we show that in many cases (e.g, for additive or multiplicative distortion side information) there is no penalty for knowing the side information only at the encoder, and there is no advantage to knowing it at the decoder. Furthermore, for quadratic distortion measures scaled by the distortion side information, we evaluate the penalty for lack of encoder knowledge and show that it can be arbitrarily large. In this scenario, we also sketch transform based quantizers constructions which efficiently exploit encoder side information in the high-resolution limit.
Quantum Information An Introduction
Hayashi, Masahito
2006-01-01
Recently, quantum information theory has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields. This requires that understanding of basic results on diverse topics, and derived from different disciplinary perspectives, is required for appreciating the overall picture. Intended to merge key topics from both the information-theoretic and quantum- mechanical viewpoints, this graduate-level textbook provides a unified viewpoint of quantum information theory and lucid explanations of those basic results, so that the reader fundamentally grasps advances and challenges. For example, advanced topics in quantum communication such as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum state transmission (quantum error-correction), and quantum encryption especially benefit from this unified approach. Unlike earlier treatments, the text requires knowledge of only linear algebra, probability theory, and quantum mechanics, while it treats the topics of quantum hypothesis testing and the discrimination of q...
Hiding Quantum Information in the Perfect Code
Shaw, Bilal A
2010-01-01
We present and analyze a protocol for quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) encodes her steganographic information into the error syndromes of the perfect (five-qubit) quantum error-correcting code, and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a depolarizing channel. Alice and Bob share a classical secret key, and hide quantum information in such a way that to an eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the secret key, the quantum message looks like an innocent codeword with a typical sequence of quantum errors. We calculate the average rate of key consumption, and show how the protocol improves in performance as information is spread over multiple codeword blocks. Alice and Bob utilize different encodings to optimize the average number of steganographic bits that they can send to each other while matching the error statistics of the depolarizing channel.
Quantum Key Distribution Scheme Based on Dense Encoding in Entangled States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantum key distribution protocol, based on the quantum dense encoding in entangled states, is presented. In this protocol, we introduce an encoding process to encode two classical bits information into one of the four one-qubit unitary operations implemented by Alice and the Bell states measurement implemented by Bob in stead of direct measuring the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs by both of the distant parties, Alice and Bob. Considering the practical application we can get the conclusion that our protocol has some advantages. It not only simplifies the measurement which may induce potential errors, but also improves the effectively transmitted rate of the generated qubits by the raw key. Here we also discuss eavesdropping attacks against the scheme and the channel loss.
Photonic Quantum Information Processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Quantum encodings in spin systems and harmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that higher-dimensional versions of qubits, or qudits, can be encoded into spin systems and into harmonic oscillators, yielding important advantages for quantum computation. Whereas qubit-based quantum computation is adequate for analyses of quantum vs classical computation, in practice qubits are often realized in higher-dimensional systems by truncating all but two levels, thereby reducing the size of the precious Hilbert space. We develop natural qudit gates for universal quantum computation, and exploit the entire accessible Hilbert space. Mathematically, we give representations of the generalized Pauli group for qudits in coupled spin systems and harmonic oscillators, and include analyses of the qubit and the infinite-dimensional limits
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Quantum catalysis of information
Azuma, Koji; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2008-03-01
In quantum information science, it has been long believed that no one can access quantum information in a system without disturbing it. In fact, the belief has been corroborated by several no-go theorems such as the no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem. Here, however, we show that the belief is incorrect, by exhibiting a novel process, `quantum catalysis of information', in which, without receiving any disturbance, a system certainly exchanges a type of information that cannot be transmitted without quantum communication channel.
Introduction to quantum information science
Hayashi, Masahito; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro
2015-01-01
This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleport...
Quantum information and communication
Bennett, Charles
2006-01-01
Quantum Information, Computation and Complexity * Programme at the Institut Henri Poincaré, January 4th – April 7th, 2006 * Organizers: Ph.Grangier, M.Santha and D.L.Shepelyansky * Lectures have been filmed by Peter Rapcan and Michal Sedlak from Bratislava with the support of the Marie Curie RTN "CONQUEST" A trimester at the Centre Emile Borel - Institut Henri Poincaré is devoted to modern developments in a rapidly growing field of quantum information and communication, quantum computers and ...
Isotope - based Quantum Information
Plekhanov, Vladimir G.
2009-01-01
This paper is brief review of three aspects of the isotope - based quantum information: computation, teleportation and cryptography. Our results demonstrate not only that entanglement exists in elementary excitation of isotope - mixed solids but also it can be used for quantum information processing.
Minimal memory requirements for pearl necklace encoders of quantum convolutional codes
Houshmand, Monireh; Wilde, Mark M
2010-01-01
One of the major goals in quantum computer science is to reduce the overhead associated with the implementation of quantum computers, and inevitably, routines for quantum error correction will account for most of this overhead. A particular technique for quantum error correction that may be useful in the outer layers of a concatenated scheme for fault tolerance is quantum convolutional coding. The encoder for a quantum convolutional code has a representation as a convolutional encoder or as a "pearl necklace" encoder. In the pearl necklace representation, it has not been particularly clear in the research literature how much quantum memory such an encoder would require for implementation. Here, we offer an algorithm that answers this question. The algorithm first constructs a weighted, directed acyclic graph where each vertex of the graph corresponds to a gate string in the pearl necklace encoder, and each path through the graph represents a non-commutative path through gates in the encoder. We show that the ...
On the Automation of Encoding Processes in the Quantum IO Monad
James Barratt
2012-01-01
It is now clear that the use of resilient encoding schemes will be required for any quantum computing device to be realised. However, quantum programmers of the future will not wish to be tied up in the particulars of such encoding schemes. Quantum programming languages and libraries are already being developed, one of which is the Quantum IO Monad. QIO, as it is often abbreviated to, provides an interface to define and simulate quantum computations via a library of function...
Efficient use of phase information in audio encoding and decoding
Hilpert, J.; Grill, B; Neusinger, M.; Robilliard, J.; Luis-Valero, M.
2010-01-01
An efficient encoded representation of a first and a second input audio signal can be derived using correlation information indicating a correlation between the first and the second input audio signals, when a signal characterization information, indicating at least a first or a second, different characteristic of the input audio signal is additionally considered. Phase information indicating a phase relation between the first and the second input audio signals is derived, when the input audi...
Ke, Hanping; Cai, Honghao; Lin, Yanqin; Lin, Liangjie; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2015-02-01
A scheme based on Hadamard encoding and intermolecular double-quantum coherences is designed to obtain localized one-dimensional high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields. Brief theoretical derivation was performed to illuminate its principle. Experiments were carried out on phantom solution and biological tissues to verify its effectiveness in yielding useful spectral information and efficiency in suppressing solvent signal even when the field inhomogeneity is sufficiently severe to erase almost all spectral information. This sequence may provide a promising way for analyzing heterogeneous biological tissues and chemical systems.
Relativistic quantum information
Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.
2012-11-01
Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from special relativity, quantum optics, general relativity, quantum communication and quantum computation. The high level of current interest in these subjects is exemplified by the recent award of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics to Serge Haroche and David J Wineland for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. It is our hope that this issue will encourage new researchers to enter this rapidly developing and exciting new field. R B Mann and T C RalphGuest Editors
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.
Introduction to quantum information science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.
Accessible Information and Quantum operations
Cai, Qing-Yu
2003-01-01
The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.
Yepez, Jeffrey
Presented is a study of quantum entanglement from the perspective of the theory of quantum information dynamics. We consider pairwise entanglement and present an analytical development using joint ladder operators, the sum of two single-particle fermionic ladder operators. This approach allows us to write down analytical representations of quantum algorithms and to explore quantum entanglement as it is manifested in a system of qubits. We present a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a super-braid. The crossing of world lines may be either classical or quantum mechanical in nature, and in the latter case most conveniently expressed with our analytical expressions for entangling quantum gates. At a quantum mechanical crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. We present quantum skein relations that allow complicated superbraids to be recursively reduced to alternate classical histories. If the superbraid is closed, then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Also, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example the Jones polynomial for the square root of a knot. We present measurement-based quantum computing based on our joint number operators. We take expectation values of the joint number operators to determine kinetic-level variables describing the quantum information dynamics in the qubit system at the mesoscopic scale. We explore the issue of reversibility in quantum maps at this scale using a quantum Boltzmann equation. We then present an example of quantum information processing using a qubit system comprised of nuclear spins. We also discuss quantum propositions cast in terms of joint number operators. We review the well known dynamical equations governing superfluidity, with a focus on self-consistent dynamics supporting quantum vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Furthermore, we review the mutual vortex-vortex interaction and the consequent Kelvin wave instability. We derive an effective equation of motion for a Fermi condensate that is the basis of our qubit representation of superfluidity. We then present our quantum lattice gas representation of a superfluid. We explore aspects of our model with two qubits per point, referred to as a Q2 model, particularly its usefulness for carrying out practical quantum fluid simulations. We find that it is perhaps the simplest yet most comprehensive model of superfluid dynamics. As a prime application of Q2, we explore the power-law regions in the energy spectrum of a condensate in the low-temperature limit. We achieved the largest quantum simulations to date of a BEC and, for the first time, Kolmogorov scaling in superfluids, a flow regime heretofore only obtainably by classical turbulence models. Finally, we address the subject of turbulence regarding information conservation on the small scales (both mesoscopic and microscopic) underlying the flow dynamics on the large hydrodynamic (macroscopic) scale. We present a hydrodynamic-level momentum equation, in the form of a Navier-Stokes equation, as the basis for the energy spectrum of quantum turbulence at large scales. Quantum turbulence, in particular the representation of fluid eddies in terms of a coherent structure of polarized quantum vortices, offers a unique window into the heretofore intractable subject of energy cascades.
Quantum dot-encoded beads for ultrasensitive detection.
Guo, Xia; Peng, JunJun; Yang, Jian; Peng, Feng; Yu, Hao; Wang, Hongjuan
2009-01-01
Quantum dot-encoded beads as a new type of fluorescent labels exhibit significant advantages over common organic dyes, such as narrow, strong and tunable emissions, excellent photo stability, good versatility in structure and component, and simplicity for excitation of multiple nanocrystals. These features lead to the great potential of the beads in the fields of ultrasensitive detections, clinical diagnostics, as well as molecular imaging. This report will briefly review the fabrication and optical properties of the beads based on recent papers and patents. The applications of the beads in ultrasensitive detections are also discussed. The systematic introduction from basic studies to practical applications would give us a comprehensive and clear view about this field, disclose the current challenges, and promote their future developments. PMID:19958284
Clarke, Patrick J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S
2013-01-01
Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called "one-way" mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. The system is based on the interference of phase encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilises polarisation maintaining optical fibre and photon...
Introduction to Quantum Information Processing
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Barnum, H.; Dalvit, D.; Dziarmaga, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gurvits, L.; Ortiz, G.; Viola, L.; Zurek, W. H.
2002-01-01
As a result of the capabilities of quantum information, the science of quantum information processing is now a prospering, interdisciplinary field focused on better understanding the possibilities and limitations of the underlying theory, on developing new applications of quantum information and on physically realizing controllable quantum devices. The purpose of this primer is to provide an elementary introduction to quantum information processing, and then to briefly expla...
Quantum information with quantum shutters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: It is possible to have universal quantum logic using using only linear optics and a quantum shutter device. With these elements a quantum memory for any number of qubits, as well as a deterministic CNOT gate, can be designed. We will revise the properties that such a quantum shutter system must have. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While closed-loop control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be broadly successful, the control mechanisms induced by the fields are often left obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) was originally introduced as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics in the context of computational simulations, based on access to the system wavefunction. As a step towards laboratory implementation of HE, this paper addresses the issues raised by the use of observables rather than the wavefunction in HE. The goal of laboratory based HE is to obtain an understanding of control mechanism through a sequence of systematic control experiments, whose collective information can identify the underlying control mechanism defined as the set of significant amplitudes connecting the initial and final states. Mechanism is determined by means of observing the dynamics of special sequences of system Hamiltonians encoded through the control field. The proposed algorithm can handle complex systems, operates with no recourse to dynamical simulations, and functions with limited understanding of the system Hamiltonian. As with the closed-loop control experiments, the HE control mechanism identification algorithm performs a new experiment each time the dynamical outcome from an encoded Hamiltonian is called for. This paper presents the basic HE algorithm in the context of physical systems described by a finite dimensional Hilbert space. The method is simulated with simple moce. The method is simulated with simple models, and the extension to more complex systems is discussed
On the Automation of Encoding Processes in the Quantum IO Monad
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Barratt
2012-10-01
Full Text Available It is now clear that the use of resilient encoding schemes will be required for any quantum computing device to be realised. However, quantum programmers of the future will not wish to be tied up in the particulars of such encoding schemes. Quantum programming languages and libraries are already being developed, one of which is the Quantum IO Monad. QIO, as it is often abbreviated to, provides an interface to define and simulate quantum computations via a library of functions written in Haskell, a purely functional programming language. A solution is presented that takes an arbitrary QIO program and returns an equivalent program incorporating some specified quantum error correction techniques.
Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes
Houshmand, Monireh
2010-01-01
Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a "pearl-necklace encoder." Despite their theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, they are not well-suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm for finding a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work extends our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encod...
Error correction code for protecting three-qubit quantum information against erasures
Yang, Chui-ping; Chu, Shih-i; Han, Siyuan
2001-01-01
We present a quantum error correction code which protects three quantum bits (qubits) of quantum information against one erasure, i.e., a single-qubit arbitrary error at a known position. To accomplish this, we encode the original state by distributing quantum information over six qubits which is the minimal number for the present task (see reference [1]). The encoding and error recovery operations for such a code are presented. It is noted that the present code is also a th...
Realizing controllable noise in photonic quantum information channels
Shaham, A
2010-01-01
Controlling the depolarization of light is a long-standing open problem. In recent years, many demonstrations have used the polarization of single photons to encode quantum information. The depolarization of these photons is equivalent to the decoherence of the quantum information they encode. We present schemes for building various depolarizing channels with controlled properties using birefringent crystals. Three such schemes are demonstrated and their effects on single photons are shown by quantum process tomography to be in good agreement with a theoretical model.
Variability in the encoding of spatial information by dancing bees.
De Marco, Rodrigo J; Gurevitz, Juan M; Menzel, Randolf
2008-05-01
A honeybee's waggle dance is an intriguing example of multisensory convergence, central processing and symbolic information transfer. It conveys to bees and human observers the position of a relatively small area at the endpoint of an average vector in a two-dimensional system of coordinates. This vector is often computed from a collection of waggle phases from the same or different dancers. The question remains, however, of how informative a small sample of waggle phases can be to the bees, and how the spatial information encoded in the dance is actually mapped to the followers' searches in the field. Certainly, it is the variability of a dancer's performance that initially defines the level of uncertainty that followers must cope with if they were to successfully decode information in the dance. Understanding how a dancer's behaviour is mapped to that of its followers initially relies on the analysis of both the accuracy and precision with which the dancer encodes spatial information in the dance. Here we describe within-individual variations in the encoding of the distance to and direction of a goal. We show that variations in the number of a dancer's wagging movements, a measure that correlates well with the distance to the goal, do not depend upon the dancer's travelled distance, meaning that there is a constant variance of wagging movements around the mean. We also show that the duration of the waggle phases and the angular dispersion and divergence of successive waggle phases co-vary with a dancer's orientation in space. Finally, using data from dances recorded through high-speed video techniques, we present the first analysis of the accuracy and precision with which an increasing number of waggle phases conveys spatial information to a human observer. PMID:18456891
Quantum information and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2010-04-12
The Bell states preparation circuit is a basic circuit required in quantum teleportation. We describe how to implement it in all-fiber technology. The basic building blocks for its implementation are directional couplers and highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF). Because the quantum information processing is based on delicate superposition states, it is sensitive to quantum errors. In order to enable fault-tolerant quantum computing the use of quantum error correction is unavoidable. We show how to implement in all-fiber technology encoders and decoders for sparse-graph quantum codes, and provide an illustrative example to demonstrate this implementation. We also show that arbitrary set of universal quantum gates can be implemented based on directional couplers and HNLFs. PMID:20588656
A simple encoding of a quantum circuit amplitude as a matrix permanent
Rudolph, Terry
2009-01-01
A simple construction is presented which allows computing the transition amplitude of a quantum circuit to be encoded as computing the permanent of a matrix which is of size proportional to the number of quantum gates in the circuit. This opens up some interesting classical monte-carlo algorithms for approximating quantum circuits.
Examples of minimal-memory, non-catastrophic quantum convolutional encoders
Wilde, Mark M; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied
2010-01-01
One of the most important open questions in the theory of quantum convolutional coding is to determine a minimal-memory, non-catastrophic, polynomial-depth convolutional encoder for an arbitrary quantum convolutional code. Here, we present a technique that finds quantum convolutional encoders with such desirable properties for several example quantum convolutional codes (an exposition of our technique in full generality will appear elsewhere). We first show how to encode the well-studied Forney-Grassl-Guha (FGG) code with an encoder that exploits just one memory qubit (the former Grassl-Roetteler encoder requires 15 memory qubits). We then show how our technique can find an online decoder corresponding to this encoder, and we also detail the operation of our technique on a different example of a quantum convolutional code. Finally, the reduction in memory for the FGG encoder makes it feasible to simulate the performance of a quantum turbo code employing it, and we present the results of such simulations.
Quantum Information Theory - an Invitation
Werner, R. F.
2001-01-01
We give a non-technical introduction of the basic concepts of Quantum Information Theory along the distinction between possible and impossible machines. We then proceed to describe the mathematical framework of Quantum Information Theory. The capacities of a quantum channel for classical and for quantum information are defined in a unified scheme, and a mathematical characterization of all teleportation and dense coding schemes is given.
Quantum Information and Relativity Theory
Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.
2002-01-01
Quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory are the basic foundations of theoretical physics. The acquisition of information from a quantum system is the interface of classical and quantum physics. Essential tools for its description are Kraus matrices and positive operator valued measures (POVMs). Special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems. Quantum entropy is not a Lorentz covariant concept. Lorentz...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.R.Sumathi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Transmission of information in the form of qubits much faster than the speed of light is the important aspects of quantum information theory. Quantum information processing exploits the quantum nature of information that needs to be stored, encoded, transmit, receive and decode the information in the form of qubits. Bosonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. This paper does the study of quantum channels and how best it can be implemented with the existing infrastructure that is the classical communication. Multiple access to the quantum network is the requirement where multiple users want to transmit their quantum information simultaneously without interfering with each others.
Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Information
Goldstein, Sheldon
2009-01-01
Many recent results suggest that quantum theory is about information, and that quantum theory is best understood as arising from principles concerning information and information processing. At the same time, by far the simplest version of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, is concerned, not with information but with the behavior of an objective microscopic reality given by particles and their positions. What I would like to do here is to examine whether, and to what exte...
Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory neededual to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.
Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent
2007-01-01
We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use the generation of spatial squeezing light in higher order transverse Hermite-Gauss modes as a demonstration of the quality of our scheme. The squeezing in selective modes is achieved by fine tuning of the phase matching condition of the nonlinear (2) material and the cavity resonance condition of the optical parametric amplifier. By combining these modes we can now build a practical multi-mode optical quantum information system.
Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing
Reina-Estupinan, J H
2002-01-01
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...
Recoverability in quantum information theory
Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information...
Hadamard-encoded high-resolution NMR spectroscopy via intermolecular single-quantum coherences
Ke, Hanping; Cai, Honghao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong
2014-11-01
NMR spectroscopy plays an important role in metabolite studies because it can provide atomic level information critical for understanding biological systems. Nevertheless, NMR investigations on biological tissues are hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneities originating from variations in macroscopic magnetic susceptibility, which lead to broad spectral lines and subsequently obscure metabolite signals. A new pulse sequence based on intermolecular single-quantum coherences was proposed to obtain one-dimensional high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields via Hadamard encoding. The new method can provide resolution-improved spectra directly through one-dimensional acquisition within a relatively short acquisition time. Theoretical derivation was performed and the conclusion was tested by solution samples in purposely de-shimmed magnetic fields and pig brain tissue sample. The experimental results show that this sequence can yield useful structural information, even when the field inhomogeneity is sufficiently severe to erase almost all spectral information with conventional one-dimensional single-quantum coherence techniques. Moreover, good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved by this sequence. This sequence may provide a promising way for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissue.
Quantum mechanics is about quantum information
Bub, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
I argue that quantum mechanics is fundamentally a theory about the representation and manipulation of information, not a theory about the mechanics of nonclassical waves or particles. The notion of quantum information is to be understood as a new physical primitive -- just as, following Einstein's special theory of relativity, a field is no longer regarded as the physical manifestation of vibrations in a mechanical medium, but recognized as a new physical primitive in its ow...
Quantum Encoder and Decoder for Secret Key Distribution with Check Bits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Godhavari
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to develop a novel method of encoding the qubits and use as secret key in public key cryptography. In BB 84 protocol, 50% of the random number (generated at source is used as secret key and the remaining bits are used as “check bits”. The check bits are used to detect the presence of eve as well as the nature of quantum channels. In this protocol, random qubits are encoded using different type of polarizations like horizontal, veritical and diagonal. In the proposed quantum encoder, basic quantum gates are used to encode the random secret key along with the check bits. Quantum key distribution, (a cryptographic mechanism relies on the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics and serves as an option to replace techniques made vulnerable by quantum computing. However, it is still subject to clever forms of eavesdropping and poses a significant challenge to implementation. To study the challenges, quantum circuits are first simulated using QCAD.
Quantum information as complementary classical information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the breakthrough by Calderbank, Shor, and Steane on the existence of quantum error-correcting codes, an oft-used notion in quantum information theory is that we can treat quantum information essentially as a strange combination of two types of classical information, pertaining to two complementary observables ''amplitude'' and ''phase''. Correcting errors afflicting either of these observables is sufficient to restore the quantum information to its original state. However, the central results of quantum information theory established recently, such as the achievable rate of quantum communication over a noisy channel, follow a different approach termed decoupling which has a natural origin in the study of quantum cryptography. We show that the decoupling-based results can be concretely established in the complementary classical information picture. By adopting an information-theoretic approach to complementarity, we are able to construct entanglement distillation protocols which straightforwardly seek to distill amplitude and phase correlations without venturing into decoupling. This gives new and intuitive proofs of both the noisy channel coding theorem and the asymptotic rates of both secret-key distillation and state merging
Foundations of quantum theory and quantum information applications
Galvao, Ernesto F.
2002-01-01
This thesis establishes a number of connections between foundational issues in quantum theory, and some quantum information applications. It starts with a review of quantum contextuality and non-locality, multipartite entanglement characterisation, and of a few quantum information protocols. Quantum non-locality and contextuality are shown to be essential for different implementations of quantum information protocols known as quantum random access codes and quantum communi...
Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
2009-01-01
In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned an...
Quantum information of cosmological correlations
Lim, Eugene A.
2015-04-01
It has been shown that the primordial perturbations sourced by inflation are driven to classicality by unitary evolution alone. However, their coupling with the environment such as photons and subsequent decoherence renders the cosmological correlations quantum, losing primordial information in the process. We argue that the quantumness of the resulting cosmological correlations is given by quantum discord, which captures nonclassical behavior beyond quantum entanglement. By considering the environment as a quantum channel in which primordial information contained in the perturbations is transmitted to us, we can then ask how much of this information is inaccessible. We show that this amount of information is given by the discord of the joint primordial perturbations-environment system. To illustrate these points, we model the joint system as a mixed bimodal Gaussian state, and show that quantum discord is dependent on the basis which decoherence occurs.
Spin-based quantum-information processing with semiconductor quantum dots and cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantum-information-processing scheme is proposed with semiconductor quantum dots located in a high-Q single-mode QED cavity. The spin degrees of freedom of one excess conduction electron of the quantum dots are employed as qubits. Excitonic states, which can be produced ultrafast with optical operation, are used as auxiliary states in the realization of quantum gates. We show how properly tailored ultrafast laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effects can be used to achieve a universal encoded quantum computing
Quantum-enhanced information processing
Mosca, M.; Jozsa, R.; Steane, A.; Ekert, A.
2000-01-01
Information is stored, transmitted and processed always by physical means. Thus the concept of information and computation can be properly formulated only in the context of a physical theory and the study of information processing requires experimentation. It is clear that if computers are to become much smaller in the future, their description must be given by quantum mechanics. Somewhat more surprising is the fact that quantum information processing can be qualitatively different and much m...
Informational derivation of Quantum Theory
Chiribella, G.; D Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum theory can be derived from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms-causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning-define a broad class of theories of information-processing that can be regarded as a standard. One postulate-purification-singles out quantum theory within this class. The main structures of quantum theory, such as the representation of mixed states as convex combinations of perfec...
Decoding of quantum dots encoded microbeads using a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging method.
Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; Zhu, Liang; Ma, Hui
2015-05-19
We presented a decoding method of quantum dots encoded microbeads with its fluorescence spectra using line scan hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HFI) method. A HFI method was developed to attain both the spectra of fluorescence signal and the spatial information of the encoded microbeads. A decoding scheme was adopted to decode the spectra of multicolor microbeads acquired by the HFI system. Comparison experiments between the HFI system and the flow cytometer were conducted. The results showed that the HFI system has higher spectrum resolution; thus, more channels in spectral dimension can be used. The HFI system detection and decoding experiment with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) immobilized multicolor beads was done, and the result showed the efficiency of the HFI system. Surface modification of the microbeads by use of the polydopamine was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and ssDNA immobilization was characterized by the laser confocal microscope. These results indicate that the designed HFI system can be applied to practical biological and medical applications. PMID:25902043
Information propagation in a quantum system: examples of open spin-1/2 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If information is encoded into the state of the subsystem S of a quantum system initially (at t = 0), then it becomes distributed over the whole quantum system at t > 0 due to quantum interactions. Consequently, this information, in general, can be extracted, either completely or partially, from any subsystem of a quantum system. We suggest a method of extraction of information, which is based on the polarization measurements on the receiver R. (paper)
Quantum Dot Cluster State Computing with Encoded Qubits
Weinstein, Yu S; Levy, J; Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Levy, Jeremy
2005-01-01
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to the supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon, Brown, and Whaley [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 87}, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors, and present means of error protection.
Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection
Quantum information theory and quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. Wetars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his 'ur' hypothesis.
Nanoelectronics for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: New paradigms for information processing that take advantage of quantum coherence appear capable of providing highly efficient computation and secure communication. However, the requirements for building such systems pose considerable challenges for all of the approaches currently being considered. In this talk, we address the prospects for using electron spin as a holder of quantum information, focusing on two realizations: few electron quantum dots fabricated in GaAs, and gate-defined quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. Recent experimental results, as well as what they suggest about the feasibility of this approach, will be discussed. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics
Classicality of quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP
Physics as quantum information processing
D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2010-01-01
The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm---"It from Bit'---prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Q...
Decoherence-Free Quantum Information Processing with Four-Photon Entangled States
Bourennane, Mohamed; Eibl, Manfred; Gaertner, Sascha; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adan; Weinfurter, Harald
2003-01-01
Decoherence-free states protect quantum information from collective noise, the predominant cause of decoherence in current implementations of quantum communication and computation. Here we demonstrate that spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be used to generate four-photon states which enable the encoding of one qubit in a decoherence-free subspace. The immunity against noise is verified by quantum state tomography of the encoded qubit. We show that particular states ...
