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Sample records for quantum information encoding

  1. Optimal Encoding of Classical Information in a Quantum Medium

    Elron, Noam; Yonina C. Eldar

    2006-01-01

    We investigate optimal encoding and retrieval of digital data, when the storage/communication medium is described by quantum mechanics. We assume an m-ary alphabet with arbitrary prior distribution, and an n-dimensional quantum system. Under these constraints, we seek an encoding-retrieval setup, comprised of code-states and a quantum measurement, which maximizes the probability of correct detection. In our development, we consider two cases. In the first, the measurement is predefined and we...

  2. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  3. Quantum Repeater with Encoding

    Jiang, Liang; Taylor, Jacob Mason; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W. J.; van Meter, Rodney; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to implement quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communication. Our protocol generates a backbone of encoded Bell pairs and uses the procedure of classical error correction during simultaneous entanglement connection. We illustrate that the repeater protocol with simple Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) encoding can significantly extend the communication distance, while still maintaining a fast key generation rate.

  4. Quantum bit encoding and information processing with field superposition states in a circuit

    Solid-state superconducting devices coupled to coplanar transmission lines offer an exquisite architecture for quantum optical phenomena probing as well as for quantum computation implementation, which is the object of intense theoretical and experimental investigation lately. Under appropriate conditions, the transmission line radiation modes can become strongly coupled to a superconducting device with only two levels - for that reason called an artificial atom or qubit. Employing this system, we propose a two-quantum bit gate encoding, involving quantum electromagnetic field qubit states prepared in a coplanar transmission line capacitively coupled to a single charge qubit. Since dissipative effects are more drastic in the solid-state qubit than in the field one, it can be employed for the storage of information, whose efficiency against the action of an ohmic bath shows that this encoding can be readily implemented with present-day technology. We extend the investigation to generate entanglement between several solid-state qubits and the field qubit through the action of external classical magnetic pulses.

  5. Optimal quantum source coding with quantum information at the encoder and decoder

    Yard, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Consider many instances of an arbitrary quadripartite pure state of four quantum systems ACBR. Alice holds the AC part of each state, Bob holds B, while R represents all other parties correlated with ACB. Alice is required to redistribute the C systems to Bob while asymptotically retaining the purity of the global states. We prove that this is possible using Q qubits of communication and E ebits of shared entanglement between Alice and Bob provided that Q < I(R;C|B)/2 and Q + E < H(C|B). This matches the outer bound for this problem given in quant-ph/0611008. The optimal qubit rate provides the first known operational interpretation of quantum conditional mutual information. We also show how our protocol leads to a fully operational proof of strong subaddivity and uncover a general organizing principle, in analogy to thermodynamics, which underlies the optimal rates.

  6. Relativistically invariant quantum information

    Bartlett, Stephen D.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    We show that quantum information can be encoded into entangled states of multiple indistinguishable particles in such a way that any inertial observer can prepare, manipulate, or measure the encoded state independent of their Lorentz reference frame. Such relativistically invariant quantum information is free of the difficulties associated with encoding into spin or other degrees of freedom in a relativistic context.

  7. Strong connections between quantum encodings, nonlocality, and quantum cryptography

    Sikora, Jamie; Chailloux, André; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2014-02-01

    Encoding information in quantum systems can offer surprising advantages but at the same time there are limitations that arise from the fact that measuring an observable may disturb the state of the quantum system. In our work, we provide an in-depth analysis of a simple question: What happens when we perform two measurements sequentially on the same quantum system? This question touches upon some fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty principle and the complementarity of quantum measurements. Our results have interesting consequences, for example, they can provide a simple proof of the optimal quantum strategy in the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game. Moreover, we show that the way information is encoded in quantum systems can provide a different perspective in understanding other fundamental aspects of quantum information, like nonlocality and quantum cryptography. We prove some strong equivalences between these notions and provide a number of applications in all areas.

  8. Protecting Quantum Information Encoded in Decoherence Free States Against Exchange Errors

    Lidar, D A; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    The exchange interaction between identical qubits in a quantum information processor gives rise to unitary two-qubit errors. It is shown here that decoherence free subspaces (DFSs) for collective decoherence undergo Pauli errors under exchange, which however do not take the decoherence free states outside of the DFS. In order to protect DFSs against these errors it is sufficient to employ a recently proposed concatenated DFS-quantum error correcting code scheme [D.A. Lidar, D. Bacon and K.B. Whaley, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol 82, 4556 (1999)

  9. Ca+ quantum bits for quantum information processing

    With trapped ions quantum information can be encoded in various two-level systems or quantum bits (qubits). Here, we present an overview on qubit encoding with Ca+ and several state-of-the-art operations involving two and three qubits. The use of decoherence-free subspaces and encoding logical qubits using two physical qubits may offer an advantageous route towards implementing scalable quantum information processing.

  10. Hybrid Qubit gates in circuit QED: A scheme for quantum bit encoding and information processing

    Neto, O. P. de Sa; Oliveira, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Solid state superconducting devices coupled to coplanar transmission lines offer an exquisite architecture for quantum optical phenomena probing as well as for quantum computation implementation, being the object of intense theoretical and experimental investigation lately. In appropriate conditions the transmission line radiation modes can get strongly coupled to a superconducting device with only two levels -for that reason called artificial atom or qubit. Employing this system we propose a...

  11. Minimal memory requirements for pearl-necklace encoders of quantum convolutional codes

    Houshmand, Monireh; Saied HOSSEINI-KHAYAT; Wilde, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major goals in quantum information processing is to reduce the overhead associated with the practical implementation of quantum protocols, and often, routines for quantum error correction account for most of this overhead. A particular technique for quantum error correction that may be useful for protecting a stream of quantum information is quantum convolutional coding. The encoder for a quantum convolutional code has a representation as a convolutional encoder or as a "pearl-neck...

  12. Nonlocal quantum information in bipartite quantum error correction

    Wilde, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    We show how to convert an arbitrary stabilizer code into a bipartite quantum code. A bipartite quantum code is one that involves two senders and one receiver. The two senders exploit both nonlocal and local quantum resources to encode quantum information with local encoding circuits. They transmit their encoded quantum data to a single receiver who then decodes the transmitted quantum information. The nonlocal resources in a bipartite code are ebits and nonlocal information qubits and the local resources are ancillas and local information qubits. The technique of bipartite quantum error correction is useful in both the quantum communication scenario described above and in fault-tolerant quantum computation. It has application in fault-tolerant quantum computation because we can prepare nonlocal resources offline and exploit local encoding circuits. In particular, we derive an encoding circuit for a bipartite version of the Steane code that is local and additionally requires only nearest-neighbor interactions....

  13. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n2) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

  14. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

    Wang, Yazhen

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in nature, and quantum ...

  15. Classical and quantum information

    Marinescu, Dan C

    2011-01-01

    A new discipline, Quantum Information Science, has emerged in the last two decades of the twentieth century at the intersection of Physics, Mathematics, and Computer Science. Quantum Information Processing is an application of Quantum Information Science which covers the transformation, storage, and transmission of quantum information; it represents a revolutionary approach to information processing. This book covers topics in quantum computing, quantum information theory, and quantum error correction, three important areas of quantum information processing. Quantum information theory an

  16. Quantum information and computation

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics.

  17. Linear optical quantum computation with parity encoding

    Full text: We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs an incremental parity encoding approach. The scheme is circuit-based but uses techniques from cluster state computation, and achieves comparable resource usage to the cluster state approach. Our scheme also offers increased tolerance to photon loss. (author)

  18. Quantum Key Distribution using Multilevel Encoding Security Analysis

    Bourennane, M; Björk, G; Gisin, Nicolas; Cerf, N J; Bourennane, Mohamed; Karlsson, Anders; Bjork, Gunnar; Gisin, Nicolas; Cerf, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    We present security proofs for a protocol for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) based on encoding in finite high-dimensional Hilbert spaces. This protocol is an extension of Bennett's and Brassard's basic protocol from two bases, two state encoding to a multi bases, multi state encoding. We analyze the mutual information between the legitimate parties and the eavesdropper, and the error rate, as function of the dimension of the Hilbert space, while considering optimal incoherent and coherent eavesdropping attacks. We obtain the upper limit for the legitimate party error rate to ensure unconditional security when the eavesdropper uses incoherent and coherent eavesdropping strategies. We have also consider realistic noise caused by detector's noise.

  19. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    Miller, Samuel Lee; Miller, William Michael; McWhorter, Paul Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals.

  20. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  1. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B– → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  2. Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis

    We propose an extension of quantum key distribution based on encoding the key into quNits, i.e. quantum states in an N-dimensional Hilbert space. We estimate both the mutual information between the legitimate parties and the eavesdropper, and the error rate, as a function of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We derive the information gained by an eavesdropper using optimal incoherent attacks and an upper bound on the legitimate party error rate that ensures unconditional security when the eavesdropper uses finite coherent eavesdropping attacks. We also consider realistic systems where we assume that the detector dark count probability is not negligible

  3. Quantum information to the home

    Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D, E-mail: paul.townsend@tyndall.ie [Photonic Systems Group, Tyndall National Institute and Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Information encoded on individual quanta will play an important role in our future lives, much as classically encoded digital information does today. Combining quantum information carried by single photons with classical signals encoded on strong laser pulses in modern fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks is a significant challenge, the solution to which will facilitate the global distribution of quantum information to the home and with it a quantum internet. In real-world networks, spontaneous Raman scattering in the optical fibre would induce crosstalk between the high-power classical channels and a single-photon quantum channel, such that the latter is unable to operate. Here, we show that the integration of quantum and classical information on an FTTH network is possible by performing quantum key distribution (QKD) on a network while simultaneously transferring realistic levels of classical data. Our novel scheme involves synchronously interleaving a channel of quantum data with the Raman scattered photons from a classical channel, exploiting the periodic minima in the instantaneous crosstalk and thereby enabling secure QKD to be performed.

  4. Quantum biological information theory

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  5. Quantum information theory

    Nielsen, M A

    1998-01-01

    Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel limits to the information processing ability of quantum mechanics. Results of especial interest include: the demonstration of limitations to the class of measurements which may be performed in quantum mechanics; a capacity theorem giving achievable limits to the transmission of classical information through a two-way noiseless quantum channel; resource bounds on distributed quantum computation; a new proof of the quantum noiseless channel coding theorem; an information-theoretic characterization of the conditions under which quantum error-cor...

  6. Encoding qubits into quantum noise resistant states

    Heim, Dennis; Gleisberg, Ferdinand; Freyberger, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The intention of the proposed scheme is to protect information of an unknown pure qubit against effects of quantum noise represented by a quantum channel. By applying the proposed scheme before and after the qubit passes the channel the resulting fidelity will be higher than the fidelity without protection. The effect of a phase damping channel, for example, can be reduced by coupling and decoupling an additional qubit to the unknown initial state.

  7. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    Roos, Christian

    Trapped ions constitute a well-isolated small quantum system that offers low decoherence rates and excellent opportunities for quantum control and measurement by laser-induced manipulation of the ions. These properties make trapped ions an attractive system for experimental investigations of quantum information processing. In the following, the basics of storing, manipulating and measuring quantum information encoded in a string of trapped ions will be discussed. Based on these techniques, entanglement can be created and simple quantum protocols like quantum teleportation be realized. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the use of entangling laser-ion interactions for quantum simulations and quantum logic spectroscopy.

  8. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    Saffman, M.; Walker, T. G.; Moelmer, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2010-07-15

    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n>>1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n{sup 4} and radiative lifetimes that scale as n{sup 3}. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.

  9. The phase operator in quantum information processing

    It is shown that unitary depolarizers, which play an important role in quantum information processing, can be constructed in terms of the Pegg-Barnett phase operator. By using the result, the classical information capacity of quantum dense coding with unitary encoding in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space is derived. Furthermore, the relation between the capacity of quantum dense coding and the coherent information of a noisy quantum channel is obtained. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  10. Quantum information causality

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2012-01-01

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combin...

  11. Quantum Information An Introduction

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    Recently, quantum information theory has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields. This requires that understanding of basic results on diverse topics, and derived from different disciplinary perspectives, is required for appreciating the overall picture. Intended to merge key topics from both the information-theoretic and quantum- mechanical viewpoints, this graduate-level textbook provides a unified viewpoint of quantum information theory and lucid explanations of those basic results, so that the reader fundamentally grasps advances and challenges. For example, advanced topics in quantum communication such as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum state transmission (quantum error-correction), and quantum encryption especially benefit from this unified approach. Unlike earlier treatments, the text requires knowledge of only linear algebra, probability theory, and quantum mechanics, while it treats the topics of quantum hypothesis testing and the discrimination of q...

  12. Continuous-variable quantum information processing

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-01-01

    Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the...... continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the...... field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...

  13. Quantum Particles From Quantum Information

    Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mind-body-interaction. Instead of any kind of 'small elementary building bricks', the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.

  14. Source Coding With Encoder Side Information

    Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information studied by Wyner a...

  15. Photonic Quantum Information Processing

    The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)

  16. Quantum information and coherence

    Öhberg, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  17. Efficient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band Single Photons

    YAN Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Du, Shengwang

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key information is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal waveform without using any passive beam splitters or optical switches. We show that, when the technique is applied to the conventional fiber-based phase-encoding BB84 and differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation efficiencies can be improved b...

  18. Polar codes in network quantum information theory

    Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Wilde, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Polar coding is a method for communication over noisy classical channels which is provably capacity-achieving and has an efficient encoding and decoding. Recently, this method has been generalized to the realm of quantum information processing, for tasks such as classical communication, private classical communication, and quantum communication. In the present work, we apply the polar coding method to network quantum information theory, by making use of recent advances for related classical t...

  19. Quantum catalysis of information

    Azuma, Koji; KOASHI, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and recently derived many no-go theorems including the no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem have corroborated the idea that we can never access quantum information without causing disturbance. Here we disprove this presumption by predicting a novel phenomenon, `quantum catalysis of information,' where a system enables an otherwise impossible task by exchanging information through a quantum communication channel. This fact implies that making use of...

  20. Super quantum mechanics, spacetime and quantum information

    Hruby, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    In the paper it is shown the connection between spacetime and quantum information using an information spacetime as superspace. The connection of quantum information with anticommuting variables is given . Also a solitonic bag is presented where the information is confined.

  1. Emergence time, curvature, space, casualty, and complexity in encoding a discrete impulse information process

    Lerner, Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    Elementary impulse of interactive process enfolds time and space intervals, curvature, process casualty, complexity and encodes information Bit. In quantum mechanics any encoding random qubits requires retrieval, erasure or copying, measurements, leading to energy cost for getting physical information, while logic in reversible computation does not cost energy. These need to define what information is which is physical certain by its origin. Since information initially originates in quantum p...

  2. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  3. Introduction to quantum information science

    Hayashi, Masahito; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current  book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleport...

  4. Lectures on quantum information

    Quantum Information Processing is a young and rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of physics, mathematics, and computer science. Its ultimate goal is to harness quantum physics to conceive - and ultimately build - 'quantum' computers that would dramatically overtake the capabilities of today's 'classical' computers. One example of the power of a quantum computer is its ability to efficiently find the prime factors of a large integer, thus shaking the supposedly secure foundations of standard encryption schemes. This comprehensive textbook on the rapidly advancing field introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of information theory and quantum entanglement, taking into account the current state of research and development. It thus covers all current concepts in quantum computing, both theoretical and experimental, before moving on to the latest implementations of quantum computing and communication protocols. With its series of exercises, this is ideal reading for students and lecturers in physics and informatics, as well as experimental and theoretical physicists, and physicists in industry. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  6. Fidelity and the communication of quantum information

    We compare and contrast the error probability and fidelity as measures of the quality of the receiver's measurement strategy for a quantum communications system. The error probability is a measure of the ability to retrieve classical information and the fidelity measures the retrieval of quantum information. We present the optimal measurement strategies for maximizing the fidelity given a source that encodes information on the symmetric qubit-states. (author)

  7. Efficient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band Single Photons

    We propose an efficient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key information is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal waveform. We show that when the technique is applied to the conventional single photon phase-encoding BB84 and differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation efficiencies can be improved by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. For N(≥3)-period DPS systems, the key generation efficiency can be improved by a factor of N. The technique is suitable for quantum-memory-based long-distance fiber communication systems. (general)

  8. Hiding Quantum Information in the Perfect Code

    Shaw, Bilal A

    2010-01-01

    We present and analyze a protocol for quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) encodes her steganographic information into the error syndromes of the perfect (five-qubit) quantum error-correcting code, and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a depolarizing channel. Alice and Bob share a classical secret key, and hide quantum information in such a way that to an eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the secret key, the quantum message looks like an innocent codeword with a typical sequence of quantum errors. We calculate the average rate of key consumption, and show how the protocol improves in performance as information is spread over multiple codeword blocks. Alice and Bob utilize different encodings to optimize the average number of steganographic bits that they can send to each other while matching the error statistics of the depolarizing channel.

  9. Entanglement, Quantum Entropy and Mutual Information

    Belavkin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The operational structure of quantum couplings and entanglements is studied and classified for semifinite von Neumann algebras. We show that the classical-quantum correspondences such as quantum encodings can be treated as diagonal semi-classical (d-) couplings, and the entanglements characterized by truly quantum (q-) couplings, can be regarded as truly quantum encodings. The relative entropy of the d-compound and entangled states leads to two different types of entropy for a given quantum state: the von Neumann entropy, which is achieved as the maximum of mutual information over all d-entanglements, and the dimensional entropy, which is achieved at the standard entanglement -- true quantum entanglement, coinciding with a d-entanglement only in the case of pure marginal states. The d- and q- information of a quantum noisy channel are respectively defined via the input d- and q- encodings, and the q-capacity of a quantum noiseless channel is found as the logarithm of the dimensionality of the input algebra. T...

  10. Relativistic quantum information

    Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from special relativity, quantum optics, general relativity, quantum communication and quantum computation. The high level of current interest in these subjects is exemplified by the recent award of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics to Serge Haroche and David J Wineland for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. It is our hope that this issue will encourage new researchers to enter this rapidly developing and exciting new field. R B Mann and T C RalphGuest Editors

  11. From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. 

A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...

  12. Stable polarization-encoded quantum key distribution in fiber

    Wu, G; Li, Y; Zeng, H; Wu, Guang; Chen, Jie; Li, Yao; Zeng, Heping

    2006-01-01

    Polarizations of single-photon pulses have been controlled with long-term stability of more than 10 hours by using an active feedback technique for auto-compensation of unpredictable polarization scrambling in long-distance fiber. Experimental tests of long-term operations in 50, 75 and 100 km fibers demonstrated that such a single-photon polarization control supported stable polarization encoding in long-distance fibers to facilitate stable one-way fiber system for polarization-encoded quantum key distribution, providing quantum bit error rates below the absolute security threshold.

  13. Introduction to quantum information science

    Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.

  14. Introduction to quantum information science

    Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems

    2015-04-01

    Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are discussed too. Based on this topic, the secure quantum communication is explained. In particular, the quantification of quantum security which has not been treated in existing book is explained. This book treats quantum cryptography from a more practical viewpoint.

  15. Entanglement and non local correlations: quantum resources for information processing

    Prettico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Information Theory (QIT) studies how information can be processed and transmitted when encoded on quantum states. Practically, it can be understood as the effort to generalize Classical Information Theory to the quantum world. Interestingly, the fact that very-small scale Physics differs considerably from that of macroscopic objects offers a richer structure to the new theory. Among other phenomena, entanglement is at the heart of many quantum information protocols. It is the most spe...

  16. Accessible Information and Quantum operations

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.

  17. Quantum information with continuous variables

    Braunstein, Samuel L.; van Loock, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Quantum information is a rapidly advancing area of interdisciplinary research. It may lead to real-world applications for communication and computation unavailable without the exploitation of quantum properties such as nonorthogonality or entanglement. We review the progress in quantum information based on continuous quantum variables, with emphasis on quantum optical implementations in terms of the quadrature amplitudes of the electromagnetic field.

  18. Temporal information encoding in dynamic memristive devices

    We show temporal and frequency information can be effectively encoded in memristive devices with inherent short-term dynamics. Ag/Ag2S/Pd based memristive devices with low programming voltage (∼100 mV) were fabricated and tested. At weak programming conditions, the devices exhibit inherent decay due to spontaneous diffusion of the Ag atoms. When the devices were subjected to pulse train inputs emulating different spiking patterns, the switching probability distribution function diverges from the standard Poisson distribution and evolves according to the input pattern. The experimentally observed switching probability distributions and the associated cumulative probability functions can be well-explained using a model accounting for the short-term decay effects. Such devices offer an intriguing opportunity to directly encode neural signals for neural information storage and analysis

  19. Concentrating Tripartite Quantum Information.

    Streltsov, Alexander; Lee, Soojoon; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-07-17

    We introduce the concentrated information of tripartite quantum states. For three parties Alice, Bob, and Charlie, it is defined as the maximal mutual information achievable between Alice and Charlie via local operations and classical communication performed by Charlie and Bob. We derive upper and lower bounds to the concentrated information, and obtain a closed expression for it on several classes of states including arbitrary pure tripartite states in the asymptotic setting. We show that distillable entanglement, entanglement of assistance, and quantum discord can all be expressed in terms of the concentrated information, thus revealing its role as a unifying informational primitive. We finally investigate quantum state merging of mixed states with and without additional entanglement. The gap between classical and quantum concentrated information is proven to be an operational figure of merit for mixed state merging in the absence of additional entanglement. Contrary to the pure state merging, our analysis shows that classical communication in both directions can provide an advantage for merging of mixed states. PMID:26230778

  20. Quantum information processing with trapped ions

    Single Ca+ ions and crystals of Ca+ ions are confined in a linear Paul trap and are investigated for quantum information processing. Here we report on recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with such a system. Laser-cooled trapped ions are ideally suited systems for the investigation and implementation of quantum information processing as one can gain almost complete control over their internal and external degrees of freedom. The combination of a Paul type ion trap with laser cooling leads to unique properties of trapped cold ions, such as control of the motional state down to the zero-point of the trapping potential, a high degree of isolation from the environment and thus a very long time available for manipulations and interactions at the quantum level. The very same properties make single trapped atoms and ions well suited for storing quantum information in long lived internal states, e.g. by encoding a quantum bit (qubit) of information within the coherent superposition of the S1/2 ground state and the metastable D5/2 excited state of Ca+. Recently we have achieved the implementation of simple algorithms with up to 3 qubits on an ion-trap quantum computer. We will report on methods to implement single qubit rotations, the realization of a two-qubit universal quantum gate (Cirac-Zoller CNOT-gate), the deterministic generation of multi-particle entangled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)

  1. Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. PMID:26520251

  2. On the error analysis of quantum repeaters with encoding

    Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2016-03-01

    Losses of optical signals scale exponentially with the distance. Quantum repeaters are devices that tackle these losses in quantum communication by splitting the total distance into shorter parts. Today two types of quantum repeaters are subject of research in the field of quantum information: Those that use two-way communication and those that only use one-way communication. Here we explain the details of the performance analysis for repeaters of the second type. Furthermore we compare the two different schemes. Finally we show how the performance analysis generalizes to large-scale quantum networks.

  3. Optimal encoding of phase information in trapped ions

    We propose a specific preparation of a set of N two-level ions (i.e., the collective state ω of these ions) in which the information about the phase can be most optimally encoded. The phase ψ in this context refers to a continuous parameter 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 2π which labels different points along the evolution path of a given state ω of the N-ion system described by a unitary one-parametric group U(ψ)=exp[-iψH]. The optimally of the preparation of the given quantum system means that using the optimal measurement scheme the phase ψ encoded in the system of N two-level ions can be 'extracted' (decoded) with the highest mean fidelity (Author)

  4. Quantum information and computation

    During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)

  5. The decoupling approach to quantum information theory

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and have as corollaries entanglement-assisted and unassisted asymptotic coding theorems. The entanglement-assisted asymptotic versions can, in both cases, be considered as quantum versions of the best coding theorems known for the classical versions of these problems. The last chapter deals with a purely quantum phenomenon called locking. We demonstrate that it is possible to encode a classical message into a quantum state such that, by removing a subsystem of logarithmic size with respect to its total size, no measurement can have significant correlations with the message. The message is therefore "locked" by a logarithmic-size key. This thesis presents the first locking protocol for which the success criterion is that the trace distance between the joint distribution of the message and the measurement result and the product of their marginals be sufficiently small.

  6. Efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    We propose efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection. By these phase encodings, the probability of basis mismatch is reduced and total efficiency is increased. We also propose mixed-state protocols by omitting a part of classical communication steps in the efficient-phase-encoding protocols. The omission implies a reduction of information to an eavesdropper and possibly enhances the security of the protocols. We...

  7. Quantum Information and Relativity Theory

    Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory are the basic foundations of theoretical physics. The acquisition of information from a quantum system is the interface of classical and quantum physics. Essential tools for its description are Kraus matrices and positive operator valued measures (POVMs). Special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems. Quantum entropy is not a Lorentz covariant concept. Lorentz transformations o...

  8. Unified approach to topological quantum computation with anyons: From qubit encoding to Toffoli gate

    Topological quantum computation may provide a robust approach for encoding and manipulating information utilizing the topological properties of anyonic quasiparticle excitations. We develop an efficient means to map between dense and sparse representations of quantum information (qubits) and a simple construction of multiqubit gates, for all anyon models from Chern-Simons-Witten SU(2)k theory that support universal quantum computation by braiding (k≥3, k≠4). In the process, we show how the constructions of topological quantum memory and gates for k=2,4 connect naturally to those for k≥3, k≠4, unifying these concepts in a simple framework. Furthermore, we illustrate potential extensions of these ideas to other anyon models outside of Chern-Simons-Witten field theory.

  9. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    Houshmand, Monireh; Saied HOSSEINI-KHAYAT

    2010-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a "pearl-necklace encoder." Despite their theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum con...

  10. Information-theoretic interpretation of quantum error-correcting codes

    Cerf, N J; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Cleve, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Quantum error-correcting codes are analyzed from an information-theoretic perspective centered on quantum conditional and mutual entropies. This approach parallels the classical description of coding in Shannon theory, while clarifying the differences between classical and quantum codes. More specifically, it is shown how quantum information theory accounts for the fact that redundant information can be distributed over quantum bits even though this does not violate the quantum non-cloning theorem. While the quantum bits that are altered appear statistically independent of the encoded logical word for any possible error, the quantum information stored in the entire codeword remains unaffected. This remarkable feature, which has no counterpart in classical coding, is related to the property that the ternary mutual entropy vanishes for a tripartite system in a pure state. These concepts are used to derive the quantum analogue of the Singleton bound on the number of logical bits that can be preserved by a code o...

  11. Persistence of quantum information

    We study the flip-processes in a two-level system, which is triggered by the coupling to a classical bath. When the bath is represented by a stochastic field, the time evolution of the density matrix leads to a stochastic equation with a multiplicative noise. Accordingly the Fokker-Planck-equation (FPE) depends on the matrix elements of the underlying density operator. The solution of the FPE can be parametrized in terms of an inherent conserved quantity α, which is interpreted as a measure for the persistence of quantum information. We show that the FPE exhibits a single unique steady state solution different from Boltzmann's law. The exactly computable discrete spectrum of the relaxation times is characterized by two quantum numbers and the ratio of Planck's constant and the coupling strength to the bath. The total entropy is analyzed as function of the quantum number α. In case of α=1 the system is in a pure state whereas for α≠1 a mixed state is realized. In case of two, two-level systems, immersed in the common bath, the two noninteracting two-level systems become mutually entangled. The annealed entropy is in that case non-extensive

  12. Recoverability in quantum information theory

    Wilde, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information...

  13. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-03-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory.

  14. Foundations of quantum theory and quantum information applications

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis establishes a number of connections between foundational issues in quantum theory, and some quantum information applications. It starts with a review of quantum contextuality and non-locality, multipartite entanglement characterisation, and of a few quantum information protocols. Quantum non-locality and contextuality are shown to be essential for different implementations of quantum information protocols known as quantum random access codes and quantum communication complexity pr...

  15. A quantum computer in the scheme of an atomic quantum transistor with logical encoding of qubits

    Moiseev, S. A.; Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, E. S.