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Goto, Hayato
2014-01-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
Goto, Hayato
2014-12-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2011-01-01
Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantum-digitalization" of physics, with Quantum Theory as a special theory of information, and Physics as emergent from the same quantum-information processing. A QCA-based QFT has tremendous potential advantages compared to QFT, being quantum "ab-initio" and free from the problems plaguing QFT due to the continuum hypothesis. Here I will show how dynamics emerges from the quantum processing, how the QCA can reproduce the Dirac-field phenomenology at large scales, and the kind of departures from QFT that that should be expected at a Planck-scal...
Certainty and Uncertainty in Quantum Information Processing
Rieffel, Eleanor G.
2007-01-01
This survey, aimed at information processing researchers, highlights intriguing but lesser known results, corrects misconceptions, and suggests research areas. Themes include: certainty in quantum algorithms; the "fewer worlds" theory of quantum mechanics; quantum learning; probability theory versus quantum mechanics.
Quantum key distribution based on phase encoding in long-distance communication fiber.
Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Han, Jia-Jia; Liang, Lin-Mei; Li, Cheng-Zu
2010-04-15
A robust two-way quantum key distribution system based on phase encoding is demonstrated in 50 km and 100 km commercial communication fiber. The system can automatically compensate for birefringence effects and remain stable over 23 h. A low quantum bit error rate and high visibility are obtained. Furthermore, the storage fiber is unnecessary and train of pulses is only needed in the test with 100 km fiber. PMID:20410967
Manipulating quantum information via quantum cloning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An extensive characterization of the information flux underlying the 1 ?2 universal cloning process is presented together with the realization of several cloning and measurement tasks. The restoration of both the quantum and classical information associated to the input qubit was theoretically analysed and experimentally accomplished. At the same time the extension of the 1 ?2 cloning to the 1 ?3 universal and covariant processes is reported with the first experimental optical realizations
Quantum information and convex optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimpell, Michael
2008-07-01
This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)
Quantum information and convex optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)
Quantum information and computing
Ohya, M; Watanabe, N
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)
2004-04-09
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his
Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems
Nielsen, Michael A.
2002-01-01
What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This...
Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology
Vlasov, Alexander Yu
2009-01-01
In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned and they may be related with so-called fourth generation of nanotechnology products.
Isotope-based quantum information
G Plekhanov, Vladimir
2012-01-01
The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Photonic entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check encoders and decoders.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2010-05-01
I propose encoder and decoder architectures for entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes suitable for all-optical implementation. I show that two basic gates needed for EA quantum error correction, namely, controlled-NOT (CNOT) and Hadamard gates can be implemented based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition, I show that EA quantum LDPC codes from balanced incomplete block designs of unitary index require only one entanglement qubit to be shared between source and destination. PMID:20436604
Decoherence-Free Quantum Information Processing with Four-Photon Entangled States
Bourennane, M; Gaertner, S; Kurtsiefer, C; Cabello, A; Weinfurter, H; Bourennane, Mohamed; Eibl, Manfred; Gaertner, Sascha; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adan; Weinfurter, Harald
2004-01-01
Decoherence-free states protect quantum information from collective noise, the predominant cause of decoherence in current implementations of quantum communication and computation. Here we demonstrate that spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be used to generate four-photon states which enable the encoding of one qubit in a decoherence-free subspace. The immunity against noise is verified by quantum state tomography of the encoded qubit. We show that particular states of the encoded qubit can be distinguished by local measurements on the four photons only.
Information transfer through quantum channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)
Information transfer through quantum channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kretschmann, D.
2007-03-12
This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)
Quantum information and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment
The Kaspi Rate-Distortion Problem with Encoder Side-Information: Gaussian Case
Perron, Etienne; Diggavi, Suhas; Telatar, Emre
2005-01-01
We consider the problem of compressing a Gaussian source for two decoders, one of which has access to side-information. Kaspi has solved this problem for discrete memoryless sources for the two cases with and without encoder side-information. We focus on the case in which the encoder has access to side-information and we explicitly solve the optimization problem for Gaussian sources and squared error distortion measures. The achievability part of the proof provides an intuitive insight based ...
Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean
2008-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…
Contract Signature Using Quantum Information
De Sousa, P B M; Ramos, Rubens Viana; Sousa, Paulo Benicio Melo de
2006-01-01
This paper describes how to perform contract signature in a fair way using quantum information. The protocol proposed permits two partners, users of a communication network, to exchange their signatures with non-repudiation. For this, we assume that there is a trustable arbitrator, responsible for the authentication of the signers and that performs a central task in a quantum teleportation protocol of the XOR function between two classical bits.
Quantum Tomograms and Their Application in Quantum Information Science
Fedorov, Aleksey K.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.
2013-02-01
This note is devoted to quantum tomograms application in quantum information science. Representation for quantum tomograms of continuous variables via Feynman path integrals is considered. Due to this construction quantum tomograms of harmonic oscillator are obtained. Application tomograms in causal analysis of quantum states is presented. Two qubit maximum entangled and "quantum-classical" states have been analyzed by tomographic causal analysis of quantum states.
Quantum information processing and measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Helmer, Ferdinand
2009-01-01
In this thesis, experimentally relevant aspects and open questions of quantum information processing and measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been investigated theoretically. Circuit quantum electrodynamics is a relatively young field combining superconducting transmission line resonators on-chip with superconducting quantum bits which serve as artificial atoms. Remarkable experiments have underlined the prospects of circuit QED as a possible architecture for quantum informatio...
The operational meaning of quantum conditional information
Devetak, Igor; Yard, Jon
2006-01-01
With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three sy...
Information in Quantum Description and Gate Implementation
Krishnan, Gayathre
2006-01-01
This note considers Kak's observer-reference model of quantum information, where it is shown that qubits carry information that is sqrt n / ln n times classical information, where n is the number of components in the measurement system, to analyze information processing in quantum gates. The obverse side of this exponential nature of quantum information is that the computational complexity of implementing unconditionally reliable quantum gates is also exponential.
Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems
Nielsen, M A
2003-01-01
What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that ...
Fractal states in quantum information processing
Jaeger, Gregg
2007-01-01
The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.
Generalized spin bases for quantum chemistry and quantum information
Kibler, M.
2008-01-01
Symmetry adapted bases in quantum chemistry and bases adapted to quantum information share a common characteristics: both of them are constructed from subspaces of the representation space of the group SO(3) or its double group (i.e., spinor group) SU(2). We exploit this fact for generating spin bases of relevance for quantum systems with cyclic symmetry and equally well for quantum information and quantum computation. Our approach is based on the use of generalized Pauli ma...
Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Yuyong; Chang, Yue; Chai, Yaqin; Wang, Joseph; Yuan, Ruo
2010-01-01
Reproducible electrochemically encoded quantum dot (QD) barcodes were prepared by using the reverse-micelle synthetic approach. The encoding elements, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ were confined within a single QD, which eliminates the cumbersome encapsulation process used by other common nanoparticle-based barcode preparation schemes. The distinct voltammetric stripping patterns of Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ at distinguishable potentials with controllable current intensities offer excellent encoding capability for...
Quantum Information Science Workshop: Proceedings
Proceedings from an October 28-29, 1999 workshop in Arlington, Virginia on the emerging field of Quantum Information Science are now online at this National Science Foundation page. The workshop proceedings include text and color figures and provide a substantial overview of the emerging field of "interdisciplinary research and education in science and engineering."
Quantum information: Are we nearly there yet?
V. Vedral
2013-01-01
Living systems might be employing quantum information processing. If we can learn their secrets, personal quantum computers no longer seem so fanciful an idea. © 2013 Reed Business Information Ltd, England.
Channel simulation with quantum side information
Luo, Z; Devetak, Igor; Luo, Zhicheng
2006-01-01
We study and solve the problem of classical channel simulation with quantum side information at the receiver. This is a generalization of both the classical reverse Shannon theorem, and the classical-quantum Slepian-Wolf problem. The optimal noiseless communication rate is found to be reduced from the mutual information between the channel input and output by the Holevo information between the channel output and the quantum side information. Our main theorem has two important corollaries. The first is a quantum generalization of the Wyner-Ziv problem: rate-distortion theory with quantum side information. The second is an alternative proof of the trade-off between classical communication and common randomness distilled from a quantum state. The fully quantum generalization of the problem considered is quantum state redistribution. Here the sender and receiver share a mixed quantum state and the sender wants to transfer part of her state to the receiver using entanglement and quantum communication. We present o...
Practicality of quantum information processing
Lau, Hoi-Kwan
Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I proposed a new method to re-cool ion qubits during quantum computation. The idea is to transfer the motional excitation of a qubit to another ion that is prepared in the motional ground state. I showed that my method could be ten times faster than current laser cooling techniques, and thus could improve the speed of ion trap quantum computation.
Representation of Quantum Field Theory by Elementary Quantum Information
Kober, Martin
2011-01-01
In this paper is considered relativistic quantum field theory expressed by elementary units of quantum information as they are considered as fundamental entity of nature by Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker. Through quantization of a Weyl spinor describing an elementary unit of quantum information and consisting of four real components one obtains four pairs of creation and annihilation operators acting in a tensor space of states containing many units of quantum information. T...
Information and Computation: Classical and Quantum Aspects
Galindo, A.; Martin-delgado, M. A.
2001-01-01
Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportat...
Information and Computation Classical and Quantum Aspects
Galindo, A
2002-01-01
Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportation, dense coding, and quantum cryptography are discussed as a few samples of the impact of quanta in the transmission of information. Quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms are also discussed as instances of the improvement in information processing by a quantum computer. We provide finally some examples of current experimental realizations for quantum computers and future prospects.
The Kaspi Rate-Distortion Problem with Encoder Side-Information: Binary Erasure Case
Perron, Etienne; Diggavi, Suhas; Telatar, Emre
2006-01-01
We consider the problem of compressing a binary symmetric i.i.d. source stream for two decoders, one of which has access to side-information. Kaspi found the rate-distortion tradeoff for this problem for general discrete memoryless sources for the two cases with and without encoder side-information. We focus on the case in which the encoder has access to side-information. We assume that the source has a symmetric Bernoulli distribution and that the side-information is the output of an erasure...
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach
Djordjevic, Ivan
2012-01-01
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.
A flow cytometric assay technology based on quantum dots-encoded beads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A flow cytometric detecting technology based on quantum dots (QDs)-encoded beads has been described. Using this technology, several QDs-encoded beads with different code were identified effectively, and the target molecule (DNA sequence) in solution was also detected accurately by coupling to its complementary sequence probed on QDs-encoded beads through DNA hybridization assay. The resolution of this technology for encoded beads is resulted from two longer wavelength fluorescence identification signals (yellow and red fluorescent signals of QDs), and the third shorter wavelength fluorescence signal (green reporting signal of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)) for the determination of reaction between probe and target. In experiment, because of QDs' unique optical character, only one excitation light source was needed to excite the QDs and probe dye FITC synchronously comparing with other flow cytometric assay technology. The results show that this technology has present excellent repeatability and good accuracy. It will become a promising multiple assay platform in various application fields after further improvement
Quantum entanglement as information theoretic resource
Dugic, M.
2004-01-01
We address the following criterion for quantifying the quantum information resources: classically simulable {\\it vs.} classically non-simulable information processing. This approach gives rise to existence of a deeper level of quantum information processing--which we refer to as "quantum communication channel". We particularly show, that following the recipes of the standard theory of entanglement measures does not necessarily give rise to un-locking the quantum communicatio...
Quantum Information in Space and Time
Volovich, Igor V.
2001-01-01
Many important results in modern quantum information theory have been obtained for an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as the notions of composite systems, entangled states and the channel should be formulated in space and time. We emphasize the importance of the inv...
Ortony, Andrew; Radin, Dean I.
The product of researchers' efforts to develop a computer processor which distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant information in the database, Spreading Activation Processor for Information Encoded in Network Structures (SAPIENS) exhibits (1) context sensitivity, (2) efficiency, (3) decreasing activation over time, (4) summation of…
Relativistic quantum information theory and quantum reference frames
Palmer, Matthew C.
2013-01-01
This thesis is a compilation of research in relativistic quantum information theory, and research in quantum reference frames. The research in the former category provides a fundamental construction of quantum information theory of localised qubits in curved spacetimes. For example, this concerns quantum experiments on free-space photons and electrons in the vicinity of the Earth. From field theory a description of localised qubits that traverse classical trajectories in cur...
Fundamentals of Quantum Information Theory
Keyl, M.
2002-01-01
In this paper we give a self contained introduction to the conceptional and mathematical foundations of quantum information theory. In the first part we introduce the basic notions like entanglement, channels, teleportation etc. and their mathematical description. The second part is focused on a presentation of the quantitative aspects of the theory. Topics discussed in this context include: entanglement measures, channel capacities, relations between both, additivity and co...
Information theoretic approach to tactile encoding and discrimination
Saal, Hannes
2011-01-01
The human sense of touch integrates feedback from a multitude of touch receptors, but how this information is represented in the neural responses such that it can be extracted quickly and reliably is still largely an open question. At the same time, dexterous robots equipped with touch sensors are becoming more common, necessitating better methods for representing sequentially updated information and new control strategies that aid in extracting relevant features for object man...
Basic concepts in quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum information theory provides a framework for the description of quantum systems and their applications in the context of quantum computation and quantum communication. Although several of the basic concepts on which such theory is built are reminiscent of those of (classical) Information Theory, the new rules provided by quantum mechanics introduce properties which have no classical counterpart and that are responsible for most of the applications. In particular, entangled states appear as one of the basic resources in this context. In this lecture I will introduce the basic concepts and applications in Quantum Information, particularly stressing the definition of entanglement, its quantification, and its applications. (author)
Quantum Cloning and Deletion in Quantum Information Theory
Adhikari, Satyabrata
2006-01-01
Quantum mechanics put restriction on performing some task which we can do classically. One such restriction is that we cannot copy an arbitrary quantum state. This is known as No-cloning theorem. Although quantum mechanics forbid us to construct a perfect cloner, there is no restriction to construct an imperfect cloner. Therefore, we have constructed and studied a special kind of quantum cloning machine named as Hybrid quantum cloning machine which is nothing but a different combination of pre-existing quantum cloning machines. We showed that this hybrid quantum cloning machine sometime gives better quality copy than the pre-existing quantum cloners. Quantum entanglement is a very astonishing property in a multi-partite system and it is a very useful ingredient of quantum information theory. Therefore broadcasting (cloning) of entanglement is a very important subject to study. In this regard we have studied the broadcasting of entanglement using state dependent quantum cloning machine. Further, we have invest...
nSQUID arrays as conveyers of quantum information
Deng, Qiang; Averin, D. V.
2014-12-01
We have considered the quantum dynamics of an array of nSQUIDs—two-junction SQUIDs with negative mutual inductance between their two arms. Effective dual-rail structure of the array creates additional internal degree of freedom for the fluxons in the array, which can be used to encode and transport quantum information. Physically, this degree of freedom is represented by electromagnetic excitations localized on the fluxon. We have calculated the spatial profile and frequency spectrum of these excitations. Their dynamics can be reduced to two quantum states, so that each fluxon moving through the array carries with it a qubit of information. Coherence properties of such a propagating qubit in the nSQUID array are characterized by the dynamic suppression of the low-frequency decoherence due to the motion-induced spreading of the noise spectral density to a larger frequency interval.
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2015-03-01
In this paper, we develop a new optical information authentication system based on compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response (QR) codes, where the parameters of optical lightwave are used as keys for optical decryption and the QR code is a key for verification. An input image attached with QR code is first optically encoded in a simplified double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme without using interferometric setup. From the single encoded intensity pattern recorded by a CCD camera, a compressed double-random-phase-encoded image, i.e., the sparse phase distribution used for optical decryption, is generated by using an iterative phase retrieval technique with QR code. We compare this technique to the other two methods proposed in literature, i.e., Fresnel domain information authentication based on the classical DRPE with holographic technique and information authentication based on DRPE and phase retrieval algorithm. Simulation results show that QR codes are effective on improving the security and data sparsity of optical information encryption and authentication system. PMID:25836845
Quantum Information Theory of Entanglement and Measurement
Cerf, Nicolas J.; Adami, Chris
1996-01-01
We present a quantum information theory that allows for a consistent description of entanglement. It parallels classical (Shannon) information theory but is based entirely on density matrices (rather than probability distributions) for the description of quantum ensembles. We find that quantum conditional entropies can be negative for entangled systems, which leads to a violation of well-known bounds in Shannon information theory. Such a unified information-theoretic descrip...
The Significance of Information in Quantum Theory
Grinbaum, Alexei
2004-01-01
We propose a system of information-theoretic axioms from which we derive the formalism of quantum theory. Part I is devoted to the conceptual foundations of the information-theoretic approach. We argue that this approach belongs to the epistemological framework depicted as a loop of existences. In Part II we derive the quantum formalism from information-theoretic axioms and we analyze the twofold role of observer as physical system and as informational agent. Quantum logical...
Dutta, Amit; Chakrabarti, Bikas K; Divakaran, Uma; Rosenbaum, Thomas F; Sen, Diptiman
2015-01-01
Discusses the fundamental connections between the physics of quantum phase transitions and the technological promise of quantum information, non-equilibrium quantum dynamics and adiabatic quantum computations.
Rényi generalizations of quantum information measures
Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
Quantum information measures such as the entropy and the mutual information find applications in physics, e.g., as correlation measures. Generalizing such measures based on the R\\'enyi entropies is expected to enhance their scope in applications. We prescribe R\\'enyi generalizations for any quantum information measure which consists of a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set {-1,0,1}. As examples, we describe R\\'enyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information, some quantum multipartite information measures, and the topological entanglement entropy. Among these, we discuss the various properties of the R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual information and sketch some potential applications. We conjecture that the proposed R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual informations are monotone increasing in the R\\'enyi parameter, and we have proofs of this conjecture for some special cases.
Quantum-information processing in bosonic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a class of models of self-interacting bosons hopping on a lattice. We show that properly tailored space-temporal coherent control of the single-body coupling parameters allows for the universal quantum computation in a given sector of the global Fock space. This general strategy for encoded universality in bosonic systems has, in principle, several candidates for physical implementation
Philosophical Aspects of Quantum Information Theory
Timpson, Christopher G.
2006-01-01
Quantum information theory represents a rich subject of discussion for those interested in the philosphical and foundational issues surrounding quantum mechanics for a simple reason: one can cast its central concerns in terms of a long-familiar question: How does the quantum world differ from the classical one? Moreover, deployment of the concepts of information and computation in novel contexts hints at new (or better) means of understanding quantum mechanics, and perhaps e...
Negative entropy in quantum information theory
Cerf, Nicolas J.; Adami, Chris
1996-01-01
We present a quantum information theory that allows for the consistent description of quantum entanglement. It parallels classical (Shannon) information theory but is based entirely on density matrices, rather than probability distributions, for the description of quantum ensembles. We find that, unlike in Shannon theory, conditional entropies can be negative when considering quantum entangled systems such as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair, which leads to a violation of wel...
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Machta, J.
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclu...
Information-theoretic characterization of quantum chaos
Schack, R
1995-01-01
Hypersensitivity to perturbation is a criterion for chaos based on the question of how much information about a perturbing environment is needed to keep the entropy of a Hamiltonian system from increasing. We demonstrate numerically that hypersensitivity to perturbation is present in the following quantum maps: the quantum kicked top, the quantum baker's map, the quantum lazy baker's map, and the quantum sawtooth and cat maps.
Measurement and control in quantum information science
Mabuchi, Hideo
2005-03-01
Quantum information science has a broad interface with control theory. In the region of overlap between these two thriving fields, one finds compelling problems ranging from robust and time-optimal control of quantum dynamics to the analysis and design of concatenated coding schemes. In this talk I will begin with a brief overview of recent work on applications of control theory in quantum information science, and then provide a more detailed review of my own group's research on quantum feedback control, quantum state preparation and quantum metrology.
Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.
2015-01-01
Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306
The decoupling approach to quantum information theory
Dupuis, Fre?de?ric
2010-01-01
Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a singl...
Lest we remember a quantum: quantum information shredding
Buscemi, Francesco
2009-01-01
Given a bipartite quantum system, correlation between subsystems can be understood as information that each subsystem carries about the other. Here we introduce and analyze the task of quantum information shredding, corresponding to locally reducing correlations in a given bipartite state without transferring them to the environment. Such a constraint prevents adversaries from gaining information by accessing the environment left after the decoupling process. Remarkably, information carried by separable correlations is always perfectly shreddable.
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local...
Philosophy of quantum information and entanglement
Jaeger, Gregg
2010-01-01
Recent work in quantum information science has produced a revolution in our understanding of quantum entanglement. Scientists now view entanglement as a physical resource with many important applications. These range from quantum computers, which would be able to compute exponentially faster than classical computers, to quantum cryptographic techniques, which could provide unbreakable codes for the transfer of secret information over public channels. These important advances in the study of quantum entanglement and information touch on deep foundational issues in both physics and philosophy. This interdisciplinary volume brings together fourteen of the world's leading physicists and philosophers of physics to address the most important developments and debates in this exciting area of research. It offers a broad spectrum of approaches to resolving deep foundational challenges - philosophical, mathematical, and physical - raised by quantum information, quantum processing, and entanglement. This book is ideal f...
Neural Mechanisms of Encoding Social and Non-Social Context Information in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Greimel, Ellen; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Kukolja, Juraj; Kohls, Gregor; Muller, Kristin; Piefke, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Schulte-Ruther, Martin
2012-01-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often fail to attach context to their memories and are specifically impaired in processing social aspects of contextual information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulatory influence of social vs. non-social context on neural mechanisms during encoding in ASD. Using…
Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly
Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)
2005-05-13
We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.
Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information
Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng
2005-05-01
We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.
Unified meta-theory of information, consciousness, time and the classical-quantum universe
Green, Martin A
2013-01-01
As time advances in our perceived real world, existing information is preserved and new information is added to history. All the information that may ever be encoded in history must be about some fundamental, unique, atemporal and pre-physical structure: the bare world. Scientists invent model worlds to efficiently explain aspects of the real world. This paper explores the features of and relationships between the bare, real, and model worlds. Time -- past, present and future -- is naturally explained. Both quantum uncertainty and state reduction are needed for time to progress, since unpredictable new information must be added to history. Deterministic evolution preserves existing information. Finite, but steadily increasing, information about the bare world is jointly encoded in equally uncertain spacetime geometry and quantum matter. Because geometry holds no information independent of matter, there is no need to quantize gravity. At the origin of time, information goes to zero and geometry and matter fade...
Towards the quantification of the semantic information encoded in written language
Montemurro, Marcelo A.; Zanette, Damian
2009-01-01
Written language is a complex communication signal capable of conveying information encoded in the form of ordered sequences of words. Beyond the local order ruled by grammar, semantic and thematic structures affect long-range patterns in word usage. Here, we show that a direct application of information theory quantifies the relationship between the statistical distribution of words and the semantic content of the text. We show that there is a characteristic scale, roughly ...
Matrix Techniques in Quantum Information Science
Li, Chi-Kwong
2013-09-01
Mathematical techniques in quantum information science will be discussed. The focus will be on two specific topics. The first one concerns the study of quantum operations (channels) using the theory of completely positive linear maps. The second one concerns the study of quantum error correction using the theory of generalized numerical ranges. The discussion includes material from some recent research papers.
Neural mechanisms of encoding social and non-social context information in autism spectrum disorder.
Greimel, Ellen; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R; Kukolja, Juraj; Kohls, Gregor; Müller, Kristin; Piefke, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Schulte-Rüther, Martin
2012-12-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often fail to attach context to their memories and are specifically impaired in processing social aspects of contextual information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulatory influence of social vs. non-social context on neural mechanisms during encoding in ASD. Using event-related fMRI, 13 boys with ASD and 13 typically developing boys comparable for age and IQ were investigated during encoding of neutral objects presented either with a social (faces) or a non-social (houses) context. A memory paradigm was then applied to identify brain activation patterns associated with encoding of subsequently recollected versus non-recollected objects. On the behavioural level, no significant between-group differences emerged. In particular, no differential effects of context on memory performance were observed. Neurally, however, context-specific group differences were observed in several brain regions. During encoding of subsequently recollected objects presented with a face, ASD subjects (compared to controls) showed reduced neural activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Neural activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with memory performance in controls, but negatively in ASD individuals. During encoding of subsequently non-recollected objects presented in the non-social context, ASD subjects showed increased activation in the dorsal MPFC. Our findings suggest that in ASD subjects, fronto-parietal brain regions subserving memory formation and the association of contextual information are activated atypically when a social context is presented at encoding. The data add to findings from related research fields indicating that in ASD, socioemotional impairment extends into domains beyond social cognition. Increased activation in the dorsal MPFC in ASD individuals might reflect supervisory cognitive processes related to the suppression of a distracting non-social context. PMID:23017597
Quantum-Information Processing with Semiconductor Macroatoms
Biolatti, Eliana; Iotti, Rita C.; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2000-01-01
An all optical implementation of quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms is proposed. Our quantum hardware consists of an array of semiconductor quantum dots and the computational degrees of freedom are energy-selected interband optical transitions. The proposed quantum-computing strategy exploits exciton-exciton interactions driven by ultrafast sequences of multi-color laser pulses. Contrary to existing proposals based on charge excitations, the present...
Quantum Information Processing with Semiconductor Macroatoms
Iotti, Rita Claudia; Rossi, Fausto
2000-01-01
An all optical implementation of quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms is proposed. Our quantum hardware consists of an array of quantum dots and the computational degrees of freedom are energy-selected interband optical transitions. The quantum-computing strategy exploits exciton-exciton interactions driven by ultrafast multicolor laser pulses. Contrary to existing proposals based on charge excitations, our approach does not require time-dependent electric fields, thus...
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata
D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2011-01-01
Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantu...
The Quantum Information of Cosmological Correlations
Lim, Eugene A
2014-01-01
It has been shown that the primordial perturbations sourced by inflation are driven to classicality by unitary evolution alone. However, their coupling with the environment such as photons and subsequent decoherence renders the cosmological correlations quantum, losing primordial information in the process. We argue that the quantumness of the resulting cosmological correlations is given by quantum discord, which captures non-classical behavior beyond quantum entanglement. By considering the environment as a quantum channel in which primordial information contained in the perturbations is transmitted to us, we can then ask how much of this information is inaccessible. We show that this amount of information is given by the discord of the joint primordial perturbations-environment system. To illustrate these points, we model the joint system as a mixed bi-modal Gaussian state, and show that quantum discord is dependent on the basis which decoherence occurs.
Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage
A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers
Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying
2015-01-01
Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.
Quantum Gravity Sensor by Curvature Energy: their Encoding and Computational Models*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Bulnes
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Through of the concept of curvature energy encoded in non-harmonic signals due to the effect that characterizes the curvature as a deformation of field in the corresponding resonance space ( and an obstruction to the displacement to the corresponding shape operator is developed and designed a sensor of quantum gravity considering the quantized version of curvature as observable of gravitational field where the space is distorted by the strong interactions between particles, interpreting their observable in this case, as light fields deformations obtained on space-time background. To the application of this measurement we use a hypothetical particle graviton modeled as a magnetic dilaton which must be gauge graviton (gauge boson. Also are obtained several computational models of these photonic measurements, likewise their prototype photonic devices
A Quantum Information Retrieval Approach to Memory
Kitto, Kirsty; Bruza, Peter; Gabora, Liane
2013-01-01
As computers approach the physical limits of information storable in memory, new methods will be needed to further improve information storage and retrieval. We propose a quantum inspired vector based approach, which offers a contextually dependent mapping from the subsymbolic to the symbolic representations of information. If implemented computationally, this approach would provide exceptionally high density of information storage, without the traditionally required physica...