    2013-09-01

    A scheme of a multiqubit quantum computer on atomic ensembles using a quantum transistor implementing two qubit gates is proposed. We demonstrate how multiatomic ensembles permit one to work with a large number of qubits that are represented in a logical encoding in which each qubit is recorded on a superposition of single-particle states of two atomic ensembles. The access to qubits is implemented by appropriate phasing of quantum states of each of atomic ensembles. An atomic quantum transistor is proposed for use when executing two qubit operations. The quantum transistor effect appears when an excitation quantum is exchanged between two multiatomic ensembles located in two closely positioned QED cavities connected with each other by a gate atom. The dynamics of quantum transfer between atomic ensembles can be different depending on one of two states of the gate atom. Using the possibilities of control for of state of the gate atom, we show the possibility of quantum control for the state of atomic ensembles and, based on this, implementation of basic single and two qubit gates. Possible implementation schemes for a quantum computer on an atomic quantum transistor and their advantages in practical implementation are discussed.

  16. Quantum information theory and quantum statistics

    Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)

  17. Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned and they may be rela...

  18. Quantum information: primitive notions and quantum correlations

    Scarani, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    This series of introductory lectures consists of two parts. In the first part, I rapidly review the basic notions of quantum physics and many primitives of quantum information (i.e. notions that one must be somehow familiar with in the field, like cloning, teleportation, state estimation...). The second part is devoted to a detailed introduction to the topic of quantum correlations, covering the evidence for failure of alternative theories, some aspects of the formalism of no-signaling probability distributions and some hints towards some current research topics in the field.

  19. Quantum information in loop quantum gravity

    Terno, D R

    2006-01-01

    A coarse-graining of spin networks is expressed in terms of partial tracing, thus allowing to use tools of quantum information theory. This is illustrated by the analysis of a simple black hole model, where the logarithmic correction of the Hawking-Bekenstein entropy is shown to be equal to the total amount of correlations on the horizon. Finally other applications of entanglement to quantum gravity are briefly discussed.

  20. Transferring Quantum Information through the Quantum Channel using Synchronous Multiplexing for Multiple users

    H.R.Sumathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of information in the form of qubits much faster than the speed of light is the important aspects of quantum information theory. Quantum information processing exploits the quantum nature of information that needs to be stored, encoded, transmit, receive and decode the information in the form of qubits. Bosonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. This paper does the study of quantum channels and how best it can be implemented with the existing infrastructure that is the classical communication. Multiple access to the quantum network is the requirement where multiple users want to transmit their quantum information simultaneously without interfering with each others.

  1. Inequalities for quantum skew information

    Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order...... relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information with...

  2. On quantum information

    Paszkiewicz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the following generalisation of the entropy of quantum measurement. Let H be an infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space with a 'density' operator {\\rho}, tr {\\rho}=1. Let I(P)\\in R be defined for any partition P = (P_1,...,P_m), P_1+ ... +P_m=1_H, P_i \\in proj H$ and let I(P_i Qj, i \\leq m, j \\leq n) = I(P) + I(Q) for Q =(Q_1,..., Q_n), \\sum Q_j = 1_H and P_iQ_j = Q_j P_i, tr {\\rho} P_iQ_j = tr {\\rho} P_i tr {\\rho} Q_j (P, Q are physically independent). Assuming some continuity properties we give a general form of generalised information I.

  3. Physics as quantum information processing

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm---"It from Bit'---prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and ...

  4. Quantum Information: Opportunities and Challenges

    Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Modern society is shaped by the ability to transmit, manipulate, and store large amounts of information. Although we tend to think of information as abstract, information is physical, and computing is a physical process. How then should we understand information in a quantum world, in which physical systems may exist in multiple states at once and are altered by the very act of observation? This question has evolved into an exciting new field of research called Quantum Information (QI). QI challenges many accepted rules and practices in computer science. For example, a quantum computer would turn certain hard problems into soft problems, and would render common computationally-secure encryption methods (such as RSA) insecure. At the same time, quantum communication would provide an unprecedented kind of intrinsic information security at the level of the smallest physical objects used to store or transmit the information. This talk provides a general introduction to the subject of quantum information and its relevance to cyber security. In the first part, two of the stranger aspects of quantum physics namely, superposition and uncertainty are explained, along with their relation to the concept of information. These ideas are illustrated with a few examples: quantum ID cards, quantum key distribution, and Grover s quantum search algorithm. The state-of-the-art in quantum computing and communication hardware is then discussed, along with the daunting technological challenges that must be overcome. Relevant experimental and theoretical efforts at ORNL are highlighted. The talk concludes with speculations on the short- and long-term impact of quantum information on cyber security.

  5. BRICS and Quantum Information Processing

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1998-01-01

    BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....

  6. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    Chiribella, Giulio; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms - causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning - define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate - purification - singles out quantum theory within this class.

  7. Isotope-based quantum information

    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial distribution of isotopes with nuclear spins is a prerequisite to implement the quantum bits (or qbits). Therefore, stable semiconductor isotopes are important elements in the development of solid-state quantum information. There are not only different algorithms of quantum computation discussed but also the different models of quantum computers are presented. With numerous illustrations this small book is of great interest for undergraduate students taking courses in mesoscopic physics or nanoelectronics as well as quantum information, and academic and industrial researches working in this field.

  8. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....

  9. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....

  10. Environmental Assisted Quantum Information Correction for Continuous Variables

    Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this paper we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme as a means to combat excess noise is also investigated.

  11. Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation

    Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporao, G P; Von der Weid, J P [Centre for Telecommunication Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro-R Marques de Sao Vicente 225 Gavea, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H [GAP-Optique, University of Geneva, rue de l' Ecole-de-Medecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: guix@opto.cetuc.puc-rio.br

    2009-04-15

    In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40{pi} rad s{sup -1} are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.

  12. Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation

    In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40? rad s-1 are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.

  13. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the understanding of electron spin physics in lateral quantum dots, in silicon and in gallium arsenide.

  14. Hadamard-encoded high-resolution NMR spectroscopy via intermolecular single-quantum coherences

    Ke, Hanping; Cai, Honghao; Cai, Shuhui, E-mail: shcai@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yanqin, E-mail: linyq@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong

    2014-11-24

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A NMR pulse sequence is proposed based on intermolecular single-quantum coherence. • Hadamard encoding is utilized to shorten the acquisition time. • High-resolution NMR spectra can be retrieved under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. • Good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved. • The proposed method facilitates analyses of heterogeneous biological tissues. - Abstract: NMR spectroscopy plays an important role in metabolite studies because it can provide atomic level information critical for understanding biological systems. Nevertheless, NMR investigations on biological tissues are hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneities originating from variations in macroscopic magnetic susceptibility, which lead to broad spectral lines and subsequently obscure metabolite signals. A new pulse sequence based on intermolecular single-quantum coherences was proposed to obtain one-dimensional high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields via Hadamard encoding. The new method can provide resolution-improved spectra directly through one-dimensional acquisition within a relatively short acquisition time. Theoretical derivation was performed and the conclusion was tested by solution samples in purposely de-shimmed magnetic fields and pig brain tissue sample. The experimental results show that this sequence can yield useful structural information, even when the field inhomogeneity is sufficiently severe to erase almost all spectral information with conventional one-dimensional single-quantum coherence techniques. Moreover, good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved by this sequence. This sequence may provide a promising way for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissue.

  15. Hadamard-encoded high-resolution NMR spectroscopy via intermolecular single-quantum coherences

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A NMR pulse sequence is proposed based on intermolecular single-quantum coherence. • Hadamard encoding is utilized to shorten the acquisition time. • High-resolution NMR spectra can be retrieved under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. • Good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved. • The proposed method facilitates analyses of heterogeneous biological tissues. - Abstract: NMR spectroscopy plays an important role in metabolite studies because it can provide atomic level information critical for understanding biological systems. Nevertheless, NMR investigations on biological tissues are hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneities originating from variations in macroscopic magnetic susceptibility, which lead to broad spectral lines and subsequently obscure metabolite signals. A new pulse sequence based on intermolecular single-quantum coherences was proposed to obtain one-dimensional high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields via Hadamard encoding. The new method can provide resolution-improved spectra directly through one-dimensional acquisition within a relatively short acquisition time. Theoretical derivation was performed and the conclusion was tested by solution samples in purposely de-shimmed magnetic fields and pig brain tissue sample. The experimental results show that this sequence can yield useful structural information, even when the field inhomogeneity is sufficiently severe to erase almost all spectral information with conventional one-dimensional single-quantum coherence techniques. Moreover, good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved by this sequence. This sequence may provide a promising way for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissue

  16. On the Automation of Encoding Processes in the Quantum IO Monad

    James Barratt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now clear that the use of resilient encoding schemes will be required for any quantum computing device to be realised. However, quantum programmers of the future will not wish to be tied up in the particulars of such encoding schemes. Quantum programming languages and libraries are already being developed, one of which is the Quantum IO Monad. QIO, as it is often abbreviated to, provides an interface to define and simulate quantum computations via a library of functions written in Haskell, a purely functional programming language. A solution is presented that takes an arbitrary QIO program and returns an equivalent program incorporating some specified quantum error correction techniques.

  17. Manipulating quantum information via quantum cloning

    De Martini, F; Masullo, L; Ricci, M; Sciarrino, F; Secondi, V [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    An extensive characterization of the information flux underlying the 1 {yields}2 universal cloning process is presented together with the realization of several cloning and measurement tasks. The restoration of both the quantum and classical information associated to the input qubit was theoretically analysed and experimentally accomplished. At the same time the extension of the 1 {yields}2 cloning to the 1 {yields}3 universal and covariant processes is reported with the first experimental optical realizations.

  18. Time, Quantum and Information

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his 'ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mathematician G G Emch in this book, 'Philosophers and physicists often fail to understand each other because they are speaking different languages which often happen to have the same words.' These articles will have value to readers interested in these areas. The inclusion of an index would have made the book much more useful. There are numerous minor typographical errors, the most amusing of which is the sign of the Coulomb energy of a uniform density sphere in the article by K v Meyenn. (The expression stated is -6(Ze)2/5R rather than the correct expression, 3(Ze)2/5R.) Another example is in the same article: when one looks for a reference to Jackson, no. 66, one finds instead a 1928 reference to Fermi! Despite such inconvenient quirks, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in Weizsaecker and his research, in twentieth-century physics and physicists, and in unique insights into German science during and immediately following World War II. (book review)

  19. Time, Quantum and Information

    Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2004-04-09

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsaecker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn's play 'Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Luest indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Goettingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Goetz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and Goettingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsaecker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsaecker: 'If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsaecker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsaecker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: 'The measure of sloppiness in Weizsaecker's work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsaecker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a 'theory of everything' based on his 'ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mathematician G G Emch in this book, 'Philosophers and physicists often fail to understand each other because they are speaking different languages which often happen to have the same words.' These articles will have value to readers interested in these areas. The inclusion of an index would have made the book much more useful. There are numerous minor typographical errors, the most amusing of which is the sign of the Coulomb energy of a uniform density sphere in the article by K v Meyenn. (The expression stated is -6(Ze){sup 2}/5R rather than the correct expression, 3(Ze){sup 2}/5R.) Another example is in the same article: when one looks for a reference to Jackson, no. 66, one finds instead a 1928 reference to Fermi. (book review) [abstract truncated

  20. Certainty and Uncertainty in Quantum Information Processing

    Rieffel, Eleanor G.

    2007-01-01

    This survey, aimed at information processing researchers, highlights intriguing but lesser known results, corrects misconceptions, and suggests research areas. Themes include: certainty in quantum algorithms; the "fewer worlds" theory of quantum mechanics; quantum learning; probability theory versus quantum mechanics.

  1. Quantum information and convex optimization

    This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)

  2. Quantum information and convex optimization

    Reimpell, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)

  3. Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  4. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.

  5. Quantum Correlations, Chaos and Information

    Madhok, Vaibhav

    Quantum chaos is the study of quantum systems whose classical description is chaotic. How does chaos manifest itself in the quantum world? In this spirit, we study the dynamical generation of entanglement as a signature of chaos in a system of periodically kicked coupled-tops, where chaos and entanglement arise from the same physical mechanism. The long-time entanglement as a function of the position of an initially localized wave packet very closely correlates with the classical phase space surface of section - it is nearly uniform in the chaotic sea, and reproduces the detailed structure of the regular islands. The uniform value in the chaotic sea is explained by the random state conjecture. As classically chaotic dynamics take localized distributions in phase space to random distributions, quantized versions take localized coherent states to pseudo-random states in Hilbert space. Such random states are highly entangled, with an average value near that of the maximally entangled state. For a map with global chaos, we derive that value based on new analytic results for the entropy of random states. For a mixed phase space, we use the Percival conjecture to identify a "chaotic subspace" of the Hilbert space. The typical entanglement, averaged over the unitarily invariant Haar measure in this subspace, agrees with the long-time averaged entanglement for initial states in the chaotic sea. In all cases the dynamically generated entanglement is that of a random complex vector, even though the system is time-reversal invariant, and the Floquet operator is a member of the circular orthogonal ensemble. Continuing on our journey to find the footprints of chaos in the quantum world, we explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The measurement record is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top on a large ensemble of identical systems. We find an increase in the rate of information gain and hence higher fidelities in the process when the Floquet maps employed increase in chaoticity. We make predictions for the information gain using random matrix theory in the fully chaotic regime and show a remarkable agreement between the two. Finally we discuss how this approach can be used in general as a benchmark for information gain in an experimental implementation based on nonlinear dynamics of atomic spins measured weakly by the Faraday rotation of a laser probe. The last part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the nature of quantum correlations themselves. Quantum correlations are at the heart of the weirdness of quantum mechanics and at the same time serve as a resource for the potential benefits quantum information processing might provide. For example, Einstein described quantum entanglement as "spooky action at a distance". However, even entanglement does not fully capture the complete quantum character of a system. Quantum discord aims to fill this gap and captures essentially all the quantum correlations in a quantum state. There is a considerable interest in the research community about quantum discord, since there is evidence showing this very quantity as responsible for the exponential speed up of a certain class of quantum algorithms over classical ones. Now, an important question arises: Is discord just a mathematical construct or does it have a definable physical role in information processing? This thesis provides a link between quantum discord and an actual physical task involving communication between two parties. We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. We further derive a quantitative relation between the yield of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol in the presence of noise and the quantum discord of the state involved. This protocol is the most general known in the family of protocols in quantum information theory, a unification of essentially all bipartite, unidirectional and memoryless quantum communication protocols. The significance of quantum discord in noisy versions of teleportation, super-dense coding, entanglement distillation and quantum state merging are discussed. We also demonstrate similar roles for quantum discord in quantum computation and correlation erasure. Our work shows that quantum discord captures and quantifies the advantage of quantum coherence in quantum communication.

  6. Quantum States as Ordinary Information

    Ken Wharton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

  7. Languages of Quantum Information Theory

    Winter, A

    1998-01-01

    This note will introduce some notation and definitions for information theoretic quantities in the context of quantum systems, such as (conditional) entropy and (conditional) mutual information. We will employ the natural C*-algebra formalism, and it turns out that one has an allover dualism of language: we can define every- thing for (compatible) observables, but also for (compatible) C*-subalgebras. The two approaches are unified in the formalism of quantum operations, and they are connected by a very satisfying inequality, generalizing the well known Holevo bound. Then we turn to communication via (discrete memoryless) quantum channels: we formulate the Fano inequality, bound the capacity region of quantum multiway channels, and comment on the quantum broadcast channel.

  8. Isotope-based quantum information

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...

  9. A simple encoding of a quantum circuit amplitude as a matrix permanent

    Rudolph, Terry

    2009-01-01

    A simple construction is presented which allows computing the transition amplitude of a quantum circuit to be encoded as computing the permanent of a matrix which is of size proportional to the number of quantum gates in the circuit. This opens up some interesting classical monte-carlo algorithms for approximating quantum circuits.

  10. Information-theoretical meaning of quantum-dynamical entropy

    The theories of noncommutative dynamical entropy and quantum symbolic dynamics for quantum-dynamical systems are analyzed from the point of view of quantum information theory. Using a general quantum-dynamical system as a communication channel, one can define different classical capacities depending on the character of resources applied for encoding and decoding procedures and on the type of information sources. It is shown that for Bernoulli sources, the entanglement-assisted classical capacity, which is the largest one, is bounded from above by the quantum-dynamical entropy defined in terms of operational partitions of unity. Stronger results are proved for the particular class of quantum-dynamical systems--quantum Bernoulli shifts. Different classical capacities are exactly computed and the entanglement-assisted one is equal to the dynamical entropy in this case

  11. Quantum gloves: Physics and Information

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The slogan information is physical has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality.

  12. Foundations of quantum theory and quantum information applications

    Galvão, E F

    2002-01-01

    This thesis establishes a number of connections between foundational issues in quantum theory, and some quantum information applications. It starts with a review of quantum contextuality and non-locality, multipartite entanglement characterisation, and of a few quantum information protocols. Quantum non-locality and contextuality are shown to be essential for different implementations of quantum information protocols known as quantum random access codes and quantum communication complexity protocols. I derive sufficient experimental conditions for tests of these quantum properties. I also discuss how the distribution of quantum information through quantum cloning processes can be useful in quantum computing. Regarding entanglement characterisation, some results are obtained relating two problems, that of additivity of the relative entropy of entanglement, and that of identifying different types of tripartite entanglement in the asymptotic regime of manipulations of many copies of a given state. The thesis end...

  13. Quantum network teleportation for quantum information distribution and concentration

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wang, Yi-Nan; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Jing, Li; Mu, Liang-zhu; Korepin, V. E.; Fan, Heng(Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, PR China)

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the schemes of quantum network teleportation for quantum information distribution and concentration which are essential in quantum cloud computation and quantum internet. In those schemes, the cloud can send simultaneously identical unknown quantum states to clients located in different places by a network like teleportation with a prior shared multipartite entangled state resource. The cloud first perform the quantum operation, each client can recover their quantum state local...

  14. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  15. Quantum information processing and quantum logic: toward mutual illumination

    Barnum, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Quantum information and computation may serve as a source of useful axioms and ideas for the quantum logic/quantum structures project of characterizing and classifying types of physical theories, including quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. The axiomatic approach of quantum structures may help isolate what aspects of quantum mechanics are responsible for what aspects of its greater-than-classical information processing power, and whether more general physical theories may escape some ...

  16. Single logical qubit information encoding scheme with the minimal optical decoherence-free subsystem.

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2016-03-01

    We present a scheme for encoding single logical qubit information, which is immune to collective decoherence acting on Hilbert space spanned by the corresponding states. The scheme needs a spatial entanglement gate and a polarization entanglement gate, which are realized with the assistance of weak cross-Kerr nonlinear interaction between photons and coherent states via Kerr media. Under the condition of sufficient large phase shifts, single logical qubit information can be encoded into this minimal optical decoherence-free subsystem with near-unity fidelity. Together with the mature techniques of measurement and classical feed forward, simple linear optical elements are applied to complete the encoding task, which offers the feasibility of this scheme for protecting quantum information against decoherence. PMID:26974108

  17. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  18. Information transfer through quantum channels

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  19. Some Quantum Information Inequalities from a Quantum Bayesian Networks Perspective

    Tucci, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This is primarily a pedagogical paper. The paper re-visits some well-known quantum information theory inequalities. It does this from a quantum Bayesian networks perspective. The paper illustrates some of the benefits of using quantum Bayesian networks to discuss quantum SIT (Shannon Information Theory).

  20. Examples of minimal-memory, non-catastrophic quantum convolutional encoders

    Wilde, Mark M; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in the theory of quantum convolutional coding is to determine a minimal-memory, non-catastrophic, polynomial-depth convolutional encoder for an arbitrary quantum convolutional code. Here, we present a technique that finds quantum convolutional encoders with such desirable properties for several example quantum convolutional codes (an exposition of our technique in full generality will appear elsewhere). We first show how to encode the well-studied Forney-Grassl-Guha (FGG) code with an encoder that exploits just one memory qubit (the former Grassl-Roetteler encoder requires 15 memory qubits). We then show how our technique can find an online decoder corresponding to this encoder, and we also detail the operation of our technique on a different example of a quantum convolutional code. Finally, the reduction in memory for the FGG encoder makes it feasible to simulate the performance of a quantum turbo code employing it, and we present the results of such simulations.

  1. Investigation and development of quantum dot-encoded microsphere bioconjugates for DNA detection by flow cytometry.

    Thiollet, Sarah; Higson, Séamus; White, Nicola; Morgan, Sarah L

    2012-03-01

    The development of screening assays continues to be an active area of research in molecular diagnostics. Fluorescent microspheres conjugated to biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and analyzed on flow cytometer instruments offered a new approach for multiplexed detection platform in a suspension format. Quantum dots encoded into synthetic microspheres have the potentials to improve current screening bioassays and specifically suspension array technology. In this paper, commercialized quantum dot-encoded microsphere were evaluated and optimized as fluorescent probes to address some of the limitations of suspension array technologies. A comprehensive study was undertaken to adapt the bioconjugation procedure to the quantum dot-encoded microsphere structural and optical properties. Both the leaching-out of quantum dots and microspheres degradation under bioconjugation experimental conditions were minimized. A rapid, efficient and reproducible conjugation method was developed for the detection of single-stranded DNA with the commercialized quantum dot-encoded microsphere. Approximately ten thousand microspheres were conjugated to short amino-modified DNA sequences in one hour with high efficiency. The bioconjugated microspheres acting as fluorescent probes successfully detected a DNA target in suspension with high specificity. Quantum dot-encoded microsphere commercial products are limited which strongly prevents reproducible and comparative studies between laboratories. The method developed here contributes to the understanding of quantum dot-encoded microsphere reactivity, and to the optimization of adapted experimental procedure. This step is essential in the development of this new fluorescent probe technology for multiplex genotyping assay and molecular diagnostic applications. PMID:22057294

  2. Information Leakage of Heterogeneous Encoded Correlated Sequences over Eavesdropped Channel

    Balmahoon, R; Cheng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Correlated sources are present in communication systems where protocols ensure that there is some predetermined information for sources. Here correlated sources across an eavesdropped channel that incorporate a heterogeneous encoding scheme and their effect on the information leakage when some channel information and a source have been wiretapped is investigated. The information leakage bounds for the Slepian-Wolf scenario are provided. Thereafter, the Shannon cipher system approach is presen...

  3. Efficient optical quantum information processing

    Quantum information offers the promise of being able to perform certain communication and computation tasks that cannot be done with conventional information technology (IT). Optical quantum information processing (QIP) holds particular appeal, since it offers the prospect of communicating and computing with the same type of qubit. Linear optical techniques have been shown to be scalable, but the corresponding quantum computing circuits need many auxiliary resources. Here we present an alternative approach to optical QIP, based on the use of weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities and homodyne measurements. We show how this approach provides the fundamental building blocks for highly efficient non-absorbing single photon number resolving detectors, two qubit parity detectors, Bell state measurements and finally near deterministic control-not (CNOT) gates. These are essential QIP devices

  4. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends. PMID:23958646

  5. Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information

    Steeb, Willi-Hans

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...

  6. Fractal states in quantum information processing

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.

  7. Quantum Parallelism in Quantum Information Processing

    Dugic, Miroljub; Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate distinguishability (measured by fidelity) of the initial and the final state of a qubit, which is an object of the so-called nonideal quantum measurement of the first kind. We show that the fidelity of a nonideal measurement can be greater than the fidelity of the corresponding ideal measurement. This result is somewhat counterintuitive, and can be traced back to the quantum parallelism in quantum operations, in analogy with the quantum parallelism manifested in the quantum com...

  8. Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach

    Djordjevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer

  9. Practicality of quantum information processing

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I proposed a new method to re-cool ion qubits during quantum computation. The idea is to transfer the motional excitation of a qubit to another ion that is prepared in the motional ground state. I showed that my method could be ten times faster than current laser cooling techniques, and thus could improve the speed of ion trap quantum computation.

  10. Information Flow in Entangled Quantum Systems

    Deutsch, David; Hayden, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    All information in quantum systems is, notwithstanding Bell's theorem, localised. Measuring or otherwise interacting with a quantum system S has no effect on distant systems from which S is dynamically isolated, even if they are entangled with S. Using the Heisenberg picture to analyse quantum information processing makes this locality explicit, and reveals that under some circumstances (in particular, in Einstein-Podolski-Rosen experiments and in quantum teleportation) quantum information is...

  11. Information in Quantum Description and Gate Implementation

    Krishnan, Gayathre

    2006-01-01

    This note considers Kak's observer-reference model of quantum information, where it is shown that qubits carry information that is sqrt n / ln n times classical information, where n is the number of components in the measurement system, to analyze information processing in quantum gates. The obverse side of this exponential nature of quantum information is that the computational complexity of implementing unconditionally reliable quantum gates is also exponential.

  12. The role of quantum memory in quantum information processing

    Nemoto, Kae; Stephens, Ashley M.; Devitt, Simon J.; Harrison, Keith A.; Munro, William J.

    2013-09-01

    Until recently, it was believed that long-lived quantum memories were necessary for long-distance quantum communication. However, by using error-correction codes in an efficient way—specifically, by correcting for photon loss—it is possible to transmit quantum information over long distances without quantum memories. For quantum computation, recent architectures for topological quantum computation indicate that the simplest large-scale structure could be memory-less. While a quantum memory may no longer be an essential resource for quantum networks, it could nonetheless be a key device in the development of quantum information technology. However, it is still not clear what benefits a functioning device could bring to quantum information systems, largely due to a lack of detailed models. Recently we have developed a detailed model for a quantum network based on a simple device designed to act as a building block for a full system architecture. The device is based on an optical cavity containing a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. This model naturally integrates quantum communication with computation, and using this model we can assess quantitatively the costs and benefits of quantum memories. With or without quantum memories, it is necessary for us to preserve quantum information for a long period of time in either communication or computation.

  13. Scalable quantum information processing with atomic ensembles and flying photons

    Mei, Feng; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) with atomic ensembles and flying photons. Using the Rydberg blockade, we encode the qubits in the collective atomic states, which could be manipulated fast and easily due to the enhanced interaction, in comparison to the single-atom case. We demonstrate that our proposed gating could be applied to generation of two-dimensional cluster states for measurement-based quantum computation. Moreover, the atomic ensembles also function as quantum repeaters useful for long distance quantum state transfer. We show the possibility of our scheme to work in bad cavity or in weak coupling regime, which could much relax the experimental requirement. The efficient coherent operations on the ensemble qubits enable our scheme to be switchable between quantum computation and quantum communication using atomic ensembles.

  14. Quantum Cloning and Deletion in Quantum Information Theory

    Adhikari, Satyabrata

    2006-01-01

    Quantum mechanics put restriction on performing some task which we can do classically. One such restriction is that we cannot copy an arbitrary quantum state. This is known as No-cloning theorem. Although quantum mechanics forbid us to construct a perfect cloner, there is no restriction to construct an imperfect cloner. Therefore, we have constructed and studied a special kind of quantum cloning machine named as Hybrid quantum cloning machine which is nothing but a different combination of pre-existing quantum cloning machines. We showed that this hybrid quantum cloning machine sometime gives better quality copy than the pre-existing quantum cloners. Quantum entanglement is a very astonishing property in a multi-partite system and it is a very useful ingredient of quantum information theory. Therefore broadcasting (cloning) of entanglement is a very important subject to study. In this regard we have studied the broadcasting of entanglement using state dependent quantum cloning machine. Further, we have invest...

  15. Quantum information and quantum correlations of single-photon emitters

    Thiel, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This thesis summarizes investigations on quantum correlations in the fluorescence light of single trapped atoms. The results found have applications in the broad field of quantum information science: it is shown how to overcome classical imaging boundaries using a new developed scheme of quantum imaging, how to project and engineer correlated quantum states in the ground states of multi-level atoms by detecting their fluorescence light and how to prove the quantum nature of these correlations...

  16. Information Security and Quantum Mechanics: Security of Quantum Protocols

    Boykin, P. Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The problem of security of quantum key protocols is examined. In addition to the distribution of classical keys, the problem of encrypting quantum data and the structure of the operators which perform quantum encryption is studied. It is found that unitary bases are central to both encryption of quantum information, as well as the generation of states used in generalized quantum key distribution (which are called mutually unbiased bases). A one-to-one correspondence between certain unitary ba...

  17. The decoupling approach to quantum information theory

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and ha...

  18. Quantum Encoder and Decoder for Secret Key Distribution with Check Bits

    T. Godhavari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to develop a novel method of encoding the qubits and use as secret key in public key cryptography. In BB 84 protocol, 50% of the random number (generated at source is used as secret key and the remaining bits are used as “check bits”. The check bits are used to detect the presence of eve as well as the nature of quantum channels. In this protocol, random qubits are encoded using different type of polarizations like horizontal, veritical and diagonal. In the proposed quantum encoder, basic quantum gates are used to encode the random secret key along with the check bits. Quantum key distribution, (a cryptographic mechanism relies on the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics and serves as an option to replace techniques made vulnerable by quantum computing. However, it is still subject to clever forms of eavesdropping and poses a significant challenge to implementation. To study the challenges, quantum circuits are first simulated using QCAD.

  19. The role of quantum discord in quantum information theory

    Quantum correlations beyond entanglement - in particular represented by quantum discord - have become a major research field in the last few years. In this talk we report on the role of quantum discord in several fundamental tasks in quantum information theory. Starting with the role of quantum discord in the quantum measurement process, we also discuss its role in the tasks of information sharing and entanglement distribution. Finally, we also show the limits of these results and present possible ways to go beyond these limits.

  20. Comparing quantum cloning: A Fisher-information perspective

    Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Li, Nan; Chang, Lina

    2013-10-01

    Perfect cloning of an unknown quantum state is impossible. Approximate cloning, which is optimal in various senses, has been found in many cases. Paradigmatic examples are Wootters-Zurek cloning and universal cloning. These cloning machines aim at optimal cloning of the full quantum states. However, in practice, what is important and relevant may only involve partial information in quantum states, rather than quantum states themselves. For example, signals are often encoded as parameters in quantum states, whose information content is well synthesized by quantum Fisher information. This raises the basic issue of evaluating the information transferring capability (e.g., distributing quantum Fisher information) of quantum cloning. We assess and compare Wootters-Zurek cloning and universal cloning from this perspective and show that, on average, Wootters-Zurek cloning performs better than universal cloning for the phase (as well as amplitude) parameter, although they are incomparable individually, and universal cloning has many advantages over Wootters-Zurek cloning in other contexts. Physical insights and related issues are further discussed.

  1. Information theoretic analysis of rate to phase encoding

    Jan-Hendrik Schleimer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of synchronization between neurons or their relative time delay has long been postulated to carry information [1,2]. When a background oscillation is present, the times at which a neuron fires can be assigned a phase relative to the oscillation. Experimentally, one can observe entrainment to the oscillatory local field potential (LFP in the olfactory bulb, synchrony binding in the visual system, and phase precession in the hippocampus. Once information is encoded into the relative phase of firing, it can be used to facilitate phase based computations [1], influence the dynamics of spike timing based learning rules, or be converted back into a firing rate using bursting neurons [4]. The performance of a rate-to-phase encoder in the hippocampus was assessed by analyzing recorded data and an integrate & fire model [3]. We extend the analysis to a more general class of models, i.e., phase oscillators that are reduced from conductance based models. The frame work also allows one to investigate the hampering effects of various noise sources. Our analysis shows, that the exact shape of the distribution of phase differences between spikes emitted by the encoding neuron and LFP depends on the interplay between the neuron's phase response curve and the frequency content of the LFP. When the background input is a simple oscillation, only the lowest frequency component of the PRC matters. Yet neurons that have simple resonances have a PRC whose first Fourier coefficient is zero--the phase of spiking of such a neuron will not encode information. Only neurons that integrate over their synaptic inputs are good phase encoders. The phase encoding is summarized by the vector strength, which is related to the circular mean and variance of the phase distribution. This is calculated numerically by an efficient continued fraction method. Deterministic coding, in which noise is absent, restricts the phase to one half of the oscillation cycle. In a population of identical neurons, noise extends the dynamic range of encoding, even though the phase of individual neurons ``slips'' outside of the classical entrainment regime. In addition, we make use of the Arimoto-Blahut algorithm to estimate the optimal input statistics for a given rate-to-phase encoder. The boundaries of the entrainment region turn out to be particularly suitable for precise coding.

  2. Quantum Information Complexity and Amortized Communication

    Touchette, Dave

    2014-01-01

    We define a new notion of information cost for quantum protocols, and a corresponding notion of quantum information complexity for bipartite quantum channels, and then investigate the properties of such quantities. These are the fully quantum generalizations of the analogous quantities for bipartite classical functions that have found many applications recently, in particular for proving communication complexity lower bounds. Our definition is strongly tied to the quantum state redistribution...

  3. Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

    Holevo, Alexander S.

    2012-07-01

    The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

  4. Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

    The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

  5. How much a quantum measurement is informative?

    The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power

  6. How much a quantum measurement is informative?

    Dall' Arno, Michele [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, Massimiliano F. [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (INF-CNR), P.zza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-04

    The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.

  7. Recycling of quantum information Multiple observations of quantum clocks

    Buzek, V; Imoto, N; Buzek, Vladimir; Knight, Peter L.; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2000-01-01

    How much information about the original state preparation can be extracted from a quantum system which already has been measured? That is, how many independent (non-communicating) observers can measure the quantum system sequentially and give a nontrivial estimation of the original unknown state? We investigate these questions and we show from a simple example that quantum information is not entirely lost as a result of the measurement-induced collapse of the quantum state, and that an infinite number of independent observers who have no prior knowledge about the initial state can gain a partial information about the original preparation of the quantum system.

  8. Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantum-digitalization" ...

  9. Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits

    Jun, Li; Yan, Zou

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304031).

  10. Pragmatic Information in Quantum Mechanics

    Roederer, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    An objective definition of pragmatic information and the consideration of recent results about information processing in the human brain can help overcome some traditional difficulties with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Rather than attempting to define information ab initio, I introduce the concept of interaction between material bodies as a primary concept. Two distinct categories can be identified: 1) Interactions which can always be reduced to a superposition of physical interactions (forces) between elementary constituents; 2) Interactions between complex bodies which cannot be reduced to a superposition of interactions between parts, and in which patterns and forms (in space and/or time) play the determining role. Pragmatic information is then defined as the correspondence between a given pattern and the ensuing pattern-specific change. I will show that pragmatic information is a biological concept that plays no active role in the purely physical domain; it only does so when a living organism ...

  11. Quantum phase transitions in transverse field spin models from statistical physics to quantum information

    Dutta, Amit; Chakrabarti, Bikas K; Divakaran, Uma; Rosenbaum, Thomas F; Sen, Diptiman

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the fundamental connections between the physics of quantum phase transitions and the technological promise of quantum information, non-equilibrium quantum dynamics and adiabatic quantum computations.

  12. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    Cross, Andrew W.; Li, KE; Smith, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Information theory establishes the fundamental limits on data transmission, storage, and processing. Quantum information theory unites information theoretic ideas with an accurate quantum-mechanical description of reality to give a more accurate and complete theory with new and more powerful possibilities for information processing. The goal of both classical and quantum information theory is to quantify the optimal rates of interconversion of different resources. These rates are usually char...

  13. Principles and methods of quantum information technologies

    Semba, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the research and development-related results of the “FIRST” Quantum Information Processing Project, which was conducted from 2010 to 2014 with the support of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. The project supported 33 research groups and explored five areas: quantum communication, quantum metrology and sensing, coherent computing, quantum simulation, and quantum computing. The book is divided into seven main sections. Parts I through V, which consist of twenty chapters, focus on the system and architectural aspects of quantum information technologies, while Parts VI and VII, which consist of eight chapters, discuss the superconducting quantum circuit, semiconductor spin and molecular spin technologies.   Readers will be introduced to new quantum computing schemes such as quantum annealing machines and coherent Ising machines, which have now arisen as alternatives to standard quantum computers and are designed to successf...

  14. Applications of quantum information theory to quantum gravity

    Full text: I describe work by and with Fotini Markopoulou and Olaf Dreyeron the application of quantum information theory to quantum gravity. A particular application to black hole physics is described, which treats the black hole horizon as an open system, in interaction with an environment, which are the degrees of freedom in the bulk spacetime. This allows us to elucidate which quantum states of a general horizon contribute to the entropy of a Schwarzchild black hole. This case serves as an example of how methods from quantum information theory may help to elucidate how the classical limit emerges from a background independent quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  15. Effects of non-equilibrium noise on a quantum memory encoded in Majorana zero modes

    Konschelle, François; Hassler, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the coherence time of topological quantum memories in systems with Majorana zero modes, it has recently been proposed to encode the logical qubit states in non-local Majorana operators which are immune to localized excitations involving the unpaired Majorana modes. In this encoding, a logical error only happens when the quasi-particles, subsequent to their excitation, travel a distance of the order of the spacing between the Majorana modes. Here, we study the decay time o...

  16. Contemporary commercial quantum information security systems

    Gnatyuk, Sergiy; Riabyi, Myroslav; Zhmurko, Tetiana

    2013-01-01

    Quantum cryptography has attracted considerable interest among specialists in information security. The overwhelming majority of research projects in quantum cryptography are related to the development of quantum key distribution protocols. Absence of generalized classification & systematization makes it difficult to estimate the level of the latest achievements and does not allow using quantum technologies with full efficiency. From this viewpoint the analysis of existed quantum key distr...

  17. Transfer and teleportation of quantum states encoded in decoherence-free subspace

    Wei, Hua; Zhang, XiaoLong; Feng, Mang

    2007-01-01

    Quantum state transfer and teleportation, with qubits encoded in internal states of the atoms in cavities, among spatially separated nodes of a quantum network in decoherence-free subspace are proposed, based on a cavity-assisted interaction by single-photon pulses. We show in details the implementation of a logic-qubit Hadamard gate and a two-logic-qubit conditional gate, and discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  18. Time-resolved quantum process tomography using Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding

    The Hamiltonian encoding observable decoding (HE-OD) technique is experimentally demonstrated for process tomography of laser-induced dynamics in atomic Rb vapor. With the assistance of a laser pulse truncation method, a time dependent reconstruction of the quantum evolution is achieved. HE-OD can perform full as well as partial process tomography with appropriate measurements to characterize the system. The latter feature makes HE-OD tomography suitable for analyzing quantum processes in complex systems. (paper)

  19. Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing

    Machta, J.

    1998-01-01

    Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclude the transmissio...

  20. Integrated Information-Induced Quantum Collapse

    Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experimentally tested against quantum theory.

  1. Quantum information how much information in a state vector?

    Caves, C M; Caves, Carlton M; Fuchs, Christopher A

    1996-01-01

    Quantum information refers to the distinctive information-processing properties of quantum systems, which arise when information is stored in or retrieved from nonorthogonal quantum states. More information is required to prepare an ensemble of nonorthogonal quantum states than can be recovered from the ensemble by measurements. Nonorthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished reliably, cannot be copied or cloned, and do not lead to exact predictions for the results of measurements. These properties contrast sharply with those of information stored in the microstates of a classical system.

  2. Quantum hierarchic models for information processing

    Altaisky, Mikhail V

    2011-01-01

    Both classical and quantum computations operate with the registers of bits. At nanometer scale the quantum fluctuations at the position of a given bit, say, a quantum dot, not only lead to the decoherence of quantum state of this bit, but also affect the quantum states of the neighboring bits, and therefore affect the state of the whole register. That is why the requirement of reliable separate access to each bit poses the limit on miniaturization, i.e, constrains the memory capacity and the speed of computation. In the present paper we suggest an algorithmic way to tackle the problem of constructing reliable and compact registers of quantum bits. We suggest to access the states of quantum register hierarchically, descending from the state of the whole register to the states of its parts. Our method is similar to quantum wavelet transform, and can be applied to information compression, quantum memory, quantum computations.

  3. Introduction to quantum physics and information processing

    Vathsan, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    An Elementary Guide to the State of the Art in the Quantum Information FieldIntroduction to Quantum Physics and Information Processing guides beginners in understanding the current state of research in the novel, interdisciplinary area of quantum information. Suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics, mathematics, or engineering, the book goes deep into issues of quantum theory without raising the technical level too much.The text begins with the basics of quantum mechanics required to understand how two-level systems are used as qubits. It goes on to show how quant

  4. Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45o, 135o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers

  5. Philosophy of quantum information and entanglement

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in quantum information science has produced a revolution in our understanding of quantum entanglement. Scientists now view entanglement as a physical resource with many important applications. These range from quantum computers, which would be able to compute exponentially faster than classical computers, to quantum cryptographic techniques, which could provide unbreakable codes for the transfer of secret information over public channels. These important advances in the study of quantum entanglement and information touch on deep foundational issues in both physics and philosophy. This interdisciplinary volume brings together fourteen of the world's leading physicists and philosophers of physics to address the most important developments and debates in this exciting area of research. It offers a broad spectrum of approaches to resolving deep foundational challenges - philosophical, mathematical, and physical - raised by quantum information, quantum processing, and entanglement. This book is ideal f...

  6. Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

    Timpson, C G

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the debate on the implications of quantum information theory for the foundations of quantum mechanics. In Part 1, the logical and conceptual status of various notions of information is assessed. It is emphasized that the everyday notion of information is to be firmly distinguished from the technical notions arising in information theory; however it is maintained that in both settings `information' functions as an abstract noun, hence does not refer to a particular or substance (the worth of this point is illustrated in application to quantum teleportation). The claim that `Information is Physical' is assessed and argued to face a destructive dilemma. Accordingly, the slogan may not be understood as an ontological claim, but at best, as a methodological one. The reflections of Bruckner and Zeilinger (2001) and Deutsch and Hayden (2000) on the nature of information in quantum mechanics are critically assessed and some results presented on the characterization of entanglement in ...

  7. Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information

    Steeb, Willi-Hans

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information are two of thefastest-growing and most exciting research areas in physics. Thepossibilities of using non-local behaviour of quantum mechanics tofactorize integers in random polynomial time have added to this newinterest. This invaluable book provides a collection of problems inquantum computing and quantum information together with detailedsolutions. It consists of two parts: in the first partfinite-dimensional systems are considered, while the second part dealswith finite-dimensional systems. All the important concepts and topics are included, such as

  8. The Nature of Information in Quantum Mechanics

    Duvenhage, Rocco

    2002-01-01

    A suitable unified statistical formulation of quantum and classical mechanics in a *-algebraic setting leads us to conclude that information itself is noncommutative in quantum mechanics. Specifically we refer here to an observer's information regarding a physical system. This is seen as the main difference from classical mechanics, where an observer's information regarding a physical system obeys classical probability theory. Quantum mechanics is then viewed purely as a mathematical framewor...

  9. Aspects of multistation quantum information broadcasting

    We study quantum information transmission over multiparty quantum channel. In particular, we show an equivalence of different capacity notions and provide a multiletter characterization of a capacity region for a general quantum channel with k senders and m receivers. We point out natural generalizations to the case of two-way classical communication capacity.

  10. Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces

    Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...

  11. Classical data compression with quantum side information

    Devetak, I.; Winter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of classical data compression when the decoder has quantum side information at his disposal is considered. This is a quantum generalization of the classical Slepian-Wolf theorem. The optimal compression rate is found to be reduced from the Shannon entropy of the source by the Holevo information between the source and side information.

  12. Modern Quantum Technologies of Information Security

    Korchenko, Oleksandr; Gnatyuk, Sergiy

    2010-01-01

    In the paper systematization and classification of modern quantum technologies of the information security against cyber-terrorist attack are carried out. The characteristic of the basic directions of quantum cryptography from the viewpoint of used quantum technologies is given. The qualitative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of concrete quantum protocols is made. The current status of a problem of practical quantum cryptography using in telecommunication networks is considered. In particular, the short review of existing commercial systems of quantum key distribution is given.

  13. Controlled Hawking Process by Quantum Information

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Without using any non-established physics of quantum gravity, we show that black holes remember quantum information of swallowed matter even after the shifted horizons are settled. By using saved information, a part of the absorbed energy can be retrieved from the horizon by quantum energy teleportation in quantum information theory. This process can be regarded as a controlled Hawking process by measurement information about field fluctuation, in which negative energy flux is generated outside the horizon, falls into the horizon, and decreases mass of the black hole.

  14. Photonic qubits for remote quantum information processing

    Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Hayes, D.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.

    2009-05-01

    Quantum information processing between remote quantum memories relies on a fast and faithful quantum channel. Recent experiments employed both, the photonic polarization and frequency qubits, in order to entangle remote atoms [1, 2], to teleport quantum information [3] and to operate a quantum gate between distant atoms. Here, we compare the dierent schemes used in these experiments and analyze the advantages of the dierent choices of atomic and photonic qubits and their coherence properties. [4pt] [1] D. L. Moehring et al. Nature 449, 68 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. N. Matsukevich et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 2008).[0pt] [3] S. Olmschenk et al. Science, 323, 486 (2009).

  15. Quantum Information Processing with Atoms and Photons

    Muschik, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we present new tools for the study of quantum systems and propose several novel schemes for practical applications in quantum information science. We explore two main topics, engineered dissipation and light-matter quantum interfaces, and investigate both with a focus on collective effects that arise if a large number of particles interact coherently with an optical quantum field. To this end, we study atomic vapor at room temperature interacting with light. We also consider u...

  16. Quantum theory informational foundations and foils

    Spekkens, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the first unified overview of the burgeoning research area at the interface between Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information.  Topics include: operational alternatives to quantum theory, information-theoretic reconstructions of the quantum formalism, mathematical frameworks for operational theories, and device-independent features of the set of quantum correlations. Powered by the injection of fresh ideas from the field of Quantum Information and Computation, the foundations of Quantum Mechanics are in the midst of a renaissance. The last two decades have seen an explosion of new results and research directions, attracting broad interest in the scientific community. The variety and number of different approaches, however, makes it challenging for a newcomer to obtain a big picture of the field and of its high-level goals. Here, fourteen original contributions from leading experts in the field cover some of the most promising research directions that have emerged in the new wave of quant...

  17. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  18. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-05-13

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  19. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

    2005-05-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  20. nSQUID arrays as conveyers of quantum information

    We have considered the quantum dynamics of an array of nSQUIDs—two-junction SQUIDs with negative mutual inductance between their two arms. Effective dual-rail structure of the array creates additional internal degree of freedom for the fluxons in the array, which can be used to encode and transport quantum information. Physically, this degree of freedom is represented by electromagnetic excitations localized on the fluxon. We have calculated the spatial profile and frequency spectrum of these excitations. Their dynamics can be reduced to two quantum states, so that each fluxon moving through the array carries with it a qubit of information. Coherence properties of such a propagating qubit in the nSQUID array are characterized by the dynamic suppression of the low-frequency decoherence due to the motion-induced spreading of the noise spectral density to a larger frequency interval

  1. A quantum information approach to statistical mechanics

    The field of quantum information and computation harnesses and exploits the properties of quantum mechanics to perform tasks more efficiently than their classical counterparts, or that may uniquely be possible in the quantum world. Its findings and techniques have been applied to a number of fields, such as the study of entanglement in strongly correlated systems, new simulation techniques for many-body physics or, generally, to quantum optics. This thesis aims at broadening the scope of quantum information theory by applying it to problems in statistical mechanics. We focus on classical spin models, which are toy models used in a variety of systems, ranging from magnetism, neural networks, to quantum gravity. We tackle these models using quantum information tools from three different angles. First, we show how the partition function of a class of widely different classical spin models (models in different dimensions, different types of many-body interactions, different symmetries, etc) can be mapped to the partition function of a single model. We prove this by first establishing a relation between partition functions and quantum states, and then transforming the corresponding quantum states to each other. Second, we give efficient quantum algorithms to estimate the partition function of various classical spin models, such as the Ising or the Potts model. The proof is based on a relation between partition functions and quantum circuits, which allows us to determine the quantum computational complexity of the partition function by studying the corresponding quantum circuit. Finally, we outline the possibility of applying quantum information concepts and tools to certain models of dis- crete quantum gravity. The latter provide a natural route to generalize our results, insofar as the central quantity has the form of a partition function, and as classical spin models are used as toy models of matter. (author)

  2. Distinguishability and accessible information in quantum theory

    Fuchs, C

    1996-01-01

    This document focuses on translating various information-theoretic measures of distinguishability for probability distributions into measures of distin- guishability for quantum states. These measures should have important appli- cations in quantum cryptography and quantum computation theory. The results reported include the following. An exact expression for the quantum fidelity between two mixed states is derived. The optimal measurement that gives rise to it is studied in detail. Several upper and lower bounds on the quantum mutual information are derived via similar techniques and compared to each other. Of note is a simple derivation of the important upper bound first proved by Holevo and an explicit expression for another (tighter) upper bound that appears implicitly in the same derivation. Several upper and lower bounds to the quan- tum Kullback relative information are derived. The measures developed are also applied to ferreting out the extent to which quantum systems must be disturbed by information...

  3. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  4. Quantum information, cognition, and music

    Dalla Chiara, Maria L.; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139

  5. Quantum information, cognition, and music.

    Dalla Chiara, Maria L; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139

  6. Quantum information, cognition, and music

    Dalla Chiara, Maria L.; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines. possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems. ...

  7. Integrated Information-induced quantum collapse

    Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experimentally tested ag...

  8. Quantum Causality, Stochastics, Trajectories and Information

    Belavkin, V P

    2002-01-01

    A history of the discovery of quantum mechanics and paradoxes of its interpretation is reconsidered from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. It is argued that in the orthodox quantum mechanics there is no place for quantum phenomenology such as events. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, and Bell's conceptual critics of hidden variable theories indicated a possibility for resolution of this crisis. This can be done by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and an extended algebra of the potential (quantum) and the actual (classical) observables. The latter, called beables, form the center of the algebra of all observables, as the only visible (macroscopic) observables must be compatible with any hidden (microscopic) observable. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated within an extended quantum mechanics (eventum mechanics) in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the consistent hi...

  9. Revealing quantum-control mechanisms through Hamiltonian encoding in different representations

    The Hamiltonian encoding is a means for revealing the mechanism of controlled quantum dynamics. In this context, the mechanism is defined by the dominant quantum pathways starting from the initial state and proceeding through a set of intermediate states to end at the final state. The nature and interpretation of the mechanism depends on the choice of the states to represent the dynamics. Alternative representations may provide distinct insights into the system mechanism, and representations producing fewer pathways are especially interesting. In addition, a suitable choice of representation may highlight the role of certain couplings in a system that would normally be masked by other, higher magnitude couplings. A simple three-level system is chosen for illustration, where different values for the Rabi frequencies lead to mechanistic analyses that are best described in terms of particular representations. As an examlple, the role of the nonadiabatic terms in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage dynamics is analyzed through the Hamiltonian encoding

  10. Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective

    Toth, Geza

    2015-01-01

    We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrela...

  11. Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective

    We summarize important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramér–Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrelated noise limits the highest achievable precision in very general metrological tasks. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review)

  12. Cavity mode entanglement in relativistic quantum information

    Friis, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    A central aim of relativistic quantum information (RQI) is the investigation of quantum information tasks and resources taking into account the relativistic aspects of nature. More precisely, it is of fundamental interest to understand how the storage, manipulation, and transmission of information utilizing quantum systems are influenced by the fact that these processes take place in a relativistic spacetime. In particular, many studies in RQI have been focused on the effects of non-uniform motion on entanglement, the main resource of quantum information protocols. Early investigations in this direction were performed in highly idealized settings that prompted questions as to the practical accessibility of these results. To overcome these limitations it is necessary to consider quantum systems that are in principle accessible to localized observers. In this thesis we present such a model, the rigid relativistic cavity, and its extensions, focusing on the effects of motion on entanglement and applications such...

  13. Quantum information processing with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Blais, A; Wallraff, A; Schuster, D I; Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H; Schölkopf, R J; Blais, Alexandre; Gambetta, Jay

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study single and two-qubit dynamics in the circuit QED architecture. We focus on the current experimental design [Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004); Schuster et al., cond-mat/0608693 (2006)] in which superconducting charge qubits are capacitively coupled to a single high-Q superconducting coplanar resonator. In this system, logical gates are realized by driving the resonator with microwave fields. Advantages of this architecture are that it allows for multi-qubit gates between non-nearest qubits and for the realization of gates in parallel, opening the possibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconduting circuits. In this paper, we focus on one and two-qubit gates that do not require moving away from the charge-degeneracy `sweet spot'. This is advantageous as it helps to increase the qubit dephasing time and does not require modification of the original circuit QED. However these gates can, in some cases, be slower than those that do not use this constraint. Five types ...

  14. Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks

    Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Nielsen, B.; Hettich, C.; Mølmer, K.; Polzik, Eugene Simon

    2006-01-01

    Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August......Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August...

  15. Quantum information processing in semiconductor nanostructures

    Reina, J H; Johnson, N F

    2000-01-01

    A major question for condensed matter physics is whether a solid-state quantum computer can ever be built. Here we discuss two different schemes for quantum information processing using semiconductor nanostructures. First, we show how optically driven coupled quantum dots can be used to prepare maximally entangled Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states by varying the strength and duration of selective light pulses. The setup allows us to perform an all-optical generation of the quantum teleportation of an excitonic state in an array of coupled quantum dots. Second, we give a proposal for reliable implementation of quantum logic gates and long decoherence times in a quantum dots system based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), where the nuclear resonance is controlled by the ground state transitions of few-electron QDs in an external magnetic field. The dynamical evolution of these systems in the presence of environmentally-induced decoherence effects is also discussed.

  16. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous...

  17. Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measurements), quantum information (cryptography, cloning, dense coding, teleportation), and quantum computation.

  18. Quantum causality, stochastics, trajectories and information

    A history of the discovery of 'new' quantum mechanics and the paradoxes of its probabilistic interpretation are briefly reviewed from the modern point of view of quantum probability and information. Modern quantum theory, which has been developed during the last 20 years for the treatment of quantum open systems including quantum noise, decoherence, quantum diffusions and spontaneous jumps occurring under continuous in time observation, is not yet a part of the standard curriculum of quantum physics. It is argued that the conventional formalism of quantum mechanics is insufficient for the description of quantum events, such as spontaneous decays say, and the new experimental phenomena related to individual quantum measurements, but they have all received an adequate mathematical treatment in quantum stochastics of open systems. Moreover, the only reasonable probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics put forward by Max Born was, in fact, in irreconcilable contradiction with traditional mechanical reality and causality. This led to numerous quantum paradoxes, some of them due to the great inventors of quantum theory such as Einstein and Schroedinger. They are reconsidered in this paper from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, indicated a possibility for resolution of this interpretational crisis by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or Bell's beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the actual histories with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements ensuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of dynamical commutation relations leads to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate, and also to the more general reductions, instantaneous, spontaneous, and even continuous in time. This gives a dynamical solution, in the form of the quantum stochastic filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroedinger and Bohr. It has been recently proved that the quantum stochastic model for the continuous in time measurements is equivalent to a Dirac type boundary-value problem for the secondary quantized input 'offer waves from future' in one extra dimension, and to a reduction of the algebra of the consistent histories of past events to an Abelian subalgebra for the 'trajectories of the output particles'. This supports the corpuscular-wave duality in the form of the thesis that everything in the future are quantized waves, while everything in the past are trajectories of the recorded particles. (author)

  19. Relativistic Quantum Information: developments in Quantum Information in general relativistic scenarios

    Martin-Martinez, E

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in understanding entanglement and quantum communication in black hole spacetimes and in using quantum information techniques to address questions in gravity. Studies on relativistic entanglement show the emergence of conceptually important qualitative differences to a non-relativistic treatment. For instance, entanglement was found to be an observer-dependent property that changes from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Relativisitic quantum information theory uses well-known tools coming from quantum information and quantum optics to study quantum effects provoked by gravity to learn information about the spacetime. We can take advantage of our knowledge about quantum correlations and effects produced by the gravitational interaction to set the basis for experimental proposals ultimately aiming at finding corrections due to quantum gravity effects, too mild to be directly observed. This doctoral thesis dissertation summarises most of...

  20. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    Collins, Benoit; Nechita, Ion

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review, combined with more detailed examples -- coming from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical st...