Nanomechanics and superconducting qubits for quantum information
Cleland, Andrew
2013-03-01
There has been tremendous progress in the capabilities of superconducting quantum circuits, both for fundamental quantum science as well as for applications in quantum information. Superconducting qubits are based on the Josephson junction, which provides the fundamental inductive nonlinearity that affords full quantum control of otherwise quite simple electrical circuits. I will outline how a superconducting qubit can be used to measure and control the quantum state of a nanomechanical system, completely control multi-photon states in superconducting resonators, factor the number 15 using a von Neumann-style computing architecture, and possibly allow the transfer of a GHz-frequency quantum state to an optical signal. There has been tremendous progress in the capabilities of superconducting quantum circuits, both for fundamental quantum science as well as for applications in quantum information. Superconducting qubits are based on the Josephson junction, which provides the fundamental inductive nonlinearity that affords full quantum control of otherwise quite simple electrical circuits. I will outline how a superconducting qubit can be used to measure and control the quantum state of a nanomechanical system, completely control multi-photon states in superconducting resonators, factor the number 15 using a von Neumann-style computing architecture, and possibly allow the transfer of a GHz-frequency quantum state to an optical signal. Support from DARPA, IARPA and NSF.
Holography, Quantum Geometry, and Quantum Information Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Zizzi
2000-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits. N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labelled by the spin-Ã‚Â½ representation of SU(2, which are in a superposed quantum state of spin "up" and spin "down". The formalism is applied in particular to de Sitter horizons, and leads to a picture of the early inflationary universe in terms of quantum computation. A discrete micro-causality emerges, where the time parameter is being defined by the discrete increase of entropy. Then, the model is analysed in the framework of the theory of presheaves (varying sets on a causal set and we get a quantum history. A (bosonic Fock space of the whole history is considered. The Fock space wavefunction, which resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate, undergoes decoherence at the end of inflation. This fact seems to be responsible for the rather low entropy of our universe.
Quantum Causality, Stochastics, Trajectories and Information
Belavkin, V P
2002-01-01
A history of the discovery of quantum mechanics and paradoxes of its interpretation is reconsidered from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. It is argued that in the orthodox quantum mechanics there is no place for quantum phenomenology such as events. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, and Bell's conceptual critics of hidden variable theories indicated a possibility for resolution of this crisis. This can be done by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and an extended algebra of the potential (quantum) and the actual (classical) observables. The latter, called beables, form the center of the algebra of all observables, as the only visible (macroscopic) observables must be compatible with any hidden (microscopic) observable. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated within an extended quantum mechanics (eventum mechanics) in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the consistent hi...
Quantum-information-processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A potential quantum-information processor is proposed using an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N-C60 or 31P-C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.
Heat engine driven by purely quantum information.
Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Kang-Hwan; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sang Wook
2013-12-01
The key question of this Letter is whether work can be extracted from a heat engine by using purely quantum mechanical information. If the answer is yes, what is its mathematical formula? First, by using a bipartite memory we show that the work extractable from a heat engine is bounded not only by the free energy change and the sum of the entropy change of an individual memory but also by the change of quantum mutual information contained inside the memory. We then find that the engine can be driven by purely quantum information, expressed as the so-called quantum discord, forming a part of the quantum mutual information. To confirm it, as a physical example we present the Szilard engine containing a diatomic molecule with a semipermeable wall. PMID:24476235
Quantum Realism, Information, and Epistemological Modesty
Grinbaum, Alexei
2014-03-01
It is usually asserted that physical theories, in particular quantum mechanics, support a certain view of what the world really is. To such claims I oppose an attitude of epistemological modesty. Ontological statements on the nature of reality, when made on the basis of quantum mechanics, appear unwarranted. I suggest that an epistemic loop connects physical theory grounded in informational notions, and a theory of information developed through a theoretical account of the physical support of information.
Martin-Martinez, E
2011-01-01
Recently, there has been increased interest in understanding entanglement and quantum communication in black hole spacetimes and in using quantum information techniques to address questions in gravity. Studies on relativistic entanglement show the emergence of conceptually important qualitative differences to a non-relativistic treatment. For instance, entanglement was found to be an observer-dependent property that changes from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Relativisitic quantum information theory uses well-known tools coming from quantum information and quantum optics to study quantum effects provoked by gravity to learn information about the spacetime. We can take advantage of our knowledge about quantum correlations and effects produced by the gravitational interaction to set the basis for experimental proposals ultimately aiming at finding corrections due to quantum gravity effects, too mild to be directly observed. This doctoral thesis dissertation summarises most of...
On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei 23Na in C10H21NaO4S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)
On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azevedo, E.R. de; Bonk, F.A.; Vidoto, E.L.G.; Bonagamba, T.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Sarthour, R.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Oliveira, I.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2003-07-01
Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei {sup 23}Na in C{sub 10}H{sub 21}NaO{sub 4}S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)
Quantum information processing and relativistic quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that an ideal measurement of a one-particle wave packet state of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski spacetime enables superluminal signalling. The result holds for a measurement that takes place over an intervention region in spacetime whose extent in time in some frame is longer than the light-crossing time of the packet in that frame. Moreover, these results are shown to apply not only to ideal measurements but also to unitary transformations that rotate two orthogonal one-particle states into each other. In light of these observations, possible restrictions on the allowed types of intervention are considered. A more physical approach to such questions is to construct explicit models of the interventions as interactions between the field and other quantum systems such as detectors. The prototypical Unruh–DeWitt detector couples to the field operator itself and so most likely respects relativistic causality. On the other hand, detector models which couple to a finite set of frequencies of field modes are shown to lead to superluminal signalling. Such detectors do, however, provide successful phenomenological models of atom–qubits interacting with quantum fields in a cavity but are valid only on time scales many orders of magnitude larger than the light-crossing time of the cavity. (paper)
Critique of Fault-Tolerant Quantum Information Processing
Alicki, Robert
2013-01-01
This is a chapter in a book \\emph{Quantum Error Correction} edited by D. A. Lidar and T. A. Brun, and published by Cambridge University Press (2013)\\\\ (http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/physics/quantum-physics-quantum-information-and-quantum-computation/quantum-error-correction)\\\\ presenting the author's view on feasibility of fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing
Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J. D., Bulnes; F. A., Bonk; R. S., Sarthour; E. R. de, Azevedo; J. C. C., Freitas; T. J., Bonagamba; I. S., Oliveira.
2005-09-01
Full Text Available We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective dens [...] ity matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end.
Complementarity and Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory
Tessier, T E
2004-01-01
The restrictions that nature places on the distribution of correlations in a multipartite quantum system play fundamental roles in the evolution of such systems, and yield vital insights into the design of protocols for the quantum control of ensembles with potential applications in the field of quantum computing. We show how this entanglement sharing behavior may be studied in increasingly complex systems of both theoretical and experimental significance and demonstrate that entanglement sharing, as well as other unique features of entanglement, e.g. the fact that maximal information about a multipartite quantum system does not necessarily entail maximal information about its component subsystems, may be understood as specific consequences of the phenomenon of complementarity extended to composite quantum systems. We also present a local hidden-variable model supplemented by an efficient amount of classical communication that reproduces the quantum-mechanical predictions for the entire class of Gottesman-Kni...
Extended convexity of quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology
Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.
2015-04-01
We prove an extended convexity for quantum Fisher information of a mixed state with a given convex decomposition. This convexity introduces a bound which has two parts: (i) The classical part associated with the Fisher information of the probability distribution of the states contributing to the decomposition, and (ii) the quantum part given by the average quantum Fisher information of the states in this decomposition. Next we use a non-Hermitian extension of a symmetric logarithmic derivative in order to obtain another upper bound on quantum Fisher information, which helps to derive a closed form for the bound in evolutions having the semigroup property. We enhance the extended convexity with this concept of a non-Hermitian symmetric logarithmic derivative (which we show is computable) to lay out a general metrology framework where the dynamics is described by a quantum channel and derive the ultimate precision limit for open-system quantum metrology. We illustrate our results and their applications through two examples where we also demonstrate how the extended convexity allows identifying a crossover between quantum and classical behaviors for metrology.
The Significance of Information in Quantum Theory
Grinbaum, A
2004-01-01
We propose a system of information-theoretic axioms from which we derive the formalism of quantum theory. Part I is devoted to the conceptual foundations of the information-theoretic approach. We argue that this approach belongs to the epistemological framework depicted as a loop of existences. In Part II we derive the quantum formalism from information-theoretic axioms and we analyze the twofold role of observer as physical system and as informational agent. Quantum logical techniques are then introduced, and we prove theorems reconstructing elements of the formalism. In Part III, we introduce the formalism of C*-algebras and give it an information theoretic interpretation. We analyze the conceptual underpinnings of the theory of modular automorphisms and we give an information-theoretic justification for the emergence of time in the algebraic approach. We conclude by giving a list of open questions, including topics in cognitive science, decision theory, and information technology.
Quantum information processing in semiconductor nanostructures
Reina, J H; Johnson, N F
2000-01-01
A major question for condensed matter physics is whether a solid-state quantum computer can ever be built. Here we discuss two different schemes for quantum information processing using semiconductor nanostructures. First, we show how optically driven coupled quantum dots can be used to prepare maximally entangled Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states by varying the strength and duration of selective light pulses. The setup allows us to perform an all-optical generation of the quantum teleportation of an excitonic state in an array of coupled quantum dots. Second, we give a proposal for reliable implementation of quantum logic gates and long decoherence times in a quantum dots system based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), where the nuclear resonance is controlled by the ground state transitions of few-electron QDs in an external magnetic field. The dynamical evolution of these systems in the presence of environmentally-induced decoherence effects is also discussed.
Quantum Information Science Using Photons
Bouwmeester, D.; Howell, J. C.; Lamas-Linares, A.
Contents: 1 Introduction 1.1 A Humble Point of View 1.2 Quantum Mystery 1.3 Maxwell's Demon 1.4 Shannon Entropy 1.5 Von Neumann Entropy 2 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Bell's Inequalities 3 Producing Entangled Particles 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Parametric Down-Conversion 3.3 Franson's Proposal 3.4 Polarization Entanglement 4 The Beam Splitter Action on a Two-Photon State 4.1 Beamsplitter Transformation 4.2 Bell-State Analyzer 5 No-Cloning Theorem 6 Quantum Cryptography 7 Quantum Dense Coding 7.1 Theoretical Scheme 7.2 Experimental Dense Coding with Qubits 8 Quantum Teleportation 8.1 Theoretical Scheme 8.2 Experimental Quantum Teleportation of Qubits 8.3 Teleportation of Entanglement 8.4 A Two-Particle Scheme for Quantum Teleportation 9 Teleportation of Continuous Quantum Variables 9.1 Theoretical Scheme 9.2 Quantum Optical Implementation 10 Quantum Error Detection and Correction 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Quantum Error Detection 10.3 Avoiding Controlled-NOT Operations 10.4 Post-selection 11 Stimulated Entanglement 11.1 Theory 12 Bohm-Type Spin-s Entanglements
Quantum information and entanglement transfer for qutrits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a scheme for the transfer of quantum information among distant qutrits. We apply this scheme to the distribution of entanglement of qutrits states among distant nodes and to the generation of multipartite antisymmetric states. We also discuss applications to quantum secret sharing
Quantum causality, stochastics, trajectories and information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A history of the discovery of 'new' quantum mechanics and the paradoxes of its probabilistic interpretation are briefly reviewed from the modern point of view of quantum probability and information. Modern quantum theory, which has been developed during the last 20 years for the treatment of quantum open systems including quantum noise, decoherence, quantum diffusions and spontaneous jumps occurring under continuous in time observation, is not yet a part of the standard curriculum of quantum physics. It is argued that the conventional formalism of quantum mechanics is insufficient for the description of quantum events, such as spontaneous decays say, and the new experimental phenomena related to individual quantum measurements, but they have all received an adequate mathematical treatment in quantum stochastics of open systems. Moreover, the only reasonable probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics put forward by Max Born was, in fact, in irreconcilable contradiction with traditional mechanical reality and causality. This led to numerous quantum paradoxes, some of them due to the great inventors of quantum theory such as Einstein and Schroedinger. They are reconsidered in this paper from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, indicated a possibility for resolution of this interpretational crisis by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebraf the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or Bell's beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the actual histories with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements ensuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of dynamical commutation relations leads to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate, and also to the more general reductions, instantaneous, spontaneous, and even continuous in time. This gives a dynamical solution, in the form of the quantum stochastic filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroedinger and Bohr. It has been recently proved that the quantum stochastic model for the continuous in time measurements is equivalent to a Dirac type boundary-value problem for the secondary quantized input 'offer waves from future' in one extra dimension, and to a reduction of the algebra of the consistent histories of past events to an Abelian subalgebra for the 'trajectories of the output particles'. This supports the corpuscular-wave duality in the form of the thesis that everything in the future are quantized waves, while everything in the past are trajectories of the recorded particles. (author)
Contextual Observables and Quantum Information
Kupczynski, M.
2004-01-01
In this short paper we present the main features of a new quantum programming language proposed recently by Peter Selinger which gives a good idea about the difficulties of constructing a scalable quantum computer. We show how some of these difficulties are related to the contextuality of quantum observables and to the abstract and statistical character of quantun theory (QT). We discuss also, in some detail, the statistical interpretation (SI) of QT and the contextuality of...
Quantum non-Markovianity based on the Fisher-information matrix
Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Hong, Yan
2015-04-01
With the development of quantum-information theory, there has been a flurry of investigations of quantum non-Markovian dynamics, and several significant measures for such dynamics have been proposed from various perspectives, such as the breakdown of dynamical divisibility, increase in the distinguishability between quantum states, increase in correlations between the system and an arbitrary ancillary, and so on. Motivated by the idea of exploiting the information content of parameters encoded in initial states, we propose a conceptually simple and physically intuitive characterization for non-Markovianity with the help of a quantum-Fisher-information matrix. The basic features are illustrated through several examples, and relations with other approaches are elucidated. A hierarchial aspect of quantum non-Markovianity is revealed.
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Tóth, Géza; Apellaniz, Iagoba
2014-10-01
We summarize important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramér–Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrelated noise limits the highest achievable precision in very general metrological tasks. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We summarize important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramér–Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrelated noise limits the highest achievable precision in very general metrological tasks. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review)
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza
2015-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrela...
Information, disturbance and Hamiltonian quantum feedback control
Doherty, Andrew C.; Jacobs, Kurt; Jungman, Gerard
2000-01-01
We consider separating the problem of designing Hamiltonian quantum feedback control algorithms into a measurement (estimation) strategy and a feedback (control) strategy, and consider optimizing desirable properties of each under the minimal constraint that the available strength of both is limited. This motivates concepts of information extraction and disturbance which are distinct from those usually considered in quantum information theory. Using these concepts we identif...
Efficient quantum dialogue without information leakage
Yin, Ai-Han; Tang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Dong
2015-02-01
A two-step quantum dialogue scheme is put forward with a class of three-qubit W state and quantum dense coding. Each W state can carry three bits of secret information and the measurement result is encrypted without information leakage. Furthermore, we utilize the entangle properties of W state and decoy photon checking technique to realize three-time channel detection, which can improve the efficiency and security of the scheme.
Quantum Information Processing with Single Photons
Lim, Yuan Liang
2005-01-01
Photons are natural carriers of quantum information due to their ease of distribution and long lifetime. This thesis concerns various related aspects of quantum information processing with single photons. Firstly, we demonstrate N-photon entanglement generation through a generalised N X N symmetric beam splitter known as the Bell multiport. A wide variety of 4-photon entangled states as well as the N-photon W-state can be generated with an unexpected non-monotonic decreasing...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)
Optical technologies for quantum information science
Kwiat, Paul G.; Altepeter, Joseph; Barreiro, Julio; Branning, David A.; Jeffrey, Evan R.; Peters, Nicholas; VanDevender, Aaron P.
2004-02-01
A number of optical technologies remain to be developed and optimized for various applications in quantum information processing, especially quantum communication. We will give an overview of our approach to some of these, including periodic heralded single-photon sources based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion, ultrabright sources of tunable entangled photons, near unit efficiency single- and multi-photon detectors based on an atomic vapor interaction, quantum state transducers based on high efficiency frequency up-conversion, and low-loss optical quantum memories.
Quantum-Information Processing with Semiconductor Macroatoms
Biolatti, E; Zanardi, P; Rossi, F; Biolatti, Eliana; Iotti, Rita C.; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2000-01-01
An all optical implementation of quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms is proposed. Our quantum hardware consists of an array of semiconductor quantum dots and the computational degrees of freedom are energy-selected interband optical transitions. The proposed quantum-computing strategy exploits exciton-exciton interactions driven by ultrafast sequences of multi-color laser pulses. Contrary to existing proposals based on charge excitations, the present all-optical implementation does not require the application of time-dependent electric fields, thus allowing for a sub-picosecond, i.e. decoherence-free, operation time-scale in realistic state-of-the-art semiconductor nanostructures.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Principles of quantum computation and information
Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano
2004-01-01
Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.
Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval
Zapatrin, Roman
2012-01-01
Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.
A quantum information processor with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. In this work we present a small-scale quantum information processor based on a string of 40Ca+ ions confined in a macroscopic linear Paul trap. We review our set of operations which includes non-coherent operations allowing us to realize arbitrary Markovian processes. In order to build a larger quantum information processor it is mandatory to reduce the error rate of the available operations which is only possible if the physics of the noise processes is well understood. We identify the dominant noise sources in our system and discuss their effects on different algorithms. Finally we demonstrate how our entire set of operations can be used to facilitate the implementation of algorithms by examples of the quantum Fourier transform and the quantum order finding algorithm. (paper)
Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution
Giddings, Steven B
2012-01-01
The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...
Information-geometric reconstruction of quantum theory
Goyal, Philip
2008-11-01
In this paper, we show how the framework of information geometry, the natural geometry of discrete probability distributions, can be used to derive the quantum formalism. The derivation rests upon a few elementary features of quantum phenomena, such as complementarity and global gauge invariance. When appropriately formulated within an information-geometric framework, and combined with a novel information-theoretic principle, these features lead to the abstract quantum formalism for finite-dimensional quantum systems, and the result of Wigner’s theorem. By means of a correspondence principle, several correspondence rules of quantum theory, such as the canonical commutation relationships, are also systematically derived. The derivation suggests that information geometry is directly or indirectly responsible for many of the central structural features of the quantum formalism, such as the importance of square roots of probability and the occurrence of sinusoidal functions of phases in a pure quantum state. Global gauge invariance is shown to play a crucial role in the emergence of the formalism in its complex form.
Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations
Canonical Relational Quantum Mechanics from Information Theory
Munkhammar, Joakim
2011-01-01
In this paper we construct a theory of quantum mechanics based on Shannon information theory. We define a few principles regarding information-based frames of reference, including explicitly the concept of information covariance, and show how an ensemble of all possible physical states can be setup on the basis of the accessible information in the local frame of reference. In the next step the Bayesian principle of maximum entropy is utilized in order to constrain the dynami...
Information loss, made worse by quantum gravity
Bojowald, Martin
2014-01-01
Quantum gravity is often expected to solve both the singularity problem and the information-loss problem of black holes. This article presents an example from loop quantum gravity in which the singularity problem is solved in such a way that the information-loss problem is made worse. Quantum effects in this scenario, in contrast to previous non-singular models, do not eliminate the event horizon and introduce a new Cauchy horizon where determinism breaks down. Although infinities are avoided, for all practical purposes the core of the black hole plays the role of a naked singularity. Recent developments in loop quantum gravity indicate that this aggravated information loss problem is likely to be the generic outcome, putting strong conceptual pressure on the theory.
Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav I. Yukalov
2009-12-01
Full Text Available A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention interference. The self-consistent procedure of decision making, in the frame of the quantum decision theory, takes into account both the available objective information as well as subjective contextual effects. This quantum approach avoids any paradox typical of classical decision theory. Conditional maximization of entropy, equivalent to the minimization of an information functional, makes it possible to connect the quantum and classical decision theories, showing that the latter is the limit of the former under vanishing interference terms.
Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics
Ohya, M
2004-01-01
After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.
Quantum Information and the PCP Theorem
Raz, R
2005-01-01
We show how to encode $2^n$ (classical) bits $a_1,...,a_{2^n}$ by a single quantum state $|\\Psi>$ of size O(n) qubits, such that: for any constant $k$ and any $i_1,...,i_k \\in \\{1,...,2^n\\}$, the values of the bits $a_{i_1},...,a_{i_k}$ can be retrieved from $|\\Psi>$ by a one-round Arthur-Merlin interactive protocol of size polynomial in $n$. This shows how to go around Holevo-Nayak's Theorem, using Arthur-Merlin proofs. We use the new representation to prove the following results: 1) Interactive proofs with quantum advice: We show that the class $QIP/qpoly$ contains ALL languages. That is, for any language $L$ (even non-recursive), the membership $x \\in L$ (for $x$ of length $n$) can be proved by a polynomial-size quantum interactive proof, where the verifier is a polynomial-size quantum circuit with working space initiated with some quantum state $|\\Psi_{L,n} >$ (depending only on $L$ and $n$). Moreover, the interactive proof that we give is of only one round, and the messages communicated are classical. 2)...
Microstrip Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices for Quantum Information Science
De Feo, Michael P.
Quantum-limited amplification in the microwave frequency range is of both practical and fundamental importance. The weak signals corresponding to single microwave photons require substantial amplification to resolve. When probing quantum excitations of the electromagnetic field, the substantial noise produced by standard amplifiers dominates the signal, therefore, several averages must be accumulated to achieve even a modest signal-to-noise ratio. Even worse, the back-action on the system due to amplifier noise can hasten the decay of the quantum state. In recent years, low-noise microwave-frequency amplification has been advancing rapidly and one field that would benefit greatly from this is circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). The development of circuit quantum electrodynamics—which implements techniques of quantum optics at microwave frequencies—has led to revolutionary progress in the field of quantum information science. cQED employs quantum bits (qubits) and superconducting microwave resonators in place of the atoms and cavities used in quantum optics permitting preparation and control of low energy photon states in macroscopic superconducting circuits at millikelvin temperatures. We have developed a microstrip superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier (MSA) to provide the first stage of amplification for these systems. Employing sub-micron Josephson tunnel junctions for enhanced gain, these MSAs operate at microwave frequencies and are optimized to perform with near quantum-limited noise characteristics. Our MSA is utilized as the first stage of amplification to probe the dynamics of a SQUID oscillator. The SQUID oscillator is a flux-tunable microwave resonator formed by a capacitively shunted dc SQUID. Josephson plasma oscillations are induced by pulsed microwave excitations at the resonant frequency of the oscillator. Once pulsed, decaying plasma oscillations are observed in the time domain. By measuring with pulse amplitudes approaching the critical current of the SQUID, it is possible to probe the free evolution of a highly nonlinear oscillator.
Quenching Dynamics and Quantum Information
Nag, Tanay; Patra, Ayoti
2012-01-01
We review recent studies on the measures of zero temperature quantum correlations namely, the quantum entanglement (concurrence) and discord present in the final state of a transverse XY spin chain following a quench through quantum critical points; the aim of these studies is to explore the scaling of the above quantities as a function of the quench rate. A comparative study between the concurrence and the quantum discord shows that their behavior is qualitatively the same though there are quantitative differences. For the present model, the scaling of both the quantities are given by the scaling of the density of the defect present in the final state though one can not find a closed form expression for the discord. We also extend our study of quantum discord to a transverse Ising chain in the presence of a three spin interaction. Finally, we present a study of the dynamical evolution of quantum discord and concurrence when two central qubits, initially prepared in a Werner state, are coupled to the environm...
Single photon sources for quantum information applications
Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.; Heindel, T.; Lermer, M.; Hoang, T. B.; Beetz, J.; Braun, T.; Balet, L.; Chauvin, N.; Li, L.; Reitzenstein, S.; Fiore, A.; Kamp, M.; Forchel, A.
2012-03-01
Efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons are a key resource for various applications in fields like quantum sensing, quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In this contribution we report on single photon generation based on III-V semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). To increase the emission efficiency of single photons, it is essential to tailor the radiative properties of the quantum dot emitters by engineering their photonic environment. We present optimized single photon emitters being based on both micropillar and photonics crystal cavities, for applications in a vertical platform and on-chip in-plane platform, respectively. Electrically driven single photon sources with self assembled semiconductor QDs embedded into GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities emit on demand net rates of ~35 MHz single photons, thus being well exploitable in quantum key distribution systems. In order to establish also a spatially deterministic fabrication platform, position controlled quantum dots are integrated into p-i-n micropillar cavities and single photon emission of a coupled QD-micropillar diode system is observed. Efficient broadband coupling of single photons into photonic crystal waveguides provides the basis for all on-chip quantum information processing, and an according approach is reported.
Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment
Imai, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.
Manipulating quantum information by propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perales, Alvaro [Departmento de Automatica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Plenio, Martin B [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2005-12-01
We study the creation of bipartite and multipartite continuous variable entanglement in structures of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators. By adjusting the interaction strengths between nearest neighbours we show how to maximize the entanglement production between the arms in a Y-shaped structure where an initial single mode squeezed state is created in the first oscillator of the input arm. We also consider the action of the same structure as an approximate quantum cloner. For a specific time in the system dynamics the last oscillators in the output arms can be considered as imperfect copies of the initial state. By increasing the number of arms in the structure, multipartite entanglement is obtained, as well as 1 {yields}M cloning. Finally, we consider configurations that implement the symmetric splitting of an initial entangled state. All calculations are carried out within the framework of the rotating wave approximation in quantum optics, and our predictions could be tested with current available experimental techniques.
A quantum information approach to statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review some connections between quantum information and statistical mechanics. We focus on three sets of results for classical spin models. First, we show that the partition function of all classical spin models (including models in different dimensions, different types of many-body interactions, different symmetries, etc) can be mapped to the partition function of a single model. Second, we give efficient quantum algorithms to estimate the partition function of various classical spin models, such as the Ising or the Potts model. The proofs of these two results are based on a mapping from partition functions to quantum states and to quantum circuits, respectively. Finally, we show how classical spin models can be used to describe certain fluctuating lattices appearing in models of discrete quantum gravity. (tutorial)
The Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor
Steane, Andrew M.
1996-01-01
An introductory review of the linear ion trap is given, with particular regard to its use for quantum information processing. The discussion aims to bring together ideas from information theory and experimental ion trapping, to provide a resource to workers unfamiliar with one or the other of these subjects. It is shown that information theory provides valuable concepts for the experimental use of ion traps, especially error correction, and conversely the ion trap provides a...
Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)
2013-11-08
Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.
Noise, errors and information in quantum amplification
D Ariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; Maccone, L.
1998-01-01
We analyze and compare the characterization of a quantum device in terms of noise, transmitted bit-error-rate (BER) and mutual information, showing how the noise description is meaningful only for Gaussian channels. After reviewing the description of a quantum communication channel, we study the insertion of an amplifier. We focus attention on the case of direct detection, where the linear amplifier has a 3 decibels noise figure, which is usually considered an unsurpassable ...
Information Theoretic Axioms for Quantum Theory
Zaopo, Marco
2012-01-01
In this paper we derive the complex Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory from four simple information theoretic axioms. It is shown that quantum theory is the only non classical probabilistic theory satisfying the following axioms: distinguishability, conservation, reversibility, composition. The new results of this reconstruction compared to other reconstructions by other authors are: (i) we get rid of axiom "subspace" in favor of axiom conservation eliminating mathema...
Information theoretic resources in quantum theory
Meznaric, Sebastian; Jaksch, Dieter
2012-01-01
Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted to account for both fundamental restrictions on operations, such as those arising from superselection rules, as well as experimental errors...
Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processing
Serra, R. M.; Oliveira, I. S.