  1. Information sharing in quantum complex networks

    Cardillo, Alessio; Galve, Fernando; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity, thus breaking down the usual hierar...

  2. Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarc...

  3. Quantum causal histories in the light of quantum information

    Livine, E R; Livine, Etera R.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    We use techniques of quantum information theory to analyze the quantum causal histories approach to quantum gravity. We show that while it is consistent to introduce closed timelike curves (CTCs), they cannot generically carry independent degrees of freedom. Moreover, if the effective dynamics of the chronology-respecting part of the system is linear, it should be completely decoupled from the CTCs. In the absence of a CTC not all causal structures admit the introduction of quantum mechanics. It is possible for those and only for those causal structures that can be represented as quantum computational networks. The dynamics of the subsystems should not be unitary or even completely positive. However, we show that other commonly maid assumptions ensure the complete positivity of the reduced dynamics.

  4. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations

  5. Critique of Fault-Tolerant Quantum Information Processing

    Alicki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This is a chapter in a book \\emph{Quantum Error Correction} edited by D. A. Lidar and T. A. Brun, and published by Cambridge University Press (2013)\\\\ (http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/physics/quantum-physics-quantum-information-and-quantum-computation/quantum-error-correction)\\\\ presenting the author's view on feasibility of fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  6. Information and Entropy in Quantum Theory

    Maroney, O J E

    2004-01-01

    We look at certain thought experiments based upon the 'delayed choice' and 'quantum eraser' interference experiments, which present a complementarity between information gathered from a quantum measurement and interference effects. It has been argued that these experiments show the Bohm interpretation of quantum theory is untenable. We demonstrate that these experiments depend critically upon the assumption that a quantum optics device can operate as a measuring device, and show that, in the context of these experiments, it cannot be consistently understood in this way. By contrast, we then show how the notion of 'active information' in the Bohm interpretation provides a coherent explanation of the phenomena shown in these experiments. We then examine the relationship between information and entropy. The thought experiment connecting these two quantities is the Szilard Engine version of Maxwell's Demon, and it has been suggested that quantum measurement plays a key role in this. We provide the first complete ...

  7. Quantum Optical Systems for the Implementation of Quantum Information Processing

    Ralph, T. C.

    2006-01-01

    We review the field of Quantum Optical Information from elementary considerations through to quantum computation schemes. We illustrate our discussion with descriptions of experimental demonstrations of key communication and processing tasks from the last decade and also look forward to the key results likely in the next decade. We examine both discrete (single photon) type processing as well as those which employ continuous variable manipulations. The mathematical formalism is kept to the mi...

  8. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  9. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    Krueger, O.

    2006-04-06

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  10. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  11. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels

  12. A 14 × 14 μm(2) footprint polarization-encoded quantum controlled-NOT gate based on hybrid waveguide.

    Wang, S M; Cheng, Q Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Sun, C; Li, L; Li, T; Zhu, S N

    2016-01-01

    Photonic quantum information processing system has been widely used in communication, metrology and lithography. The recent emphasis on the miniaturized photonic platform is thus motivated by the urgent need for realizing large-scale information processing and computing. Although the integrated quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms based on path encoding have been successfully demonstrated, the technology for handling another commonly used polarization-encoded qubits has yet to be fully developed. Here, we show the implementation of a polarization-dependent beam-splitter in the hybrid waveguide system. With precisely design, the polarization-encoded controlled-NOT gate can be implemented using only single such polarization-dependent beam-splitter with the significant size reduction of the overall device footprint to 14 × 14 μm(2). The experimental demonstration of the highly integrated controlled-NOT gate sets the stage to develop large-scale quantum information processing system. Our hybrid design also establishes the new capabilities in controlling the polarization modes in integrated photonic circuits. PMID:27142992

  13. Superconducting Circuits and Quantum Information

    You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting circuits can behave like atoms making transitions between two levels. Such circuits can test quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales and be used to conduct atomic-physics experiments on a silicon chip.

  14. Quantum Communication

    Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Quantum communication, and indeed quantum information in general, has changed the way we think about quantum physics. In 1984 and 1991, the first protocol for quantum cryptography and the first application of quantum non-locality, respectively, attracted a diverse field of researchers in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics and computer science. Since then we have seen a fundamental shift in how we understand information when it is encoded in quantum systems. We review the curren...

  15. Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision.

  16. A quantum information processor with trapped ions

    Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. In this work we present a small-scale quantum information processor based on a string of 40Ca+ ions confined in a macroscopic linear Paul trap. We review our set of operations which includes non-coherent operations allowing us to realize arbitrary Markovian processes. In order to build a larger quantum information processor it is mandatory to reduce the error rate of the available operations which is only possible if the physics of the noise processes is well understood. We identify the dominant noise sources in our system and discuss their effects on different algorithms. Finally we demonstrate how our entire set of operations can be used to facilitate the implementation of algorithms by examples of the quantum Fourier transform and the quantum order finding algorithm. (paper)

  17. Principles of quantum computation and information

    Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.

  18. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: Are They Related to Quantum Paradoxology?

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; von Spakovsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    We review both the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) paper about the completeness of quantum theory, and Schrodinger's responses to the EPR paper. We find that both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses, including the cat paradox, are not consistent with the current understanding of quantum theory and thermodynamics. Because both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses play a leading role in discussions of the fascinating and promising fields of quantum computation and quantum information...

  19. Manipulating quantum information by propagation

    Perales, Alvaro [Departmento de Automatica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Plenio, Martin B [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    We study the creation of bipartite and multipartite continuous variable entanglement in structures of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators. By adjusting the interaction strengths between nearest neighbours we show how to maximize the entanglement production between the arms in a Y-shaped structure where an initial single mode squeezed state is created in the first oscillator of the input arm. We also consider the action of the same structure as an approximate quantum cloner. For a specific time in the system dynamics the last oscillators in the output arms can be considered as imperfect copies of the initial state. By increasing the number of arms in the structure, multipartite entanglement is obtained, as well as 1 {yields}M cloning. Finally, we consider configurations that implement the symmetric splitting of an initial entangled state. All calculations are carried out within the framework of the rotating wave approximation in quantum optics, and our predictions could be tested with current available experimental techniques.

  20. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  1. A flow cytometric assay technology based on quantum dots-encoded beads

    A flow cytometric detecting technology based on quantum dots (QDs)-encoded beads has been described. Using this technology, several QDs-encoded beads with different code were identified effectively, and the target molecule (DNA sequence) in solution was also detected accurately by coupling to its complementary sequence probed on QDs-encoded beads through DNA hybridization assay. The resolution of this technology for encoded beads is resulted from two longer wavelength fluorescence identification signals (yellow and red fluorescent signals of QDs), and the third shorter wavelength fluorescence signal (green reporting signal of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)) for the determination of reaction between probe and target. In experiment, because of QDs' unique optical character, only one excitation light source was needed to excite the QDs and probe dye FITC synchronously comparing with other flow cytometric assay technology. The results show that this technology has present excellent repeatability and good accuracy. It will become a promising multiple assay platform in various application fields after further improvement

  2. Interface between path and orbital angular momentum entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information.

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the set-up as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a nonlinear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Thus our results show a flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips. PMID:25073906

  3. Quantum Information and the PCP Theorem

    Raz, R

    2005-01-01

    We show how to encode $2^n$ (classical) bits $a_1,...,a_{2^n}$ by a single quantum state $|\\Psi>$ of size O(n) qubits, such that: for any constant $k$ and any $i_1,...,i_k \\in \\{1,...,2^n\\}$, the values of the bits $a_{i_1},...,a_{i_k}$ can be retrieved from $|\\Psi>$ by a one-round Arthur-Merlin interactive protocol of size polynomial in $n$. This shows how to go around Holevo-Nayak's Theorem, using Arthur-Merlin proofs. We use the new representation to prove the following results: 1) Interactive proofs with quantum advice: We show that the class $QIP/qpoly$ contains ALL languages. That is, for any language $L$ (even non-recursive), the membership $x \\in L$ (for $x$ of length $n$) can be proved by a polynomial-size quantum interactive proof, where the verifier is a polynomial-size quantum circuit with working space initiated with some quantum state $|\\Psi_{L,n} >$ (depending only on $L$ and $n$). Moreover, the interactive proof that we give is of only one round, and the messages communicated are classical. 2)...

  4. Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks

    Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.

  5. Information sharing in quantum complex networks

    Cardillo, Alessio; Galve, Fernando; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity, thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a by-product, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows one to determine the network topology.

  6. Information capacity of quantum observable

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  7. Quantum Information in Optical Lattices

    Guzmán, Angela M.; Dueñas E., Marco A.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental realizations of a two-qubit quantum logic gate based on cold atom collisions have been elusive mainly due to the decoherence effects introduced during the quantum gate operation, which cause transitions out of the two-qubit space and lead to a decreased gate operation fidelity. This type of decoherence effects, due to the non closeness of the interacting two-qubit system, are characteristic of the electromagnetic interaction, since the electromagnetic vacuum acts as a reservoir whose eigenmodes might become active during the gate operation. To describe the cold-atom collision we consider the quantum non-Hermitian dipole-dipole interaction instead of the less realistic s-scattering approach widely used in the literature. By adding an ancillary qubit, we take advantage of the spatial modulation of the non-Hermitian part of the interaction potential to obtain a "resonant" condition that should be satisfied to achieve lossless operation of a specific two-qubit quantum phase-gate. We demonstrate that careful engineering of the collision is required to obtain a specific truth table and to suppress the effects inherent in the openness of the system arising from the electromagnetic interaction.

  8. Information capacity of quantum observable

    Holevo, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give simple examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C

  9. Nature and location of quantum information

    Quantum information is defined by applying the concepts of ordinary (Shannon) information theory to a quantum sample space consisting of a single framework or consistent family. A classical analogy for a spin-half particle and other arguments show that the infinite amount of information needed to specify a precise vector in its Hilbert space is not a measure of the information carried by a quantum entity with a d-dimensional Hilbert space; the latter is, instead, bounded by log2d bits (one bit per qubit). The two bits of information transmitted in dense coding are located not in one but in the correlation between two qubits, consistent with this bound. A quantum channel can be thought of as a structure or collection of frameworks, and the physical location of the information in the individual frameworks can be used to identify the location of the channel. Analysis of a quantum circuit used as a model of teleportation shows that the location of the channel depends upon which structure is employed; for ordinary teleportation it is not (contrary to Deutsch and Hayden) present in the two bits resulting from the Bell-basis measurement, but in correlations of these with a distant qubit. In neither teleportation nor dense coding does information travel backwards in time, nor is it transmitted by nonlocal (superluminal) influences. It is (tentatively) proposed that all aspects of quantum information can in principle be understood in terms of the (basically classical) behavior of information in a particular framework, along with the framework dependence of this information

  10. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues

  11. A quantum information approach to statistical mechanics

    We review some connections between quantum information and statistical mechanics. We focus on three sets of results for classical spin models. First, we show that the partition function of all classical spin models (including models in different dimensions, different types of many-body interactions, different symmetries, etc) can be mapped to the partition function of a single model. Second, we give efficient quantum algorithms to estimate the partition function of various classical spin models, such as the Ising or the Potts model. The proofs of these two results are based on a mapping from partition functions to quantum states and to quantum circuits, respectively. Finally, we show how classical spin models can be used to describe certain fluctuating lattices appearing in models of discrete quantum gravity. (tutorial)

  12. Quantum dot - nanocavity QED for quantum information processing

    Single quantum dots (QDs) in photonic crystal nanocavities are interesting both as a testbed for fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments, as well as a platform for quantum and classical information processing. In addition to providing a scalable, on-chip, platform, these systems also enable large dipole-field interaction strengths, as a result of the localization of the field to very small optical volumes. Such a platform could be employed to demonstrate a number of devices, including nonclassical light sources, electro-optic modulators and switches operating at the single photon level, and quantum gates. QD-cavity QED systems also exhibit interesting phonon-assisted off-resonant interaction between the QD and the cavity which can be employed for spectral filtering, as well as for coherent optical spectroscopy and quantum dot state readout, thereby overcoming issues coming from quantum dot inhomogeneous broadening. In order to make the platform compatible with fiber-optic telecommunication wavelengths, the intrinsic optical nonlinearity of the semiconductor employed to make a nanocavity can be employed for frequency conversion.

  13. Quantum information processing with graph states

    Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)

  14. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  15. Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment

    Imai, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.

  16. Knowledge Activation After Information Encoding: Implications of Trait Priming on Person Judgment

    Lerouge, Davy; Smeesters, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    It is widely assumed that traits primed after the encoding of person information do not lead to assimilation effects on the judgment of that person. The authors challenge this view by providing evidence that post-encoding trait primes can result in assimilative person judgments under certain conditions. In Experiments 1 and 2, we identify the conditions under which these assimilation effects occur. Experiment 1 shows the importance of participants’ goals during person information encoding: as...

  17. Trapped-ion quantum information processing

    Full text: Trapped strings of cold ions provide an ideal system for quantum information processing. The quantum information can be stored in individual ions and these qubits can be individually prepared, the corresponding quantum states can be manipulated and measured with nearly 100 % detection efficiency. With a small ion-trap quantum computer based on two and three trapped Ca+ ions as qubits we have generated in a pre-programmed way genuine quantum states. These states are of particular interest for the implementation of an ion quantum register: we have demonstrated selective read-out of single qubits and manipulation of single qubits of the register conditioned on the read-out results. Moreover, entangled states of up to eight particles were generated using an algorithmic procedure and the resulting states were analyzed using state tomography proving genuine multi-partite entanglement. With a new cavity QED setup we create an ion-qubit to photon-qubit interface for interconnecting ion-trap based quantum computers. With this device a source of deterministically generated single photons can be built and atom-photon entanglement can be investigated

  18. Measuring the scrambling of quantum information

    Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We provide a protocol to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions. These correlation functions are of theoretical interest for diagnosing the scrambling of quantum information in black holes and strongly interacting quantum systems generally. Measuring them requires an echo-type sequence in which the sign of a many-body Hamiltonian is reversed. We detail an implementation employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to realize the chaotic kicked top model, and we analyze effects of dissipation to verify its feasibility with current technology. Finally, we propose in broad strokes a number of other experimental platforms where similar out-of-time-order correlation functions can be measured.

  19. Manipulating cold atoms for quantum information processing

    Full text: I will describe how cold atoms can be manipulated to realize arrays of addressable qbits as prototype quantum registers, focussing on how atom chips can be used in combination with cavity qed techniques to form such an array. I will discuss how the array can be generated and steered using optical lattices and the Mott transition, and describe the sources of noise and how these place limits on the use of such chips in quantum information processing. (author)

  20. Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals

    Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-08

    Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.

  1. Quantum measurements, Information, and Dual States Representations

    S, Mayburov.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem considered for the model of measuring system (MS) consist of measured state S (particle), detector D and information processing device (observer) $O$ interacting with S,D. For 'external' observer $O'$ MS evolution obeys to Schrodinger equation (SE) and $O$ (self)description of MS reconstructed from it in Breuer ansatz. MS irreversible evolution (state collapse) for $O$ can be obtained if the true quantum states manifold has the dual structure $L_T=\\cal {H} \\big...

  2. Camera calibration by multiplexed phase encoding of coordinate information.

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Guerrero-Sanchez, Fermin; Robledo-Sanchez, Carlos; González-García, Jorge

    2015-05-20

    A simple camera calibration method based on the principle of phase encoding and coordinate transformation is proposed. We use a reference coordinate frame encoded as a phase distribution by multiplexing the x and y directions. From this, we suggest a phase demodulation system. The coordinate transformation induced by the imaging is exploited to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters by using the least-squares method. Thus, a robust and noniterative estimation scheme is obtained. Simulations and experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal. Because of the potential for calibrating projectors, the proposed method could be used to calibrate fringe-projection systems. PMID:26192529

  3. Finite Quantum Systems and Their Applications to Quantum Information Processing

    Vourdas, A.

    2003-07-01

    Quantum mechanics for finite systems is briefly reviewed and used in the context of quantum information processing. In an angular momentum Hilbert space, the displacement operators play the role of SU(2j + 1) generators. Unitary transformations are expressed as a finite sum of the displacement operators with the Weyl function as coefficients. A factorization of large qudits in terms of smaller qudits is studied. All unitary transformations on large qudits can be performed through appropriate unitary transformations on the smaller qudits. Coding with these states is also considered. A concatenated code that introduces redundancy in both amplitude and phase, is studied.

  4. A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks

    Xihua Yang; Bolin Xue; Junxiang Zhang; Shiyao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The a...

  5. Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time—effectively denies superluminal signalling and communication.

  6. Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics

    Ohya, M

    2004-01-01

    After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

  7. Countering quantum noise with supplementary classical information

    We consider situations in which (i) Alice wishes to send quantum information to Bob via a noisy quantum channel, (ii) Alice has a classical description of the states she wishes to send, and (iii) Alice can make use of a finite amount of noiseless classical information. After setting up the problem in general, we focus attention on one specific scenario in which Alice sends a known qubit down a depolarizing channel along with a noiseless classical bit. We describe a protocol that we conjecture is optimal and calculate the average fidelity obtained. A surprising amount of structure is revealed even for this simple case, which suggests that relationships between quantum and classical information could in general be very intricate

  8. Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer; Quanteninformation. Teleportation - Kryptografie - Quantencomputer

    Breuer, Reinhard (comp.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  9. Quantum Information Processing with Modular Networks

    Crocker, Clayton; Inlek, Ismail V.; Hucul, David; Sosnova, Ksenia; Vittorini, Grahame; Monroe, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are qubit standards for the production of entangled states in quantum information science and metrology applications. Trapped ions can exhibit very long coherence times, external fields can drive strong local interactions via phonons, and remote qubits can be entangled via photons. Transferring quantum information across spatially separated ion trap modules for a scalable quantum network architecture relies on the juxtaposition of both phononic and photonic buses. We report the successful combination of these protocols within and between two ion trap modules on a unit structure of this architecture where the remote entanglement generation rate exceeds the experimentally measured decoherence rate. Additionally, we report an experimental implementation of a technique to maintain phase coherence between spatially and temporally distributed quantum gate operations, a crucial prerequisite for scalability. Finally, we discuss our progress towards addressing the issue of uncontrolled cross-talk between photonic qubits and memory qubits by implementing a second ion species, Barium, to generate the photonic link. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness Program, the ARO MURI on Hybrid Quantum Circuits, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  10. Information Erasure and Recover in Quantum Memory

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2004-01-01

    We show that information in quantum memory can be erased and recovered perfectly if it is necessary. That the final states of environment are completely determined by the initial states of the system allows that an easure operation can be realized by a swap operation between system and an ancilla. Therefore, the erased information can be recoverd. When there is an irreversible process, e.g. an irreversible operation or a decoherence process, in the erasure process, the information would be er...

  11. Nonlinear coherent states for optimizing quantum information

    Part of the difficulties in implementing communication in quantum information stems from the fragility of Schroedinger's cat-like superpositions. A recent experiment in quantum optics by Cook et al (2007 Nature 446 774) has proved the feasibility of a feedback-mediated quantum measurement for discriminating between optical coherent states under photodetection. Minimizing the error in receiver measurement over all possible POVMs leads to the so-called quantum error probability or 'Helstrom bound', and CMG measurements validate the theoretical prediction by Helstrom, Dolinar and Geremia concerning this bound. In this work, we present some preliminary theoretical and numerical explorations concerning the properties of the Helstrom bound in binary (or multibinary) communication involving non-Poissonian or nonlinear coherent states.

  12. Combinatorial Approaches in Quantum Information Theory

    Singh, S K

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the exploitation of various combinatorial properties of graphs and set systems to study several issues in quantum information theory. We characterize the combinatorics of distributed EPR pairs for preparing multi-partite entanglement in a real communication network. This combinatorics helps in the study of various problems in multi-party case by just reducing to the two-party case. Particularly, we use this combinatorics to (1) study various possible and impossible transformations of multi-partite states under LOCC, thus presenting an entirely new approach, not based on entropic criterion, to study such state transformations. (2) present a protocol and proof of its unconditional security for quantum key distribution amongst several trusted parties. (3) propose an idea to combine the features of quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. We investigate all the above issues in great detail and finally conclude briefly with some open research directions based on our research.

  13. Preface of the special issue quantum foundations: information approach.

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-28

    This special issue is based on the contributions of a group of top experts in quantum foundations and quantum information and probability. It enlightens a number of interpretational, mathematical and experimental problems of quantum theory. PMID:27091161

  14. Quantum information and computation for chemistry

    Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science

  15. Achievable Qubit Rates for Quantum Information Wires

    Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya; Osborne, Tobias J.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose Alice and Bob have access to two separated regions, respectively, of a system of electrons moving in the presence of a regular one-dimensional lattice of binding atoms. We consider the problem of communicating as much quantum information, as measured by the qubit rate, through this quantum information wire as possible. We describe a protocol whereby Alice and Bob can achieve a qubit rate for these systems which is proportional to N^(-1/3) qubits per unit time, where N is the number of...

  16. Data encoding efficiency in pixel detector readout with charge information

    Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Wang, Xinkang

    2016-04-01

    The average minimum number of bits needed for lossless readout of a pixel detector is calculated, in the regime of interest for particle physics where only a small fraction of pixels have a non-zero value per frame. This permits a systematic comparison of the readout efficiency of different encoding implementations. The calculation is compared to the number of bits used by the FE-I4 pixel readout chip of the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Photon-efficient quantum key distribution using time–energy entanglement with high-dimensional encoding

    Conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) typically uses binary encoding based on photon polarization or time-bin degrees of freedom and achieves a key capacity of at most one bit per photon. Under photon-starved conditions the rate of detection events is much lower than the photon generation rate, because of losses in long distance propagation and the relatively long recovery times of available single-photon detectors. Multi-bit encoding in the photon arrival times can be beneficial in such photon-starved situations. Recent security proofs indicate high-dimensional encoding in the photon arrival times is robust and can be implemented to yield high secure throughput. In this work we demonstrate entanglement-based QKD with high-dimensional encoding whose security against collective Gaussian attacks is provided by a high-visibility Franson interferometer. We achieve unprecedented key capacity and throughput for an entanglement-based QKD system because of four principal factors: Franson interferometry that does not degrade with loss; error correction coding that can tolerate high error rates; optimized time–energy entanglement generation; and highly efficient WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. The secure key capacity yields as much as 8.7 bits per coincidence. When optimized for throughput we observe a secure key rate of 2.7 Mbit s−1 after 20 km fiber transmission with a key capacity of 6.9 bits per photon coincidence. Our results demonstrate a viable approach to high-rate QKD using practical photonic entanglement and single-photon detection technologies. (fast track communication)

  18. Retrieving and routing quantum information in a quantum network

    Sazim, S.; Chiranjeevi, V.; Chakrabarty, I.; Srinathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network ( qnet) it cannot be retrieved, even if the dealer wishes that his/her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of the two qnets, say {{Q}}_1 and {{Q}}_2 and he/she subsequently finds that {{Q}}_2 is more reliable than {{Q}}_1, he/she may wish to transfer all her secrets from {{Q}}_1 to {{Q}}_2. Known protocols are inadequate to address such a revocation. In this work we address this problem by designing a protocol that enables the source/dealer to bring back the information shared in the network, if desired. Unlike classical revocation, the no-cloning theorem automatically ensures that the secret is no longer shared in the network. The implications of our results are multi-fold. One interesting implication of our technique is the possibility of routing qubits in asynchronous qnets. By asynchrony we mean that the requisite data/resources are intermittently available (but not necessarily simultaneously) in the qnet. For example, we show that a source S can send quantum information to a destination R even though (a) S and R share no quantum resource, (b) R's identity is unknown to S at the time of sending the message, but is subsequently decided, (c) S herself can be R at a later date and/or in a different location to bequeath her information (`backed-up' in the qnet) and (d) importantly, the path chosen for routing the secret may hit a dead end due to resource constraints, congestion, etc., (therefore the information needs to be back-tracked and sent along an alternate path). Another implication of our technique is the possibility of using insecure resources. For instance, if the quantum memory within an organization is insufficient, it may safely store (using our protocol) its private information with a neighboring organization without (a) revealing critical data to the host and (b) losing control over retrieving the data. Putting the two implications together, namely routing and secure storage, it is possible to envision applications like quantum mail (qmail) as an outsourced service.

  19. Maximum density of quantum information in a scalable CMOS implementation of the hybrid qubit architecture

    Rotta, Davide; De Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Scalability from single-qubit operations to multi-qubit circuits for quantum information processing requires architecture-specific implementations. Semiconductor hybrid qubit architecture is a suitable candidate to realize large-scale quantum information processing, as it combines a universal set of logic gates with fast and all-electrical manipulation of qubits. We propose an implementation of hybrid qubits, based on Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dots, compatible with the CMOS industrial technological standards. We discuss the realization of multi-qubit circuits capable of fault-tolerant computation and quantum error correction, by evaluating the time and space resources needed for their implementation. As a result, the maximum density of quantum information is extracted from a circuit including eight logical qubits encoded by the [[7, 1, 3

  20. Quantum-information-processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube

    A potential quantum-information processor is proposed using an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N-C60 or 31P-C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.

  1. Leveraging Sentence-level Information with Encoder LSTM for Natural Language Understanding

    Kurata, Gakuto; Xiang, Bing; Zhou, Bowen; Yu, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and one of its specific architectures, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), have been widely used for sequence labeling. In this paper, we first enhance LSTM-based sequence labeling to explicitly model label dependencies. Then we propose another enhancement to incorporate the global information spanning over the whole input sequence. The latter proposed method, encoder-labeler LSTM, first encodes the whole input sequence into a fixed length vector with the encoder LST...

  2. Development of Microcomputer Based Software for Encoding and Retrieving Medical Information in Pathology

    Hause, L.; Rothwell, D; Frey, C.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a microcomputer-based software package for the entry, encoding, storage and retrieval of medical information in anatomic pathology is described. Computer assisted encoding of diagnostic language was based on SNOMED nomenclature and was found to automatically encode 92% to 98% of the cases in routine surgical pathology. This application package was based on CP/M operating system so it functions on a variety of microcomputers and can integrate with other common microcomputer ...

  3. Optimal photons for quantum-information processing

    Photonic quantum-information processing schemes, such as linear optics quantum computing, and other experiments relying on single-photon interference, inherently require complete photon indistinguishability to enable the desired photonic interactions to take place. Mode-mismatch is the dominant cause of photon distinguishability in optical circuits. Here we study the effects of photon wave-packet shape on tolerance against the effects of mode mismatch in linear optical circuits, and show that Gaussian distributed photons with large bandwidth are optimal. The result is general and holds for arbitrary linear optical circuits, including ones which allow for postselection and classical feed forward. Our findings indicate that some single photon sources, frequently cited for their potential application to quantum-information processing, may in fact be suboptimal for such applications

  4. Information transmission in quantum measurement processes with pure operation

    Quantum and classical informations are considered in quantum measurement processes described by pure operations. The quantum information is given by coherent information in the state change of the measured physical system, and the classical information represented by the Shannon mutual information is obtained from the measurement outcomes. It is shown that if the maximum classical information is obtained, the quantum information becomes zero and if any classical information is not obtained, all the quantum information that the physical system has can be transmitted. (author)

  5. Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing

    Bergou, János A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.

  6. Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information

    Cabello, Adan

    2000-01-01

    This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, web sites, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measureme...

  7. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer; Quanteninformation. Teleportation - Kryptografie - Quantencomputer

    Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)

    2012-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  8. The Kaspi Rate-Distortion Problem with Encoder Side-Information: Gaussian Case

    Perron, Etienne; Diggavi, Suhas; Telatar, Emre

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of compressing a Gaussian source for two decoders, one of which has access to side-information. Kaspi has solved this problem for discrete memoryless sources for the two cases with and without encoder side-information. We focus on the case in which the encoder has access to side-information and we explicitly solve the optimization problem for Gaussian sources and squared error distortion measures. The achievability part of the proof provides an intuitive insight based ...

  9. Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world

    Fayngold, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.