2012-01-01
For the past decade, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been established as a main experimental technique for testing quantum protocols in small systems. This Theme Issue presents recent advances and major challenges of NMR quantum information possessing (QIP), including contributions by researchers from 10 different countries. In this introduction, after a short comment on NMR-QIP basics, we briefly anticipate the contents of this issue.
Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processing
Serra, R. M.; Oliveira, I. S.
2012-01-01
For the past decade, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been established as a main experimental technique for testing quantum protocols in small systems. This Theme Issue presents recent advances and major challenges of NMR quantum information possessing (QIP), including contributions by researchers from 10 different countries. In this introduction, after a short comment on NMR-QIP basics, we briefly anticipate the contents of this issue. PMID:22946031
Theory of solid state quantum information processing
Burkard, Guido
2004-01-01
Recent theoretical work on solid-state proposals for the implementation of quantum computation and quantum information processing is reviewed. The differences and similarities between microscopic and macroscopic qubits are highlighted and exemplified by the spin qubit proposal on one side and the superconducting qubits on the other. Before explaining the spin and supercondcuting qubits in detail, some general concepts that are relevant for both types of solid-state qubits ar...
Quantum Entanglement and Conditional Information Transmission
Tucci, Robert R.
1999-01-01
We propose a new measure of quantum entanglement. Our measure is defined in terms of conditional information transmission for a Quantum Bayesian Net. We show that our measure is identically equal to the Entanglement of Formation in the case of a bipartite (two listener) system occupying a pure state. In the case of mixed states, the relationship between these two measures is not known yet. We discuss some properties of our measure. Our measure can be easily and naturally gen...
Theriot, Edward C; Ashworth, Matt P; Nakov, Teofil; Ruck, Elizabeth; Jansen, Robert K
2015-08-01
Previous analyses of single diatom chloroplast protein-encoded genes recovered results highly incongruent with both traditional phylogenies and phylogenies derived from the nuclear encoded small subunit (SSU) gene. Our analysis here of six individual chloroplast genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC and rbcL) obtained similar anomalous results. However, phylogenetic noise in these genes did not appear to be correlated, and their concatenation appeared to effectively sum their collective signal. We empirically demonstrated the value of combining phylogenetic information profiling, partitioned Bremer support and entropy analysis in examining the utility of various partitions in phylogenetic analysis. Noise was low in the 1st and 2nd codon positions, but so was signal. Conversely, high noise levels in the 3rd codon position was accompanied by high signal. Perhaps counterintuitively, simple exclusion experiments demonstrated this was especially true at deeper nodes where the 3rd codon position contributed most to a result congruent with morphology and SSU (and the total evidence tree here). Correlated with our empirical findings, probability of correct signal (derived from information profiling) increased and the statistical significance of substitutional saturation decreased as data were aggregated. In this regard, the aggregated 3rd codon position performed as well or better than more slowly evolving sites. Simply put, direct methods of noise removal (elimination of fast-evolving sites) disproportionately removed signal. Information profiling and partitioned Bremer support suggest that addition of chloroplast data will rapidly improve our understanding of the diatom phylogeny, but conversely also illustrate that some parts of the diatom tree are likely to remain recalcitrant to addition of molecular data. The methods based on information profiling have been criticized for their numerous assumptions and parameter estimates and the fact that they are based on quartets of taxa. Our empirical results support theoretical arguments that the simplifying assumptions made in these methods are robust to "real-life" situations. PMID:25848969
Trapped-ion quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Trapped strings of cold ions provide an ideal system for quantum information processing. The quantum information can be stored in individual ions and these qubits can be individually prepared, the corresponding quantum states can be manipulated and measured with nearly 100 % detection efficiency. With a small ion-trap quantum computer based on two and three trapped Ca+ ions as qubits we have generated in a pre-programmed way genuine quantum states. These states are of particular interest for the implementation of an ion quantum register: we have demonstrated selective read-out of single qubits and manipulation of single qubits of the register conditioned on the read-out results. Moreover, entangled states of up to eight particles were generated using an algorithmic procedure and the resulting states were analyzed using state tomography proving genuine multi-partite entanglement. With a new cavity QED setup we create an ion-qubit to photon-qubit interface for interconnecting ion-trap based quantum computers. With this device a source of deterministically generated single photons can be built and atom-photon entanglement can be investigated
Quantum One Go Computation and the Physical Computation Level of Biological Information Processing
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2010-02-01
By extending the representation of quantum algorithms to problem-solution interdependence, the unitary evolution part of the algorithm entangles the register containing the problem with the register containing the solution. Entanglement becomes correlation, or mutual causality, between the two measurement outcomes: the string of bits encoding the problem and that encoding the solution. In former work, we showed that this is equivalent to the algorithm knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution it will find in the future, which explains the quantum speed up. Mutual causality between bits of information is also equivalent to seeing quantum measurement as a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine whose normalized coordinates represent the qubit populations. This “hidden machine” represents the problem to be solved. The many body interaction (measurement) satisfies all the constraints of a nonlinear Boolean network “together and at the same time”—in one go—thus producing the solution. Quantum one go computation can formalize the physical computation level of the theories that place consciousness in quantum measurement. In fact, in visual perception, we see, thus recognize, thus process, a significant amount of information “together and at the same time”. Identifying the fundamental mechanism of consciousness with that of the quantum speed up gives quantum consciousness, with respect to classical consciousness, a potentially enormous evolutionary advantage.
Irreversibility, Information and Randomness in Quantum Measurements
Mayburov, S N
2012-01-01
Irreversibility in quantum measurements is considered from the point of quantum information theory. For that purpose the information transfer between the measured object S and measuring system O is analyzed. It's found that due to the principal constraints of quantum-mechanical origin, the information about the purity of S state isn't transferred to O during the measurement of arbitraryS observable V. Consequently O can't discriminate the pure and mixed S ensembles with the same . As the result, the random outcomes should be detected by O in V measurement for S pure ensemble of V eigenstate superposition. It's shown that the outcome probabilties obey to Born rule. The influence of O decoherence by its environment is studied, however the account of its effects doesn't change these results principally.
Quantum Information: an invitation for mathematicians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Information is the science that aims to use the unusual behavior of the microscopic world, governed by the laws of Quantum Mechanics, in order to improve the way in which we compute or communicate information. Though the first ideas in this direction come from the early 80's, it is in the last decade when Quantum Information has suffered an spectacular development. It is impossible to resume in a paper like this one the importance and complexity of the field. Therefore, I will limit to briefly explain some of the initial ideas (considered classical by now), and to briefly suggest some of the modern lines of research. By the nature of this exposition, I have decided to avoid rigor and to concentrate more in ideas and intuitions. Anyhow, I have tried to provide with enough references, in such a way that an interested reader could find there proper theorems and proofs.
Critical and maximally informative encoding between neural populations in the retina.
Kastner, David B; Baccus, Stephen A; Sharpee, Tatyana O
2015-02-24
Computation in the brain involves multiple types of neurons, yet the organizing principles for how these neurons work together remain unclear. Information theory has offered explanations for how different types of neurons can maximize the transmitted information by encoding different stimulus features. However, recent experiments indicate that separate neuronal types exist that encode the same filtered version of the stimulus, but then the different cell types signal the presence of that stimulus feature with different thresholds. Here we show that the emergence of these neuronal types can be quantitatively described by the theory of transitions between different phases of matter. The two key parameters that control the separation of neurons into subclasses are the mean and standard deviation (SD) of noise affecting neural responses. The average noise across the neural population plays the role of temperature in the classic theory of phase transitions, whereas the SD is equivalent to pressure or magnetic field, in the case of liquid-gas and magnetic transitions, respectively. Our results account for properties of two recently discovered types of salamander Off retinal ganglion cells, as well as the absence of multiple types of On cells. We further show that, across visual stimulus contrasts, retinal circuits continued to operate near the critical point whose quantitative characteristics matched those expected near a liquid-gas critical point and described by the nearest-neighbor Ising model in three dimensions. By operating near a critical point, neural circuits can maximize information transmission in a given environment while retaining the ability to quickly adapt to a new environment. PMID:25675497
Heat engine driven by purely quantum information
Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Kang-Hwan; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sang Wook
2013-01-01
The key question of this paper is whether work can be extracted from a heat engine by using purely quantum mechanical information. If the answer is yes, what is its mathematical formula? First, by using a bipartite memory we show that the work extractable from a heat engine is bounded not only by the free energy change and the sum of the entropy change of an individual memory but also by the change of quantum mutual information contained inside the memory. We then find that ...
Protection of information in quantum qatabases
Ozhigov, Yuri
1997-01-01
The conventional protection of information by cryptographical keys makes no sense if a key can be quickly discovered by an unauthorized person. This way of penetration to the protected systems was made possible by a quantum computers in view of results of P.Shor and L.Grover. This work presents the method of protection of an information in a database from a spy even he knows all about its control system and has a quantum computer, whereas a database can not distinguish betwe...
Quantum information and computation for chemistry
Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A
2014-01-01
Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science
Quantum dot - nanocavity QED for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single quantum dots (QDs) in photonic crystal nanocavities are interesting both as a testbed for fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments, as well as a platform for quantum and classical information processing. In addition to providing a scalable, on-chip, platform, these systems also enable large dipole-field interaction strengths, as a result of the localization of the field to very small optical volumes. Such a platform could be employed to demonstrate a number of devices, including nonclassical light sources, electro-optic modulators and switches operating at the single photon level, and quantum gates. QD-cavity QED systems also exhibit interesting phonon-assisted off-resonant interaction between the QD and the cavity which can be employed for spectral filtering, as well as for coherent optical spectroscopy and quantum dot state readout, thereby overcoming issues coming from quantum dot inhomogeneous broadening. In order to make the platform compatible with fiber-optic telecommunication wavelengths, the intrinsic optical nonlinearity of the semiconductor employed to make a nanocavity can be employed for frequency conversion.
Network information theory for classical-quantum channels
Savov, Ivan
2012-01-01
Network information theory is the study of communication problems involving multiple senders, multiple receivers and intermediate relay stations. The purpose of this thesis is to extend the main ideas of classical network information theory to the study of classical-quantum channels. We prove coding theorems for quantum multiple access channels, quantum interference channels, quantum broadcast channels and quantum relay channels. A quantum model for a communication channel...
Towards the quantification of the semantic information encoded in written language
Montemurro, Marcelo A
2009-01-01
Written language is a complex communication signal capable of conveying information encoded in the form of ordered sequences of words. Beyond the local order ruled by grammar, semantic and thematic structures affect long-range patterns in word usage. Here, we show that a direct application of information theory quantifies the relationship between the statistical distribution of words and the semantic content of the text. We show that there is a characteristic scale, roughly around a few thousand words, which establishes the typical size of the most informative segments in written language. Moreover, we find that the words whose contributions to the overall information is larger, are the ones more closely associated with the main subjects and topics of the text. This scenario can be explained by a model of word usage that assumes that words are distributed along the text in domains of a characteristic size where their frequency is higher than elsewhere. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of a large data...
Black Holes, Information, and Hilbert Space for Quantum Gravity
Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J
2012-01-01
A complete description for the formation and evaporation of a black hole is given within the framework of a unitary theory of quantum gravity preserving locality. The resulting picture depends strongly on the reference frame one chooses to describe the process. In one description based on a reference frame in which the reference point stays outside the black hole horizon for sufficiently long time, a late black hole state becomes a superposition of black holes in different locations and with different spins, even if the back hole is formed from collapsing matter that had a well-defined classical configuration with no angular momentum. The information about the initial state is partly encoded in relative coefficients---especially phases---of the terms representing macroscopically different geometries. In another description in which the reference point enters into the black hole horizon at late times, an S-matrix description in the asymptotically Minkowski spacetime is not applicable, but it sill allows for an...
Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution
Giddings, Steven B.
2012-06-01
The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and, in particular, unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with minimal departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert-space approach an apparently coarser form of localization can be described in terms of tensor decompositions of the Hilbert space of the complete system. This suggests a general framework in which to seek a consistent description of quantum gravity, and approximate emergence of spacetime. Other possible aspects of such a framework—in particular, symmetries—are briefly discussed.
Optimal photons for quantum-information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Photonic quantum-information processing schemes, such as linear optics quantum computing, and other experiments relying on single-photon interference, inherently require complete photon indistinguishability to enable the desired photonic interactions to take place. Mode-mismatch is the dominant cause of photon distinguishability in optical circuits. Here we study the effects of photon wave-packet shape on tolerance against the effects of mode mismatch in linear optical circuits, and show that Gaussian distributed photons with large bandwidth are optimal. The result is general and holds for arbitrary linear optical circuits, including ones which allow for postselection and classical feed forward. Our findings indicate that some single photon sources, frequently cited for their potential application to quantum-information processing, may in fact be suboptimal for such applications
Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information Science
Hagemeier, Jenna Nicole
Quantum information science and technology is a broad and fascinating field, encompassing diverse research areas such as materials science, atomic physics, superconductors, solid-state physics, and photonics. A goal of this field is to demonstrate the basic functions of information initialization, manipulation, and read-out in systems that take advantage of quantum physics to greatly enhance computing performance capabilities. In a hybrid quantum information network, different systems are used to perform different functions, to best exploit the advantageous properties of each system. For example, matter quantum bits (qubits) can be used for local data storage and manipulation while photonic qubits can be used for long-distance communication between storage points of the network. Our research focuses on the following two solid-state realizations of a matter qubit for the purpose of building such a hybrid quantum network: the electronic spin of a self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dot and the electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond. Light--matter interactions are necessary to transfer the information from the matter qubit to the photonic qubit, and this interaction can be enhanced by embedding the spin system in an optical cavity. We focus on photonic crystal microcavities for this purpose, and we study interactions between the optical cavity modes and incorporated spin systems. To improve the performance of this spin--photon interface, it is important to maximize the coupling strength between the spin and photonic systems and to increase the read-out efficiency of information stored in the cavity. In this thesis, we present our work to deterministically couple a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium phosphide. This is achieved by nanopositioning a pre-selected diamond nanocrystal in the intensity maximum of the optical cavity mode. We also present an optimized design of a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium arsenide that provides optimal trade-off between strength of interaction with an embedded quantum dot and efficiency of light extraction from the cavity mode, and we experimentally demonstrate the improved characteristics of this cavity design. These results represent key developments of quantum information technologies on a solid-state platform.
Generating the Depth Map from the Motion Information of H.264-Encoded 2D Video Sequence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahsa T. Pourazad
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient method that estimates the depth map of a 3D-scene using the motion information of the H.264-encoded 2D-video is presented. The motion information of the video-frames captured via a single camera is either directly used or modified to approximate the displacement (disparity that exists between the right and left images when the scene is captured by stereoscopic cameras. Then, depth is estimated based on its inverse relation with disparity. The low-complexity of this method and its compatibility with future broadcasting networks allow its real-time implementation at the receiver; thus 3D-signal is constructed at no additional burden to the network. Performance evaluations show that this method outperforms the other existing H.264-based technique by up to 1.98?dB PSNR, providing more realistic depth information of the scene. Moreover subjective comparisons of the results, obtained by viewers watching the generated stereo video sequences on a 3D-display system, confirm the superiority of our method.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-09-01
We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a variety of concrete images given by temporal realizations of the corresponding (Gaussian) random signal. This signal has the covariance operator coinciding with the density operator encoding the abstract concept under consideration. The presence of various temporal scales in the brain plays the crucial role in creation of QLR in the brain. Moreover, in our model electromagnetic noise produced by neurons is a source of superstrong QL correlations between processes in different spatial domains in the brain; the binding problem is solved on the QL level, but with the aid of the classical background fluctuations. PMID:21683119
Realism and Antirealism in Informational Foundations of Quantum Theory
Tina Bilban
2014-01-01
Zeilinger-Brukner's informational foundations of quantum theory, a theory based on Zeilinger's foundational principle for quantum mechanics that an elementary system carried one bit of information, explains seemingly unintuitive quantum behavior with simple theoretical framework. It is based on the notion that distinction between reality and information cannot be made, therefore they are the same. As the critics of informational foundations of quantum theory show, this antirealistic move capt...
Fractals in Quantum Information Process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the recent work of Kiss et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 100501], the evolvement of two-qubit quantum states in a measurement-based purification process is studied. As they pointed out, the purification results manifest sensitivity to the applied initial states. The convergence regions to different stable circles are depicted on a complex plane. Because of the result patterns' likeness to typical fractals, we make further study on the interesting patterns' connection to fractals. Finally, through a numerical method we conclude that the boundaries of different islands of the patterns are fractals, which possess a non-integral fractal dimension. Also, we show that the fractal dimension would vary with the change of the portion of the noise added to the initial states
The encoding of category-specific versus nonspecific information in human inferior temporal cortex.
Guo, Bingbing; Meng, Ming
2015-08-01
Several brain areas in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA), are hypothesized to be selectively responsive to a particular category of visual objects. However, how category-specific and nonspecific information may be encoded at this level of visual processing is still unclear. Using fMRI, we compared averaged BOLD activity as well as multi-voxel activation patterns in the FFA and PPA corresponding to high-contrast and low-contrast face and house images. The averaged BOLD activity in the FFA and PPA was modulated by the image contrast regardless of the stimulus category. Interestingly, unlike the univariate averaged BOLD activity, multi-voxel activation patterns in the FFA and PPA were barely affected by variations in stimulus contrast. In both the FFA and PPA, decoding the categorical information about whether participants saw faces or houses was independent of stimulus contrast. Moreover, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) results were highly stable when either the voxels that were more sensitive to stimulus contrast or the voxels that were less sensitive were used. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both category-specific (face versus house) information and nonspecific (image contrast) information are available to be decoded orthogonally in the same brain areas (FFA and PPA), suggesting that complementary neural mechanisms for processing visual features and categorical information may occur in the same brain areas but respectively be revealed by averaged activity and multi-voxel activation patterns. Whereas stimulus strength, such as contrast, modulates overall activity amplitudes in these brain areas, activity patterns across populations of neurons appear to underlie the representation of object category. PMID:25869859
Nonparadoxical loss of information in black hole evaporation in a quantum collapse model
Modak, Sujoy K.; Ortíz, Leonardo; Peña, Igor; Sudarsky, Daniel
2015-06-01
We consider a novel approach to address the black hole information paradox. The idea is based on adapting, to the situation at hand, the modified versions of quantum theory involving spontaneous stochastic dynamical collapse of quantum states, which have been considered in attempts to deal with shortcomings of the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, in particular, the issue known as "the measurement problem." The new basic hypothesis is that the modified quantum behavior is enhanced in the region of high curvature so that the information encoded in the initial quantum state of the matter fields is rapidly erased as the black hole singularity is approached. We show that in this manner the complete evaporation of the black hole via Hawking radiation can be understood as involving no paradox. Calculations are performed using a modified version of quantum theory known as "continuous spontaneous localization" (CSL), which was originally developed in the context of many-particle nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We use a version of CSL tailored to quantum field theory and applied in the context of the two -dimensional Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger model. Although the role of quantum gravity in this picture is restricted to the resolution of the singularity, related studies suggest that there might be further connections.
Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche
Martin, F.; Carminati, F.; Galli Carminati, G.
2010-05-01
In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to “read” the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolution shows how for example the unconscious can influence consciousness. In a process like mourning the influence of the unconscious on consciousness, as the influence of consciousness on the unconscious, are in agreement with what is observed in psychiatry.
Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche
Martin, F; Carminati, G Galli
2010-01-01
In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to ``read{''} the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi o...
Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes
Hiesmayr, B C
2014-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...
Xavier, G B; da Silva, T Ferreira; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P
2009-01-01
We experimentally show a two-way transmission of polarization encoded pseudo-single photons between two remote parties separated by a single 23 km optical fiber spool. Two optical classical channels are wavelength multiplexed in the same fiber and used as feedback to an active polarization drift compensation scheme. One of the classical channels contains a 10 Gb/s data stream simulating real telecom traffic. The feasibility of quantum communication is demonstrated in the fiber's two opposite directions of propagation over 6 hours of continuous operation, as well as a classical error rate in the data channel better than 1.0 x 10-9. The results are extended to show the estimated maximum transmission distance for the quantum signals based on the noise generated through Raman spontaneous scattering by up to 16 classical channels present in the fiber.
Photon exchange interactions and quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We previously suggested that photon exchange interactions could be used to produce nonlinear effects at the two-photon level, and similar effects have been experimentally observed by Resch et al. (e-print quant-ph/0306198). Here we note that photon exchange interactions are not useful for quantum information processing because they require the presence of substantial photon loss. This dependence on loss is somewhat analogous to the postselection required in the linear optics approach to quantum computing suggested by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)
Cryptography from quantum uncertainty in the presence of quantum side information
Bouman, Niek Johannes
2012-01-01
The thesis starts with a high-level introduction into cryptography and quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 gives a theoretical foundation by introducing probability theory, information theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 are editions of work published earlier. In Chapter 3, we present a quantum-information-theoretic tool to analyze random sampling in a quantum setting. In particular, we present two new rigorous security proofs that ma...
A New Approach to Encoding and Hiding Information in an Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadhil Salman Abed
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The information age brings some unique challenges to society. New technology and new applications bring new threats and force us to invent new protection mechanisms. So every few years, computer security needs to reinvent itself. In this paper we propose a new image encoding system utilizing fractal theories; this approach exploits the main feature of fractals generated by IFS techniques. Two levels of encryption and decryption methods performed to enhance the security of the system, this is based on the fact that all fractal functions use real number to ensure satisfaction of contraction property. If the cryptosystem parameters are based on real numbers (a continuous infinite interval then the search space is massive. Hence, many well known attacks fail to solve the nonlinear systems and find the imprecise secret key parameter from the given public one. Even if it is theoretically possible, it is computationally not feasible. The encrypted date represents the attractor generated by the IFS transformation, Collage theorem is used to find the IFS for decrypting data. The proposed method gives the possibility to hide maximum amount of data in an image that represent the attractor of the IFS without degrading its quality. Also to make the hidden data robust enough to withstand known cryptographic attacks and image processing techniques which do not change the appearance of image. The security level is high because the jointly coded images cannot be correctly reconstructed without all the required information.
Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information
Cabello, Adan
2000-01-01
This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, web sites, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demo...
Locally Accessible Information of Multisite Quantum Ensembles Violates Monogamy
Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal
2011-01-01
Locally accessible information is a useful information-theoretic physical quantity of an ensemble of multiparty quantum states. We find it has properties akin to quantum as well as classical correlations of single multiparty quantum states. It satisfies monotonicity under local quantum operations and classical communication. However we show that it does not follow monogamy, an important property usually satisfied by quantum correlations, and actually violates any such relati...
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Raisinghani, Mahesh S
2001-01-01
The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference). Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, i...
Two-way quantum communication: 'secure quantum information exchange'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present a new idea of two-way quantum communication called 'secure quantum information exchange' (SQIE). If there are two arbitrary unknown quantum states |?)IA and |?)IB, initially with Alice and Bob, respectively, then SQIE protocol leads to the simultaneous exchange of these states between Alice and Bob with the aid of the special kind of six-qubit entangled (SSE) state and classical assistance of the third party, Charlie. The term 'secure' signifies the fact that SQIE protocol either faithfully exchanges the unknown quantum states proceeding in a prescribed way or, in case of any irregularity, the process generates no results. For experimental realization of the SQIE protocol, we have suggested an efficient scheme for generating SSE states using the interaction between highly detuned ?-type three-level atoms and the optical coherent field. By theoretical calculations, we found that SSE states of almost unit fidelity with perfect success rates for appreciable mean photon numbers (Fav ? 0.999 for |?|2 ? 1.5) can be generated by our scheme. Further, we have discussed possible experimental imperfections, such as atomic-radiative time, cavity damping time, atom-cavity interaction time, and the efficiency of discrimination between the coherent field and the vacuum state shows that our SQIE protocol is within the reach of technology presently available.lable.
Schlosser, Ralf G. M.; Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Nenadic, Igor; Roebel, Martin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Axer, Martina; Schultz, Christoph; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich
2008-01-01
Working memory deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Previous working memory studies suggest a load dependent storage deficit. However, explicit studies of higher executive working memory processes are limited. Moreover, few studies have examined whether subcomponents of working memory such as encoding and maintenance of information are…
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Carlos, Aguilar-Ibáñez; Miguel S., Suárez-Castañón; Humberto, Sossa-Azuela; Ricardo, Barrón-Fernández.
2004-12-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone el uso de sincronización entre mapas hipercaóticos para codificar y decodificar información. La información a ser codificada es introducida al transmisor como una perturbación externa. La señal transmitida es empleada tanto para la sincronización y como portadora de la inf [...] ormación codificada. Una vez que el receptor esta sincronizado con el transmisor, el primero decodifica la información mediante la reconstrucción de la perturbación externa. En términos generales, se diseñó un esquema sencillo para codificar y decodificar datos, enfocado como un problema inverso. El desempeño del esquema mostró ser muy satisfactorio, como se comprobó en la implantación numérica. Los resultados obtenidos se usaron para construir una aplicación para comunicación segura en línea sobre internet. Abstract in english In this work we propose to use hyperchaotic maps synchronization to encode and decode information. The information to be encode is input to the transmitter as an external perturbation. The transmitted signal is used for synchronization and as the encode information carrier. Once the receiver is sync [...] hronized with the transmitter, the former decode the information by reconstruct the external perturbation. Roughly speaking, we design a simple schema to encode and decode data, as a simple inverse problem approach. The schema performance shows to be quite satisfactory, as assess from the numerical implementation. We use the results to build an application to establish secure on-line communication over Internet.
Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world
Fayngold, Moses
2013-01-01
Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.
Synchronicity, Quantum Information and the Psyche
Martin, Francois; Galli Carminati, Giuliana
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe synchronicity phenomena. As an explanation of these phenomena we propose quantum entanglement between the psychic realm known as the "unconscious" and also the classical illusion of the collapse of the wave-function. Then, taking the theory of quantum information as a model we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qu-bits). We analyze how there can be communication between these various qu-bit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this manner we build quantum processes that permit consciousness to "read" the unconscious and vice-versa. The most elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qu-bit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolu...
Towards Quantum Information Theory in Space and Time
Volovich, Igor V.
2002-01-01
Modern quantum information theory deals with an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as qubit, channel, composite systems and entangled states should be formulated in space and time. In particlular we suggest that instead of a two level system (qubit) the basic notion in...
Quantum Information Processing with Finite Resources - Mathematical Foundations
Tomamichel, Marco
2015-01-01
One of the predominant challenges when engineering future quantum information processors is that large quantum systems are notoriously hard to maintain and control accurately. It is therefore of immediate practical relevance to investigate quantum information processing with limited physical resources, for example to ask: How well can we perform information processing tasks if we only have access to a small quantum device? Can we beat fundamental limits imposed on informatio...
Beyond bits: The future of quantum information processing
Steane, Am; Rieffel, Eg
2000-01-01
Quantum information theory seeks to unite some of the most influential ideas of 20th century science: quantum mechanics, computer science and information theory. The development of quantum information theory has only begun, and only a few applications are known, mostly in quantum system control and data security. The future of the theory is hard to predict, but it seems poised to contribute to some of the most exciting ideas of the 21st century. This theory gives an ideal framework for develo...