  10. Two-way quantum communication: 'secure quantum information exchange'

    In this paper, we present a new idea of two-way quantum communication called 'secure quantum information exchange' (SQIE). If there are two arbitrary unknown quantum states |ξ)IA and |η)IB, initially with Alice and Bob, respectively, then SQIE protocol leads to the simultaneous exchange of these states between Alice and Bob with the aid of the special kind of six-qubit entangled (SSE) state and classical assistance of the third party, Charlie. The term 'secure' signifies the fact that SQIE protocol either faithfully exchanges the unknown quantum states proceeding in a prescribed way or, in case of any irregularity, the process generates no results. For experimental realization of the SQIE protocol, we have suggested an efficient scheme for generating SSE states using the interaction between highly detuned Λ-type three-level atoms and the optical coherent field. By theoretical calculations, we found that SSE states of almost unit fidelity with perfect success rates for appreciable mean photon numbers (Fav ≥ 0.999 for |α|2 ≥ 1.5) can be generated by our scheme. Further, we have discussed possible experimental imperfections, such as atomic-radiative time, cavity damping time, atom-cavity interaction time, and the efficiency of discrimination between the coherent field and the vacuum state shows that our SQIE protocol is within the reach of technology presently available.

  11. Quantum information processing with optical vortices

    Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)

  12. Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche

    Martin, F; Carminati, G Galli

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to ``read{''} the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi o...

  13. Information flow in quantum teleportation

    Andrew Whitaker

    2002-08-01

    The flow of information is discussed in the context of quantum teleportation. Situations are described which use a sequence of systems of particles in which, though there is no claim of faster-than-light signaling, it is plausible to suggest that information about measurement procedures in one wing of the apparatus does reach the other end in a non-local manner. The definition of the term ’parameter dependence’ is discussed.

  14. Quantum Gravity Sensor by Curvature Energy: their Encoding and Computational Models*

    Francisco Bulnes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through of the concept of curvature energy encoded in non-harmonic signals due to the effect that characterizes the curvature as a deformation of field in the corresponding resonance space ( and an obstruction to the displacement to the corresponding shape operator is developed and designed a sensor of quantum gravity considering the quantized version of curvature as observable of gravitational field where the space is distorted by the strong interactions between particles, interpreting their observable in this case, as light fields deformations obtained on space-time background. To the application of this measurement we use a hypothetical particle graviton modeled as a magnetic dilaton which must be gauge graviton (gauge boson. Also are obtained several computational models of these photonic measurements, likewise their prototype photonic devices

  15. Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

    Rapcan, P. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Bagan, E. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Buzek, V. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system collapses into a postmeasurement state from which the same observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or can scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and we study the classical limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements, we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimates the state with equal fidelity, regardless of their position in the measurement sequence and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparatuses (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.

  16. Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

    Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system collapses into a postmeasurement state from which the same observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or can scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and we study the classical limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements, we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimates the state with equal fidelity, regardless of their position in the measurement sequence and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparatuses (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.

  17. Partially reversible quantum operations and their information-theoretical properties

    Partial reversibility of quantum operations (or quantum channels) is considered from the information-theoretical point of view. The necessary and sufficient condition for quantum operations to be partially reversible is shown. The condition can be expressed in terms of information-theoretical quantities (von Neumann entropy and Ψ-information). The quantum information-theoretical meanings of the condition are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained for completely reversible quantum operations. The Ψ-information is calculated for the quantum depolarizing channel of a qubit and the linear dissipative channel of a single-mode bosonic system

  18. Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states

    Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V

    2005-01-01

    We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.

  19. Quantum information erasure inside black holes

    Lowe, David A

    2015-01-01

    An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.

  20. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  1. Quantum information erasure inside black holes

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2015-12-01

    An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.

  2. Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology

    Raisinghani, Mahesh S

    2001-01-01

    The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference). Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, i...

  3. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: A NEW GENERATION OF INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

    Ritesh Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Cryptography is an approach to securing communications by applying the phenomena of quantum physics. Unlike traditional classical cryptography, which uses mathematical techniques to restrict eavesdroppers, quantum cryptography is focused on the physics of information. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. The quantum cryptography relies on two important elements of quantum mechanics-the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle and ...

  4. Synchronicity, Quantum Information and the Psyche

    Martin, Francois; Galli Carminati, Giuliana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe synchronicity phenomena. As an explanation of these phenomena we propose quantum entanglement between the psychic realm known as the "unconscious" and also the classical illusion of the collapse of the wave-function. Then, taking the theory of quantum information as a model we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qu-bits). We analyze how there can be communication between these various qu-bit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this manner we build quantum processes that permit consciousness to "read" the unconscious and vice-versa. The most elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qu-bit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolu...

  5. Property-based sequence representations do not adequately encode local protein folding information.

    Solis, A D; Rackovsky, S

    2007-06-01

    We examine the informatic characteristics of amino acid representations based on physical properties. We demonstrate that sequences rewritten using contracted alphabets based on physical properties do not encode local folding information well. The best four-character alphabet can only encode approximately 57% of the maximum possible amount of structural information. This result suggests that property-based representations that operate on a local length scale are not likely to be useful in homology searches and fold-recognition exercises. PMID:17387739

  6. Information theoretic approach to tactile encoding and discrimination

    Saal, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human sense of touch integrates feedback from a multitude of touch receptors, but how this information is represented in the neural responses such that it can be extracted quickly and reliably is still largely an open question. At the same time, dexterous robots equipped with touch sensors are becoming more common, necessitating better methods for representing sequentially updated information and new control strategies that aid in extracting relevant features for object man...

  7. Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing

    Kastoryano, M J; Eisert, J

    2012-01-01

    Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by weak (Markovian) system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource, and consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that large classes of initial states are rapidly driven to desirable steady states. One apparent drawback of this scheme is that it does not seem to allow for precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements or error correction. In this work, we provide a solution to these challenges, by introducing some basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger and time dissipative operations, while keeping the system Liouvillian time independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed, protected dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how universal computation can be performed with ...

  8. Efficient error characterization in quantum information processing

    We describe how to use the fidelity decay as a tool to characterize the errors affecting a quantum information processor through a noise generator G?. For weak noise, the initial decay rate of the fidelity proves to be a simple way to measure the magnitude of the different terms in G?. When the generator has only terms associated with few-body couplings, our proposal is scalable. We present the explicit protocol for estimating the magnitude of the noise generators when the noise consists of only one- and two-body terms, and describe a method for measuring the parameters of more general noise models. The protocol focuses on obtaining the magnitude with which these terms affect the system during a time step of length ?; measurement of this information has critical implications for assessing the scalability of fault-tolerant quantum computation in any physical setup

  9. Efficient error characterization in quantum information processing

    Lévi, Benjamin; López, Cecilia C.; Emerson, Joseph; Cory, D. G.

    2007-02-01

    We describe how to use the fidelity decay as a tool to characterize the errors affecting a quantum information processor through a noise generator G? . For weak noise, the initial decay rate of the fidelity proves to be a simple way to measure the magnitude of the different terms in G? . When the generator has only terms associated with few-body couplings, our proposal is scalable. We present the explicit protocol for estimating the magnitude of the noise generators when the noise consists of only one- and two-body terms, and describe a method for measuring the parameters of more general noise models. The protocol focuses on obtaining the magnitude with which these terms affect the system during a time step of length ? ; measurement of this information has critical implications for assessing the scalability of fault-tolerant quantum computation in any physical setup.

  10. PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

    Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.

  11. Relative cue encoding in the context of sophisticated models of categorization: Separating information from categorization.

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; McMurray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures-exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models-deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes. PMID:25475048

  12. Quantum Information Processing and Cavity QED

    Schön, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This work is about the prospects provided by atoms coupled to optical cavities for the realization of concepts from the field of quantum information theory. In the first part we present a scheme for trapping an atom in its ground state in a cavity, which is basically in the vacuum state. Therefore losses are strongly suppressed. In the second part we investigate the generation of entangled qubits by the sequential coupling of an ancillary system to initially uncorrelated qubits. We characteri...

  13. Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas

    Lukasz-Andrzej Glinka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present basics of conceptually new-type way for explaining of the origin, evolution and current physical properties of our Universe from the graviton-matter gas viewpoint. Quantization method for the Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe based on the canonical Hamilton equations of motion is proposed and quantum information theory way to physics of the Universe is showed. The current contribution from the graviton-matter gas temperature in quintessence approximation is discussed.

  14. Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas

    Lukasz-Andrzej Glinka

    2007-01-01

    We present basics of conceptually new-type way for explaining of the origin, evolution and current physical properties of our Universe from the graviton-matter gas viewpoint. Quantization method for the Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe based on the canonical Hamilton equations of motion is proposed and quantum information theory way to physics of the Universe is showed. The current contribution from the graviton-matter gas temperature in quintessence approximation is discussed.

  15. Quantum Theory is an Information Theory

    D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.

  16. Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov; Didier Sornette

    2008-01-01

    A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention int...

  17. Correcting false information in memory: manipulating the strength of misinformation encoding and its retraction.

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Swire, Briony; Chang, Darren

    2011-06-01

    Information that is presumed to be true at encoding but later on turns out to be false (i.e., misinformation) often continues to influence memory and reasoning. In the present study, we investigated how the strength of encoding and the strength of a later retraction of the misinformation affect this continued influence effect. Participants read an event report containing misinformation and a subsequent correction. Encoding strength of the misinformation and correction were orthogonally manipulated either via repetition (Experiment 1) or by imposing a cognitive load during reading (Experiment 2). Results suggest that stronger retractions are effective in reducing the continued influence effects associated with strong misinformation encoding, but that even strong retractions fail to eliminate continued influence effects associated with relatively weak encoding. We present a simple computational model based on random sampling that captures this effect pattern, and conclude that the continued influence effect seems to defy most attempts to eliminate it. PMID:21359617

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013

    2014-11-01

    Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  19. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory.

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-10-01

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431

  20. Black Holes, Information, and Hilbert Space for Quantum Gravity

    Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J

    2012-01-01

    A complete description for the formation and evaporation of a black hole is given within the framework of a unitary theory of quantum gravity preserving locality. The resulting picture depends strongly on the reference frame one chooses to describe the process. In one description based on a reference frame in which the reference point stays outside the black hole horizon for sufficiently long time, a late black hole state becomes a superposition of black holes in different locations and with different spins, even if the back hole is formed from collapsing matter that had a well-defined classical configuration with no angular momentum. The information about the initial state is partly encoded in relative coefficients---especially phases---of the terms representing macroscopically different geometries. In another description in which the reference point enters into the black hole horizon at late times, an S-matrix description in the asymptotically Minkowski spacetime is not applicable, but it sill allows for an...

  1. Quantum entanglement and informational activities of biomolecules

    Al-Shargi, Hanan; Berkovich, Simon

    2009-03-01

    Our model of holographic Universe [1] explains the surprising property of quantum entanglement and reveals its biological implications. The suggested holographic mechanism handles 2D slices of the physical world as a whole. Fitting this simple holistic process in the Procrustean bed of individual particles interactions leads to intricacies of quantum theory with an unintelligible protrusion of distant correlations. Holographic medium imposes dependence of quantum effects on absolute positioning. Testing this prediction for a non-exponential radioactive decay could resolutely point to outside ``memory.'' The essence of Life is in the sophistication of macromolecules. Distinctions in biological information processing of nucleotides in DNA and amino acids in proteins are related to entropies of their structures. Randomness of genetic configurations as exposed by their maximal entropy is characteristic of passive identification rather than active storage functionality. Structural redundancy of proteins shows their operability, of which different foldings of prions is most indicative. Folding of one prion can reshape another prion without a direct contact appearing like ``quantum entanglement,'' or ``teleportation.'' Testing the surmised influence of absolute orientation on the prion reshaping can uncover the latency effects in the ``mad cow'' disease. 1. Simon Berkovich, TR-GWU-CS-07-006, http://www.cs.gwu.edu/research/reports.php

  2. Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains

    Alcaraz, F C

    2015-01-01

    We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\til...

  3. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ? and L -? , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/? sin(?/? L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  4. Quantum Information Biology: from information interpretation of quantum mechanics to applications in molecular biology and cognitive psychology

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB) -- one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of...

  5. Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

    A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users

  6. Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.

  7. Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

    Li Yongmin; Zhang Kuanshou; Peng Kunchi

    2004-04-26

    A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users.

  8. Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward, however the minimisation of correlations displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides, and find a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with re...

  9. Reliable Quantum Computers

    Preskill, John

    1997-01-01

    The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be perf...

  10. Quantum information paradox: Real or fictitious?

    Abhas Mitra

    2009-09-01

    One of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics is whether quantum information indeed gets lost in the case of black hole (BH) evaporation or accretion. Let us recall that quantum mechanics (QM) demands an upper limit on the acceleration of a test particle. On the other hand, it is pointed out here that, if a Schwarzschild BH exists, the acceleration of the test particle would blow up at the event horizon in violation of QM. Thus the concept of an exact BH is in contradiction with QM and quantum gravity (QG). It is also reminded that the mass of a BH actually appears as an integration constant of Einstein equations. And it has been shown that the value of this integration constant is actually zero! Thus even classically, there cannot be finite mass BHs though zero mass BH is allowed. It has been further shown that during continued gravitational collapse, radiation emanating from the contracting object gets trapped within it by the runaway gravitational field. As a consequence, the contracting body attains a quasi-static state where outward trapped radiation pressure gets balanced by inward gravitational pull and the ideal classical BH state is never formed in a finite proper time. In other words, continued gravitational collapse results in an `eternally collapsing object' which is a ball of hot plasma and which is asymptotically approaching the true BH state with = 0 after radiating away its entire mass energy. And if we include QM, this contraction must halt at a radius suggested by the highest QM acceleration. In any case no event horizon (EH) is ever formed and in reality, there is no quantum information paradox.

  11. Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico

    Calixto, M.

    2001-07-01

    The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. Controlling the flow of information in quantum cloners: Asymmetric cloning

    Buzek, V.; Hillery, M.; Bednik, R.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the distribution of information at the output of the quantum cloner can be efficiently controlled via preparation of the quantum cloner. We present a universal cloning network with the help of which asymmetric cloning can be performed.

  13. Information-driven current in a quantum Maxwell demon

    Deffner, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    We describe a minimal model of a quantum Maxwell demon obeying Hamiltonian dynamics. The model is solved exactly, and we analyze its steady-state behavior. We find that writing information to a quantum memory induces a probability current through the demon, which is the quantum analog of the classical Maxwell demon's action. Our model offers a simple and pedagogical paradigm for investigating the thermodynamics of quantum information processing.

  14. Quantum Side Information: Uncertainty Relations, Extractors, Channel Simulations

    Berta, Mario Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we discuss the algebraic approach to classical and quantum physics and develop information theoretic concepts within this setup. In the second part, we discuss the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. The principle states that even if we have full classical information about the state of a quantum system, it is impossible to deterministically predict the outcomes of all possible measurements. In comparison, the perspective of a quantum observer allows ...

  15. Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single photons from quantum-dot spin qubits

    Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-01

    Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.

  16. Exploring molecular equilibria using quantum information measures

    Nalewajski, Roman F. [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Jagiellonian University (Poland)

    2013-03-15

    The quantum information-theoretic description of electron probabilities and currents in molecules is extended. The Harriman-Zumbach-Maschke framework of equidensity orbitals is reexamined and the nonclassical Fisher information contribution it generates is used to determine the system equilibrium states for the fixed (ground-state) electron density/energy. The lowest of such variational ''thermodynamic'' states can in general exhibit the space-dependent phase and hence also nonvanishing probability current. The phase/current feature of electronic states in Harriman's representation is emphasized throughout, the probability interpretation of its key constructs is given, and the phase shifts accompanying interactions between the equidensity orbitals are examined. The phase-''temperature'' concept is introduced as the information-theoretic descriptor of probability currents in molecules and their fragments. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Leftover Hashing Against Quantum Side Information

    Tomamichel, Marco; Smith, Adam; Renner, Renato

    2010-01-01

    The Leftover Hash Lemma states that the output of a two-universal hash function applied to an input with sufficiently high entropy is almost uniformly random. In its standard formulation, the lemma refers to a notion of randomness that is (usually implicitly) defined with respect to classical side information. Here, we prove a (strictly) more general version of the Leftover Hash Lemma that is valid even if side information is represented by the state of a quantum system. Furthermore, our result applies to arbitrary delta-almost two-universal families of hash functions. The generalized Leftover Hash Lemma has applications in cryptography, e.g., for key agreement in the presence of an adversary who is not restricted to classical information processing.

  18. The quantum limit for information transmission

    We give two independent and rigorous derivations for the quantum bound on the information transmission rate as proposed independently Bekenstein and Bremermann, preceded by a heuristic argument showing why such a sort of bound should hold. In both approaches, information carriers are quanta of some field. The first method resembles the microcanonical approach to Statistical Mechanics where the strategy of overestimating the real number of states by relaxing the indistinguishability of quanta was adopted. The second is entirely based upon max-entropy methods. Amazingly enough, the results obtained by these physically unrelated premises turn out to be identical, namely, that the single (noiseless) channel capacity is I sub(max) E/2πh bits s sup(-1). It is further shown that, in a finite time τ no information can ever be conveyed unless the energy threshold 2 πh/τ is reached. (author)

  19. Optical information authentication using compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response codes.

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a new optical information authentication system based on compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response (QR) codes, where the parameters of optical lightwave are used as keys for optical decryption and the QR code is a key for verification. An input image attached with QR code is first optically encoded in a simplified double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme without using interferometric setup. From the single encoded intensity pattern recorded by a CCD camera, a compressed double-random-phase-encoded image, i.e., the sparse phase distribution used for optical decryption, is generated by using an iterative phase retrieval technique with QR code. We compare this technique to the other two methods proposed in literature, i.e., Fresnel domain information authentication based on the classical DRPE with holographic technique and information authentication based on DRPE and phase retrieval algorithm. Simulation results show that QR codes are effective on improving the security and data sparsity of optical information encryption and authentication system. PMID:25836845

  20. Decoding reality the universe as quantum information

    Vedral, Vlatko

    2010-01-01

    In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...

  1. Quantum Information Processing using Scalable Techniques

    Hanneke, D.; Bowler, R.; Jost, J. D.; Home, J. P.; Lin, Y.; Tan, T.-R.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    We report progress towards improving our previous demonstrations that combined all the fundamental building blocks required for scalable quantum information processing using trapped atomic ions. Included elements are long-lived qubits; a laser-induced universal gate set; state initialization and readout; and information transport, including co-trapping a second ion species to reinitialize motion without qubit decoherence. Recent efforts have focused on reducing experimental overhead and increasing gate fidelity. Most of the experimental duty cycle was previously used for transport, separation, and recombination of ion chains as well as re-cooling of motional excitation. We have addressed these issues by developing and implementing an arbitrary waveform generator with an update rate far above the ions' motional frequencies. To reduce gate errors, we actively stabilize the position of several UV (313 nm) laser beams. We have also switched the two-qubit entangling gate to one that acts directly on 9Be+ hyperfine qubit states whose energy separation is magnetic-fluctuation insensitive. This work is supported by DARPA, NSA, ONR, IARPA, Sandia, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  2. Efficient error characterization in Quantum Information Processing

    Lévi, Benjamin; López, Cecilia C.; Emerson, Joseph; Cory, D. G.(Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)

    2006-01-01

    We describe how to use the fidelity decay as a tool to characterize the errors affecting a quantum information processor through a noise generator $G_{\\tau}$. For weak noise, the initial decay rate of the fidelity proves to be a simple way to measure the magnitude of the different terms in $G_{\\tau}$. When the generator has only terms associated with few-body couplings, our proposal is scalable. We present the explicit protocol for estimating the magnitude of the noise generators when the noi...

  3. Measurement and Information Extraction in Complex Dynamics Quantum Computation

    Casati, Giulio; Montangero, Simone

    Quantum Information processing has several di.erent applications: some of them can be performed controlling only few qubits simultaneously (e.g. quantum teleportation or quantum cryptography) [1]. Usually, the transmission of large amount of information is performed repeating several times the scheme implemented for few qubits. However, to exploit the advantages of quantum computation, the simultaneous control of many qubits is unavoidable [2]. This situation increases the experimental di.culties of quantum computing: maintaining quantum coherence in a large quantum system is a di.cult task. Indeed a quantum computer is a many-body complex system and decoherence, due to the interaction with the external world, will eventually corrupt any quantum computation. Moreover, internal static imperfections can lead to quantum chaos in the quantum register thus destroying computer operability [3]. Indeed, as it has been shown in [4], a critical imperfection strength exists above which the quantum register thermalizes and quantum computation becomes impossible. We showed such e.ects on a quantum computer performing an e.cient algorithm to simulate complex quantum dynamics [5,6].

  4. Quantum correlations beyond entanglement and their role in quantum information theory

    Streltsov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.

  5. Demonstrating Quantum Error Correction that Extends the Lifetime of Quantum Information

    Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M.H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of Quantum Error Correction (QEC), which can overcome the errors experienced by a bit of quantum information (qubit), was a critical advance that gives hope for eventually realizing practical quantum computers. In principle, a system that implements QEC can actually pass a "break-even" point and preserve quantum information for longer than the lifetime of its constituent parts. Reaching the break-even point, however, has thus far remained an outstanding and challengin...

  6. Simple quantum system as a source of coherent information

    The set of the simplest quantum systems is analyzed from the viewpoint of the coherent information volume, available by application of the corresponding information channels. It is shown, the coherent information for simple quantum models may be calculated and used for evaluating the potential possibilities of the corresponding quantum channels as a source of physical information in the experiments, related to the effects of the quantum states coherence. The following physical models: the two-level atom in the laser radiation fields; the combination of the two-level subsystems in the multilevel atom (hydrogen); the system of the two-level atoms in the process of combined quantum-determined evolution and under the effect of the quantum measurement and quantum duplication transformants; as well as one or two level atoms in the process of radiation, are considered

  7. Quantum information processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube

    Yang, Wan Li; Wei, Hua; Feng, Mang; Suter, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    A potential quantum information processor is proposed using a fullerene peapod, i.e., an array of the endohedral fullerenes 15N@C60 or 31P@C60 contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.

  8. Information gap for classical and quantum communication in a Schwarzschild spacetime

    Hosler, Dominic; van de Bruck, Carsten; Kok, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Communication between a free-falling observer and an observer hovering above the Schwarzschild horizon of a black hole suffers from Unruh-Hawking noise, which degrades communication channels. Ignoring time dilation, which affects all channels equally, we show that for bosonic communication using single and dual rail encoding the classical channel capacity reaches a finite value and the quantum coherent information tends to zero. We conclude that classical correlations still exist at infinite ...

  9. Encoding sequential information in semantic space models: comparing holographic reduced representation and random permutation.

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, "noisy" permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306

  10. Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology

    Mahesh S. Raisinghani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.

  11. Encoding efficiency of suprathreshold stochastic resonance on stimulus-specific information

    Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the encoding efficiency of suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) based on a local information-theoretic measure of stimulus-specific information (SSI), which is the average specific information of responses associated with a particular stimulus. The theoretical and numerical analyses of SSIs reveal that noise can improve neuronal coding efficiency for a large population of neurons, which leads to produce increased information-rich responses. The SSI measure, in contrast to the global measure of average mutual information, can characterize the noise benefits in finer detail for describing the enhancement of neuronal encoding efficiency of a particular stimulus, which may be of general utility in the design and implementation of a SSR coding scheme.

  12. Noise Estimation and Adaptive Encoding for Asymmetric Quantum Error Correcting Codes

    Florjanczyk, Jan; Brun, Todd; Center for Quantum Information Science; Technology Team

    We present a technique that improves the performance of asymmetric quantum error correcting codes in the presence of biased qubit noise channels. Our study is motivated by considering what useful information can be learned from the statistics of syndrome measurements in stabilizer quantum error correcting codes (QECC). We consider the case of a qubit dephasing channel where the dephasing axis is unknown and time-varying. We are able to estimate the dephasing angle from the statistics of the standard syndrome measurements used in stabilizer QECC's. We use this estimate to rotate the computational basis of the code in such a way that the most likely type of error is covered by the highest distance of the asymmetric code. In particular, we use the [ [ 15 , 1 , 3 ] ] shortened Reed-Muller code which can correct one phase-flip error but up to three bit-flip errors. In our simulations, we tune the computational basis to match the estimated dephasing axis which in turn leads to a decrease in the probability of a phase-flip error. With a sufficiently accurate estimate of the dephasing axis, our memory's effective error is dominated by the much lower probability of four bit-flips. Aro MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0268.

  13. Hadamard NMR spectroscopy for two-dimensional quantum information processing and parallel search algorithms.

    Gopinath, T; Kumar, Anil

    2006-12-01

    Hadamard spectroscopy has earlier been used to speed-up multi-dimensional NMR experiments. In this work, we speed-up the two-dimensional quantum computing scheme, by using Hadamard spectroscopy in the indirect dimension, resulting in a scheme which is faster and requires the Fourier transformation only in the direct dimension. Two and three qubit quantum gates are implemented with an extra observer qubit. We also use one-dimensional Hadamard spectroscopy for binary information storage by spatial encoding and implementation of a parallel search algorithm. PMID:17011221

  14. Secure sequential transmission of quantum information

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan

    2015-09-01

    We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of n-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission protocol in depth.

  15. Separating the classical and quantum information via quantum cloning

    Ricci, M.; Sciarrino, F.; Cerf, N. J.; R. Filip; Fiurasek, J.; De Martini, F.

    2005-01-01

    An application of quantum cloning to optimally interface a quantum system with a classical observer is presented, in particular we describe a procedure to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on a single qubit by adopting a 1->2 cloning machine followed by a generalized measurement on a single clone and the anti-clone or on the two clones. Such scheme has been applied to enhance the transmission fidelity over a lossy quantum channel.

  16. Entanglement, Information, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the nature of quantum entanglement and quantum information and their role in the quantum world. Their relations to a number of key experiments and thought experiments in the history of quantum physics are considered, as is a range of interpretations of quantum mechanics that have been put forward as a means of understanding the fundamental nature of microphysics - the traditionally accepted domain of quantum mechanics - and in some cases, the universe as a whole. In this way, the book reveals the deep significance of entanglement and quantum information for our understanding of the physical world. This book is a major accomplishment and invaluable contribution -- Arkady Plotnitsky An encyclopedic treatment of conceptual quantum mechanics as seen from a very up-to-date point of view --Tom Toffoli A mine of ideas for physicists, philosophers, and all intellectuals interested in this scientific revolution -- Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

  17. PREFACE Quantum Groups, Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information: a Festschrift for Tony Sudbery

    Weigert, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    On 29 July 2008, Professor Anthony Thomas Sudbery - known as Tony to his friends and colleagues - celebrated his 65th birthday. To mark this occasion and to honour Tony's scientific achievements, a 2-day Symposion was held at the University of York on 29-30 September 2008 under the sponsorship of the Institute of Physics and the London Mathematical Society. The breadth of Tony's research interests was reflected in the twelve invited lectures by A Beige, I Bengtsson, K Brown, N Cerf, E Corrigan, J Ladyman, A J Macfarlane, S Majid, C Manogue, S Popescu, J Ryan and R W Tucker. This Festschrift, also made possible by the generosity of the IOP and the LMS, reproduces the majority of these contributions together with other invited papers. Tony obtained his PhD from the University of Cambridge in 1970. His thesis, written under the guidance of Alan Macfarlane, is entitled Some aspects of chiral su(3) × su(3) symmetry in hadron dynamics. He arrived in York in 1971 with his wife Rodie, two young daughters, a lively mind and a very contemporary shock of hair. He was at that stage interested in mathematical physics and so was classed as an applied mathematician in the departmental division in place at that time. But luckily Tony did not fit into this category. His curiosity is combined with a good nose for problems and his capacity for knocking off conjectures impressed us all. Within a short time of his arrival he was writing papers on group theory, complex analysis and combinatorics, while continuing to work on quantum mechanics. His important paper on quaternionic analysis is an example of the imagination and elegance of his ideas. By developing a derivative, he replaced the relatively obscure analytical theory of quaternions by one informed by modern complex analysis. Other interests emerged, centred round the quantum: quantum mechanics and its foundations, quantum groups and quantum information. He didn't just dabble in these areas but mastered them, gaining a national and international reputation; for instance he joined Roger Penrose in a discussion on 'The Physics of Reality' in Melvyn Bragg's radio series 'In our time'. He was much in demand for contributions to the 'News and Views' section in Nature and has written numerous book reviews in scientific and semi-popular journals as well as newspaper commentaries on important scientific developments. Quantum foundations and quantum information have remained Tony's main professional preoccupations. As a contribution to the conceptual problems surrounding quantum measurement, he undertook a detailed analysis of the observation of decay, introducing the crucial distinction between continuous measurement and continual observation. A red thread through his work in quantum mechanics has been the critical scrutiny of different interpretations of quantum mechanics and the question of their experimental testability. As a result he has become an eloquent proponent of a version of what is commonly known as the 'many-worlds' interpretation in his most recent paper (arXiv:1009.3914), Tony explains why he considers the name 'Everett-Wheeler interpretation' as most appropriate and 'many worlds' unnecessary. Tony started directing his research effort to quantum information theory in the late 1990s. He quickly established himself in the quantum information community, putting York on the map in this field. He was among the first people to investigate entanglement properties of multipartite states, particularly the 3-qubit states. While studying the pure 4-qubit states he mysteriously came up with what could rightly be called the 'Sudbery state': equation (where ω is a primitive root of 1), which is the most entangled 4-qubit state in natural measures of entanglement. He continues to work in quantum information theory, particularly on quantum entanglement. Not least there is also Tony the philosopher who wrote articles with such intriguing titles as 'The necessity of not doing otherwise' or 'Why am I me? and why is my world so classical?'. Tony was a teacher of the old school. His lectures were inspiring and fun. He believed that the personal element is central to understanding and inspiration, shown by his whole-hearted commitment to small group teaching. Tony's experience of teaching quantum physics to mathematicians is reflected in his widely known text on quantum mechanics for mathematicians entitled Quantum Mechanics and the Particles of Nature (Cambridge 1986). In 1994, Tony succeeded John Fountain as Head of Department. The 1990s had been a difficult decade for universities in Britain but John had managed to keep the Department on a sound footing, providing foundations which enabled Tony to develop a growth strategy and realise new opportunities when they arose. Despite these challenges Tony was not to be distracted from his scientific work but started to make his significant contributions to quantum information science. Tony's interests extend beyond mathematics, physics and philosophy: to science fiction, music (both classical and jazz) and theatre - he exercised his thespian talents in his lectures and as a member of the York Shakespeare Project. And his lively mind is matched by a lively body: Tony still plays a mean game of squash and of tennis, and his enthusiastic and acrobatic dancing is most remarkable - it would be no surprise if he were to appear on the popular British TV show 'Strictly Come Dancing'. A man of many parts... On behalf of all contributors to the Festschrift it remains for us to wish Tony many productive and happy years to come in this new phase of his life that he himself characterises with the word 'freedom' (and that surely doesn't match the definition of 'retirement'). There is no doubt that he will utilise this newly-gained freedom to continue to inspire and challenge his fellow scientists with his inquisitive mind and cheerful spirit. York, October 2010 Paul Busch, Maurice Dodson and Atsushi Higuchi Stefan Weigert (editor)

  18. Linear optical setups for active and passive quantum error correction in polarization encoded qubits

    Nascimento, Jose Claudio do; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present active and passive linear optical setups for error correction in quantum communication systems that employ polarization of single-photon and mesoscopic coherent states. Applications in quantum communication systems are described.

  19. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  20. A neural-network-like quantum information processing system

    Perus, Mitja; Bischof, Horst

    2003-01-01

    The Hopfield neural networks and the holographic neural networks are models which were successfully simulated on conventional computers. Starting with these models, an analogous fundamental quantum information processing system is developed in this article. Neuro-quantum interaction can regulate the "collapse"-readout of quantum computation results. This paper is a comprehensive introduction into associative processing and memory-storage in quantum-physical framework.

  1. What information theory can tell us about quantum reality

    Adami, C

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of Einstein's ``physical'' reality and the concept of quantum reality in terms of information theory suggests a solution to quantum paradoxes such as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and the Schroedinger-cat paradoxes. Quantum reality, the picture based on unitarily evolving wavefunctions, is complete, but appears incomplete from the observer's point of view for fundamental reasons arising from the quantum information theory of measurement. Physical reality, the picture based on classically accessible observables is, in the worst case of EPR experiments, unrelated to the quantum reality it purports to reflect. Thus, quantum information theory implies that only correlations, not the correlata, are physically accessible: the mantra of the Ithaca interpretation of quantum mechanics.

  2. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source, or a sender of the signal, because each receiver can become a sender as well. An observer receives a signal by performing certain measurements synchronized with the measurements of the others. This means that the signal is uniformly and simultaneously distributed over the observers in a decentralized way. The signals transmit no intentional information that would favor one agent over another. All the sequence of signals received by different observers are not only statistically equivalent, but are also point-by-point identical. It is important to assume that each agent knows that the other agent simultaneously receives the identical signals. The sequences of the signals are true random, so that no agent could predict the next step with the probability different from those described by the density. Under these quite general assumptions, the entangled observers-agents can perform non-trivial tasks that include transmission of conditional information from one agent to another, simple paradigm of cooperation, etc. The problem of behavior of intelligent agents correlated by identical random messages in a decentralized way has its own significance: it simulates evolutionary behavior of biological and social systems correlated only via simultaneous sensoring sequences of unexpected events.

  3. Quantum mutual information along unitary orbits

    Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2012-05-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyze the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimization problem for the smallest system of two qubits and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimization displays nontrivial structures. We characterize a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular “Young tableau” form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a “see-saw effect” for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

  4. Power of one bit of quantum information in quantum metrology

    Cable, Hugo; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan

    2016-04-01

    We present a model of quantum metrology inspired by the computational model known as deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit (DQC1). Using only one pure qubit together with l fully mixed qubits we obtain measurement precision (defined as root-mean-square error for the parameter being estimated) at the standard quantum limit, which is typically obtained using the same number of uncorrelated qubits in fully pure states. In principle, the standard quantum limit can be exceeded using an additional qubit which adds only a small amount of purity. We show that the discord in the final state vanishes only in the limit of attaining infinite precision for the parameter being estimated.

  5. Optimal estimation of quantum processes using incomplete information: variational quantum process tomography

    Maciel, Thiago O

    2010-01-01

    We develop a quantum process tomography method, which variationally reconstruct the map of a process, using noisy and incomplete information about the dynamics. The new method encompasses the most common quantum process tomography schemes. It is based on the variational quantum tomography method (VQT) proposed by Maciel et al. in arXiv:1001.1793[quant-ph].

  6. The biophysical basis of the high-bandwidth information encoding in cortical neurons

    Andreas Neef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A cortical neuron receives continuously fluctuating input through thousands of synapses. It encodes and relays this input to thousands of downstream neurons using action potentials. Therefore, the dynamics, with which those discrete action potentials are generated, represents a fundamental bottleneck for the flow of information in neural populations. In the last decade it became clear that the bandwidth of information encoding in neural populations in the cerebral cortex is much higher than it had been previously predicted by simulations with conductance based models (Fourcaud-Trocme et al., 2003; Naundorf et al., 2005, 2006; Kondgen et al., 2008; Higgs and Spain, 2009; Tchumatchenko et al., 2011. The biophysical basis of this experimentally observed large bandwidth is not understood, as even basic parameters such as sodium channel surface density and kinetics are still under debate(Kole et al., 2008; Baranauskas et al., 2013. The work presented here uses high resolution electrophysiology and fluorescence microscopy to quantify sodium channel properties and distributions in neurons. In combination with numerical modelling of active and passive neurons, we identify contributions to the ability to encode information with a high bandwidth. A characterization of sodium channels properties in the cell bodies of cortical pyramidal cells allowed us to conclude that each square micrometer contains 20 to 30 sodium channels. By combining current clamp and immunofluorescence in cultured hippocampal neurons we could achieve semi-quantitative fluorescence labeling and obtained estimates for the axonal density of sodium channels. We found the bandwidth of information encoding to be similar between cultured neurons and neurons in slices. Using cultured neurons as a model system, we studied the maturation of neuronal properties in the first weeks in culture. In parallel to the increased bandwidth, other neuronal properties changed: the axonal sodium channel density, the dendritic morphology and the sub-micrometer organization of axon initial segment structure(Xu et al., 2013; Zhong et al.. The presentation details, how those properties influenced the bandwidth of information encoding.

  7. Pitch and loudness information encoded in auditory imagery as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Wu, Jianhui; Yu, Zulin; Mai, Xiaoqin; Wei, Jinghan; Luo, Yuejia

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments using the ERP method and a task that involved comparing an imagined-S1 (the first stimulus) with a perceived-S2 (the second stimulus) were conducted to investigate whether imagined auditory representations encode pitch and loudness information. It was found that the amplitude of the imagery-related late positive complex (LPC) decreased with pitch but increased with loudness of the imagined sound, which was consistent with amplitude modulations of the auditory perception-related N1 component, thereby providing the first neural evidence that auditory imagery encodes perceptual attributes of auditory experiences. PMID:20636291

  8. Linking Classical and Quantum Key Agreement Is There "Bound Information"?

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    After carrying out a protocol for quantum key agreement over a noisy quantum channel, the parties Alice and Bob must process the raw key in order to end up with identical keys about which the adversary has virtually no information. In principle, both classical and quantum protocols can be used for this processing. It is a natural question which type of protocols is more powerful. We prove for general states but under the assumption of incoherent eavesdropping that Alice and Bob share some so-called intrinsic information in their classical random variables, resulting from optimal measurements, if and only if the parties' quantum systems are entangled. In addition, we provide evidence that the potentials of classical and of quantum protocols are equal in every situation. Consequently, many techniques and results from quantum information theory directly apply to problems in classical information theory, and vice versa. For instance, it was previously believed that two parties can carry out unconditionally secure...

  9. Conservation of information and the foundations of quantum mechanics

    Chiribella, G

    2015-01-01

    We review a recent approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics inspired by quantum information theory. The approach is based on a general framework, which allows one to address a large class of physical theories which share basic information-theoretic features. We first illustrate two very primitive features, expressed by the axioms of causality and purity-preservation, which are satisfied by both classical and quantum theory. We then discuss the axiom of purification, which expresses a strong version of the Conservation of Information and captures the core of a vast number of protocols in quantum information. Purification is a highly non-classical feature and leads directly to the emergence of entanglement at the purely conceptual level, without any reference to the superposition principle. Supplemented by a few additional requirements, satisfied by classical and quantum theory, it provides a complete axiomatic characterization of quantum theory for finite dimensional systems.

  10. Encoding-retrieval interactions in mild Alzheimer's disease: the role of access to categorical information.

    Lipinska, B; Bäckman, L

    1997-07-01

    Normal old adults and patients in an early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were presented with photographs of common objects under two different encoding conditions: naming and naming along with category decisions. Memory was assessed with free recall, category cued recall, and recognition. For both groups, recognition was superior to cued recall which was higher than that for free recall. Most importantly, cue utilization in AD was optimized in the naming + category decision condition, although the normal old showed equivalent gains from cues following both encoding conditions. These results suggest that AD patients require more cognitive support at encoding than normal old adults to make effective use of retrieval cues. Dementia-related deficits in processing categorical information spontaneously may underlie the observed group differences in patterns of performance. PMID:9220090

  11. Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

    The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

  12. Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

    Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

  13. Quantum Theory, namely the pure and reversible theory of information

    Chiribella, G; Perinotti, P

    2012-01-01

    After more than a century since its birth, Quantum Theory still eludes our understanding. If asked to describe it, we have to resort to abstract and ad hoc principles about complex Hilbert spaces. How is it possible that a fundamental physical theory cannot be described using the ordinary language of Physics? Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes.

  14. A four-level single-photon quantum cryptography system based on polarization, phase and time encoding

    Buttler, W T; Torgerson, J R

    2010-01-01

    We describe a quantum cryptography protocol with up to twelve four-dimensional ($d = 4$) states generated by a polarization-, phase- and time-encoding transmitter. This protocol can be experimentally realized with existing technology, drawing from time-encoded and polarization-encoded systems. The protocol is error tolerant and has a quantum bit-rate of 2 per transmission, which when combined with state detection efficiency yields a qubit efficiency of up to 1 or double that of BB84-{\\it like} protocols. As a practical system, our result appears to contradict a fundamental theorem stating that there exists $d + 1$ maximally non-orthogonal bases for a $d$-dimensional space where $d$ is the power of a prime number. Evidently, this contradiction has its origin in the difference in the size of the vector spaces spanned by the basis states, semi-infinite in time and phase in our case, vs. a finite number of polarization states alone as previously considered.

  15. Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling

    2015-05-01

    Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.

  16. Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.

  17. On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism

    Bynum, Terrell Ward

    2013-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Information (2011 book), Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls "Informational Structural Realism", a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information ("dedomena") as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi's defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of "Digital Ontology" (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi's ontology as a starting point, the present essay adds quantum features to dedomena, yielding an ontological theory for our own universe, Quantum Informational Structural Realism, which provides a metaphysical interpretation of key quantum phenomena, and diminishes the "weirdness" or "spookiness" of quantum mechanics. Key Words: digital ontology, dedomena, structural realism, quantum information, primordial qubit

  18. Quantum information processing with finite resources mathematical foundations

    Tomamichel, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the mathematical framework required to fully explore the potential of small quantum information processing devices. As decoherence will continue to limit their size, it is essential to master the conceptual tools which make such investigation possible. A strong emphasis is given to information measures that are essential for the study of devices of finite size, including Rényi entropies and smooth entropies. The presentation is self-contained and includes rigorous and concise proofs of the most important properties of these measures. The first chapters will introduce the formalism of quantum mechanics, with particular emphasis on norms and metrics for quantum states. This is necessary to explore quantum generalizations of Rényi divergence and conditional entropy, information measures that lie at the core of information theory. The smooth entropy framework is discussed next and provides a natural means to lift many arguments from information theory to the quantum setting. F...

  19. Transmission of classical and quantum information through a quantum memory channel with damping

    D'Arrigo, A; Falci, G

    2011-01-01

    We consider the transfer of classical and quantum information through a memory amplitude damping channel. Such a quantum channel is modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator, the interaction between the information carriers - a train of qubits - and the oscillator being of the Jaynes-Cummings kind. We prove that this memory channel is forgetful, so that quantum coding theorems hold for its capacities. We analyze entropic quantities relative to two uses of this channel. We show that memory effects improve the channel aptitude to transmit both classical and quantum information, and we investigate the mechanism by which memory acts in changing the channel transmission properties.

  20. Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem

    Miyadera, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vitanyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.

  1. Fisher information of quantum damped harmonic oscillators

    Aguiar, V.; Guedes, I.

    2015-04-01

    We calculate the time-dependent Fisher information in position ({{F}x}) and momentum ({{F}p}) for the lowest lying state ≤ft( n=0 \\right) of two classes of quantum damped (Lane-Emden (LE) and Caldirola-Kanai (CK)) harmonic oscillators. The expressions of {{F}x} and {{F}p} are written in terms of ρ , a c-number quantity satisfying a nonlinear differential equation. Analytical solutions of ρ were obtained. For the LE and CK oscillators, we observe that {{F}x} increases while {{F}p} decreases with increasing time. The product {{F}x}{{F}p} increases and tends to a constant value in the limit t\\to ∞ for the LE oscillator, while it is time-independent for the CK oscillator. Moreover, for the CK oscillator the product {{F}x}{{F}p} decreases as the damping ≤ft( γ \\right) increases. Relations among the Fisher information, Leipnik and Shannon entropies, and the Stam and Cramer-Rao inequalities are given. A discussion on the squeezing phenomenon in position for the oscillators is presented.

  2. The future (and past) of quantum theory after the Higgs boson: a quantum-informational viewpoint.

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2016-05-28

    Taking as its point of departure the discovery of the Higgs boson, this article considers quantum theory, including quantum field theory, which predicted the Higgs boson, through the combined perspective of quantum information theory and the idea of technology, while also adopting anon-realistinterpretation, in 'the spirit of Copenhagen', of quantum theory and quantum phenomena themselves. The article argues that the 'events' in question in fundamental physics, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson (a particularly complex and dramatic, but not essentially different, case), are made possible by the joint workings of three technologies: experimental technology, mathematical technology and, more recently, digital computer technology. The article will consider the role of and the relationships among these technologies, focusing on experimental and mathematical technologies, in quantum mechanics (QM), quantum field theory (QFT) and finite-dimensional quantum theory, with which quantum information theory has been primarily concerned thus far. It will do so, in part, by reassessing the history of quantum theory, beginning with Heisenberg's discovery of QM, in quantum-informational and technological terms. This history, the article argues, is defined by the discoveries of increasingly complex configurations of observed phenomena and the emergence of the increasingly complex mathematical formalism accounting for these phenomena, culminating in the standard model of elementary-particle physics, defining the current state of QFT. PMID:27091170

  3. Simple scheme for expanding photonic cluster states for quantum information

    We show how an entangled cluster state encoded in the polarization of single photons can be straightforwardly expanded by deterministically entangling additional qubits encoded in the path degree of freedom of the constituent photons. This can be achieved using a polarization-path controlled-phase gate. We experimentally demonstrate a practical and stable realization of this approach by using a Sagnac interferometer to entangle a path qubit and polarization qubit on a single photon. We demonstrate precise control over phase of the path qubit to change the measurement basis and experimentally demonstrate properties of measurement-based quantum computing using a two-photon, three-qubit cluster state.

  4. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market

  5. Information driven current in a quantum Maxwell demon

    Deffner, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    We describe a minimal model of a quantum Maxwell demon obeying Hamiltonian dynamics. The model is solved exactly, and we analyze its steady-state behavior. We find that writing information to a quantum memory induces a probability current through the demon, which is the quantum analog of the classical Maxwell demon's action. Our model offers a simple and pedagogical paradigm for investigating the thermodynamics of quantum information processing. We acknowledge financial support by a fellowship within the postdoc-program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD, contract No D/11/40955) and from the National Science Foundation (USA) under grant DMR-1206971.

  6. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    Nastasiuk, V.A., E-mail: nasa@i.ua

    2015-09-25

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market.

  7. Impaired encoding of rapid pitch information underlies perception and memory deficits in congenital amusia.

    Albouy, Philippe; Cousineau, Marion; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participants' performance in discrimination and short-term memory. Our results show that amusics' performance in such tasks scales with the duration available to encode acoustic information. This suggests that in auditory neuro-developmental disorders, abnormalities in early steps of the auditory processing can underlie the high-level deficits (here musical disabilities). Observing that the slowing down of temporal dynamics improves amusics' pitch abilities allows considering this approach as a potential tool for remediation in developmental auditory disorders. PMID:26732511

  8. Realism and Antirealism in Informational Foundations of Quantum Theory

    Tina Bilban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeilinger-Brukner's informational foundations of quantum theory, a theory based on Zeilinger's foundational principle for quantum mechanics that an elementary system carried one bit of information, explains seemingly unintuitive quantum behavior with simple theoretical framework. It is based on the notion that distinction between reality and information cannot be made, therefore they are the same. As the critics of informational foundations of quantum theory show, this antirealistic move captures the theory in tautology, where information only refers to itself, while the relationships outside the information with the help of which the nature of information would be defined are lost and the questions "Whose information? Information about what?" cannot be answered. The critic's solution is a return to realism, where the observer's effects on the information are neglected. We show that radical antirealism of informational foundations of quantum theory is not necessary and that the return to realism is not the only way forward. A comprehensive approach that exceeds mere realism and antirealism is also possible: we can consider both sources of the constraints on the information, those coming from the observer and those coming from the observed system/nature/reality. The information is always the observer's information about the observed. Such a comprehensive philosophical approach can still support the theoretical framework of informational foundations of quantum theory: If we take that one bit is the smallest amount of information in the form of which the observed reality can be grasped by the observer, we can say that an elementary system (grasped and defined as such by the observer correlates to one bit of information. Our approach thus explains all the features of the quantum behavior explained by informational foundations of quantum theory: the wave function and its collapse, entanglement, complementarity and quantum randomness. However, it does so in a more comprehensive and intuitive way. The presented approach is close to Husserl's explanation of the relationship between reality and the knowledge we have about it, and to Bohr's personal explanation of quantum mechanics, the complexity of which has often been missed and simplified to mere antirealism. Our approach thus reconnects phenomenology with contemporary philosophy of science and introduces the comprehensive approach that exceeds mere realism and antirealism to the field of quantum theories with informational foundations, where such an approach has not been taken before.Quanta 2014; 3: 32–42.

  9. Impaired encoding of rapid pitch information underlies perception and memory deficits in congenital amusia

    Philippe Albouy; Marion Cousineau; Anne Caclin; Barbara Tillmann; Isabelle Peretz

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participa...

  10. Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: An eye-tracking study.

    Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W

    2015-10-01

    Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retrieval cues. The remember/know/new procedure was used to classify memories as recollection-based or familiarity-based, and gaze behavior was monitored throughout the task to measure attentional allocation. We found that a bias in sustained attention during recollection-based, but not familiarity-based, retrieval predicted subsequent memory bias toward positive versus negative material following encoding. Thus, during emotional memory retrieval, attention affects controlled forms of retrieval (i.e., recollection) but does not modulate relatively automatic, familiarity-based retrieval. These findings enhance understanding of how distinct components of attention regulate the emotional content of memories. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation are discussed. PMID:25775233

  11. Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing

    Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    excitation to optically excited levels followed by cooperative spontaneous emission. Among our examples of applications, we demonstrate how two-photon-entangled states can be prepared and implemented in a protocol for a reference-frame-free quantum key distribution and how one-dimensional as well as higher......We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states by...

  12. Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing

    We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states by excitation to optically excited levels followed by cooperative spontaneous emission. Among our examples of applications, we demonstrate how two-photon-entangled states can be prepared and implemented in a protocol for a reference-frame-free quantum key distribution and how one-dimensional as well as higher-dimensional cluster states can be produced.

  13. School on Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications

    2014-01-01

    The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with the University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat and the COST Action MP1006, is organizing a "School in Advances in Quantum Information: Theory and Applications" from 15 to 19 September 2014, followed by the "3rd Quantum Africa Conference: Advances in Quantum Sciences", from 22 to 26 Sep 2014, both events to be held at University Mohamed V Agdal in Rabat, Morocco. The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, including metrology, nano-devices development, biophysics together with computation, communication and cryptography. Topics as quantum entanglement, quantum coherence and decohering phenomena both in microscopic and mesoscopic systems have been attracting the interest of a growing number of researchers, especially young ones from developing countries. A School on these themes would provide an invaluable focus on the interdiscipl...

  14. Self-Assembled Wigner Crystals as Mediators of Spin Currents and Quantum Information

    Antonio, Bobby; Bayat, Abolfazl; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-11-01

    Technological applications of many-body structures that emerge in gated devices under minimal control are largely unexplored. Here we show how emergent Wigner crystals in a semiconductor quantum wire can facilitate a pivotal requirement for a scalable quantum computer, namely, transmitting quantum information encoded in spins faithfully over a distance of micrometers. The fidelity of the transmission is remarkably high, faster than the relevant decohering effects, independent of the details of the spatial charge configuration in the wire, and realizable in dilution refrigerator temperatures. The transfer can evidence near unitary many-body nonequilibrium dynamics hitherto unseen in a solid-state device. It could also be useful in spintronics as a method for pure spin current over a distance without charge movement.

  15. Self-Assembled Wigner Crystals as Mediators of Spin Currents and Quantum Information.

    Antonio, Bobby; Bayat, Abolfazl; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-11-20

    Technological applications of many-body structures that emerge in gated devices under minimal control are largely unexplored. Here we show how emergent Wigner crystals in a semiconductor quantum wire can facilitate a pivotal requirement for a scalable quantum computer, namely, transmitting quantum information encoded in spins faithfully over a distance of micrometers. The fidelity of the transmission is remarkably high, faster than the relevant decohering effects, independent of the details of the spatial charge configuration in the wire, and realizable in dilution refrigerator temperatures. The transfer can evidence near unitary many-body nonequilibrium dynamics hitherto unseen in a solid-state device. It could also be useful in spintronics as a method for pure spin current over a distance without charge movement. PMID:26636865

  16. Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology

    Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Y.; Kapon, E.

    a model of resonance dynamic multipolemultipole interaction (RDMMI), on the basis of microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) experiment of a single asymmetric pair of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The ranges of the mediating photons in various RDMMI are estimated, proving the significance of RDMMI in the...

  17. Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing

    Licata, Ignazio

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its...

  18. Decoherence, Entanglement and Information Protection in Complex Quantum Systems

    Akulin, V.M; Kurizki, G; Pellegrin, S

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles on the contemporary status of quantum mechanics, dedicated to the fundamental issues of entanglement, decoherence, irreversibility, information processing, and control of quantum evolution, with a view of possible applications. It has multidisciplinary character and is addressed at a broad readership in physics, computer science, chemistry, and electrical engineering. It is written by the world-leading experts in pertinent fields such as quantum computing, atomic, molecular and optical physics, condensed matter physics, and statistical physics.

  19. Information Gain vs. State Disturbance in Quantum Theory

    Christopher A. Fuchs

    1996-01-01

    The engine that powers quantum cryptography is the principle that there are no physical means for gathering information about the identity of a quantum system's state (when it is known to be prepared in one of a set of nonorthogonal states) without disturbing the system in a statistically detectable way. This situation is often mistakenly described as a consequence of the ``Heisenberg uncertainty principle.'' A more accurate account is that it is a unique feature of quantum phenomena that res...

  20. Information-theoretic differential geometry of quantum phase transitions.

    Zanardi, Paolo; Giorda, Paolo; Cozzini, Marco

    2007-09-01

    The manifold of coupling constants parametrizing a quantum Hamiltonian is equipped with a natural Riemannian metric with an operational distinguishability content. We argue that the singularities of this metric are in correspondence with the quantum phase transitions featured by the corresponding system. This approach provides a universal conceptual framework to study quantum critical phenomena which is differential geometric and information theoretic at the same time. PMID:17930382

  1. Coding for quantum channels with side information at the transmitter

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of coding for quantum channels with side information that is available ahead of time at the transmitter but not at the receiver. We find a single-letter expression for the entanglement-assisted quantum capacity of such channels which closely parallels Gel'fand and Pinsker's solution to the classical version of the same problem. This theorem can also be used to find a lower bound on the unassisted quantum capacity of these channels.

  2. Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states

    Madsen, Lars Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    . Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot......The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states...... dissipation in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with...

  3. Using space and time to encode vibrotactile information: toward an estimate of the skin's achievable throughput.

    Novich, Scott D; Eagleman, David M

    2015-10-01

    Touch receptors in the skin can relay various forms of abstract information, such as words (Braille), haptic feedback (cell phones, game controllers, feedback for prosthetic control), and basic visual information such as edges and shape (sensory substitution devices). The skin can support such applications with ease: They are all low bandwidth and do not require a fine temporal acuity. But what of high-throughput applications? We use sound-to-touch conversion as a motivating example, though others abound (e.g., vision, stock market data). In the past, vibrotactile hearing aids have demonstrated improvement in speech perceptions in the deaf. However, a sound-to-touch sensory substitution device that works with high efficacy and without the aid of lipreading has yet to be developed. Is this because skin simply does not have the capacity to effectively relay high-throughput streams such as sound? Or is this because the spatial and temporal properties of skin have not been leveraged to full advantage? Here, we begin to address these questions with two experiments. First, we seek to determine the best method of relaying information through the skin using an identification task on the lower back. We find that vibrotactile patterns encoding information in both space and time yield the best overall information transfer estimate. Patterns encoded in space and time or "intensity" (the coupled coding of vibration frequency and force) both far exceed performance of only spatially encoded patterns. Next, we determine the vibrotactile two-tacton resolution on the lower back-the distance necessary for resolving two vibrotactile patterns. We find that our vibratory motors conservatively require at least 6 cm of separation to resolve two independent tactile patterns (>80 % correct), regardless of stimulus type (e.g., spatiotemporal "sweeps" versus single vibratory pulses). Six centimeter is a greater distance than the inter-motor distances used in Experiment 1 (2.5 cm), which explains the poor identification performance of spatially encoded patterns. Hence, when using an array of vibrational motors, spatiotemporal sweeps can overcome the limitations of vibrotactile two-tacton resolution. The results provide the first steps toward obtaining a realistic estimate of the skin's achievable throughput, illustrating the best ways to encode data to the skin (using as many dimensions as possible) and how far such interfaces would need to be separated if using multiple arrays in parallel. PMID:26080756

  4. Two-way quantum communication: Generalization of secure quantum information exchange to quantum network

    Maurya Ajay K; Mishra Manoj K; Prakash Hari

    2016-03-01

    The idea of secure quantum information exchange (SQIE) [{\\it J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} 44, 115504 (2011)] is introduced for the secure exchange of single qubit information states between two legitimate users, Alice and Bob. In the present paper, we extend this original SQIE protocol by presenting a scheme, which enables the secure exchange of n-single qubit information states among the n nodes of a quantum network, with the aid of a special kind of 4$n$-qubit entangled state and the classical assistance of an extra participant Charlie. For experimental realization of our extended SQIE protocol, we suggest an efficient scheme for the generation of a special kind of 4n-qubit entangled state using the interaction between highly detuned $\\Lambda$-type three-level atoms and optical coherent field. Further, by discussing the various experimental parameters, we show that the special kind 4$n$-qubit entangled state can be generated with the presently available technology.