Cai, Honghao; Chen, Yushan; Cui, Xiaohong; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2014-01-01
Background and Purpose Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has become an important technique for tissue studies. Since tissues are in semisolid-state, their high-resolution (HR) spectra cannot be obtained by conventional NMR spectroscopy. Because of this restriction, extraction and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) are widely applied for HR NMR spectra of tissues. However, both of the methods are subject to limitations. In this study, the feasibility of HR 1H NMR spectroscopy based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC) technique is explored using fish muscle, fish eggs, and a whole fish as examples. Materials and Methods Intact salmon muscle tissues, intact eggs from shishamo smelt and a whole fish (Siamese algae eater) are studied by using conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, Hadamard-encoded iMQC sequence, and HR MAS. Results When we use the conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, hardly any useful spectral information can be obtained due to the severe field inhomogeneity. By contrast, HR NMR spectra can be obtained in a short period of time by using the Hadamard-encoded iMQC method without shimming. Most signals from fatty acids and small metabolites can be observed. Compared to HR MAS, the iMQC method is non-invasive, but the resolution and the sensitivity of resulting spectra are not as high as those of HR MAS spectra. Conclusion Due to the immunity to field inhomogeneity, the iMQC technique can be a proper supplement to HR MAS, and it provides an alternative for the investigation in cases with field distortions and with samples unsuitable for spinning. The acquisition time of the proposed method is greatly reduced by introduction of the Hadamard-encoded technique, in comparison with that of conventional iMQC method. PMID:24466083
Toward a conceptual foundation of Quantum Information Processing
Chiribella, Giulio
2011-03-01
Quantum Information Science has brought to light an enormous amount of new protocols showing that the structure of quantum theory dramatically impacts the way in which information can be processed. It also made clear that the rules of information processing are dictated by physics and that different physical theories entail different models of information processing. Quantum Information poses an exciting challenge to foundational research: the challenge is to reduce the multiplicity of quantum protocols to a small number of basic physical principles and to answer questions like ``What are the physical roots of the power of quantum information?'' A satisfactory answer to these questions calls for the solution of a long-standing problem: deriving quantum theory from physical principles, as opposed to the abstract mathematical principles of the Hilbert space formulation. In this talk I will show that quantum theory can be derived from few principles about information processing. The central principle of the derivation will be the purification principle, stating that ignorance about a part (subsystem) is always compatible with maximal knowledge of the whole (compound system). A large number of quantum information features, including e.g. teleportation and no-cloning, are direct consequences of the purification principle, which appears a strong candidate for the conceptual foundation of Quantum Information Processing. Moreover, the derivation of quantum theory from purely informational principles provides a rigorous justification of the diffuse claim that quantum theory is ultimately a theory of information.
Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource, and consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger and time dissipative operations, while keeping the system Liouvillian time-independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.
Efficient error characterization in quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe how to use the fidelity decay as a tool to characterize the errors affecting a quantum information processor through a noise generator G?. For weak noise, the initial decay rate of the fidelity proves to be a simple way to measure the magnitude of the different terms in G?. When the generator has only terms associated with few-body couplings, our proposal is scalable. We present the explicit protocol for estimating the magnitude of the noise generators when the noise consists of only one- and two-body terms, and describe a method for measuring the parameters of more general noise models. The protocol focuses on obtaining the magnitude with which these terms affect the system during a time step of length ?; measurement of this information has critical implications for assessing the scalability of fault-tolerant quantum computation in any physical setup
Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukasz-Andrzej Glinka
2007-09-01
Full Text Available We present basics of conceptually new-type way for explaining of the origin, evolution and current physical properties of our Universe from the graviton-matter gas viewpoint. Quantization method for the Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe based on the canonical Hamilton equations of motion is proposed and quantum information theory way to physics of the Universe is showed. The current contribution from the graviton-matter gas temperature in quintessence approximation is discussed.
Thermodynamical analogues in quantum information theory
Rohrlich, Daniel
2001-01-01
The first step in quantum information theory is the identification of entanglement as a valuable resource. The next step is learning how to exploit this resource efficiently. We learn how to exploit entanglement efficiently by applying analogues of thermodynamical concepts. These concepts include reversibility, entropy, and the distinction between intensive and extensive quantities. We discuss some of these analogues and show how they lead to a measure of entanglement for pu...
Combinatorial Approaches in Quantum Information Theory
Singh, Sudhir Kumar
2004-01-01
We investigate the exploitation of various combinatorial properties of graphs and set systems to study several issues in quantum information theory. We characterize the combinatorics of distributed EPR pairs for preparing multi-partite entanglement in a real communication network. This combinatorics helps in the study of various problems in multi-party case by just reducing to the two-party case. Particularly, we use this combinatorics to (1) study various possible and impos...
Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory
Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Didier Sornette
2008-01-01
A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions,...
Byuons, Quantum Information Channel, Consciousness and Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Baurov
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The physics of consciousness and universal mind is shown on the base of theory of byuons, the theory of “life’ of special unobservable discrete objects—byuons from which the surrounding space and the world of elementary particles are formed. An essential distinction of that theory from the modern models in the classical and quantum field theories is that the potentials of physical fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, asf. gain exactly fixable, measurable values. Basic axioms and some conclusions of this theory are discussed. The theory of byuons predicts the existence of a new force and a new quantum information channel in nature. All objects of the Universe are shown to be united into the unique information field due to the huge interval of uncertainty in the coordinate (?x = L = 10^{28} cm of objects 4b (object formed during four-contact byuon-byuon interaction ( mc^{2}_{4b} = 33 eV forming the surrounding physical space. It is a new quantum information channel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PatrickHennig
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly’s visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell’s most conspicuous property: Its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly’s saccadic flight and gaze strategy: The FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects - irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined - by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.
PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013
2014-11-01
Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum
Vlasov, Alexander Yu
2009-01-01
In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.
The encoding of individual identity in dolphin signature whistles: how much information is needed?
Kershenbaum, Arik; Sayigh, Laela S; Janik, Vincent M
2013-01-01
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) produce many vocalisations, including whistles that are unique to the individual producing them. Such "signature whistles" play a role in individual recognition and maintaining group integrity. Previous work has shown that humans can successfully group the spectrographic representations of signature whistles according to the individual dolphins that produced them. However, attempts at using mathematical algorithms to perform a similar task have been less successful. A greater understanding of the encoding of identity information in signature whistles is important for assessing similarity of whistles and thus social influences on the development of these learned calls. We re-examined 400 signature whistles from 20 individual dolphins used in a previous study, and tested the performance of new mathematical algorithms. We compared the measure used in the original study (correlation matrix of evenly sampled frequency measurements) to one used in several previous studies (similarity matrix of time-warped whistles), and to a new algorithm based on the Parsons code, used in music retrieval databases. The Parsons code records the direction of frequency change at each time step, and is effective at capturing human perception of music. We analysed similarity matrices from each of these three techniques, as well as a random control, by unsupervised clustering using three separate techniques: k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and an adaptive resonance theory neural network. For each of the three clustering techniques, a seven-level Parsons algorithm provided better clustering than the correlation and dynamic time warping algorithms, and was closer to the near-perfect visual categorisations of human judges. Thus, the Parsons code captures much of the individual identity information present in signature whistles, and may prove useful in studies requiring quantification of whistle similarity. PMID:24194893
Quantum thermodynamic processes energy and information flow at the nanoscale
Mahler, Guenter
2015-01-01
The point of departure of this book is a triad of themes: information theory, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. These are related: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics form the basis of quantum thermodynamics; information and quantum mechanics underly, inter alia, the notorious quantum measurement problem; and information and thermodynamics have much to say about control limits in the tension between micro- and macro-descriptions.Why does the world around us typically look thermal-from cosmology down to individual embedded spins? Do informational measures constitute additional (independen
Quantum non-locality Fundamentals and Applications in Quantum Information Science
Brunner, Nicolas
2007-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of quantum non-locality, in the framework of quantum information science. The research presented here includes both theoretical works on some fundamental concepts, such as the measurement process and quantum correlations, as well as some applications in modern quantum optics. As it is often the case in quantum information science, the joint study of fundamental notions and applications is very productive. While a better understanding of the fundamental conc...
The Physics of Quantum Information: Complementarity, Uncertainty, and Entanglement
Renes, Joseph M.
2012-01-01
The overarching goal of this thesis is to demonstrate that complementarity is at the heart of quantum information theory, that it allows us to make (some) sense of just what information "quantum information" refers to, and that it is useful in understanding and constructing quantum information processing protocols. The detailed research results which form the basis of these claims are to be found in the included papers, and the aim here is to present an overview comprehensib...
Quantifying non-Gaussianity for quantum information
Genoni, Marco
2010-01-01
We address the quantification of non-Gaussianity of states and operations in continuous-variable systems and its use in quantum information. We start by illustrating in details the properties and the relationships of two recently proposed measures of non-Gaussianity based on the Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) distance and the quantum relative entropy (QRE) between the state under examination and a reference Gaussian state. We then evaluate the non-Gaussianities of several families of non-Gaussian quantum states and show that the two measures have the same basic properties and also share the same qualitative behaviour on most of the examples taken into account. However, we also show that they introduce a different relation of order, i.e. they are not strictly monotone each other. We exploit the non-Gaussianity measures for states in order to introduce a measure of non-Gaussianity for quantum operations, to assess Gaussification and de-Gaussification protocols, and to investigate in details the role played by non-Gaussia...
Storing Quantum Information via Atomic Dark Resonances
Caruso, Filippo
2010-01-01
In this thesis, after a brief review of some concepts of Quantum Optics, we analyze a three-level atomic system in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and we investigate the propagation of a gaussian pulse along a cigar-shaped cloud of both cold and hot atoms in EIT regime. In particular, we show that it is possible to amplify a slow propagating pulse without population inversion. We also analyze the regime of anomalous light propagation showing that it is possible to observe superluminal energy propagation. In these conditions, it is possible to imprint reversibly ('write') the information carried by the photons onto the atoms, specifically as a coherent pattern of atomic spins, and later the information stored in the atomic spins can be transferred back ('read') to the light field, implementing in this way a quantum memory. Besides, we analyze the propagation of a quantum field in an EIT medium sustaining dark state polaritons (DSP) in a quasi-particle picture. Here, the decohe...
Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains
Alcaraz, F C
2015-01-01
We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\til...
Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains
Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.
2015-04-01
We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ? and L -? , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/? sin(?/? L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.
Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M.
2001-07-01
The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.
Relativistic Quantum Information in Detectors-Field Interactions
Hu, B L; Louko, Jorma
2012-01-01
We explore the use of moving Unruh-DeWitt detectors and other models of detector-field interaction in probing some key issues in relativistic quantum information science, from entanglement dynamics to quantum teleportation.
Some Novel Thought Experiments Involving Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information
Akhavan, O
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we have proposed some novel thought experiments involving foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory, using quantum entanglement property. Concerning foundations of quantum mechanics, we have suggested some typical systems including two correlated particles which can distinguish between the two famous theories of quantum mechanics, i.e. the standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics, at the individual level of pair of particles. Meantime, the two theories present the same predictions at the ensemble level of particles. Regarding quantum information theory, two theoretical quantum communication schemes including quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation schemes have been proposed by using entangled spatial states of two EPR particles shared between two parties. It is shown that the rate of classical information gain in our dense coding scheme is greater than some previously proposed multi-qubit protocols by a logarithmic factor dependent on the dimension of Hilbert space. ...
The quantum limit for information transmission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give two independent and rigorous derivations for the quantum bound on the information transmission rate as proposed independently Bekenstein and Bremermann, preceded by a heuristic argument showing why such a sort of bound should hold. In both approaches, information carriers are quanta of some field. The first method resembles the microcanonical approach to Statistical Mechanics where the strategy of overestimating the real number of states by relaxing the indistinguishability of quanta was adopted. The second is entirely based upon max-entropy methods. Amazingly enough, the results obtained by these physically unrelated premises turn out to be identical, namely, that the single (noiseless) channel capacity is I sub(max) E/2?h bits s sup(-1). It is further shown that, in a finite time ? no information can ever be conveyed unless the energy threshold 2 ?h/? is reached. (author)
NMR Quantum Information Processing with Para-Hydrogen
Anwar, M. S.
2005-01-01
This thesis addresses the problems of initialization and separability in liquid state NMR based quantum information processors. We prepare pure quantum states lying above the entanglement threshold. Our pure state quantum computer derives its purity from the highly polarized nuclear spin states in the para-hydrogen molecule. The thesis begins with a critique of conventional NMR based quantum information processing outlining the major strengths and weaknesses of the technolog...
Information leakage resistant quantum dialogue against collective noise
Ye, TianYu
2014-12-01
In this paper, two information leakage resistant quantum dialogue (QD) protocols over a collective-noise channel are proposed. Decoherence-free subspace (DFS) is used to erase the influence from two kinds of collective noise, i.e., collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, where each logical qubit is composed of two physical qubits and free from noise. In each of the two proposed protocols, the secret messages are encoded on the initial logical qubits via two composite unitary operations. Moreover, the single-photon measurements rather than the Bell-state measurements or the more complicated measurements are needed for decoding, making the two proposed protocols easier to implement. The initial state of each logical qubit is privately shared between the two authenticated users through the direct transmission of its auxiliary counterpart. Consequently, the information leakage problem is avoided in the two proposed protocols. Moreover, the detailed security analysis also shows that Eve's several famous active attacks can be effectively overcome, such as the Trojan horse attack, the intercept-resend attack, the measure-resend attack, the entangle-measure attack and the correlation-elicitation (CE) attack.
Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P
2008-02-01
A real-time polarization control system employing two non-orthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results on the wavelength multiplexing setup show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, can be achieved with response times smaller than 10 ms, without significant introduction of noise counts in the quantum channel. PMID:18542265
Xavier, G B; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P
2007-01-01
A real-time polarization control system employing two nonorthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, can be achieved with response times smaller than 10 ms, without significant introduction of noise counts in the quantum channel.
Decoding reality the universe as quantum information
Vedral, Vlatko
2010-01-01
In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: A NEW GENERATION OF INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ritesh Kumar Jain
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum Cryptography is an approach to securing communications by applying the phenomena of quantum physics. Unlike traditional classical cryptography, which uses mathematical techniques to restrict eavesdroppers, quantum cryptography is focused on the physics of information. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. The quantum cryptography relies on two important elements of quantum mechanics-the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle and the principle of photon polarization. This paper summarizes the current state of quantum cryptography and the real–world application implementation of this technology.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; YAMATO, ICHIRO
2015-01-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB) -- one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of inf...
Information measures and classicality in quantum mechanics
Anastopoulos, C
1999-01-01
We study information measures in quantu mechanics, with particular emphasis on providing a quantification of the notions of classicality and predictability. Our primary tool is the Shannon - Wehrl entropy I. We give a precise criterion for phase space classicality and argue that in view of this a) I provides a measure of the degree of deviation from classicality for closed system b) I - S (S the von Neumann entropy) plays the same role in open systems We examine particular examples in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Finally, (this being one of our main motivations) we comment on field classicalisation on early universe cosmology.
Quantum Information Paradox: Real or Fictitious?
Mitra, Abhas
2009-01-01
One of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics is whether quantum information indeed gets lost in the case of Black Hole (BH) evaporation or accretion. Let us recall that Quantum Mechanics (QM) demands an upper limit on the acceleration of a test particle. On the other hand, it is pointed out here that, if a Schwarzschild BH would exist, the acceleration of the test particle would blow up at the event horizon in violation of QM. Thus the concept of an exact BH is in contradiction of QM and quantum gravity (QG). It is also reminded that the mass of a BH actually appears as an INTEGRATION CONSTANT of Einstein equations. And it has been shown that the value of this integration constant is actually zero. Thus even classically, there cannot be finite mass BHs though zero mass BH is allowed. It has been further shown that during continued gravitational collapse, radiation emanating from the contracting object gets trapped within it by the runaway gravitational field. As a consequence, the contracting body at...
Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); D' Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), I-50125 Florence (Italy)
2011-09-15
Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.
Xavier, G. B.; de Faria, G. Vilela; Temporao, G. P.; Von der Weid, J. P.
2007-01-01
A real-time polarization control system employing two nonorthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, ...
A Quantum Model for Autonomous Learning Automata
Siomau, Michael
2012-01-01
The idea of information encoding on quantum bearers and its quantum-mechanical processing has revolutionized our world and brought mankind on the verge of enigmatic era of quantum technologies. Inspired by this idea, in present paper we search for advantages of quantum information processing in the field of machine learning. Exploiting only basic properties of the Hilbert space, superposition principle of quantum mechanics and quantum measurements, we construct a quantum ana...
Simulation of the Burgers equation by NMR quantum-information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the implementation of Burgers equation as a type-II quantum computation on a NMR quantum-information processor. Since the flow field evolving under the Burgers equation develops sharp features over time, this is a better test of liquid-state NMR implementations of type-II quantum computers than the previous examples using the diffusion equation. In particular, we show that Fourier approximations used in the encoding step are not the dominant error. Small systematic errors in the collision operator accumulate and swamp all other errors. We propose, and demonstrate, that the accumulation of this error can be avoided to a large extent by replacing the single collision operator with a set of operators with random errors and similar fidelities. Experiments have been implemented on 16 two-qubit sites for eight successive time steps for the Burgers equation
Quantum correlations beyond entanglement and their role in quantum information theory
Streltsov, Alexander
2015-01-01
Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.
Quantum information processing: The case of vanishing interaction energy
Dugic, M.; Cirkovic, M. M.
2002-01-01
We investigate the rate of operation of quantum "black boxes" ("oracles") and point out the possibility of performing an operation by a quantum "oracle" whose average energy equals zero. This counterintuitive result not only presents a generalization of the recent results of Margolus and Levitin, but might also sharpen the conceptual distinction between the "classical" and the "quantum" information.
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.
A neural-network-like quantum information processing system
Perus, Mitja; Bischof, Horst
2003-01-01
The Hopfield neural networks and the holographic neural networks are models which were successfully simulated on conventional computers. Starting with these models, an analogous fundamental quantum information processing system is developed in this article. Neuro-quantum interaction can regulate the "collapse"-readout of quantum computation results. This paper is a comprehensive introduction into associative processing and memory-storage in quantum-physical framework.
Von Neumann and Luders postulates and quantum information theory
Khrennikov, Andrei
2009-01-01
This note is devoted to some foundational aspects of quantum mechanics (QM) related to quantum information (QI) theory, especially quantum teleportation and ``one way quantum computing.'' We emphasize the role of the projection postulate (determining post-measurement states) in QI and the difference between its L\\"uders and von Neumann versions. These projection postulates differ crucially in the case of observables with degenerate spectra. Such observables play the fundamen...
Quantum information processing in collective-rotating decoherence-free subspace
Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-06-01
Using the atomic state encoded in the collective-rotating decoherence-free subspace (CRDFS), two methods to construct the hybrid-controlled-phase-flip gate between photon and the single logic qubit are presented assisted by the cavity input-output process. Then, ways to realize the common single-qubit operations in CRDFS are given out. Based on the former gate and single-qubit operations, methods to construct the parity gate and controlled-phase gate in CRDFS are discussed. Next, two ways to realize the Bell-state measurement and the approach to realize quantum information transfer in CRDFS are proposed. Final discussion and numerical simulation reveal that our work is feasible and useful for quantum information processing tasks in CRDFS.
Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source, or a sender of the signal, because each receiver can become a sender as well. An observer receives a signal by performing certain measurements synchronized with the measurements of the others. This means that the signal is uniformly and simultaneously distributed over the observers in a decentralized way. The signals transmit no intentional information that would favor one agent over another. All the sequence of signals received by different observers are not only statistically equivalent, but are also point-by-point identical. It is important to assume that each agent knows that the other agent simultaneously receives the identical signals. The sequences of the signals are true random, so that no agent could predict the next step with the probability different from those described by the density. Under these quite general assumptions, the entangled observers-agents can perform non-trivial tasks that include transmission of conditional information from one agent to another, simple paradigm of cooperation, etc. The problem of behavior of intelligent agents correlated by identical random messages in a decentralized way has its own significance: it simulates evolutionary behavior of biological and social systems correlated only via simultaneous sensoring sequences of unexpected events.
Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-01-01
In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vitanyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.
Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem
Takayuki Miyadera
2011-01-01
In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vit´anyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and the quantitative relat...
Enhanced atom interferometry through quantum information science
Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Clark, Charles
2011-05-01
New designs for atom interferometers can be inspired by quantum information science (QIS). QIS-inspired atom interferometer (AI) designs have the potential for producing AIs with enhanced sensitivity and robustness. We compare the sensitivity of a standard Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) Bragg AI with an AI whose design is based on the idea of decoherence-free subspaces (DFS). We studied the performance of both atom interferometers using an enhanced version of a previously developed Bragg interferometer prototyping model. This model approximates the effect on the condensate of multiple Bragg pulses separated by time delays using two elements: the effect of a single pulse and condensate evolution between pulses. The overall effect is rapidly approximated by following the steps of the interferometric process. We describe this model and then present the comparison of the performance of the M-Z interferometer with that of the DFS-inspired interferometer. Support provided by NSF grant number PHY-0758111.
On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism
Bynum, Terrell Ward
2013-01-01
In The Philosophy of Information (2011 book), Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls "Informational Structural Realism", a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information ("dedomena") as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi's defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of "Digital Ontology" (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi's ontology as a starting point, the present essay adds quantum features to dedomena, yielding an ontological theory for our own universe, Quantum Informational Structural Realism, which provides a metaphysical interpretation of key quantum phenomena, and diminishes the "weirdness" or "spookiness" of quantum mechanics. Key Words: digital ontology, dedomena, structural realism, quantum information, primordial qubit
Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond
Nemoto, Kae; Trupke, Michael; Devitt, Simon J.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Buczak, Kathrin; Nöbauer, Tobias; Everitt, Mark S.; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J.
2014-07-01
Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.
Secure sequential transmission of quantum information
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan
2015-01-01
We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of $n$-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmiss...
A model for the computation and encoding of azimuthal information by the lateral superior olive.
Reed, M C; Blum, J J
1990-09-01
A structural model is proposed for the processing of interaural intensity differences by the lateral superior olive. One fundamental assumption is that the incoming excitatory projections from the ipsilateral anteroventral cochlear nucleus innervate columns of LSO neurons serially according to threshold. A second fundamental assumption is that the inhibitory innervation from the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body is also serially arranged according to threshold but in the opposite direction along the LSO column. Using neurophysiological and neuroanatomical data for neuronal response curves, connectional patterns, and cell and synapse numbers, the model was formulated quantitatively and implemented for machine computation. Azimuthal location is encoded by the position along the LSO column where LSO cell firing first goes to zero. Accuracy of coding was tested for three different connectional schemes, for variations in neuronal parameters, and for cell and synapse death. Encoding is shown to be independent of absolute sound level and to vary linearly with interaural intensity difference. PMID:2229677
Fritz, Jonathan B.; Stephen V. David; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Yin, Pingbo; Shamma, Shihab A.
2010-01-01
Top-down signals from frontal cortex (FC) are conjectured to play a critical role in cognitive control of sensory processing. To explore this interaction, we compared activity in ferret FC and primary auditory cortex (A1) during auditory and visual tasks requiring discrimination between classes of reference and target stimuli. FC responses were behaviorally-gated, selectively encoded the timing and invariant behavioral meaning of target stimuli, could be rapid in onset, and sometimes persiste...
Efficient On-line Schemes for Encoding Individual Sequences with Side Information at the Decoder
Reani, Avraham
2009-01-01
We present adaptive on-line schemes for lossy encoding of individual sequences under the conditions of the Wyner-Ziv (WZ) problem. In the first part of this article, a set of fixed-rate scalar source codes with zero delay is presented. We propose a randomized on-line coding scheme, which achieves asymptotically (and with high probability), the performance of the best source code in the set, uniformly over all source sequences. The scheme uses the same rate and has zero delay. We then present an efficient algorithm for implementing our on-line coding scheme in the case of a relatively small set of encoders. We also present an efficient algorithm for the case of a larger set of encoders with a structure, using the method of the weighted graph and the Weight Pushing Algorithm (WPA). In the second part of this article, we extend our results to the case of variable-rate coding. A set of variable-rate scalar source codes is presented. We generalize the randomized on-line coding scheme, to our case. This time, the p...
Quantum information science with neutral atoms
Rakreungdet, Worawarong
We study a system of neutral atoms trapped in a three-dimensional optical lattice suitable for the encoding, initialization and manipulation of atomic qubits. The qubits are manipulated by applied electromagnetic fields interacting with dipole moments of the atoms via light shifts, Raman transitions, Zeeman shifts, and microwave transitions. Our lattice is formed by three orthogonal one-dimensional lattices, which have different frequencies so that interference terms average to zero. This geometry allows considerable freedom in designing the component one-dimensional lattices, so that they provide not only confinement but also independent control in each dimension. Our atomic qubits are initialized from a laser-cooled atomic sample by Raman sideband cooling in individual lattice potential wells. We have demonstrated accurate and robust one-qubit manipulation using resonant microwave fields. In practice such control operations are always subject to errors, in our case spatial inhomogeneities in the microwave Rabi frequency and the light shifted qubit transition frequency. Observation of qubit dynamics in near real time allows us to minimize these inhomogeneities, and therefore optimize qubit logic gates. For qubits in the lattice, we infer a fidelity of 0.990(3) for a single pi-pulse. We have also explored the use of NMR-type pulse techniques in order to further reduce the effect of errors and thus improve gate robustness in the atom/lattice system. Our schemes for two-qubit quantum logic operations are based on controlled collisional interactions. We have experimented with two schemes in order to probe these collisions. The first involves manipulation of the center-of-mass wavepackets of two qubits in a geometry corresponding to two partially overlapping Mach-Zender interferometers. Unfortunately, this scheme has proven extremely sensitive to phase errors, as the wavepackets are moved by the optical lattice. The other scheme starts with two qubits in spatially separated traps, and utilizes microwaves to drive one or both qubits into a third trap in-between the two qubits. Once the wavepackets overlap, the collisions create a large energy shift which can be probed spectroscopically.
The Study of Entangled States in Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Science
Chung, Hyeyoun
2008-01-01
This thesis explores the use of entangled states in quantum computation and quantum information science. Entanglement, a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart, has been identified as an important and quantifiable resource in many areas of theoretical quantum information science, including quantum error correction, quantum cryptography, and quantum algorithms. We first investigate the equivalence classes of a particular class of entangled states (known as graph states due to their association with mathematical graphs) under local operations. We prove that for graph states corresponding to graphs with neither cycles of length 3 nor 4, the equivalence classes can be characterized in a very simple way. We also present software for analyzing and manipulating graph states. We then study quantum error-correcting codes whose codewords are highly entangled states. An important area of investigation concerning QECCs is to determine which resources are necessary in order to carry out any computation on the co...
Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing
Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling
2015-05-01
Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.
Fisher information of quantum damped harmonic oscillators
Aguiar, V.; Guedes, I.
2015-04-01
We calculate the time-dependent Fisher information in position ({{F}x}) and momentum ({{F}p}) for the lowest lying state ?ft( n=0 \\right) of two classes of quantum damped (Lane–Emden (LE) and Caldirola–Kanai (CK)) harmonic oscillators. The expressions of {{F}x} and {{F}p} are written in terms of ? , a c-number quantity satisfying a nonlinear differential equation. Analytical solutions of ? were obtained. For the LE and CK oscillators, we observe that {{F}x} increases while {{F}p} decreases with increasing time. The product {{F}x}{{F}p} increases and tends to a constant value in the limit t\\to ? for the LE oscillator, while it is time-independent for the CK oscillator. Moreover, for the CK oscillator the product {{F}x}{{F}p} decreases as the damping ?ft( ? \\right) increases. Relations among the Fisher information, Leipnik and Shannon entropies, and the Stam and Cramer–Rao inequalities are given. A discussion on the squeezing phenomenon in position for the oscillators is presented.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)
2010-11-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza; Apellaniz, Iagoba
2014-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scali...
Separating the Classical and Quantum Information via Quantum Cloning
Ricci, M.; Sciarrino, F.; Cerf, N. J.; Filip, R.; Fiurášek, J.; de Martini, F.