  5. Practical realization of a quantum cryptography protocol exploiting polarization encoding in qutrits

    We propose and discuss a specific scheme allowing realization of a quantum cryptography qutrit protocol. This protocol exploits the polarization properties of single-frequency and single-spatial-mode biphotons

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information

    Turner, Leaf

    2004-04-01

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally turning his attention to philosophy in 1957, Weizsäcker became interested in nuclear fusion research and educated a generation of postwar German physicists in both plasma physics and astrophysics. Michael Frayn’s play `Copenhagen' has ignited worldwide interest in the mysterious meeting of Niels Bohr with Werner Heisenberg in September 1941. However, an article by R Lüst indicates that in 1951 Bohr enjoyed a friendly visit with Heisenberg in Göttingen. This 1941 meeting of Heisenberg and Bohr is discussed further in an article by Götz Neuneck, who also details the World War II and post-war research and interests of the Uranium Club, a group of 70--100 German physicists and chemists. Neuneck also discusses the resistance of individual scientists, such as Hahn, Heisenberg, and Bothe, to the Nazi regime. We learn that, unlike Wernher von Braun, no member of the Uranium Club was ever granted an audience with Hitler. After the war, German scientists renounced any role for German development of nuclear weapons in various manifestos, such as the Mainau and G\\"ottingen Declarations that were both influenced by Weizsäcker. Time, Quantum and Information contains much anecdotal material. Examples include a touching quotation in a letter from Edward Teller to Weizsäcker: `If I could share your religious belief, I would wish that you will one day come from a higher heaven and visit me in purgatory.' Another example, less complimentary, is a comment from Pauli after hearing from Weisskopf that Weizsäcker had made numerous errors in his habilitation thesis and realizing that Weizsäcker had accepted an offer from Peter Debye at Berlin: `The measure of sloppiness in Weizsäcker’s work exceeds altogether and by far the tolerable measure, and my pain of not having had him as an assistant has been alleviated by this.' Two-thirds of this compendium also explores the philosophical interests of Weizsäcker. This portion discusses his attempt to reconstruct quantum mechanics and build up a `theory of everything' based on his `ur' hypothesis. As stated by the mathematician G G Emch in this book, `Philosophers and physicists often fail to understand each other because they are speaking different languages which often happen to have the same words.' These articles will have value to readers interested in these areas. The inclusion of an index would have made the book much more useful. There are numerous minor typographical errors, the most amusing of which is the sign of the Coulomb energy of a uniform density sphere in the article by K v Meyenn. (The expression stated is -6(Ze)2/5R rather than the correct expression, 3(Ze)2/5R.) Another example is in the same article: when one looks for a reference to Jackson, #66, one finds instead a 1928 reference to Fermi! Despite such inconvenient quirks, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in Weizsäcker and his research, in twentieth-century physics and physicists, and in unique insights into German science during and immediately following World War II.

  7. Towards Quantum Information Processing at the Attosecond Timescale

    Kominis, I K; Charalambidis, D; Tzallas, P

    2014-01-01

    Coherent processing of quantum information and attosecond science had so far little in common. We here show that recent data in high harmonic emission reveal quantum information processing at the attosecond timescale. High harmonic generation in the strong-field regime is governed by tunneling ionization followed by the motion of the electron in the continuum and its re-collision in the atomic core. Before the actual photon detection the electron-photon state exhibits a high degree of quantum coherence and entanglement, that has so far remained elusive. By observing the interference pattern created by the spatiotemporal overlap of photons emitted by two interfering electron paths we generate a photon Hadamard gate and thus erase the electron-trajectory information. This allows the measurement of the relative phase in electron-trajectory quantum superpositions and establishes the era of electron-photon quantum coherence and entanglement at the attosecond timescale of high-field physics.

  8. La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information

    Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.

  9. Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing

    Furusawa, Akira [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Loock, Peter van [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Optik

    2011-07-01

    Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)

  10. Semiconductor sources of twin photons for quantum information

    Ducci, S [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, Place Jussieu, Case 7021, 75251 Paris (France); Lanco, L [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, Place Jussieu, Case 7021, 75251 Paris (France); Seurin, Y [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, Place Jussieu, Case 7021, 75251 Paris (France); Leo, G [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, Place Jussieu, Case 7021, 75251 Paris (France); Berger, V [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, Place Jussieu, Case 7021, 75251 Paris (France); Rossi, A De [Thales Research and Technology, Domaine de Corbeville, 91404 Orsay (France); Marcadet, X [Thales Research and Technology, Domaine de Corbeville, 91404 Orsay(France)

    2005-07-01

    A large number of scientific proposals made in the last few years are based on transport and manipulation of information using single quantum objects. Some of them make use of entanglement in pairs of particles such as twin photons. Although theoretical proposals have demonstrated highly interesting perspectives in the quantum information domain, experimental realizations and applications still suffer from the complexity of experimental set-ups and technological limitations. This paper presents various approaches aiming at efficient twin photon semiconductor sources. The emergence of these compact and integrated devices would be an important technological breakthrough in quantum information applications.

  11. Semiconductor sources of twin photons for quantum information

    A large number of scientific proposals made in the last few years are based on transport and manipulation of information using single quantum objects. Some of them make use of entanglement in pairs of particles such as twin photons. Although theoretical proposals have demonstrated highly interesting perspectives in the quantum information domain, experimental realizations and applications still suffer from the complexity of experimental set-ups and technological limitations. This paper presents various approaches aiming at efficient twin photon semiconductor sources. The emergence of these compact and integrated devices would be an important technological breakthrough in quantum information applications

  12. The attentional blink impairs detection and delays encoding of visual information: evidence from human electrophysiology.

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Dux, Paul E; Wyble, Brad; Doro, Mattia; Sessa, Paola; Meconi, Federica; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the time course of the functional interplay between detection and encoding stages of information processing in the brain and the role they play in conscious visual perception. We employed a multitarget rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) approach and examined the electrophysiological P3 component elicited by a target terminating an RSVP sequence. Target-locked P3 activity was detected both at frontal and parietal recording sites and an independent component analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct P3 components. The posterior P3b varied with intertarget lag, with diminished amplitude and postponed latency at short relative to long lags-an electroencephalographic signature of the attentional blink (AB). Under analogous conditions, the anterior P3a was also reduced in amplitude but did not vary in latency. Collectively, the results provide an electrophysiological record of the interaction between frontal and posterior components linked to detection (P3a) and encoding (P3b) of visual information. Our findings suggest that, although the AB delays target encoding into working memory, it does not slow down detection of a target but instead reduces the efficacy of this process. A functional characterization of P3a in attentive tasks is discussed with reference to current models of the AB phenomenon. PMID:25390207

  13. Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

  14. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    Nastasiuk, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones.

  15. Controlling the flow of information in quantum cloners: asymmetric cloning

    We show that the distribution of information at the output of the quantum cloner can be efficiently controlled via preparation of the quantum cloner. We present a universal cloning network with the help of which asymmetric cloning can be performed. (author)

  16. Fisher information and quantum mechanical models for finance

    Vadim Nastasiuk

    2015-01-01

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones.

  17. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex encodes value information during a sequential choice task

    Chung-Hay Luk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many choices require evaluating possible options one after another as exemplified in wine tasting. The underlying neuronal mechanisms in such a sequential choice paradigm are largely unknown though. Hence we have recorded neuronal and local field potential activity from dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFdm and PFdl, respectively as subjects performed a sequential choice task. We expected PFdm to encode the valuation of choice options, owing to its strong anatomical inputs from areas processing reward. In our task, two monkeys (Macaca mulatta chose between two different juices on a trial-by-trial basis. During the sampling phase, the subject made two sample responses separated by delays, each of which resulted in the delivery of a small drop of one of three juices (apple, orange or quinine. During the choice phase, the subject then chose to repeat one of the responses, and received a larger amount of the juice that had been associated with that response earlier in the trial. Thus, in order to receive juices that are more preferable at the choice phase of the task, the subject had to maintain information about the first sampled reward and which response produced it to compare that reward to the subsequent reward. We recorded the activity of 112 PFdm neurons and 172 PFdl neurons from 180 recording sites as the subjects performed the task. Following the sampling of the first juice, a similar proportion of neurons encoded the action producing the reward in PFdm (46% and PFdl (48%, whereas encoding of the juice reward was prominent in PFdm (60% but not PFdl (28%. The neuronal activity correlated with high power around the 40 Hz gamma range. Moreover, reward-selective neurons showed a monotonic relationship between their firing rate and the subject's preference for the juice, suggesting that PFdm neurons encoded the juice as a value signal. PFdm neurons encoded the value of the second juice relative to the first, typically showing a higher firing rate when the second juice was less preferred than the first. These findings suggest that options in a sequential choice are evaluated with respect to previous options. By maintaining the value of the first juice and then encoding the value of the second juice relative to the first, PFdm neurons provide the appropriate information to enable the subjects to make their choice.

  18. Fractal hard drives for quantum information

    Wootton, James R.

    2016-02-01

    A quantum hard drive, capable of storing qubits for unlimited timescales, would be very useful for quantum computation. Unfortunately, the most ideal solutions currently known can only be built in a universe of four spatial dimensions. In a recent publication (Brell 2016 New J. Phys. 18 013050), Brell introduces a new family of models based on these ideal solutions. These use fractal lattices, and result in models whose Hausdorff dimension is less than 3. This opens a new avenue of research towards a quantum hard drive that can be build in our own 3D universe.

  19. Quantum Entanglement and Information Processing via Excitons in Optically-Driven Quantum Dots

    Reina, J H; Johnson, N F; Reina, John H.; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil F.

    1999-01-01

    We show how optically-driven coupled quantum dots can be used to prepare maximally entangled Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Manipulation of the strength and duration of the selective light-pulses needed for producing these highly entangled states provides us with crucial elements for the processing of solid-state based quantum information. Theoretical predictions show that several hundred single quantum bit rotations and Controlled-Not gates can be performed before decoherence of the excitonic states takes place.

  20. Principles of quantum computation and information volume II

    Any new textbook in quantum information has some pretty strong competition to contend with. Not only is there the classic text by Nielsen and Chuang from 2000, but also John Preskill's lecture notes, available for free online. Nevertheless, a proper textbook seems more enduring than online notes, and the field has progressed considerably in the seven years since Nielsen and Chuang was published. A new textbook is a great opportunity to give a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information. Therein also lies a problem: The field has expanded so much that it is impossible to cover everything at the undergraduate level. Quantum information theory is relevant to an extremely large portion of physics, from solid state and condensed matter physics to particle physics. Every discipline that has some relation to quantum mechanics is affected by our understanding of quantum information theory. Those who wish to write a book on quantum information therefore have to make some profound choices: Do you keep the ultimate aim of a quantum computer in mind, or do you focus on quantum communication and precision measurements as well? Do you describe how to build a quantum computer with all possible physical systems or do you present only the underlying principles? Do you include only the tried and tested ideas, or will you also explore more speculative directions? You don't have to take a black-or-white stance on these questions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory', 'Decoherence', 'Quantum Error Correction', and 'First Experimental Implementations'. The first volume covers the basics of classical computation, quantum mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum communication. Chapter five starts with the density matrix formalism, and proceeds with the development of the Kraus representation, POVMs, von Neuman entropy, quantum data compression, the Holevo bound, the partial transpose criterion, and it ends with a very nice section on the various entropies that play a role in modern physics. This includes not only the thermodynamical and statistical entropy, but also the dynamical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, which is used in quantum chaos in chapter 6. On the whole, I think that this is a really clear and well-presented chapter. A minor drawback is that the concept of CP maps is not explained as well as it could have been, for example by relating it to the partial transpose criterion. Chapter six continues with the high standard set in chapter five, and presents a very thorough exposition of decoherence in general. It introduces the different decoherence channels, and gives truly excellent explanations of the master equation (tied in with the Kraus representation), quantum jumps, and the quantum trajectory formalism. It also has an elegant explanation for the sensitivity of Schroedinger cats to decoherence. The chapter ends with two sections on quantum chaos. Since the authors are experts in this fascinating area, this is a welcome addition to the canon of topics typically covered in quantum information. Unfortunately, the section is quite hard to follow, and as a result it is a bit of a missed opportunity. There is a section on chaos in the first volume of this series, and this may provide the required background. Chapter seven on quantum error correction is disappointing, and I have the feeling that the authors went through the motions without a real passion for the subject matter. The chapter describes various error correction codes, including Hamming codes and CSS codes, but it is virtually silent on fault tolerance; it does not give examples of universal sets of fault tolerant gates, and it does not mention the Solovay-Kitaev theorem. Also, it does not present the stabilizer formalism. All of these are serious omissions in a textbook on quantum information theory. Chapter eight gives a rough sketch of the early simulations and implementations of quantum gates. The readers of this journal will have no trouble following this chapter, but the undergraduate in computer science or mathematics will be completely lost. The chapter covers NMR, cavity QED, ion traps, solid state qubits, and optical implementations of quantum communication. I would have liked to see a more bold choice for the topics covered in the last chapter. For example, whereas liquid-state NMR was an important step in the development of quantum technologies, and many current techniques were invented for it, it does no longer play a role in the design of quantum computers. It would have been better to introduce these techniques in a section on condensed matter systems. Also, as a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information, I really miss extensive sections on the one-way model of quantum computing and topological quantum computing. In conclusion, the second volume of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information' is a partial success. The first two chapters are very good, and I would happily pay Pounds 22 for these two chapters alone. However, for a text on quantum error correction the reader is better off with Nielsen and Chuang or Preskill's lecture notes. If the reader wants an overview of quantum information in specific physical systems, there are a host of review articles to choose from, which give more details and are generally more accessible

  1. Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography

    Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-03-01

    We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.

  2. A nonrigid registration framework using spatially encoded mutual information and free-form deformations.

    Zhuang, Xiahai; Arridge, Simon; Hawkes, David J; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2011-10-01

    Mutual information (MI) registration including spatial information has been shown to perform better than the traditional MI measures for certain nonrigid registration tasks. In this work, we first provide new insight to problems of the MI-based registration and propose to use the spatially encoded mutual information (SEMI) to tackle these problems. To encode spatial information, we propose a hierarchical weighting scheme to differentiate the contribution of sample points to a set of entropy measures, which are associated to spatial variable values. By using free-form deformations (FFDs) as the transformation model, we can first define the spatial variable using the set of FFD control points, and then propose a local ascent optimization scheme for nonrigid SEMI registration. The proposed SEMI registration can improve the registration accuracy in the nonrigid cases where the traditional MI is challenged due to intensity distortion, contrast enhancement, or different imaging modalities. It also has a similar computation complexity to the registration using traditional MI measures, improving up to two orders of magnitude of computation time compared to the traditional schemes. We validate our algorithms using phantom brain MRI, simulated dynamic contrast enhanced mangetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver, and in vivo cardiac MRI. The results show that the SEMI registration significantly outperforms the traditional MI registration. PMID:21550878

  3. Why Distinctive Information Reduces False Memories: Evidence for Both Impoverished Relational-Encoding and Distinctiveness Heuristic Accounts

    Hege, Amanda C. G.; Dodson, Chad S.

    2004-01-01

    Two accounts explain why studying pictures reduces false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995). The impoverished relational-encoding account suggests that studying pictures interferes with the encoding of relational information, which is the primary basis for false memories…

  4. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

  5. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the “minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

  6. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further details about anodisation profiles, SEM cross-section images, digital pictures, transmission spectra, photonic barcodes and ASCII codes of the different NAA photonic crystals fabricated and analysed in our study. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01068g

  7. Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis

    We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks

  8. Lattice gauge theories simulations in the quantum information era

    Dalmonte, M

    2016-01-01

    The many-body problem is ubiquitous in the theoretical description of physical phenomena, ranging from the behavior of elementary particles to the physics of electrons in solids. Most of our understanding of many-body systems comes from analyzing the symmetry properties of Hamiltonian and states: the most striking example are gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics, where a local symmetry strongly constrains the microscopic dynamics. The physics of such gauge theories is relevant for the understanding of a diverse set of systems, including frustrated quantum magnets and the collective dynamics of elementary particles within the standard model. In the last few years, several approaches have been put forward to tackle the complex dynamics of gauge theories using quantum information concepts. In particular, quantum simulation platforms have been put forward for the realization of synthetic gauge theories, and novel classical simulation algorithms based on quantum information concepts have been formulated....

  9. Quantum Information Processing with Continuous Variables and Atomic Ensembles

    Zwierz, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three different results in quantum information theory. The first result addresses the theoretical foundations of quantum metrology. The Heisenberg limit considered as the ultimate limit in quantum metrology sets a lower bound on how precisely a physical quantity can be measured given a certain amount of resources in any possible measurement. Recently, however, several measurement procedures have been proposed in which the Heisenberg limit seemed to be surpassed. This led to an extensive debate over the question how the sensitivity scales with the physical resources and the computational resources that are used in estimation procedures. Here, we reconcile the physical definition of the relevant resources with the information-theoretical scaling in terms of the query complexity of a quantum network. This leads to a novel and ultimate Heisenberg limit that applies to all conceivable measurement procedures. The second result reveals a close relationship between quantum metrology and the Deuts...

  10. Designing robust gate implementations for quantum-information processing

    Quantum-information processing systems are often operated through time-dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum-information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare-earth-metal quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et al. [Opt. Commun. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system

  11. Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms

    Pan, Jian-Wei

    Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO) coupling and topological bands with ultracold bosonic atoms. A controllable crossover between 2D and 1D SO couplings is studied, and the SO effects and nontrivial band topology are observe. On the other hand, utilizing a two-dimensional spin-dependent optical superlattice and a single layer of atom cloud, we directly observed the four-body ring-exchange coupling and the Anyonic fractional statistics.

  12. Information Systems Self-description and Quantum Measurement Problem

    Mayburov, S.

    2004-01-01

    Information-Theoretical restrictions on the systems self-descriptions are applied to Quantum Measurements Theory. For the quantum object S measurement by information system O such restrictions are described by the restricted states formalism by Breuer. The analogous restrictions obtained in Algebraic QM from the analysis of Segal algebra U of O observables; O restricted states set is defined as U dual space. From Segal theorem for the associative subalgebra it's shown that such states describ...

  13. Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology

    Fuyang Chen; Rui Hou; Gang Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model refe...

  14. Limitations on information theoretically secure quantum homomorphic encryption

    Yu, Li; Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Joseph F. Fitzsimons

    2014-01-01

    Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption which allows computation to be carried out on the encrypted data without the need for decryption. The success of quantum approaches to related tasks in a delegated computation setting has raised the question of whether quantum mechanics may be used to achieve information theoretically secure fully homomorphic encryption. Here we show, via an information localisation argument, that deterministic fully homomorphic encryption necessarily incurs expo...

  15. Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis

    Apoorva Patel

    2001-06-01

    Living organisms are not just random collections of organic molecules. There is continuous information processing going on in the apparent bouncing around of molecules of life. Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids, as optimal solutions of the molecular assembly process. Experiments should be able to tell whether evolution indeed took advantage of quantum dynamics or not.

  16. Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten [Nano-Science Center and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.

  17. Probabilistic Teleportation via Quantum Channel with Partial Information

    Desheng Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel schemes are proposed to teleport an unknown two-level quantum state probabilistically when the sender and the receiver only have partial information about the quantum channel, respectively. This is distinct from the fact that either the sender or the receiver has entire information about the quantum channel in previous schemes for probabilistic teleportation. Theoretical analysis proves that these schemes are straightforward, efficient and cost-saving. The concrete realization procedures of our schemes are presented in detail, and the result shows that our proposals could extend the application range of probabilistic teleportation.

  18. Smooth R\\'enyi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

    Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the average smooth Renyi entropy rate will approach the entropy rate of a stationary, ergodic information source, which is equal to the Shannon entropy rate for a classical information source and the von Neumann entropy rate for a quantum information source.

  19. On the reversible extraction of classical information from a quantum source

    Barnum, H N; Jozsa, R; Winter, A; Barnum, Howard; Hayden, Patrick; Jozsa, Richard; Winter, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Consider a source E of pure quantum states with von Neumann entropy S. By the quantum source coding theorem, arbitrarily long strings of signals may be encoded asymptotically into S qubits/signal (the Schumacher limit) in such a way that entire strings may be recovered with arbitrarily high fidelity. Suppose that classical storage is free while quantum storage is expensive and suppose that the states of E do not fall into two or more orthogonal subspaces. We show that if E can be compressed with arbitrarily high fidelity into A qubits/signal plus any amount of auxiliary classical storage then A must still be at least as large as the Schumacher limit S of E. Thus no part of the quantum information content of E can be faithfully replaced by classical information. If the states do fall into orthogonal subspaces then A may be less than S, but only by an amount not exceeding the amount of classical information specifying the subspace for a signal from the source.

  20. State reduction, information and entropy in quantum measurement processes

    Information obtained by a quantum measurement process performed on a physical system and the entropy change of the measured physical system are considered in detail. It is shown that the condition for the amount of information obtained by the quantum measurement process to be represented by the Shannon mutual entropy is that the intrinsic observable of the measured physical system commutes with the operational observable defined by the quantum measurement process. When some measurement outcome is obtained, the decrease of the Shannon entropy of the measured system is compared with that of the von Neumann entropy. Furthermore, a condition is established under which the amount of information that can be established by the quantum measurement process becomes equal to the decrease of the Shannon entropy of the measured physical system. (author)

  1. Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity and Information-Disturbance Theorem

    Takayuki Miyadera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vit´anyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and the quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.

  2. A Quantum Rosetta Stone for the Information Paradox

    Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando

    2014-01-01

    The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  3. The information-theoretic costs of simulating quantum measurements

    Winter’s measurement compression theorem stands as one of the most penetrating insights of quantum information theory. In addition to making an original and profound statement about measurement in quantum theory, it also underlies several other general protocols used for entanglement distillation and local purity distillation. The theorem provides for an asymptotic decomposition of any quantum measurement into noise and information. This decomposition leads to an optimal protocol for having a sender simulate many independent instances of a quantum measurement and send the measurement outcomes to a receiver, using as little communication as possible. The protocol assumes that the parties have access to some amount of common randomness, which is a strictly weaker resource than classical communication. In this review, we provide a second look at Winter’s measurement compression theorem, detailing the information processing task, giving examples for understanding it, reviewing Winter’s achievability proof, and detailing a new approach to its single-letter converse theorem. We prove an extension of the theorem to the case in which the sender is not required to receive the outcomes of the simulated measurement. The total cost of common randomness and classical communication can be lower for such a ‘non-feedback’ simulation, and we prove a single-letter converse theorem demonstrating optimality. We then review the Devetak–Winter theorem on classical data compression with quantum side information, providing new proofs of its achievability and converse parts. From there, we outline a new protocol that we call ‘measurement compression with quantum side information,’ announced previously by two of us in our work on triple trade-offs in quantum Shannon theory. This protocol has several applications, including its part in the ‘classically-assisted state redistribution’ protocol, which is the most general protocol on the static side of the quantum information theory tree, and its role in reducing the classical communication cost in a task known as local purity distillation. We also outline a connection between measurement compression with quantum side information and recent work on entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory. Finally, we prove a single-letter theorem characterizing measurement compression with quantum side information when the sender is not required to obtain the measurement outcome. (topical review)

  4. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  5. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    Weber, Bernhard

    2008-11-03

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality

    Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.

  7. Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality

    Cabello, Adan; Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.030302

    2011-01-01

    Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are nonsecure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks, and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.

  8. Quantum Coding with Entanglement

    Wilde, Mark M

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error-correcting codes will be the ultimate enabler of a future quantum computing or quantum communication device. This theory forms the cornerstone of practical quantum information theory. We provide several contributions to the theory of quantum error correction--mainly to the theory of ``entanglement-assisted'' quantum error correction where the sender and receiver share entanglement in the form of entangled bits (ebits) before quantum communication begins. Our first contribution is an algorithm for encoding and decoding an entanglement-assisted quantum block code. We then give several formulas that determine the optimal number of ebits for an entanglement-assisted code. The major contribution of this thesis is the development of the theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. A convolutional code is one that has memory and acts on an incoming stream of qubits. We explicitly show how to encode and decode a stream of information qubits with the help of ancilla qubits and ebits. Our...

  9. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on optimizing the detection efficiency of visible light photon counters (VLPCs), a single-photon detection technology that is also capable of resolving photon number states. We report a record-breaking quantum efficiency of 91 +/- 3% observed with our detection system. Both sources and detectors are independently interesting physical systems worthy of study, but together they promise to enable entire new classes and applications of information based on quantum mechanics.

  10. Information and entropic characteristics of photon and qudit quantum states

    The probability distribution determining the quantum states of photons and qudits are reviewed. Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropies associated with the probability distributions are discussed. Shannon information associated with quantum states in the probability representation is considered. Known inequalities for the classical joint probability distributions determining quantum states of multipartite systems are discussed in detail and the relationship to the inequalities known for quantum von Neumann entropy of the states is presented. Properties of subadditivity and strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy of two-partite and multipartite qudit states are considered in view of the subadditivity and strong subadditivity properties of Shannon entropies associated with classical joint probability distributions determining the multiqudit quantum states. The new entropic uncertainty relationships for optical tomograms are suggested as a test for accuracy of the homodyne reconstructing the photon state.

  11. An improved derivation of minimum information quantum gravity

    Mandrin, Pierre A

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that, in minimum information quantum gravity (MIQG), the action can be derived using a more elegant and straight-forward method than has been used in the first existence proof. Assumptions regarding the quantum boxes, the exact differential of the entropy variation and the role of the boundary can be omitted, and the model structure requirements can be reduced. Moreover, the open problem of the quantum occupation number per box is solved. Thus, the arguments in favour of MIQG become even more stringent. The remaining assumptions are 1. the principle of optimization of the resulting per imposed degrees of freedom, 2. abstract quantum number conservation, 3. the validity of the laws of thermodynamics, 4. identification of a macroscopic parametrization with space-time and 6. unspecific interactions. Even though the assuptions are considerably reduced, all former results remain valid. In particular, no explicite microscopic quantum structure is required in order to recover all well established physics...

  12. Dynamical Aspects of Information Storage in Quantum-Mechanical Systems

    Raginsky, M

    2002-01-01

    We study information storage in noisy quantum registers and computers using the methods of statistical dynamics. We develop the concept of a strictly contractive quantum channel in order to construct mathematical models of physically realizable, i.e., nonideal, quantum registers and computers. Strictly contractive channels are simple enough, yet exhibit very interesting features, which are meaningful from the physical point of view. In particular, they allow us to incorporate the crucial assumption of finite precision of all experimentally realizable operations. Strict contractivity also helps us gain insight into the thermodynamics of noisy quantum evolutions (approach to equilibrium). Our investigation into thermodynamics focuses on the entropy-energy balance in quantum registers and computers under the influence of strictly contractive noise. Using entropy-energy methods, we are able to appraise the thermodynamical resources needed to maintain reliable operation of the computer. We also obtain estimates of...