2005-08-01
An application of quantum cloning to optimally interface a quantum system with a classical observer is presented; in particular, we describe a procedure to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on a single qubit by adopting a 1?2 cloning machine followed by a generalized measurement on a single clone and the anticlone or on the two clones. Such a scheme can be applied to enhance the transmission fidelity over a lossy quantum channel.
Separating the classical and quantum information via quantum cloning
Ricci, M.; F. Sciarrino; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.; Martini, F. de
2005-01-01
An application of quantum cloning to optimally interface a quantum system with a classical observer is presented, in particular we describe a procedure to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on a single qubit by adopting a 1->2 cloning machine followed by a generalized measurement on a single clone and the anti-clone or on the two clones. Such scheme has been applied to enhance the transmission fidelity over a lossy quantum channel.
QIS-XML: A metadata specification for Quantum Information Science
Heus, Pascal; Gomez, Richard
2007-01-01
While Quantum Information Science (QIS) is still in its infancy, the ability for quantum based hardware or computers to communicate and integrate with their classical counterparts will be a major requirement towards their success. Little attention however has been paid to this aspect of QIS. To manage and exchange information between systems, today's classic Information Technology (IT) commonly uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and its related tools. XML is composed ...
Multiplexed CV quantum teleportation for high rates in quantum communication
Christ, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine
2012-01-01
A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols which encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode vs. multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, significantly increasing the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but als...
Ensuring the integrity of information resources based methods dvooznakovoho structural data encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
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2009-01-01
Full Text Available Developed methods of estimation of noise stability and correction of structural code constructions to distortion in comunication of data in informatively communication systems and networks taking into account providing of integrity of informative resource.
Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...
Brain Networks Subserving the Extraction of Sentence Information and Its Encoding to Memory
Hasson, Uri; NUSBAUM, HOWARD C.; Small, Steven L
2007-01-01
Sentences are the primary means by which people communicate information. The information conveyed by a sentence depends on how that sentence relates to what is already known. We conducted an fMRI study to determine how the brain establishes and retains this information. We embedded sentences in contexts that rendered them more or less informative and assessed which functional networks were associated with comprehension of these sentences and with memory for their content. We identified two su...
Coleman, Jane M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.
1999-01-01
Investigated effect of sentence ambiguity on recall and recognition of story information by aggressive and nonaggressive boys. Found that aggressive boys recalled approximately equal proportions of ambiguous and unambiguous information. Nonaggressive boys recalled more unambiguous than ambiguous information. Nonaggressive boys recognized…
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
Bacon, D J
2003-01-01
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on decoherence due to a collective coupling between the system and its environment. Universal quantum computation on such collective decoherence decoherence-free encodings is demonstrated. Rigorous definitions of control and the use of encoded universality in quantum computers are addressed. Explicit gate constructions for encoded universality on ion trap and exchange based quantum computers are given. In the second part of the thesis we examine physical systems with error correcting properties. We examine systems that can store quantum infor...
The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information
Bradler, Kamil
2014-01-01
We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead, implying that the quantum state itself survives unharmed beyond the horizon. These results together...
School on Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications
2014-01-01
The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with the University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat and the COST Action MP1006, is organizing a "School in Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications" from 15 to 19 September 2014, followed by the "3rd Quantum Africa Conference: Advances in Quantum Sciences", from 22 to 26 Sep 2014, both events to be held at University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat, Morocco. The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, including metrology, nano-devices development, biophysics together with computation, communication and cryptography. Topics as quantum entanglement, quantum coherence and decohering phenomena both in microscopic and mesoscopic systems have been attracting the interest of a growing number of researchers, especially young ones from developing countries. A School on these themes would provide an invaluable focus on the interdiscipl...
Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency
Thermofield qubits, generalized expectations and quantum information protocols
Prudencio, T.; Filho, T. M. Rocha; A.E. Santana
2014-01-01
Thermofield dynamics (TFD) approach is a real time quantum field method for dealing with finite temperature quantum states in a purified version of usual density operator formalism at finite temperature. In the domain of quantum information, TFD represents a quite promising direction for dealing with qubits under thermal influence and can also be associated to Gaussian states. Here, we propose a generalized TFD mean expectation for the case of thermofield qubits considering ...
Decoherence, Entanglement and Information Protection in Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, V.M; Kurizki, G; Pellegrin, S
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of articles on the contemporary status of quantum mechanics, dedicated to the fundamental issues of entanglement, decoherence, irreversibility, information processing, and control of quantum evolution, with a view of possible applications. It has multidisciplinary character and is addressed at a broad readership in physics, computer science, chemistry, and electrical engineering. It is written by the world-leading experts in pertinent fields such as quantum computing, atomic, molecular and optical physics, condensed matter physics, and statistical physics.
Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas
2013-01-01
In recent years, quantum-based methods have promisingly integrated the traditional procedures in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP). Inspired by our research on the identification and application of quantum structures in cognition, more specifically our work on the representation of concepts and their combinations, we put forward a 'quantum meaning based' framework for structured query retrieval in text corpora and standardized testing corpora. ...
Quantum Gravity and Recovery of Information in Black Hole Evaporation
Nozari, Kourosh; Mehdipour, S. Hamid
2008-01-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), motivated by current alternatives of quantum gravity, produces significant modifications to the Hawking radiation and the final stage of black hole evaporation. We show that incorporation of the GUP into the quantum tunneling process (based on the null-geodesic method) causes correlations between the tunneling probability of different modes in the black hole radiation spectrum. In this manner, the quantum information becomes encry...
Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information
Majumdar, Archan S; Pramanik, Tanumoy
2014-01-01
We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the EPR paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. Entropic uncertainty relations for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields ...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Cristian, López; Olimpia, Lombardi.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca ofrecer un análisis conceptual de la noción de información, a partir del modo en que es definida por las teorías formales de Claude Shannon y de Benjamin Schumacher. Contra la postura según la cual existen dos tipos de información de naturalezas diferentes, una información [...] clásica y una información cuántica (definidas por las teorías de Shannon y de Schumacher respectivamente), aquí argumentamos que no hay razones suficientes para sostener la existencia de la información cuántica como un nuevo tipo sustancialmente distinto de información. Afirmamos así que existe un único tipo de información que puede ser codificado de diversas maneras, en particular, mediante sistemas clásicos o sistemas cuánticos. Esta posición nos conducirá a concebir un concepto unificado y abstracto de información, en un contexto donde (1) la teoría de Shannon resulta neutral e independiente de las teorías físicas utilizadas para describir las partes involucradas en el proceso de transmitir información, y (2) la teoría de Schumacher no define un nuevo tipo de entidad informacional, sino una manera alternativa de codificar la información mediante estados cuánticos. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to offer a conceptual analysis of the notion of information, on the basis of the way in which it is defined by the theories of Claude Shannon and of Benjamin Schumacher. Against the position according to which there are two kinds of information of different natures, a clas [...] sical information and a quantum information (defined by the theories of Shannon and Schumacher respectively), here we argue that there are not sufficient reasons to maintain the existence of quantum information as a new and substantially different kind of information. So we claim that there is only one kind of information, which can be encoded in different ways, in particular, by means of classical or quantum systems. This position will lead us to conceive an unified and abstract concept of information in a context where (a) Shannon's theory is neutral and independent from the physical theories used to describe the stages involved in the process of transmitting information, and (b) Schumacher's theory does not define a new kind of informational entity, but a alternative way of coding information by means of quantum states.
Smooth R\\'enyi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources
Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2007-01-01
We prove that the average smooth Renyi entropy rate will approach the entropy rate of a stationary, ergodic information source, which is equal to the Shannon entropy rate for a classical information source and the von Neumann entropy rate for a quantum information source.
Non-linear operations in quantum information theory
Terno, Daniel R.
1998-01-01
Quantum information theory is used to analize various non-linear operations on quantum states. The universal disentanglement machine is shown to be impossible, and partial (negative) results are obtained in the state-dependent case. The efficiency of the transformation of non-orthogonal states into orthogonal ones is discussed.
Noise enhancing the classical information capacity of a quantum channel
Bowen, G; Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano
2004-01-01
We present a simple model of quantum communication where a noisy quantum channel may benefit from the addition of further noise at the decoding stage. We demonstrate enhancement of the classical information capacity of an amplitude damping channel, with a predetermined detection threshold, by the addition of noise in the decoding measurement.
Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol
Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan
2015-03-01
Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.
Reconstructing quantum geometry from quantum information: spin networks as harmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loop quantum gravity defines the quantum states of space geometry as spin networks and describes their evolution in time. We reformulate spin networks in terms of harmonic oscillators and show how the holographic degrees of freedom of the theory are described as matrix models. This allows us to make a link with non-commutative geometry and to look at the issue of the semi-classical limit of loop quantum gravity from a new perspective. This work is thought of as part of a bigger project of describing quantum geometry in quantum information terms
BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information
Turner, Leaf
2004-04-01
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsäcker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn’s play `Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Lüst indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Göttingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Götz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and G\\"ottingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsäcker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsäcker: `If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsäcker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsäcker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: `The measure of sloppiness in Weizsäcker’s work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsäcker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a `theory of everything' based on his `ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mat
Diego Pinal
2014-01-01
Working memory (WM) involves three cognitive events: information encoding, maintenance, and retrieval; these are supported by brain activity in a network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Manipulation of WM load and duration of the maintenance period can modulate this activity. Although such modulations have been widely studied using the event-related potentials (ERP) technique, a precise description of the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval is still required...
Limitations on information theoretically secure quantum homomorphic encryption
Yu, Li; Perez-delgado, Carlos A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.
2014-01-01
Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption which allows computation to be carried out on the encrypted data without the need for decryption. The success of quantum approaches to related tasks in a delegated computation setting has raised the question of whether quantum mechanics may be used to achieve information theoretically secure fully homomorphic encryption. Here we show, via an information localisation argument, that deterministic fully homomorphic encryption neces...
Multi-access channels in quantum information theory
Allahverdyan, A. E.; Saakian, D. B.
1997-01-01
The multi-access channels in quantum information theory are considered. Classical messages from independent sources, which are represented as some quantum states, are transported by a channel to one address. The messages can interact with each other and with external environment. After statement of problem and proving some general results we investigate physically important case when information is transported by states of electromagnetic field. One-way communication by nois...
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J. S.; Manzano, D.; Sánchez-Moreno, P. S.; Yáñez, R. J.
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density...
Quantum copying can increase the practically available information
Deuar, P.; Munro, W. J.
2000-01-01
While it is known that copying a quantum system does not increase the amount of information obtainable about the originals, it may increase the amount available in practice, when one is restricted to imperfect measurements. We present a detection scheme which using imperfect detectors, and possibly noisy quantum copying machines (that entangle the copies), allows one to extract more information from an incoming signal, than with the imperfect detectors alone. The case of sin...
Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology
Fuyang Chen; Rui Hou; Gang Tao
2012-01-01
In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model refe...
QUBIT4MATLAB V3.0: A program package for quantum information science and quantum optics for MATLAB
Toth, Geza
2007-01-01
A program package for MATLAB is introduced that helps calculations in quantum information science and quantum optics. It has commands for the following operations: (i) Reordering the qudits of a quantum register, computing the reduced state of a quantum register. (ii) Defining important quantum states easily. (iii) Formatted input and output for quantum states and operators. (iv) Constructing operators acting on given qudits of a quantum register and constructing spin chain ...
A Quantum Rosetta Stone for the Information Paradox
Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando
2014-01-01
The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Quantum gravity and recovery of information in black hole evaporation
Nozari, K.; Mehdipour, S. H.
2008-10-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), motivated by current alternatives of quantum gravity, produces significant modifications to the Hawking radiation and the final stage of black hole evaporation. We show that incorporation of the GUP into the quantum tunneling process (based on the null-geodesic method) causes correlations between the tunneling probability of different modes in the black hole radiation spectrum. In this manner, the quantum information becomes encrypted in the Hawking radiation, and information can be recovered as non-thermal GUP correlations between tunneling probabilities of different modes.
Designing robust gate implementations for quantum-information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum-information processing systems are often operated through time-dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum-information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare-earth-metal quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et al. [Opt. Commun. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system
Quantum communication with photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)
Retrieving and Routing Quantum Information in a Quantum Network
Sazim, Sk.; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Vanarasa, Chiranjeevi; Srinathan, Kannan
2013-01-01
In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network (\\textsc{qnet}) it can not be retrieved back, even if the dealer wishes that her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of two \\textsc{qnet}s, say $\\mathcal{Q}_1$ and $\\mathcal{Q}_2$ and subsequently finds that $\\mathcal{Q}_2$ is more reliable than $\\mathcal{Q}_1$, the dealer may wish to transfer all her secrets from $\\mathcal{Q}_1$ to $\\mathc...
Toolbox for reconstructing quantum theory from rules on information acquisition
Hoehn, Philipp A
2015-01-01
We develop a novel operational approach for reconstructing (qubit) quantum theory from elementary rules on information acquisition. The focus lies on an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and S's state is taken as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S. The mathematical tools of the framework are simple and we attempt to highlight all underlying assumptions to provide a handle for future generalizations. Five principles are imposed, asserting (1) a limit on the amount of information available to O; (2) the mere existence of complementary information; (3) the possibility for O's information to be `in superposition'; (4) O's information to be preserved in between interrogations; and, (5) continuity of time evolution. This approach permits a constructive derivation of quantum theory, elucidating how the ensuing independence, complementarity and compatibility structure of O's questions matches that of projective measurements in quantum theory, how entanglement and monogamy of entanglement and...
Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)
QIS-XML: A metadata specification for Quantum Information Science
Heus, Pascal
2007-01-01
While Quantum Information Science (QIS) is still in its infancy, the ability for quantum based hardware or computers to communicate and integrate with their classical counterparts will be a major requirement towards their success. Little attention however has been paid to this aspect of QIS. To manage and exchange information between systems, today's classic Information Technology (IT) commonly uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and its related tools. XML is composed of numerous specifications related to various fields of expertise. No such global specification however has been defined for quantum computers. QIS-XML is a proposed XML metadata specification for the description of fundamental components of QIS (gates & circuits) and a platform for the development of a hardware independent low level pseudo-code for quantum algorithms. This paper lays out the general characteristics of the QIS-XML specification and outlines practical applications through prototype use cases.
Avian Egg Odour Encodes Information on Embryo Sex, Fertility and Development
Webster, Ben; Hayes, William; Pike, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Avian chemical communication is a rapidly emerging field, but has been hampered by a critical lack of information on volatile chemicals that communicate ecologically relevant information (semiochemicals). A possible, but as yet unexplored, function of olfaction and chemical communication in birds is in parent-embryo and embryo-embryo communication. Communication between parents and developing embryos may act to mediate parental behaviour, while communication between embryos can control the synchronicity of hatching. Embryonic vocalisations and vibrations have been implicated as a means of communication during the later stages of development but in the early stages, before embryos are capable of independent movement and vocalisation, this is not possible. Here we show that volatiles emitted from developing eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) convey information on egg fertility, along with the sex and developmental status of the embryo. Specifically, egg volatiles changed over the course of incubation, differed between fertile and infertile eggs, and were predictive of embryo sex as early as day 1 of incubation. Egg odours therefore have the potential to facilitate parent-embryo and embryo-embryo interactions by allowing the assessment of key measures of embryonic development long before this is possible through other modalities. It also opens up the intriguing possibility that parents may be able to glean further relevant information from egg volatiles, such as the health, viability and heritage of embryos. By determining information conveyed by egg-derived volatiles, we hope to stimulate further investigation into the ecological role of egg odours. PMID:25629413
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
The information-theoretic costs of simulating quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter’s measurement compression theorem stands as one of the most penetrating insights of quantum information theory. In addition to making an original and profound statement about measurement in quantum theory, it also underlies several other general protocols used for entanglement distillation and local purity distillation. The theorem provides for an asymptotic decomposition of any quantum measurement into noise and information. This decomposition leads to an optimal protocol for having a sender simulate many independent instances of a quantum measurement and send the measurement outcomes to a receiver, using as little communication as possible. The protocol assumes that the parties have access to some amount of common randomness, which is a strictly weaker resource than classical communication. In this review, we provide a second look at Winter’s measurement compression theorem, detailing the information processing task, giving examples for understanding it, reviewing Winter’s achievability proof, and detailing a new approach to its single-letter converse theorem. We prove an extension of the theorem to the case in which the sender is not required to receive the outcomes of the simulated measurement. The total cost of common randomness and classical communication can be lower for such a ‘non-feedback’ simulation, and we prove a single-letter converse theorem demonstrating optimality. We then review the Devetak–Winter theorem on classical data compressrem on classical data compression with quantum side information, providing new proofs of its achievability and converse parts. From there, we outline a new protocol that we call ‘measurement compression with quantum side information,’ announced previously by two of us in our work on triple trade-offs in quantum Shannon theory. This protocol has several applications, including its part in the ‘classically-assisted state redistribution’ protocol, which is the most general protocol on the static side of the quantum information theory tree, and its role in reducing the classical communication cost in a task known as local purity distillation. We also outline a connection between measurement compression with quantum side information and recent work on entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory. Finally, we prove a single-letter theorem characterizing measurement compression with quantum side information when the sender is not required to obtain the measurement outcome. (topical review)
RF-photonic chirp encoder and compressor for seamless analysis of information flow.
Zalevsky, Zeev; Shemer, Amir; Zach, Shlomo
2008-05-26
In this paper we realize an RF photonic chirp compression system that compresses a continuous stream of incoming RF data (modulated on top of an optical carrier) into a train of temporal short pulses. Each pulse in the train can be separated and treated individually while being sampled by low rate optical switch and without temporal loses of the incoming flow of information. Each such pulse can be filtered and analyzed differently. The main advantage of the proposed system is its capability of being able to handle, seamlessly, high rate information flow with all-optical means and with low rate optical switches. PMID:18545501
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice
2014-01-01
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the...
Toward an Information-based Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Quantum-Classical Transition
Roederer, Juan G
2011-01-01
I will show how an objective definition of the concept of information and the consideration of recent results about information-processing in the human brain help clarify some fundamental and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics. In particular, I will discuss entanglement, teleportation, non-interaction measurements and decoherence in the light of the fact that pragmatic information, the one our brain handles, can only be defined in the classical macroscopic domain; it does not operate in the quantum domain. This justifies viewing quantum mechanics as a discipline dealing with mathematical models and procedures aimed exclusively at predicting possible macroscopic changes and their likelihood that a given quantum system may cause when it interacts with its environment, including man-made devices such as measurement instruments. I will discuss the informational and neurobiological reasons of why counter-intuitive aspects arise whenever we attempt to construct mental images of the "inner workings...
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-11-03
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.
Quantum mechanics, common sense, and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR, correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in subsystems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black hole evaporation through nonlocal processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of metastable remnants.
Quantum information splitting using multi-partite cluster states
Muralidharan, Sreraman
2008-01-01
We provide various schemes for the splitting up of Quantum information into parts using the four and five partite cluster states. Explicit protocols for the Quantum information splitting (QIS) of single and two qubit states are illustrated. It is found that the four partite cluster state can be used for the QIS of an entangled state and the five partite cluster state can be used for QIS of an arbitrary two qubit state. We propose a conjecture about the maximum number of protocols that can be constructed for the information splitting of an arbitrary $n$ qubit state among two parties using an $N$ qubit entangled channel.
Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2011-07-15
We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.
Classical information transmission capacity of quantum black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fate of classical information incident on a quantum black hole has been the subject of an ongoing controversy in theoretical physics, because a calculation within the framework of semi-classical curved-space quantum field theory appears to show that the incident information is irretrievably lost, in contradiction to time-honored principles such as time-reversibility and unitarity. Here, we show within this framework embedded in quantum communication theory that signaling from past to future null infinity in the presence of a Schwarzschild black hole can occur with arbitrary accuracy, and thus that classical information is not lost in black hole dynamics. The calculation relies on a treatment that is manifestly unitary from the outset, where probability conservation is guaranteed because black holes stimulate the emission of radiation in response to infalling matter. This stimulated radiation is non-thermal and contains all of the information about the infalling matter, while Hawking radiation contains none of it. (paper)
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy@mail.dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Bao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center (CSRC), Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Zi-hong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Song-lin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, He-shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2014-07-15
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale.
Quasi-probability representations of quantum theory with applications to quantum information science
Ferrie, Christopher
2011-11-01
This paper comprises a review of both the quasi-probability representations of infinite-dimensional quantum theory (including the Wigner function) and the more recently defined quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum theory. We focus on both the characteristics and applications of these representations with an emphasis toward quantum information theory. We discuss the recently proposed unification of the set of possible quasi-probability representations via frame theory and then discuss the practical relevance of negativity in such representations as a criteria for quantumness.
Quasi-probability representations of quantum theory with applications to quantum information science
Ferrie, Christoper
2010-01-01
This article comprises a review of both the quasi-probability representations of infinite-dimensional quantum theory (including the Wigner function) and the more recently defined quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum theory. We focus on both the characteristics and applications of these representations with an emphasis toward quantum information theory. We discuss the recently proposed unification of the set of possible quasi-probability representations via frame theory and then discuss the practical relevance of negativity in such representations as a criteria for quantumness.
Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory.
Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R
2012-11-01
The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day. PMID:22810559
Frames, designs, and spherical codes in quantum information theory
Renes, Joseph M.
Frame theory offers a lens through which to view a large portion of quantum information theory, providing an organizational principle to those topics in its purview. In this thesis, I cut a trail from foundational questions to practical applications, from the origin of the quantum probability rule to quantum cryptography, by way of a standard quantum measurement helpful in quantum tomography and representation of quantum theory. Before embarking, preparations are undertaken by outlining the relevant aspects of frame theory, particularly the characterization of generalized orthonormal bases in terms of physical quantum measurements, as well as several aesthetically appealing families of measurements, each possessing a high degree of symmetry. Much more than just elegant, though, these quantum measurements are found to be useful in many aspects of quantum information theory. I first consider the foundational question of justifying the quantum probability rule, showing that putting a probability valuation on generalized quantum measurements leads directly to the Born rule. Moreover, for qubits, the case neglected in the traditional formulation of Gleason's theorem, a symmetric three-outcome measurement called the trine is sufficient to impel the desired form. Keeping with foundational questions, I then turn to the problem of establishing a symmetric measurement capable of effortlessly rendering quantum theory in terms of classical probability theory. Numerical results provide an almost utterly convincing amount of evidence for this, justifying the subsequent study of its use in quantum tomography and detailed account of the properties of the reduction to probabilistic terms. Saving perhaps the most exciting topic for last, I make use of these aesthetic ensembles in the applied field of quantum cryptography. A large class of streamlined key distribution protocols may be cut from the cloth of these ensembles, and their symmetry affords them improved tolerance to eavesdropping over the traditionally-studied schemes. Because the ability to put quantum key distribution protocols into practice is essentially right around the corner, I conclude by examining the prospects for implementing the new protocols in free space and their ability to boost the operating signal intensity, currently a major obstacle in the development of practical schemes.
Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science
Band, Yehuda B
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...
Projection methods in quantum information science
Cheung, Yuen-lam; Drusvyatskiy, Dmitriy; Li, Chi-Kwong; Pelejo, Diane; Wolkowicz, Henry
2014-01-01
We consider the problem of constructing quantum operations or channels, if they exist, that transform a given set of quantum states $\\{\\rho_1, \\dots, \\rho_k\\}$ to another such set $\\{\\hat\\rho_1, \\dots, \\hat\\rho_k\\}$. In other words, we must find a {\\em completely positive linear map}, if it exists, that maps a given set of density matrices to another given set of density matrices. This problem, in turn, is an instance of a positive semi-definite feasibility problem, but with...
Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines
Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Lei-ming; Wang, Xiaoguang
2014-01-01
An unknown quantum state cannot be copied on demand and broadcast freely due to the famous no-cloning theorem. Approximate cloning schemes have been proposed to achieve the optimal cloning characterized by the maximal fidelity between the original and its copies. Here, from the perspective of quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the distribution of QFI in asymmetric cloning machines which produce two nonidentical copies. As one might expect, improving the QFI of ...
Information and fundamental elements of the structure of quantum theory
Brukner, Caslav; Zeilinger, Anton
2002-01-01
Niels Bohr wrote: "There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about Nature." In an analogous way, von Weizsaecker suggested that the notion of the elementary alternative, the "Ur", should play a pivotal role when constructing physics. Both approaches suggest that the concept of information should play an essential role in the fo...
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into th...
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into the notion of complexity of logic operations.
An application of a matrix inequality in quantum information theory
King, C.
2004-01-01
Quantum information theory has generated several interesting conjectures involving products of completely positive maps on matrix algebras, also known as quantum channels. In particular it is conjectured that the output state with maximal p-norm from a product channel is always a product state. It is shown here that the Lieb-Thirring inequality can be used to prove this conjecture for one special case, namely when one of the components of the product channel is of the type k...
Quantum-information processing using strongly dipolar coupled nuclear spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipolar coupled homonuclear spins present challenging, yet useful systems for quantum-information processing. In such systems, the eigenbasis of the system Hamiltonian is the appropriate computational basis and coherent control can be achieved by specially designed strongly modulating pulses. In this paper we describe the first experimental implementation of the quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation by nuclear magnetic resonance, using the eigenbasis of a four spin system
Entanglement transfer experiment in NMR quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the implementation of an entanglement transfer on a four-qubit liquid-state nuclear-magnetic resonance quantum information processor. This consists of creating an (pseudopure) entangled state among two directly coupled spins, and then transferring this two-spin state to another pair of spins whose direct interactions are negligible. Such transfers are expected to be an essential operation in scalable quantum computer architectures, and provide a useful benchmark for the coherent control available in specific implementations
Microfabrication techniques for trapped ion quantum information processing
Britton, Joe
2010-01-01
Quantum-mechanical principles can be used to process information (QIP). In one approach, linear arrays of trapped, laser cooled ion qubits (two-level quantum systems) are confined in segmented multi-zone electrode structures. The ion trap approach to QIP requires trapping and control of numerous ions in electrode structures with many trapping zones. I investigated microfabrication of structures to trap, transport and couple large numbers of ions. Using 24Mg+ I demonstrated l...
Encoding molecular information in plasmonic nanostructures for anti-counterfeiting applications
Cui, Yan; Hegde, Ravi S.; Phang, In Yee; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Ling, Xing Yi
2013-12-01
We present the next generation covert plasmonic security labels based on Ag nanowire structures and their polarization dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. The security labels consist of Ag nanowires fabricated by two-photon lithography and thermal evaporation, where molecular probes of choice are deposited. Simulation and experimental results show that the SERS signals from the embedded molecules depend significantly on the polarization of the incident field. The covert molecular information cannot be revealed directly from the physical features, but can only be read-out selectively by polarization-dependent SERS imaging. Our plasmonic security labels exhibit very narrow spectral fingerprint vibration, which is more specific than broadband colorimetry-based systems. The polarization-dependent SERS intensity, molecular fingerprint of SERS spectra, and versatile geometrical design by two-photon lithography have made our plasmonic Ag nanowire structures an ideal candidate as advanced security solutions for anti-counterfeiting application.We present the next generation covert plasmonic security labels based on Ag nanowire structures and their polarization dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. The security labels consist of Ag nanowires fabricated by two-photon lithography and thermal evaporation, where molecular probes of choice are deposited. Simulation and experimental results show that the SERS signals from the embedded molecules depend significantly on the polarization of the incident field. The covert molecular information cannot be revealed directly from the physical features, but can only be read-out selectively by polarization-dependent SERS imaging. Our plasmonic security labels exhibit very narrow spectral fingerprint vibration, which is more specific than broadband colorimetry-based systems. The polarization-dependent SERS intensity, molecular fingerprint of SERS spectra, and versatile geometrical design by two-photon lithography have made our plasmonic Ag nanowire structures an ideal candidate as advanced security solutions for anti-counterfeiting application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM and tilted SEM images, and simulation structure of a silver nanowire (Fig. S1), 2D Raman imaging ``Taiji'' patterns functionalized with 2-NT and 4-MBT molecules (Fig. S2), darkfield optical images of silver ``Taiji'' structures functionalized with 2-NT and 4-MBT molecules (Fig. S3), and calculation of the SERS enhancement factor. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04375d
Quantum information: source of triggered entangled photon pairs?
Gilchrist, Alexei; Resch, Kevin J; White, Andrew G
2007-01-11
The realization of an entangled photon source will be of great importance in quantum information--for example, for quantum key distribution and quantum computation--and Stevenson et al. have described such a source. However, we show here that first, their source is not entangled; second, they use inappropriate entanglement indicators that rely on assumptions invalidated by their data; and third, their source has insignificant entanglement even after simulating subtraction of the significant quantity of background noise. We therefore find that the standard of proof required for a semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs has not been met by Stevenson et al.. PMID:17215801
Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states
Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements
Maccone, Lorenzo
2005-01-01
We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiming the construction of quantum computers and quantum communication systems based on optical devices, in this work we present possible implementations of quantum and classical CNOTs gates, as well an optical setup for generation and distribution of bipartite entangled states, using linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement
PT -symmetric Hamiltonians and their application in quantum information
Croke, Sarah
2015-05-01
We discuss the prospect of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians finding applications in quantum information science, and conclude that such evolution is unlikely to provide any benefit over existing techniques. Although it has been known for some time that PT -symmetric quantum theory, when viewed as a unitary theory, is exactly equivalent to standard quantum mechanics, proposals continue to be put forward for schemes in which PT -symmetric quantum theory can outperform standard quantum theory. The most recent of these is the suggestion to use PT -symmetric Hamiltonians to perform an exponentially fast database search, a task known to be impossible with a quantum computer. Further, such a scheme has been shown to apparently produce effects in conflict with fundamental information-theoretic principles, such as the impossibility of superluminal information transfer, and the invariance of entanglement under local operations. In this paper we propose three inequivalent experimental implementations of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians, with careful attention to the resources required to realize each such evolution. Such an operational approach allows us to resolve these apparent conflicts, and evaluate fully schemes proposed in the literature for faster time evolution and state discrimination.
Quantum Information Science: Emerging No More
Caves, Carlton M.
2013-01-01
Comment: An edited version will appear in Centennial History of the Optical Society, to be published by the Optical Society of America on the occasion of OSA's 100th anniversary. Version 2 changes one phrase regarding quantum error correction, to make clear the role of fault tolerance, and includes a list of the Reviews of Modern Physics articles referred to in the text
Statistical properties of quantum entanglement and information entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Key words: entropy, entanglement, atom-field interaction, trapped ions, cold atoms, information entropy. Objects of research: Pure state entanglement, entropy squeezing mazer. The aim of the work: Study of the new entanglement features and new measures for both pure-state and mixed state of particle-field interaction. Also, the impact of the information entropy on the quantum information theory. Method of investigation: Methods of theoretical physics and applied mathematics (statistical physics, quantum optics) are used. Results obtained and their novelty are: All the results of the dissertation are new and many new features have been discovered. Particularly: the most general case of the pure state entanglement has been introduced. Although various special aspects of the quantum entropy have been investigated previously, the general features of the dynamics, when a multi-level system and a common environment are considered, have not been treated before and our work therefore, field a gap in the literature. Specifically: 1) A new entanglement measure due to quantum mutual entropy (mixed-state entanglement) we called it DEM, has been introduced, 2) A new treatment of the atomic information entropy in higher level systems has been presented. The problem has been completely solved in the case of three-level system, 3) A new solution of the interaction between the ultra cold atoms and cavity field has been discovered, 4) Some new models of the atom-field interaction have been adopted. Practical value: The subject carries out theoretic character. Application region: Results can be used in quantum computer developments. Also, the presented results can be used for further developments of the quantum information and quantum communications. (author)
Small Accessible Quantum Information Does Not Imply Security
König, Robert; Renner, Renato; Bariska, Andor; Maurer, Ueli
2007-04-01
The security of quantum key distribution is typically defined in terms of the mutual information between the distributed key S and the outcome of an optimal measurement applied to the adversary’s system. We show that even if this so-called accessible information is small, the key S might not be secure enough to be used in applications such as one-time pad encryption. This flaw is due to a locking property of the accessible information: one additional (physical) bit of information can increase the accessible information by more than one bit.
Information-theoretic implications of quantum causal structures.
Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David
2015-01-01
It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution. However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information-theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture, where a set of few-body quantum systems is distributed among some parties. PMID:25562600
Information–theoretic implications of quantum causal structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian
2014-01-01
It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution. However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information–theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture, where a set of few-body quantum systems is distributed among some parties.
Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding
Tomasz Praczyk
2010-01-01
Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations u...
QUBIT4MATLAB V3.0: A program package for quantum information science and quantum optics for MATLAB
Tóth, Géza
2007-01-01
A program package for MATLAB is introduced that helps calculations in quantum information science and quantum optics. It has commands for the following operations: (i) Reordering the qudits of a quantum register, computing the reduced state of a quantum register. (ii) Defining important quantum states easily. (iii) Formatted input and output for quantum states and operators. (iv) Constructing operators acting on given qudits of a quantum register and constructing spin chain Hamiltonians. (v) Partial transposition, matrix realignment and other commands related to the detection of quantum entanglement. (vi) Generating random state vectors, random density matrices and random unitaries.
Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics
Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M
2008-01-01
The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of
Scalable quantum information transfer between nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles
Zhang, Feng-yang; Yang, Chui-Ping; Song, He-Shan
2015-04-01
We propose an architecture for realizing quantum information transfer (QIT). In this architecture, a LC circuit is used to induce the necessary interaction between flux qubits, each magnetically coupling to a nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble (NVCE). We explicitly show that for resonant interaction and large detuning cases, high-fidelity QIT between two spatially-separated NVCEs can be implemented. Our proposal can be extended to achieve QIT between any two selected NVCEs in a large hybrid system by adjusting system parameters, which is important in large scale quantum information processing.
Quantum information approach to normal representation of extensive games
Fr\\kackiewicz, Piotr
2011-01-01
We modify the concept of quantum strategic game to make it useful for extensive form games. We prove that our modification allows to consider the normal representation of any finite extensive game using the fundamental concepts of quantum information. The Selten's Horse game and the general form of two-stage extensive game with perfect information are studied to illustrate a potential application of our idea. In both examples we use Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein approach as well as Marinatto-Weber approach to quantization of games.
Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsueda, H.; Hvam, JØrn Märcher
2008-01-01
The effectiveness of virtual photons (VPHs) that need neither to conserve energy nor to follow temporal sequences because of the time-energy uncertainty principle, in the electric interactions between detuned non-identical two level atoms having different size and shape is demonstrated in terms of a model of resonance dynamic multipolemultipole interaction (RDMMI), on the basis of microphotoluminescence (?-PL) experiment of a single asymmetric pair of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The ranges of the mediating photons in various RDMMI are estimated, proving the significance of RDMMI in the nanometer regime. Furthermore, prospective device concepts based on the RDMMI assistedby the VPHs, having possibility of autonomic routing of signals like a fallingdominoes effect not only throughout spatial extent but also over temporal differences are deiscussed.
Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.
2015-02-01
The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.
Algebraic and information-theoretic conditions for operator quantum error correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Operator quantum error correction is a technique for robustly storing quantum information in the presence of noise. It generalizes the standard theory of quantum error correction, and provides a unified framework for topics such as quantum error correction, decoherence-free subspaces, and noiseless subsystems. This paper develops (a) easily applied algebraic and information-theoretic conditions that characterize when operator quantum error correction is feasible; (b) a representation theorem for a class of noise processes that can be corrected using operator quantum error correction; and (c) generalizations of the coherent information and quantum data processing inequality to the setting of operator quantum error correction
Quantum Information in the Frame of Coherent States Representation
Popov, Dušan; Zaharie, Ioan; Sajfert, Vjekoslav; Luminosu, Ioan; Popov, Deian
2008-05-01
In this paper we have showed that the qubit can be expressed through the coherent states. Consequently, a message, i.e. a sequence of qubits, is expressed as a tensor product of coherent states. In the quantum information theory and practice, only the code and key message are expressed as a sequence of qubits, i.e. through a quantum channel, the properly information will be transmitted by using a classical channel. Even if the most used coherent states in the quantum information theory are the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator (particularly, expressing by them the Schrödinger “cat states” and the Bell states), several authors have been demonstrated that other kind of coherent states may be used in quantum information theory. For the ensembles of qubits, we must use the density operator, in order to describe the informational content of the ensemble. The diagonal representation of the density operator, in the coherent state representation, is also useful to examine the entanglement of the states.
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states. Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot be extracted by local measurements due to the limitations dictated by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. We experimentally characterize the evolution of the discord of EPR states and mixtures of coherent states in an attenuating channel. We demonstrate that the discord can grow by local dissipation in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current commercially available equipment. However the performance in terms of achievable distance is highly limited. We first experimentally demonstrate that the boundaries of coherent states can be surpassed using modulated entangled states. A simplied experiment is also presented where the modulation of a single-mode squeezed state gives a very reconciliation efficiency robust protocol. All of this is done to achieve higher key rates at the current limits of the coherent state protocols and to extend the boundaries for tolerable channel noise, loss and reconciliation efficiency. As any degree of squeezing improves the performance the extra effort of implementing squeezing in commercial devices is overshadowed by the extended range and increased security margin achieved. Still using the same experimental setup, but now in the context of polarization we have experimentally bridged the gab between the states with very low photon numbers and the states where one of Stokes parameters is highly excited. To describe the polarization of these state we introduce several new polarization measures which take into account the covariance of the polarization and resolve the polarization manifolds. We experimentally demonstrate states for which the polarization is hidden in the unresolved measures and as well a state which is unpolarized for both first order polarization measures. Finally we illustrate the polarization with SU2 Wigner functions to give a richer picture, not only of the degree of polarization but also its distribution among the manifolds.
Decoherence-free quantum-information processing using dipole-coupled qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a quantum-information processor that consists of decoherence-free logical qubits encoded into arrays of dipole-coupled qubits. High-fidelity single-qubit operations are performed deterministically within a decoherence-free subsystem without leakage via global addressing of bichromatic laser fields. Two-qubit operations are realized locally with four physical qubits, and between separated logical qubits using linear optics. We show how to prepare cluster states using this method. We include all non-nearest-neighbor effects in our calculations, and we assume the qubits are not located in the Dicke limit. Although our proposal is general to any system of dipole-coupled qubits, throughout the paper we use nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as an experimental context for our theoretical results
Quantum Fisher information in the XXZ model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Liu, X. M.; Du, Z. Z.; Cheng, W. W.; Liu, J.-M.
2015-07-01
We have studied the quantum Fisher information of the XXZ spin chain model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, using the quantum renormalization-group method. The results show that the evolution behavior of quantum Fisher information with increasing lattice size can clearly illustrate the quantum transitions of this spin model. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the scaling property of quantum Fisher information at the critical point can be used to explain the spin correlation length of this model. The present work evidences the capability of the quantum Fisher information in characterizing quantum phase transitions in condensed matters.
Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M
2014-01-01
The conditional quantum mutual information $I(A;B|C)$ of a tripartite state $\\rho_{ABC}$ is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems $A$ and $B$, and that it obeys the duality relation $I(A;B|C)=I(A;B|D)$ for a four-party pure state on systems $ABCD$. It has been an open question to find Renyi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different $\\alpha$-Renyi generalizations $I_{\\alpha}(A;B|C)$ of the conditional mutual information that all converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit $\\alpha \\to 1$. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy the afo...
Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing
Maurer, Peter
Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells. This opens the door for the engineering of nano-scaled chemical reactions to the study of temperature dependent biological processes. Finally, a novel technique is introduced that facilitates optical spin detection with nanoscale resolution based on an optical far-field technique; by combining this with a 'quantum Zeno' like effect coherent manipulation of nominally identical spins at a nanoscale is achieved.
Quantum nonlocality and applications in quantum-information processing of hybrid entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hybrid entangled states generated, e.g., in a trapped-ion or atom-cavity system, have exactly one ebit of entanglement, but are not maximally entangled. We demonstrate this by showing that they violate, but, in general, not maximally, Bell's inequality due to Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. These states are interesting in that they exhibit the entanglement between two distinct degrees of freedom (one is discrete and another is continuous). We then demonstrate these entangled states as a valuable resource in quantum-information processing including quantum teleportation, entanglement swapping and quantum computation with 'parity qubits'. Our work establishes an interesting link between quantum-information protocols of discrete and continuous variables
Kent, Adrian; Spiller, Tim
2010-01-01
We define the task of {\\it quantum tagging}, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, which we first discussed in 2002 and described in a 2006 patent (for an insecure protocol). The possibility has recently been reconsidered by other authors. All the more recently discussed protoco...
Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P.
2011-07-01
We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran are provably insecure.
Bonderson, Parsa
2010-01-01
We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.
Toward an Information-based Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Quantum-Classical Transition
Juan G. Roederer
2011-01-01
I will show how an objective definition of the concept of information and the consideration of recent results about information-processing in the human brain help clarify some fundamental and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics. In particular, I will discuss entanglement, teleportation, non-interaction measurements and decoherence in the light of the fact that pragmatic information, the one our brain handles, can only be defined in the classical macroscopic ...
Experimental demonstration of a flexible time-domain quantum channel.
Xing, Xingxing; Feizpour, Amir; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M
2014-10-20
We present an experimental realization of a flexible quantum channel where the Hilbert space dimensionality can be controlled electronically. Using electro-optical modulators (EOM) and narrow-band optical filters, quantum information is encoded and decoded in the temporal degrees of freedom of photons from a long-coherence-time single-photon source. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a generic scheme for encoding and transmitting multidimensional quantum information over the existing fiber-optical telecommunications infrastructure. PMID:25401545
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2007-11-01
Measurements transfer information about a system to the apparatus and then, further on, to observers and (often inadvertently) to the environment. I show that even imperfect copying essential in such situations restricts possible unperturbed outcomes to an orthogonal subset of all possible states of the system, thus breaking the unitary symmetry of its Hilbert space implied by the quantum superposition principle. Preferred outcome states emerge as a result. They provide a framework for “wave-packet collapse,” designating terminal points of quantum jumps and defining the measured observable by specifying its eigenstates. In quantum Darwinism, they are the progenitors of multiple copies spread throughout the environment—the fittest quantum states that not only survive decoherence, but subvert the environment into carrying information about them—into becoming a witness.
Quantum-information processing with circuit quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically study single and two-qubit dynamics in the circuit QED architecture. We focus on the current experimental design [Wallraff et al., Nature (London) 431, 162 (2004); Schuster et al., ibid. 445, 515 (2007)] in which superconducting charge qubits are capacitively coupled to a single high-Q superconducting coplanar resonator. In this system, logical gates are realized by driving the resonator with microwave fields. Advantages of this architecture are that it allows for multiqubit gates between non-nearest qubits and for the realization of gates in parallel, opening the possibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconducting circuits. In this paper, we focus on one- and two-qubit gates that do not require moving away from the charge-degeneracy ''sweet spot'. This is advantageous as it helps to increase the qubit dephasing time and does not require modification of the original circuit QED. However, these gates can, in some cases, be slower than those that do not use this constraint. Five types of two-qubit gates are discussed, these include gates based on virtual photons, real excitation of the resonator, and a gate based on the geometric phase. We also point out the importance of selection rules when working at the charge degeneracy point
Diazdelacruz, J. M.; Martin-delgado, M. A.
2014-01-01
We introduce quantum information engines that extract work from quantum states and a single thermal reservoir. They may operate under three general conditions: i/ Unitarily Steered evolution (US); ii/ Irreversible Thermalization (IT) and iii/ Isothermal Relaxation (IR), and hence are called USITIR machines. They include novel engines without traditional feedback control mechanisms, as well as versions which also include them. Explicit constructions of USITIR engines are pres...
Principles of quantum computation and information volume II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Any new textbook in quantum information has some pretty strong competition to contend with. Not only is there the classic text by Nielsen and Chuang from 2000, but also John Preskill's lecture notes, available for free online. Nevertheless, a proper textbook seems more enduring than online notes, and the field has progressed considerably in the seven years since Nielsen and Chuang was published. A new textbook is a great opportunity to give a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information. Therein also lies a problem: The field has expanded so much that it is impossible to cover everything at the undergraduate level. Quantum information theory is relevant to an extremely large portion of physics, from solid state and condensed matter physics to particle physics. Every discipline that has some relation to quantum mechanics is affected by our understanding of quantum information theory. Those who wish to write a book on quantum information therefore have to make some profound choices: Do you keep the ultimate aim of a quantum computer in mind, or do you focus on quantum communication and precision measurements as well? Do you describe how to build a quantum computer with all possible physical systems or do you present only the underlying principles? Do you include only the tried and tested ideas, or will you also explore more speculative directions? You don't have to take a black-or-white stance on these questions, but how you approach them will profoions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory', 'Decoherence', 'Quantum Error Correction', and 'First Experimental Implementations'. The first volume covers the basics of classical computation, quantum mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum communication. Chapter five starts with the density matrix formalism, and proceeds with the development of the Kraus representation, POVMs, von Neuman entropy, quantum data compression, the Holevo bound, the partial transpose criterion, and it ends with a very nice section on the various entropies that play a role in modern physics. This includes not only the thermodynamical and statistical entropy, but also the dynamical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, which is used in quantum chaos in chapter 6. On the whole, I think that this is a really clear and well-presented chapter. A minor drawback is that the concept of CP maps is not explained as well as it could have been, for example by relating it to the partial transpose criterion. Chapter six continues with the high standard set in chapter five, and presents a very thorough exposition of decoherence in general. It introduces the different decoherence channels, and gives truly excellent explanations of the master equation (tied in with the Kraus representation), quantum jumps, and the quantum trajectory formalism. It also has an elegant explanation for the sensitivity of Schroedinger cats to decoherence. The chapter ends with two sections on quantum chaos. Since the authors are experts in this fascinating area, this is a welcome addition to the canon of topics typically covered in quantum information. Unfortunately, the section is quite hard to follow, and as a result it is a bit of a missed opportunity. There is a section on chaos in the first volume of this series, and this may provide the required background. Chapter seven on quantum error correction is disappointing, and I have the feeling that the authors went through the motions without a real passion for the subject matter. The chapter describes various error correction codes, including Hamming codes and CSS codes, but it is
Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond
Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R
2014-01-01
The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...
H1 photonic crystal cavitites for hybrid quantum information protocols
Hagemeier, Jenna; Truong, Tuan-Anh; Kim, Hyochul; Beirne, Gareth J; Bakker, Morten; van Exter, Martin P; Luo, Yunqiu; Petroff, Pierre; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2012-01-01
Hybrid quantum information protocols are based on local qubits, such as trapped atoms, NV centers, and quantum dots, coupled to photons. The coupling is achieved through optical cavities. Here we demonstrate far-field optimized H1 photonic crystal membrane cavities combined with an additional back reflection mirror below the membrane that meet the optical requirements for implementing hybrid quantum information protocols. Using numerical optimization we find that 80% of the light can be radiated within an objective numerical aperture of 0.8, and the coupling to a single-mode fiber can be as high as 92%. We experimentally prove the unique external mode matching properties by resonant reflection spectroscopy with a cavity mode visibility above 50%.
Deriving general relativity from considerations on quantum information
Görnitz, Thomas
2010-01-01
From a theory of an abstract quantum information the theory of general relativity can be deduced by means of few and physically good founded reasons. "Abstract" quantum information means that primarily no special meaning is connected with it. Therefore it is named with a new denotation: Protyposis. From the Protyposis and by using group-theoretical methods follows a cosmological model, which has an isotropic and homogeneous metric and solves the so-called cosmological problems. The Protyposis is subject to an equation of states for energy density and pressure that fulfils all the energy conditions and that also gives an explanation for the "dark energy". If it is demanded that the relations between spacetime structure and the material content should remain valid for variations from this ideal cosmology, then general relativity results from this quantum theoretical considerations as a description for local inhomogenities.
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
Hankin, Aaron Michael
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the field of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped cesium-133 atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyperfine structure of cesium-133. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of light-pulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) ?m. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the dressed-state dynamics, we calculate a controlled-phase gate fidelity of 94% that is primarily limited by Doppler frequency shifts. Finally, we employ our single-photon excitation laser to measure the Rydberg-dressed interaction, thus demonstrating the viability of this approach.
Toward a fully relativistic theory of quantum information
Adami, Christoph
2011-01-01
Information theory is a statistical theory dealing with the relative state of detectors and physical systems. Because of this physicality of information, the classical framework of Shannon needs to be extended to deal with quantum detectors, perhaps moving at relativistic speeds, or even within curved space-time. Considerable progress toward such a theory has been achieved in the last fifteen years, while much is still not understood. This review recapitulates some milestone...
How much information can be obtained by a quantum measurement?
Massar, S.; Popescu, S.
1999-01-01
How much information about an unknown quantum state can be obtained by a measurement? We propose a model independent answer: the information obtained is equal to the minimum entropy of the outputs of the measurement, where the minimum is taken over all measurements which measure the same ``property'' of the state. This minimization is necessary because the measurement outcomes can be redundant, and this redundancy must be eliminated. We show that this minimum entropy is less...
Toward a fully relativistic theory of quantum information
Adami, Christoph
2011-01-01
Information theory is a statistical theory dealing with the relative state of detectors and physical systems. Because of this physicality of information, the classical framework of Shannon needs to be extended to deal with quantum detectors, perhaps moving at relativistic speeds, or even within curved space-time. Considerable progress toward such a theory has been achieved in the last fifteen years, while much is still not understood. This review recapitulates some milestones along this road, and speculates about future ones.
A lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information is obtained by employing the Peierls–Bogoliubov inequality and the Golden–Thompson inequality. Comparison with the bounds obtained by other researchers indicates that our result is independent of any measurements. It may give some new insights into squashed entanglement and perturbations of Markov chain states. (paper)
Quantum Fisher Information for Density Matrices with Arbitrary Ranks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We provide a new expression of the quantum Fisher information (QFI) for a general system. Utilizing this expression, the QFI for a non-full rank density matrix is only determined by its support. This expression can bring convenience for an infinite-dimensional density matrix with a finite support. Besides, a matrix representation of the QFI is also given. (general)
Simplification of additivity conjecture in quantum information theory
Fukuda, Motohisa
2006-01-01
We simplify some conjectures in quantum information theory; the additivity of minimal output entropy, the multiplicativity of maximal output p-norm and the superadditivity of convex closure of output entropy. We construct a unital channel for a given channel so that they share the above additivity properties; we can reduce the conjectures for all channels to those for unital channels.
Quantum-information processing in strongly detuned optical cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate that quantum-information processing can be implemented with ions trapped in a far detuned optical cavity. For sufficiently large detuning the system becomes insensitive to cavity decay. Following recent experimental progress, this scheme can be implemented with currently or soon available technology
The philosophical implications of quantum level active information
Pylkkanen, Paavo
1999-03-01
The paper sketches how the notion of active information has arisen from the quantum theory and then briefly discusses the relevance of this notion to current debates in consciousness studies ("the hard problem" of consciousness) and cognitive science ("the dynamical approach" to cognition).
Microstrip SQUID amplifiers for quantum information science
Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.
2012-02-01
Recent progress in SQUID amplifiers suggests that these devices might approach quantum-limited sensitivity in the microwave range, thus making them a viable option for measurement of superconducting quantum systems. In the microstrip SQUID amplifier configuration, gains of around 20dB are possible at frequencies of several hundred MHz, and the gain is limited by the maximum voltage modulation available from the SQUID. One route for increasing the voltage modulation involves using larger resistive shunts, however maintaining non-hysteretic device operation requires smaller junction capacitances than is possible with conventional photolithographically patterned junctions. Operating at higher frequencies requires a shorter input coil which reduces mutual inductance between the coil and washer and therefore gain. We have fabricated microstrip SQUID amplifiers using submicron Al-AlOx-Al junctions and large shunts. The input coil and SQUID washer are optimized for producing high gain at frequencies in the gigahertz range. Recent measurements of gain and noise temperature will be discussed as well as demonstrations of these devices as a first stage of amplification for a superconducting system
Fault-tolerant quantum secret sharing against collective noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yuguang; Teng Yiwei; Chai Haiping [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wen Qiaoyan, E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2011-02-15
We present two robust quantum secret sharing protocols against two kinds of collective noise with single logical qubits. Each logical qubit is encoded in two-qubit noiseless states and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to a collective noise. The safety of transmission is ensured by nonorthogonality of the noiseless states traveling forward and backward on the quantum channel. Moreover, we construct efficient quantum circuits to implement channel encoding and information encoding by means of primitive operations in quantum computation.
Ohya, Masanori
2011-01-01
This monograph provides a mathematical foundation to the theory of quantum information and computation, with applications to various open systems including nano and bio systems. It includes introductory material on algorithm, functional analysis, probability theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Apart from standard material on quantum information like quantum algorithm and teleportation, the authors discuss findings on the theory of entropy in C*-dynamical systems, space-time dependence of quantum entangled states, entangling operators, adaptive dynamics, relativistic quantum information, and a new paradigm for quantum computation beyond the usual quantum Turing machine. Also, some important applications of information theory to genetics and life sciences, as well as recent experimental and theoretical discoveries in quantum photosynthesis are described.
Babbush, Ryan Joseph; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan Andrew; Macready, William; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2013-01-01
Optimization problems associated with the interaction of linked particles are at the heart of polymer science, protein folding and other important problems in the physical sciences. In this review we explain how to recast these problems as constraint satisfaction problems such as linear programming, maximum satisfiability, and pseudo-boolean optimization. By encoding problems this way, one can leverage substantial insight and powerful solvers from the computer science community which studies ...
Quantum simulation and quantum information processing with molecular dipolar crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis interactions between dipolar crystals and neutral atoms or separated molecules have been investigated. They were motivated to realize new kinds of lattice models in mixtures of atoms and polar molecules where an MDC functions as an underlying periodic lattice structure for the second species. Such models bring out the peculiar features of MDC's, that include a controllable, potentially sub-optical wavelength periodicity and strong particle phonon interactions. Only stable collisional configurations have been investigated, excluding chemical reactions between the substituents, and crystal distortions beyond the scope of perturbation theory. The system was treated in the polaron picture where particles of the second species are dressed by surrounding crystal phonons. To describe the competition between coherent and incoherent dynamics of the polarons, a master equation in the Brownian motion limit was used with phonons treated as a thermal heat bath. It was shown analytically that in a wide range of realistic parameters the corrections to the coherent time evolution are small, and that the dynamics of the dressed particles can be described by an effective extended Hubbard model with controllable system parameters. The last chapter of this thesis contains a proposal for QIP with cold polar molecules that, in contrast to previous works, uses an MDC as a quantum register. It was motivated by the unique features of dipolar molecules and to exploit the peculiapolar molecules and to exploit the peculiar physical conditions in dipolar crystals. In this proposal the molecular dipole moments were tailored by non-local fields to include a small, switchable, state-dependent dipole moment in addition to the large internal state independent moment that stabilizes the crystal. It was shown analytically that a controllable, non-trivial phonon-mediated interaction can be generated that exceeds non-trivial, direct dipole-dipole couplings. The addressability problem due to high crystal densities was overcome by the use of marker qubits that locally manipulate the phononic structure. This enabled the implementation of qubit operations in the crystal at pre-specified lattice site using otherwise global addressing only with negligible decoherence. Finally a specific two-layer setup is outlined that can be scaled to arbitrary sizes by including multi-layer structures realized under optical trapping conditions with multiple marker molecules. (author)
Encoding, symbolic dynamics, cryptography and C++ implementations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate three techniques which can be used to encode information using certain types of chaotic maps and provide implementations in C++. One of the three, the variable bit length encoding technique, is a new technique for encoding information using transient chaos. We describe all three techniques, including variable bit length encoding, in detail. Finally we investigate the use of the variable bit length encoding technique as a cryptographic scheme
Quantum String Seal Is Insecure
Chau, H F
2006-01-01
A quantum string seal encodes the value of a (bit) string as a quantum state in such a way that everyone can extract a non-negligible amount of information on the string by a suitable measurement. Moreover, such measurement must disturb the quantum state and is likely to be detected by an authorized verifier. In this way, the intactness of the encoded quantum state plays the role of a wax seal in the digital world. Here I analyze the security of quantum string seal by studying the information disturbance tradeoff of a measurement. This information disturbance tradeoff analysis extends the earlier results of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. and Chau by concluding that all quantum string seals are insecure. Specifically, I find a way to obtain non-trivial information on the string that escapes the verifier's detection with probability at least one half.
Integrated optical waveplates for arbitrary operations on polarization-encoded single-qubits
Corrielli, Giacomo; Osellame, Roberto; Geremia, Riccardo; Ramponi, Roberta; Sansoni, Linda; Santinelli, Andrea; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2013-01-01
Integrated photonic technologies applied to quantum optics have recently enabled a wealth of breakthrough experiments in several quantum information areas. Path encoding was initially used to demonstrate operations on single or multiple qubits. However, a polarization encoding approach is often simpler and more effective. Two-qubits integrated logic gates as well as complex interferometric structures have been successfully demonstrated exploiting polarization encoding in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits. Still, integrated devices performing single-qubit rotations are missing. Here we demonstrate waveguide-based waveplates, fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses, capable to effectively produce arbitrary single-qubit operations in the polarization encoding. By exploiting these novel components we fabricate and test a compact device for the quantum state tomography of two polarization-entangled photons. The integrated optical waveplates complete the toolbox required for a full manipulation of polariza...
Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico
2015-01-01
We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe the information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-$N$ limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with $N$ either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of i...
Entanglement versus mutual information in quantum spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum entanglement E of a bipartite quantum Ising chain is compared with the mutual information I between the two parts after a local measurement of the classical spin configuration. As the model is conformally invariant, the entanglement measured in its ground state at the critical point is known to obey a certain scaling form. Surprisingly, the mutual information of classical spin configurations is found to obey the same scaling form, although with a different prefactor. Moreover, we find that mutual information and the entanglement obey the inequality I ? E in the ground state as well as in a dynamically evolving situation. This inequality holds for general bipartite systems in a pure state and can be proved using similar techniques as for Holevo’s bound. (paper)
Quantum phase transitions in the LMG model by means of quantum information concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum phase transitions are currently studied in several fields of physics, as examples one finds: in nuclear physics the shape phase transitions within the Interacting Boson Model; in quantum optics two level atoms interacting with a one mode electromagnetic radiation in a cavity; and in condensed matter in the analysis of the behavior of spin systems. In this contribution we employ the fidelity and its susceptibility, two concepts widely used in quantum information theory, to determine the quantum phase transitions of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model together with its scaling properties. By means of these concepts, we propose a quantum method to determine the crossings and anti-crossings present in a model Hamiltonian as a function of the control parameters of the model. A review of the separatrix of the LMG model is done to compare the results obtained by means of quantum information concepts with those related with the singular behavior of the energy surface of the model, which is the expectation value of the Hamiltonian with respect to spin coherent states.
Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73±0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources
Information Geometry of Entanglement Renormalization for free Quantum Fields
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier
2015-01-01
We provide an explicit connection between the differential generation of entanglement entropy in a tensor network representation of the ground states of two field theories, and a geometric description of these states based on the Fisher information metric. We show how the geometrical description remains invariant despite there is an irreducible gauge freedom in the definition of the tensor network. The results might help to understand how spacetimes may emerge from distributions of quantum states, or more concretely, from the structure of the quantum entanglement concomitant to those distributions.
Quantum information processing and metrology with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of trapped atomic ions in the field of quantum information processing is briefly reviewed. We summarize the basic mechanisms required for logic gates and the use of the gates in demonstrating simple algorithms. We discuss the potential of trapped ions to reach fault-tolerant error levels in a large-scale system, and highlight some of the problems that will be faced in achieving this goal. Possible near-term applications in applied and basic science, such as in metrology and quantum simulation, are briefly discussed
Barz, Stefanie
2015-04-01
Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. This tutorial reviews the fundamental tools of photonic quantum information processing. The basics of theoretical quantum computing are presented and the quantum circuit model as well as measurement-based models of quantum computing are introduced. Furthermore, it is shown how these concepts can be implemented experimentally using photonic qubits, where information is encoded in the photons’ polarization.
Information-disturbance tradeoff in sending direction information via antiparallel quantum spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When sending unknown direction information, antiparallel spins contain more direction information than parallel spins (Gisin and Popescu 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 432). In this paper, the optimal information-disturbance tradeoff bound for antiparallel spins is derived. The quantum measurements which attain the optimal tradeoff bound are obtained. This result can be of practical relevance for posing some general limits on Eve's eavesdropping process. Finally, we also present a comparison between the bound for antiparallel spins and the bound for parallel spins.
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: Are They Related to Quantum Paradoxology?
Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Von Spakovsky, Michael R.
2004-01-01
We review both the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) paper about the completeness of quantum theory, and Schrodinger's responses to the EPR paper. We find that both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses, including the cat paradox, are not consistent with the current understanding of quantum theory and thermodynamics. Because both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses play a leading role in discussions of the fascinating and promising fields of quantum computation and...
Cheng, Shun-Jen; Liao, Yu-Huai; Lin, Pei-Yi
2015-03-01
We present numerical investigations based on the Luttinger-Kohn four-band k .p theory and, accordingly, establish a quantitatively valid model of the excitonic fine structures of droplet epitaxial GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots under uniaxial stress control. In the formalisms, stressing a photoexcited quantum dot is equivalent creating a pseudomagnetic field that is directly coupled to the pseudospin of the exciton doublet and tunable to tailor the polarized fine structure of exciton. The latter feature is associated with the valence-band mixing of exciton, which is especially sensitive to external stress in inherently unstrained droplet epitaxial GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots and allows us to mechanically design and prepare any desired exciton states of QD photon sources prior to the photon generation.
Quantum-information processing with noisy cluster states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We provide an analysis of basic quantum-information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic nonidealities in cluster states. These nonidealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster-state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum-state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer
Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines
Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Wang, Xiaoguang
2014-12-01
An unknown quantum state cannot be copied and broadcast freely due to the no-cloning theorem. Approximate cloning schemes have been proposed to achieve the optimal cloning characterized by the maximal fidelity between the original and its copies. Here, from the perspective of quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the distribution of QFI in asymmetric cloning machines which produce two nonidentical copies. As one might expect, improving the QFI of one copy results in decreasing the QFI of the other copy. It is perhaps also unsurprising that asymmetric phase-covariant cloning outperforms universal cloning in distributing QFI since a priori information of the input state has been utilized. However, interesting results appear when we compare the distributabilities of fidelity (which quantifies the full information of quantum states), and QFI (which only captures the information of relevant parameters) in asymmetric cloning machines. Unlike the results of fidelity, where the distributability of symmetric cloning is always optimal for any d-dimensional cloning, we find that any asymmetric cloning outperforms symmetric cloning on the distribution of QFI for d cloning strategies could be worse than symmetric ones when d > 18.
A quantum limit on the information retrievable from an image
Levitin, Lev B
2014-01-01
We consider the physical limitations imposed on the information content of an image by the wave and quantum nature of light, when the image is obtained by illuminating a reflecting or transmitting planar object by natural---i.e., fully thermalized---light, or by observation of an object emitting incoherent (thermal) radiation. The discreteness of the degrees of freedom and the statistical properties of thermal radiation are taken into account. We derive the maximum amount of information that can be retrieved from the object. This amount is always finite and is proportional to the area of the object, the solid angle under which the entrance pupil of the receiver is seen from the object, and the time of observation. An explicit expression for the information in the case where the information recorded by the receiver obeys Planck's spectral distribution is obtained. The amount of information per photon of recorded radiation is a universal numerical constant, independent of the parameters of observation.
Geometric information in eight dimensions vs. quantum information
Tarkhanov, Victor I.; Nesterov, Michael M.
2008-01-01
Complementary idempotent paravectors and their ordered compositions, are used to represent multivector basis elements of geometric Clifford algebra for 3D Euclidean space as the states of a geometric byte in a given frame of reference. Two layers of information, available in real numbers, are distinguished. The first layer is a continuous one. It is used to identify spatial orientations of similar geometric objects in the same computational basis. The second layer is a binar...
Local hidden variable theoretic measure of quantumness of mutual information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entanglement, a manifestation of quantumness of correlations between the observables of the subsystems of a composite system, and the quantumness of their mutual information are widely studied characteristics of a system of spin-1/2 particles. The concept of quantumness of correlations between the observables of a system is based on incommensurability of the correlations with the predictions of some local hidden variable (LHV) theory. However, the concept of quantumness of mutual information does not invoke the LHV theory explicitly. In this paper, the concept of quantumness of mutual information for a system of two spin-1/2 particles, named A and B, in the state described by the density matrix ?-hat AB is formulated by invoking explicitly the LHV theory. To that end, the classical mutual information I(a, b) of the spins is assumed to correspond to the joint probability p(?aA;?bB) (?aA,?bB=±1) for the spin A to have the component ?aA/2 in the direction a and the spin B to have the component ?bB/2 in the direction b, constructed by invoking the LHV theory. The quantumness of mutual information is then defined as QLHV=IQ( ?-hat AB)?ILHV where IQ( ?-hat AB) is the quantum theoretic information content in the state ?-hat AB and the LHV theoretic classical information ILHV is defined in terms of I(a, b) by choosing the directions a, b as follows. The choice of the directions a, b is made by finding the Bloch vectors ? S-hat A? and ? S-hat B? of the spins A and B where S-hat A ( S-hat B) is the spin vector of spin A (spin B) and ? P-hat ?=Tr( P-hat ?-hat AB). The directions a and b are taken to be along the Bloch vector of A and B respectively if those Bloch vectors are non-zero. In that case ILHV = I(a, b) and QLHV turns out to be identical with the measurement induced disturbance. If ? S-hat A?=? S-hat B?=0, then ILHV is defined to be the maximum of I(a, b) over a and b. The said optimization in this case can be performed analytically exactly and QLHV is then found to be the same as the symmetric discord. If ? S-hat A?=0, ? S-hat B??0, then ILHV is defined to be the maximum of I(a, b) over a with b= SB-hat /| SB-hat |. The QLHV is then the same as the quantum discord for measurement on A if the eigenstates of SB-hat ?b are also the eigenstates of the operator ?±,am| ?-hat AB|±,am? on B where am is the direction of optimization of spin A for evaluation of the quantum discord and | ±, am? are the eigenstates of SA-hat ?am. (paper)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2010-01-01
We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity...
Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuyang Chen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed?loop system’s stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing
Bell, B. A.; Markham, D.; Herrera-Martí, D. A.; Marin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Rarity, J. G.; Tame, M. S.
2014-11-01
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing—an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks.
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing
Bell, B A; Herrera-Martí, D A; Marin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G; Tame, M S
2014-01-01
Distributed quantum communication and quantum computing offer many new opportunities for quantum information processing. Here networks based on highly nonlocal quantum resources with complex entanglement structures have been proposed for distributing, sharing and processing quantum information. Graph states in particular have emerged as powerful resources for such tasks using measurement-based techniques. We report an experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing, an important primitive for a quantum network. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information between four parties. In our experiment we demonstrate the integration of three distinct secret sharing protocols, which allow for security and protocol parameters not possible with any single protocol alone. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for sophisticated multi-layered protoc...
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
Bacon, D.
2003-01-01
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on ...
Tomita-Takesaki Modular Theory vs. Quantum Information Theory
ZHANG, LIN; Wu, Junde
2013-01-01
Comment: 29 pages, LaTeX, this review article is not completed and to be continued. The first goal of writing this topic is just to understand the notion of cyclic and separating vector in von Neumann algebra. The second goal is to apply Tomita-Takesaki modular theory in Quantum Information Theory. All comments are welcome!. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:0906.3980, arXiv:1012.1417 by other authors
The quantum-classical transition as an information flow
Angelo Plastino; Luciano Zunino; Martin, Maria T.; Andres M. Kowalski; Montserrat Casas
2010-01-01
We investigate the classical limit of the semiclassical evolution with reference to a well-known model that represents the interaction between matter and a given field. This is done by recourse to a special statistical quantifier called the ``symbolic transfer entropy''. We encounter that the quantum-classical transition gets thereby described as the sign-reversal of the dominating direction of the information flow between classical and quantal variables.
Channel kets, entangled states, and the location of quantum information
Griffiths, Robert B.
2004-01-01
The well-known duality relating entangled states and noisy quantum channels is expressed in terms of a channel ket, a pure state on a suitable tripartite system, which functions as a pre-probability allowing the calculation of statistical correlations between, for example, the entrance and exit of a channel, once a framework has been chosen so as to allow a consistent set of probabilities. In each framework the standard notions of ordinary (classical) information theory appl...
Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
2015-02-01
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
Babbush, Ryan; O'Gorman, Bryan; Macready, William; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-01-01
Optimization problems associated with the interaction of linked particles are at the heart of polymer science, protein folding and other important problems in the physical sciences. In this review we explain how to recast these problems as constraint satisfaction problems such as linear programming, maximum satisfiability, and pseudo-boolean optimization. By encoding problems this way, one can leverage substantial insight and powerful solvers from the computer science community which studies constraint programming for diverse applications such as logistics, scheduling, artificial intelligence, and circuit design. We demonstrate how to constrain and embed lattice heteropolymer problems using several strategies. Each strikes a unique balance between number of constraints, complexity of constraints, and number of variables. In addition, each strategy has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on problem size and available resources. Finally, we show how to reduce the locality of couplings in these energ...
Duras, M M
2003-01-01
The random matrix ensembles (RME) of quantum statistical Hamiltonians, e.g. Gaussian random matrix ensembles (GRME) and Ginibre random matrix ensembles (Ginibre RME), are applied in literature to following quantum statistical systems: molecular systems, nuclear systems, disordered materials, random Ising spin systems, and two-dimensional electron systems (Wigner-Dyson electrostatic analogy). Measures of quantum chaos and quantum integrability with respect to eigenergies of quantum systems are defined and calculated. Quantum statistical information functional is defined as negentropy (opposite of entropy or minus entropy). Entropy is neginformation (opposite of information or minus information. The distribution functions for the random matrix ensembles are derived from the maximum entropy principle.
Quantum Information Experiments with Trapped Ions at NIST
Wilson, Andrew
2015-03-01
We present an overview of recent trapped-ion quantum information experiments at NIST. Advancing beyond few-qubit ``proof-of-principle'' experiments to the many-qubit systems needed for practical quantum simulation and information processing, without compromising on the performance demonstrated with small systems, remains a major challenge. One approach to scalable hardware development is surface-electrode traps. Micro-fabricated planar traps can have a number of useful features, including flexible electrode geometries, integrated microwave delivery, and spatio-temporal tuning of potentials for ion transport and spin-spin interactions. In this talk we report on a number of on-going investigations with surface traps. Experiments feature a multi-zone trap with closely spaced ions in a triangular arrangement (a first step towards 2D arrays of ions with tunable spin-spin interactions), a scheme for smooth transport through a junction in a 2D structure based on switchable RF potentials, and a micro-fabricated photo-detector integrated into a trap. We also give a progress report on our latest efforts to improve the fidelity of both optical and microwave 2-qubit gates. This work was supported by IARPA, ONR and the NIST Quantum Information Program. The 3-ion and switchable-RF-junction traps were developed in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory.
Quantum Information and Gravity Cutoff in Theories with Species
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that lowering of the gravitational cutoff relative to the Planck mass, imposed by black hole physics in theories with N species, has an independent justification from quantum information theory. First, this scale marks the limiting capacity of any information processor. Secondly, by taking into the account the limitations of the quantum information storage in any system with species, the bound on the gravity cutoff becomes equivalent to the holographic bound, and this equivalence automatically implies the equality of entanglement and Bekenstein-Hawking entropies. Next, the same bound follows from quantum cloning theorem. Finally, we point out that by identifying the UV and IR threshold scales of the black hole quasi-classicality in four-dimensional field and high-dimensional gravity theories, the bound translates as the correspondence between the two theories. In case when the high-dimensional background is AdS, this reproduces the well-known AdS/CFT relation, but also suggests a generalization of the...
Quantum Discord and Information Deficit in Spin Chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norma Canosa
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We examine the behavior of quantum correlations of spin pairs in a finite anisotropic XY spin chain immersed in a transverse magnetic field, through the analysis of the quantum discord and the conventional and quadratic one-way information deficits. We first provide a brief review of these measures, showing that the last ones can be obtained as particular cases of a generalized information deficit based on general entropic forms. All of these measures coincide with an entanglement entropy in the case of pure states, but can be non-zero in separable mixed states, vanishing just for classically correlated states. It is then shown that their behavior in the exact ground state of the chain exhibits similar features, deviating significantly from that of the pair entanglement below the critical field. In contrast with entanglement, they reach full range in this region, becoming independent of the pair separation and coupling range in the immediate vicinity of the factorizing field. It is also shown, however, that significant differences between the quantum discord and the information deficits arise in the local minimizing measurement that defines them. Both analytical and numerical results are provided.
Gravity and Information: Putting a Bit of Quantum into GR
Spaans, M
2009-01-01
It is shown that quantum aspects of the energy-momentum tensor reveal dark matter like behavior for general relativity. In this, special meaning is assigned to the operator X^2d^2/dX^2+2Xd/dX, for any field X that is part of the energy-momentum tensor, and to the distinction between information on gravitational and non-gravitational effects. Changes in such information cause the Sun-Earth distance to increase by ~11 cm/yr.
Quantum dots as single-photon sources for quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semiconductor pillar microcavities containing quantum dots have shown promise as efficient sources of single and correlated pairs of photons, which may find applications in quantum information processing. In this paper we discuss the use of these sources to generate single photons and the use of pillars with elliptical cross-section to enhance and select a particular photon state. Single-photon interference measurements are also performed and show coherence times of up to 180 ps for quasi-resonantly pumped dots. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference measurements using a fibre interferometer indicate that individually created photons display a large degree of indistinguishability
Hayashi, Masahito
2015-01-01
We treat secret key extraction when the eavesdropper has correlated quantum states. We propose quantum privacy amplification theorems different from Renner's, which are based on quantum conditional Rényi entropy of order 1 + s. Using those theorems, we derive an exponential rate of decrease for leaked information and the asymptotic equivocation rate, which have not been derived hitherto in the quantum setting.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2000-01-01
We use the system of p-adic numbers for the description of information processes. Basic objects of our models are so called transformers of information, basic processes are information processes, the statistics are information statistics (thus we present a model of information reality). The classical and quantum mechanical formalisms on information p-adic spaces are developed. It seems that classical and quantum mechanical models on p-adic information spaces can be applied f...
Gao, Zaifeng; Bentin, Shlomo
2011-01-01
Face perception studies investigated how spatial frequencies (SF) are extracted from retinal display while forming a perceptual representation, or their selective use during task-imposed categorization. Here we focused on the order of encoding low-spatial frequencies (LSF) and high-spatial frequencies (HSF) from perceptual representations into…
Informação e teoria quântica / Information and quantum theory
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Olival, Freire Junior; Ileana Maria, Greca.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A pesquisa em informação quântica sugere uma íntima conexão entre o conceito de informação e a teoria quântica, mas essa conexão envolve nuances cuja análise é o objeto deste trabalho. A sabedoria comum nesse campo divide-se em duas grandes áreas, não excludentes entre si. Há os que são movidos pela [...] possibilidade de uso da teoria quântica em um novo campo, o da computação, independentemente do esclarecimento de seus fundamentos, aqui incluído o conceito de "informação". Alguns consideram que estamos diante de um grande problema conceitual sem resposta satisfatória no momento, enquanto que outros, dentre os que reconhecem a magnitude do problema, têm proposto formulações com a pretensão de solução do problema. Este artigo tem pretensões modestas. Não pretendemos aportar novas soluções ao problema, nem apoiar uma das soluções existentes. Temos a expectativa de através da análise histórico-conceitual do problema mapear as diversas possibilidades, apontando o que nos parecem ser aspectos fortes e fracos nessas possibilidades. Abstract in english Research in quantum information suggests a close connection between information and quantum theory. The aim of this article is to analyze nuances involved in this connection. Scientists in this field are divided into two overlapping camps. Some are motivated only by the use of quantum features to im [...] prove information processing, in spite of concerns about the foundations of the quantum theory, while others recognize deep conceptual problems of this theory, and attempt to solve them. This article has modest ambitions. It aims only to chart, by way of historical and conceptual analysis, the diverse possibilities available, indicating the strengths and weaknesses of each of them.
Quantum information transmission in the quantum wireless multihop network based on Werner state
Shi, Li-Hui; Yu, Xu-Tao; Cai, Xiao-Fei; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2015-05-01
Many previous studies about teleportation are based on pure state. Study of quantum channel as mixed state is more realistic but complicated as pure states degenerate into mixed states by interaction with environment, and the Werner state plays an important role in the study of the mixed state. In this paper, the quantum wireless multihop network is proposed and the information is transmitted hop by hop through teleportation. We deduce a specific expression of the recovered state not only after one-hop teleportation but also across multiple intermediate nodes based on Werner state in a quantum wireless multihop network. We also obtain the fidelity of multihop teleportation. Project supported by the Prospective Future Network Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BY2013095-1-18) and the Independent Project of State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves (Grant No. Z201504).
Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, Christian I.T.
2008-05-30
In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to demonstrate a new method for the experimental discrimination of different multi-partite entangled states. The new tool presented here is based on operators which are formed by the correlations between local measurement settings that are typical for the respective quantum state. (orig.)
Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to demonstrate a new method for the experimental discrimination of different multi-partite entangled states. The new tool presented here is based on operators which are formed by the correlations between local measurement settings that are typical for the respective quantum state. (orig.)
Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons
Hiesmayr, B. C.
2015-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay ?+? p?0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where ? is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247
Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando
2015-01-01
Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID:26029099
Experimental detection of quantum information sharing and its quantification in quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the macroscopic entanglement properties of a low-dimensional quantum spin system by investigating its magnetic properties at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. The spin system chosen for this is copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2 × 2.5H2O), which is a spin chain that exhibits dimerization. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of entanglement from the susceptibility and magnetization data are given, by comparing the experimental results with the theoretical estimates. Extraction of entanglement has been made possible through the macroscopic witness operator, magnetic susceptibility. An explicit comparison of the experimental extraction of entanglement with theoretical estimates is provided. It was found that theory and experiments match over a wide range of temperatures and fields. The spin system studied exhibits quantum phase transition (QPT) at low temperatures when the magnetic field is swept through a critical value. We show explicitly for the first time, using tools used in quantum information processing, that QPT can be captured experimentally using quantum complementary observables, which clearly delineate entangled states from separable ones across the QPT. We have also estimated the partial information sharing in this system from our magnetization and susceptibility data. The complementarity relation has been experimentally verified to hold in this system. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have combined the idea of renormalization group and quantum-information theory. We have shown how the entanglement or concurrence evolve as the size of the system becomes large, i.e., the finite size scaling is obtained. Moreover, we introduce how the renormalization-group approach can be implemented to obtain the quantum-information properties of a many-body system. We have obtained the concurrence as a measure of entanglement, its derivatives and their scaling behavior versus the size of system for the one-dimensional Ising model in transverse field. We have found that the derivative of concurrence between two blocks each containing half of the system size diverges at the critical point with the exponent, which is directly associated with the divergence of the correlation length
Information dynamics and open systems classical and quantum approach
Ingarden, R S; Ohya, M
1997-01-01
This book aims to present an information-theoretical approach to thermodynamics and its generalisations On the one hand, it generalises the concept of `information thermodynamics' to that of `information dynamics' in order to stress applications outside thermal phenomena On the other hand, it is a synthesis of the dynamics of state change and the theory of complexity, which provide a common framework to treat both physical and nonphysical systems together Both classical and quantum systems are discussed, and two appendices are included to explain principal definitions and some important aspects of the theory of Hilbert spaces and operator algebras The concept of higher-order temperatures is explained and applied to biological and linguistic systems The theory of open systems is presented in a new, much more general form Audience This volume is intended mainly for theoretical and mathematical physicists, but also for mathematicians, experimental physicists, physical chemists, theoretical biologists, communicat...
Microfabrication techniques for trapped ion quantum information processing
Britton, Joe
2010-01-01
Quantum-mechanical principles can be used to process information (QIP). In one approach, linear arrays of trapped, laser cooled ion qubits (two-level quantum systems) are confined in segmented multi-zone electrode structures. The ion trap approach to QIP requires trapping and control of numerous ions in electrode structures with many trapping zones. I investigated microfabrication of structures to trap, transport and couple large numbers of ions. Using 24Mg+ I demonstrated loading and transport between zones in microtraps made of boron doped silicon. This thesis describes the fundamentals of ion trapping, the characteristics of silicon-based traps amenable to QIP work and apparatus to trap ions and characterize traps. Microfabrication instructions appropriate for nonexperts are included. Ion motional heating was measured. Using MEMs techniques I built a Si micro-mechanical oscillator and demonstrated a method to reduce the kinetic energy of its lowest order mechanical mode via capacitive coupling to a driven...
Quadrature uncertainty and information entropy of quantum elliptical vortex states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the quadrature uncertainty of the quantum elliptical vortex state using the associated Wigner function. Deviations from the minimum uncertainty states were observed due to the absence of Gaussianity. We further observed that there exists an optimum value of ellipticity which gives rise to the maximum entanglement of the two modes of the quantum elliptical vortex states. In our study of entropy, we noticed that with increasing vorticity, entropy increases for both the modes. A further increase in ellipticity reduces the entropy thereby resulting in a loss of information carrying capacity. We check the validity of the entropic inequality relations, namely the subaddivity and the Araki–Lieb inequality. The latter was satisfied only for a very small range of the ellipticity of the vortex, while the former seemed to be valid at all values. (paper)
Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse
Caves, Carlton
2014-03-01
Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.
A quantum informational approach for dissecting chemical reactions
Duperrouzel, Corinne; Boguslawski, Katharina; Barcza, Gergerly; Legeza, Örs; Ayers, Paul W
2014-01-01
We present a conceptionally different approach to dissect bond-formation processes in metal-driven catalysis using concepts from quantum information theory. Our method uses the entanglement and correlation among molecular orbitals to analyze changes in electronic structure that accompany chemical processes. As a proof-of-principle example, the evolution of nickel-ethene bond-formation is dissected which allows us to monitor the interplay of back-bonding and $\\pi$-donation along the reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the reaction pathway of nickel-ethene complexation is analyzed using quantum chemistry methods revealing the presence of a transition state. Our study supports the crucial role of metal-to-ligand back-donation in the bond-forming process of nickel-ethene.