  13. Quantum fluctuations from a local-causal information dynamics

    Budiyono, Agung

    2014-04-01

    We shall show that the abstract and formal rules which govern the quantum kinematic and dynamics can be derived from a law of change of the information content or the degree of uncertainty that the system has a certain configuration in a microscopic time scale, which is singled out uniquely, up to a free parameter, by imposing the condition of Macroscopic Classicality and the principle of Locality. Unlike standard quantum mechanics, however, the system always has a definite configuration all the time as in classical mechanics, following a continuous trajectory fluctuating randomly in time. Moreover, we shall show that the average of the relevant physical quantities over the distribution of the configuration is equal to the quantum mechanical average of the corresponding quantum mechanical Hermitian operators over a quantum state.

  14. Quantum-information processing with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    We theoretically study single and two-qubit dynamics in the circuit QED architecture. We focus on the current experimental design [Wallraff et al., Nature (London) 431, 162 (2004); Schuster et al., ibid. 445, 515 (2007)] in which superconducting charge qubits are capacitively coupled to a single high-Q superconducting coplanar resonator. In this system, logical gates are realized by driving the resonator with microwave fields. Advantages of this architecture are that it allows for multiqubit gates between non-nearest qubits and for the realization of gates in parallel, opening the possibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconducting circuits. In this paper, we focus on one- and two-qubit gates that do not require moving away from the charge-degeneracy ''sweet spot'. This is advantageous as it helps to increase the qubit dephasing time and does not require modification of the original circuit QED. However, these gates can, in some cases, be slower than those that do not use this constraint. Five types of two-qubit gates are discussed, these include gates based on virtual photons, real excitation of the resonator, and a gate based on the geometric phase. We also point out the importance of selection rules when working at the charge degeneracy point

  15. Theoretical foundations of quantum information processing and communication. Selected topics

    Based on eight extensive lectures selected from those given at the renowned Chris Engelbrecht Summer School in Theoretical Physics in South Africa, this text on the theoretical foundations of quantum information processing and communication covers an array of topics, including quantum probabilities, open systems, and non-Markovian dynamics and decoherence. It also addresses quantum information and relativity as well as testing quantum mechanics in high energy physics. Because these self-contained lectures discuss topics not typically covered in advanced undergraduate courses, they are ideal for post-graduate students entering this field of research. Some of the lectures are written at a more introductory level while others are presented as tutorials that survey recent developments and results in various subfields. (orig.)

  16. Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.

  17. Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science

    Band, Yehuda B

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...

  18. Cold Trapped Ions as Quantum Information Processors

    Sasura, M; Sasura, Marek; Buzek, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    In this tutorial we review physical implementation of quantum computing using a system of cold trapped ions. We discuss systematically all the aspects for making the implementation possible. Firstly, we go through the loading and confining of atomic ions in the linear Paul trap, then we describe the collective vibrational motion of trapped ions. Further, we discuss interactions of the ions with a laser beam. We treat the interactions in the travelling-wave and standing-wave configuration for dipole and quadrupole transitions. We review different types of laser cooling techniques associated with trapped ions. We address Doppler cooling, sideband cooling in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit, sympathetic cooling and laser cooling using electromagnetically induced transparency. After that we discuss the problem of state detection using the electron shelving method. Then quantum gates are described. We introduce single-qubit rotations, two-qubit controlled-NOT and multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates. We also comment on...

  19. Byuons, Quantum Information Channel, Consciousness and Universe

    Y. A. Baurov

    2011-01-01

    The physics of consciousness and universal mind is shown on the base of theory of byuons, the theory of “life’ of special unobservable discrete objects—byuons from which the surrounding space and the world of elementary particles are formed. An essential distinction of that theory from the modern models in the classical and quantum field theories is that the potentials of physical fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, asf.) gain exactly fixable, measurable values. Basic axioms and some conc...

  20. A few experiments of quantum information processing

    Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.

    Košice : Slovak Physical Society, 2006 - (Kováč, J.; Reiffers, M.), s. 35-36 ISBN 80-969124-2-9. [Conference of Slovak and Czech Physicists /15./. Košice (SK), 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] Grant ostatní: EU(XE) IST-2002-506813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum multimeter * interference * down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Linking Classical and Quantum Key Agreement: Is There "Bound Information"?

    Gisin, N.; Wolf, S.

    2000-01-01

    After carrying out a protocol for quantum key agreement over a noisy quantum channel, the parties Alice and Bob must process the raw key in order to end up with identical keys about which the adversary has virtually no information. In principle, both classical and quantum protocols can be used for this processing. It is a natural question which type of protocols is more powerful. We prove for general states but under the assumption of incoherent eavesdropping that Alice and Bob share some so-...

  2. Quantum correlation: Comparison of measures with geometry and mutual information

    Xu, Zhenyu; Xiao, Xin; Feng, Mang

    2010-01-01

    Two measures for quantum correlations were proposed recently from a geometric perspective [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 080501 (2010); e-print arXiv:1004.0190]. We prove the the equivalence of the two geometric measures with respect to Bell-diagonal states, and demonstrate the similarities and differences for quantum correlation using the geometry-based measure and mutual-information-based measure. Our study on critical point of sudden transition might be useful for keeping long time quantum correlation under decoherence.

  3. Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system

    Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy@mail.dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Bao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center (CSRC), Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Zi-hong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Song-lin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, He-shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale.

  4. Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system

    We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale

  5. Transfer of Gravitational Information through a Quantum Channel

    Zhang, Baocheng; Zhan, Ming-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational information is incorporated into an atomic state by correlation of the internal and external degrees of freedom of the atom, in the present study of the atomic interferometer. Thus it is difficult to transfer information by using a standard teleportation scheme. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for the transfer of gravitational information through a quantum channel provided by the entangled atomic state. Significantly, the existence of a quantum channel suppresses phase noise, improving the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer. Thus our proposal provides novel readout mechanism for the interferometer with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. How an autonomous quantum Maxwell demon can harness correlated information

    Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa

    2015-12-01

    We study an autonomous quantum system which exhibits refrigeration under an information-work trade-off like a Maxwell demon. The system becomes correlated as a single "demon" qubit interacts sequentially with memory qubits while in contact with two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. Using strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy, we derive a global Clausius inequality to show thermodynamic advantages from access to correlated information. It is demonstrated, in a matrix product density operator formalism, that our demon can simultaneously realize refrigeration against a thermal gradient and erasure of information from its memory, which is impossible without correlations. The phenomenon can be even enhanced by the presence of quantum coherence.

  7. Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox

    Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.

  8. Orthogonalization of partly unknown quantum states

    Jezek, M.; Micuda, M.; Straka, I.; Mikova, M.; Dusek, M.; Fiurasek, J.

    2014-01-01

    A quantum analog of the fundamental classical NOT gate is a quantum gate that would transform any input qubit state onto an orthogonal state. Intriguingly, this universal NOT gate is forbidden by the laws of quantum physics. This striking phenomenon has far-reaching implications concerning quantum information processing and encoding information about directions and reference frames into quantum states. It also triggers the question under what conditions the preparation of quantum states ortho...

  9. Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing

    Maurer, Peter

    Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells. This opens the door for the engineering of nano-scaled chemical reactions to the study of temperature dependent biological processes. Finally, a novel technique is introduced that facilitates optical spin detection with nanoscale resolution based on an optical far-field technique; by combining this with a 'quantum Zeno' like effect coherent manipulation of nominally identical spins at a nanoscale is achieved.

  10. The 50% advanced information rule of the quantum algorithms

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The oracle chooses a function out of a known set of functions and gives to the player a black box that, given an argument, evaluates the function. The player should find out a certain character of the function through function evaluation. This is the typical problem addressed by the quantum algorithms. In former theoretical work, we showed that a quantum algorithm requires the number of function evaluations of a classical algorithm that knows in advance 50% of the information that specifies t...

  11. Quantum fluctuations from a local-causal information dynamics

    Budiyono, Agung

    2013-01-01

    We shall show that the abstract and formal rules which govern the quantum kinematic and dynamics can be derived from a law of change of the information content or the degree of uncertainty that the system has a certain configuration in a microscopic time scale, which is singled out uniquely, up to a free parameter, by imposing the condition of Macroscopic Classicality and the principle of Locality. Unlike standard quantum mechanics, however, the system always has a definite configuration all ...

  12. Quantum theory from Hamilton's Principle with imperfect information

    Hegseth, John

    2007-01-01

    Many quantization schemes rely on analogs of classical mechanics where the connections with classical mechanics are indirect. In this work I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where the quantum mechanical propagator is derived from a variational principle. This principle allows a physical system to have imperfect information, i.e., there is incomplete knowledge of the physical state, and many paths are allowed.

  13. Quantum information, Bell inequalities and the no-signalling principle

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis contains a general introduction and three main chapters. Chapter 2 investigates Bell inequalities that generalize the CHSH and Braunstein-Caves inequalities. Chapter 3 shows a derivation of an upper bound on the success probability of a class of quantum teleportation protocols, denoted as port-based teleportation, from the no-cloning theorem and the no-signalling principle. Chapter 4 introduces the principle of quantum information causality. Chapter 2 considers the predict...

  14. Quantum information processing using designed defect states in

    Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented. A......-coupled defect states is calculated numerically.We ¯nd results reminiscent of double quantum dot structures, indicating that the suggested structure is a feasible physical implementation of spin qubits....

  15. Nonlocal quantum information transfer without superluminal signalling and communication

    Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It is a frequent assumption that - via superluminal information transfers - superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a 'no-go' theore...

  16. Quantum-information processing using strongly dipolar coupled nuclear spins

    Dipolar coupled homonuclear spins present challenging, yet useful systems for quantum-information processing. In such systems, the eigenbasis of the system Hamiltonian is the appropriate computational basis and coherent control can be achieved by specially designed strongly modulating pulses. In this paper we describe the first experimental implementation of the quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation by nuclear magnetic resonance, using the eigenbasis of a four spin system

  17. Nambu-Goldstone effective theory of information at quantum criticality

    Dvali, Gia; Franca, Andre; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico

    2015-12-01

    We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point, we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of N -particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-N limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with N either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of information-storage also increases with N , whereas the scrambling time in the over-critical regime is controlled by the Lyapunov exponent and scales logarithmically with N . This connection reveals that the origin of black hole information storage lies in the quantum criticality of the graviton Bose-gas, and that much simpler systems that can be manufactured in table-top experiments can exhibit very similar information-processing dynamics.

  18. Quantum Entropy Bound by Information in Black Hole Spacetime

    Hosoya, A

    2002-01-01

    We show that the increase of the generalized entropy by a quantum process outside the horizon of a black hole is more than the Holevo bound of the classical information lost into the black hole and which could be obtained by further observations outside the horizon. In the optimal case, the prepared information can be completely retrieved.

  19. Quantum tagging: Authenticating location via quantum information and relativistic signaling constraints

    We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.

  20. Reliable estimation of quantum properties using incomplete information: variational quantum tomography

    Maciel, Thiago O; Vianna, Reinaldo O

    2010-01-01

    Experimental determination of the properties of a quantum system is a difficult task. This stems from the laborious process of quantum state tomography, which requires a number of measurements which grows exponentially with the size of the system, and to the non-trivial process of state reconstruction, which relies on optimization algorithms. Here we present a new variational approach to estimate the expectation value of any observable which relies only on partial knowledge about the state of a quantum system. This estimate is optimal and reliable, in the sense that its absolute value is always smaller than the value that would be obtained if the quantum state was known completely. The approach also allows the reconstruction of the quantum state using incomplete information. The algorithm that implements our method is a linear convex problem, which has exact solution in terms of well known semi-definite programs.

  1. Quantum tagging: Authenticating location via quantum information and relativistic signaling constraints

    Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P. [Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Information Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.

  2. Topological Quantum Buses: Coherent Quantum Information Transfer between Topological and Conventional Qubits

    Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2011-04-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  3. PT -symmetric Hamiltonians and their application in quantum information

    Croke, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the prospect of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians finding applications in quantum information science, and conclude that such evolution is unlikely to provide any benefit over existing techniques. Although it has been known for some time that PT -symmetric quantum theory, when viewed as a unitary theory, is exactly equivalent to standard quantum mechanics, proposals continue to be put forward for schemes in which PT -symmetric quantum theory can outperform standard quantum theory. The most recent of these is the suggestion to use PT -symmetric Hamiltonians to perform an exponentially fast database search, a task known to be impossible with a quantum computer. Further, such a scheme has been shown to apparently produce effects in conflict with fundamental information-theoretic principles, such as the impossibility of superluminal information transfer, and the invariance of entanglement under local operations. In this paper we propose three inequivalent experimental implementations of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians, with careful attention to the resources required to realize each such evolution. Such an operational approach allows us to resolve these apparent conflicts, and evaluate fully schemes proposed in the literature for faster time evolution and state discrimination.

  4. Displacement encoder

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  5. Fully phase multiple information encoding based on superposition of two beams and Fresnel-transform domain

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2015-12-01

    A novel asymmetric multiple information encoding using superposition of two beams and Fresnel transform, is proposed. In this scheme, each channel of individual user image is separately phase encoded and then modulated by random phase mask. The three modulated user channels are independently multiplied to produce three complex user channels. They are individually multiplied with three channels of carrier image and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to produce first set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. Now each channel of secret image is normalized, phase-only masked, and then independently multiplied by corresponding modulated user channels. The three resultant channels are separately multiplied to construct three complex secret channels. Afterward, the three encrypted channels are multiplied with corresponding three complex secret channels and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain second set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. The wavelengths and propagation distances of two Fresnel transforms, and two asymmetric keys are common keys to all authorized-users, while two individual keys are provided to each authorized-user. The encryption process is implemented digitally while the decryption process can be performed optoelectronically. The proposed method is asymmetric, noniterative and larger multiplexing capacity without any cross-talk noise effects. Owing to the individual user image based method, high robustness against existing attacks can be achieved. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient.

  6. Statistical properties of quantum entanglement and information entropy

    Key words: entropy, entanglement, atom-field interaction, trapped ions, cold atoms, information entropy. Objects of research: Pure state entanglement, entropy squeezing mazer. The aim of the work: Study of the new entanglement features and new measures for both pure-state and mixed state of particle-field interaction. Also, the impact of the information entropy on the quantum information theory. Method of investigation: Methods of theoretical physics and applied mathematics (statistical physics, quantum optics) are used. Results obtained and their novelty are: All the results of the dissertation are new and many new features have been discovered. Particularly: the most general case of the pure state entanglement has been introduced. Although various special aspects of the quantum entropy have been investigated previously, the general features of the dynamics, when a multi-level system and a common environment are considered, have not been treated before and our work therefore, field a gap in the literature. Specifically: 1) A new entanglement measure due to quantum mutual entropy (mixed-state entanglement) we called it DEM, has been introduced, 2) A new treatment of the atomic information entropy in higher level systems has been presented. The problem has been completely solved in the case of three-level system, 3) A new solution of the interaction between the ultra cold atoms and cavity field has been discovered, 4) Some new models of the atom-field interaction have been adopted. Practical value: The subject carries out theoretic character. Application region: Results can be used in quantum computer developments. Also, the presented results can be used for further developments of the quantum information and quantum communications. (author)

  7. Quantum nonlocality and applications in quantum-information processing of hybrid entangled states

    Chen, Z B; Zhang, Y D; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Hou, Guang; Zhang, Yong-De

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid entangled states generated, e.g., in a trapped-ion or atom-cavity system, have exactly one ebit of entanglement, but are not maximally entangled. We demonstrate this by showing that they violate, but in general do not maximally violate, Bell's inequality due to Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt. These states are interesting in that they exhibit the entanglement between two distinct degrees of freedom (one is discrete and another is continuous). We then demonstrate these entangled states as a valuable resource in quantum information processing including quantum teleportation, entanglement swapping and quantum computation with "parity qubits". Our work establishes an interesting link between quantum information protocols of discrete and continuous variables.

  8. Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements

    Maccone, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states.

  9. Towards the quantification of the semantic information encoded in written language

    Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2009-01-01

    Written language is a complex communication signal capable of conveying information encoded in the form of ordered sequences of words. Beyond the local order ruled by grammar, semantic and thematic structures affect long-range patterns in word usage. Here, we show that a direct application of information theory quantifies the relationship between the statistical distribution of words and the semantic content of the text. We show that there is a characteristic scale, roughly around a few thousand words, which establishes the typical size of the most informative segments in written language. Moreover, we find that the words whose contributions to the overall information is larger, are the ones more closely associated with the main subjects and topics of the text. This scenario can be explained by a model of word usage that assumes that words are distributed along the text in domains of a characteristic size where their frequency is higher than elsewhere. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of a large data...

  10. Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of

  11. An Information-Geometric Reconstruction of Quantum Theory, II: The Correspondence Rules of Quantum Theory

    Goyal, Philip

    2008-01-01

    In a companion paper (hereafter referred to as Paper I), we have presented an attempt to derive the finite-dimensional abstract quantum formalism within the framework of information geometry. In this paper, we formulate a correspondence principle, the Average-Value Correspondence Principle, that allows relations between measurement results which are known to hold in a classical model of a system to be systematically taken over into the quantum model of the system. Using this principle, we der...

  12. Scalable quantum information transfer between nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles

    Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy1986@gmail.com [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yang, Chui-Ping [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310036 (China); Song, He-Shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    We propose an architecture for realizing quantum information transfer (QIT). In this architecture, a LC circuit is used to induce the necessary interaction between flux qubits, each magnetically coupling to a nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble (NVCE). We explicitly show that for resonant interaction and large detuning cases, high-fidelity QIT between two spatially-separated NVCEs can be implemented. Our proposal can be extended to achieve QIT between any two selected NVCEs in a large hybrid system by adjusting system parameters, which is important in large scale quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Quantum information transfer between any two selected NV ensembles is implemented. • This architecture is robust against the dissipation of the system. • We explicitly show that for resonant interaction and large detuning cases.

  13. Scalable quantum information transfer between nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles

    We propose an architecture for realizing quantum information transfer (QIT). In this architecture, a LC circuit is used to induce the necessary interaction between flux qubits, each magnetically coupling to a nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble (NVCE). We explicitly show that for resonant interaction and large detuning cases, high-fidelity QIT between two spatially-separated NVCEs can be implemented. Our proposal can be extended to achieve QIT between any two selected NVCEs in a large hybrid system by adjusting system parameters, which is important in large scale quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Quantum information transfer between any two selected NV ensembles is implemented. • This architecture is robust against the dissipation of the system. • We explicitly show that for resonant interaction and large detuning cases

  14. Teleportation of a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information

    Mishra, Manoj K; Prakash, Hari, E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.co, E-mail: prakash_hari123@rediffmail.co [Department of physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India)

    2010-09-28

    We propose a scheme to teleport a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information, which is better than the two schemes recently proposed by Liao and Kuang (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1183) and by Phien and Nguyen (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 2825) in that our scheme gives higher value of minimum assured fidelity and minimum average fidelity without using any nonlinear interactions. For involved coherent states | {+-} {alpha}), minimum average fidelity in our case is {>=}0.99 for |{alpha}| {>=} 1.6 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 2.6), while previously proposed schemes referred above report the same for |{alpha}| {>=} 5 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 25). Since it is very challenging to produce superposed coherent states of high coherent amplitude (|{alpha}|), our teleportation scheme is at the reach of modern technology.

  15. Teleportation of a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2010-09-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information, which is better than the two schemes recently proposed by Liao and Kuang (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1183) and by Phien and Nguyen (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 2825) in that our scheme gives higher value of minimum assured fidelity and minimum average fidelity without using any nonlinear interactions. For involved coherent states | ± αrang, minimum average fidelity in our case is >=0.99 for |α| >= 1.6 (i.e. |α|2 >= 2.6), while previously proposed schemes referred above report the same for |α| >= 5 (i.e. |α|2 >= 25). Since it is very challenging to produce superposed coherent states of high coherent amplitude (|α|), our teleportation scheme is at the reach of modern technology.

  16. Statistical mechanical studies on the information processing with quantum fluctuation

    Otsubo, Yosuke; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato

    2014-03-01

    Quantum fluctuation induces the tunneling between states in a system and then can be used in combinatorial optimization problems. Such an algorithm is called quantum adiabatic computing. In this work, we investigate the quality of an information processing based on Bayes inference with the quantum fluctuation through the statistical mechanical approach. We then focus on the error correcting codes and CDMA multiuser demodulation which are described by conventional solvable spin glass models and can be analyzed by replica method in the thermodynamic limit. Introducing the quantum fluctuation into the decoding process of each problem, which is called quantum maximizer of the posteriori probability (QMPM) estimate, we analyze the decoding quality and then compare the results with those by the conventional MPM estimate which corresponds to finite temperature decoding From our limited results, the MPM based on the quantum fluctuation seems to achieve the same decoding quality as the thermal MPM does. We clarify the relationship between the optimal amplitude of transverse field and temperature for the mixture of quantum and classical MPMs. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 12J06501, 25330283, 25120009.

  17. Quantum Gloves

    Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, S; Popescu, S

    2004-01-01

    The slogan "information is physical" has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates, and introduce the natural concept of "quantum gloves", i.e. rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more.

  18. Información clásica e información cuántica: ¿dos tipos de información? / Classical and quantum information: two kinds of information?

    Cristian, López; Olimpia, Lombardi.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca ofrecer un análisis conceptual de la noción de información, a partir del modo en que es definida por las teorías formales de Claude Shannon y de Benjamin Schumacher. Contra la postura según la cual existen dos tipos de información de naturalezas diferentes, una información [...] clásica y una información cuántica (definidas por las teorías de Shannon y de Schumacher respectivamente), aquí argumentamos que no hay razones suficientes para sostener la existencia de la información cuántica como un nuevo tipo sustancialmente distinto de información. Afirmamos así que existe un único tipo de información que puede ser codificado de diversas maneras, en particular, mediante sistemas clásicos o sistemas cuánticos. Esta posición nos conducirá a concebir un concepto unificado y abstracto de información, en un contexto donde (1) la teoría de Shannon resulta neutral e independiente de las teorías físicas utilizadas para describir las partes involucradas en el proceso de transmitir información, y (2) la teoría de Schumacher no define un nuevo tipo de entidad informacional, sino una manera alternativa de codificar la información mediante estados cuánticos. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to offer a conceptual analysis of the notion of information, on the basis of the way in which it is defined by the theories of Claude Shannon and of Benjamin Schumacher. Against the position according to which there are two kinds of information of different natures, a clas [...] sical information and a quantum information (defined by the theories of Shannon and Schumacher respectively), here we argue that there are not sufficient reasons to maintain the existence of quantum information as a new and substantially different kind of information. So we claim that there is only one kind of information, which can be encoded in different ways, in particular, by means of classical or quantum systems. This position will lead us to conceive an unified and abstract concept of information in a context where (a) Shannon's theory is neutral and independent from the physical theories used to describe the stages involved in the process of transmitting information, and (b) Schumacher's theory does not define a new kind of informational entity, but a alternative way of coding information by means of quantum states.

  19. Quantum communication with photons

    Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)

  20. On two misconceptions in current relativistic quantum information

    Bradler, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    We describe two problems current relativistic quantum information suffers from. The first point is an explanation of an alleged ambiguity of entropic quantities detected in a number of publications and incorrectly resolved in [M. Montero and E. Mart{\\i}n-Mart{\\i}nez, Physical Review A 83, 062323 (2011)]. We found that the problem arises due to wrong algebraic manipulations with fermions and ignoring the superselection rule for bosons and fermions. This leads to a misinterpretation of certain entropic quantities when applied to fermion fields. The second discussed point is to alert to a conceptual misunderstanding of the role of entanglement (and quantum correlations in general) in some of the studied relativistic scenarios. Instead, we argue in favor of investigating capacities of quantum channels induced by the relevant physical processes as dictated by quantum Shannon theory.

  1. Partially reversible operation and information gain in quantum measurement processes

    A partially reversible operation is introduced in quantum measurement processes and the information-theoretical property is investigated. The dual map of a partially reversible operation becomes reversible with respect to the intrinsic observable of a physical system. It is shown that the amount of information about the intrinsic observable of the physical system, obtained in a quantum measurement process described by a partially reversible operation, is equal to the decrease of the entropy of the measured physical system. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  2. The encoding of fine spatial information in salamander retinal ganglion cells

    Frederick Soo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical models of retinal ganglion cell signaling assume that ganglion cell receptive fields are smoothly varying, approximately Gaussian in profile and arranged in a regular array. This model predicts that the receptive fields of neighboring ganglion cells will be highly overlapping and that the cells will convey largely redundant visual information. In whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from salamander retina, however, the receptive fields of ganglion cells were irregular on a fine scale and non-Gaussian, and the information conveyed by neighboring ganglion cells about a flashed spot stimulus was nearly independent. Large groups of ganglion cells encoded significantly more information than expected from the classical model even when the approximate sizes and positions of the cells’ receptive fields were taken into account. The discrepancy was only explained by including the receptive field irregularities in the model. This result suggests that irregularities in spatial receptive field profiles are a positive design feature rather than an unavoidable defect and that subsequent brain circuits can benefit from recognizing such irregularities when they interpret retinal spike trains.

  3. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  4. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  5. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one.

  6. Algebraic and information-theoretic conditions for operator quantum error correction

    Operator quantum error correction is a technique for robustly storing quantum information in the presence of noise. It generalizes the standard theory of quantum error correction, and provides a unified framework for topics such as quantum error correction, decoherence-free subspaces, and noiseless subsystems. This paper develops (a) easily applied algebraic and information-theoretic conditions that characterize when operator quantum error correction is feasible; (b) a representation theorem for a class of noise processes that can be corrected using operator quantum error correction; and (c) generalizations of the coherent information and quantum data processing inequality to the setting of operator quantum error correction

  7. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  8. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  9. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations Iα(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one

  10. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seshadreesan, Kaushik P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  11. Quantum Key Distribution without sending a Quantum Signal

    Ralph, T. C.; Walk, N.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Key Distribution is a quantum communication technique in which random numbers are encoded on quantum systems, usually photons, and sent from one party, Alice, to another, Bob. Using the data sent via the quantum signals, supplemented by classical communication, it is possible for Alice and Bob to share an unconditionally secure secret key. This is not possible if only classical signals are sent. Whilst this last statement is a long standing result from quantum information theory it tu...

  12. Experimental quantum error rejection for long-distance quantum communication

    Full text: We report an experimental realization of bit-flip error rejection for error-free transfer of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. In the experiment, an unknown state to be transmitted is encoded into a two- photon entangled state, which is then sent through the engineered noisy quantum channel. At the final stage, the unknown state was decoded by a quantum parity measurement, successfully rejecting the erroneous transmission over the noisy quantum channel. (author)

  13. Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond

    Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R

    2014-01-01

    The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...

  14. Reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). In general this interpretation is very attractive for me. However, its rigid coupling to the notion of irreducible quantum randomness is a very complicated issue which I plan to enlighten in more detail. This note may be useful for general public interested in quantum foundations, especially because I try to analyze essentials of the information interpretation critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages as it is commonly done). This review is written in non-physicist friendly manner. Experts actively exploring this interpretation may be interested as well - in comments of "an external observer" who have been monitoring development of this approach to QM during last 18 years. The last part of this review is devoted to the general methodology of science with references to views of de Finetti, Wigner, and Peres.

  15. Reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).In general, this interpretation is very attractive for me. However, its rigid coupling to the notion of irreducible quantum randomness is a very complicated issue which I plan to address in more detail. This note may be useful for general public interested in quantum foundations, especially because I try to analyze essentials of the information interpretation critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages as it is commonly done). This review is written in non-physicist friendly manner. Experts actively exploring this interpretation may be interested in the paper as well, as in the comments of "an external observer" who have been monitoring the development of this approach to QM during the last 18 years. The last part of this review is devoted to the general methodology of science with references to views of de Finetti, Wigner, and Peres.

  16. Learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information for expression-robust 3D face recognition

    Li, Huibin

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for 3D face recognition by learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information. To comprehensively describe 3D facial surface, three components, in X, Y, and Z-plane respectively, of normal vector are encoded locally to their corresponding normal pattern histograms. They are finally fed to a sparse representation classifier enhanced by learning based spatial weights. Experimental results achieved on the FRGC v2.0 database prove that the proposed encoded normal information is much more discriminative than original normal information. Moreover, the patch based weights learned using the FRGC v1.0 and Bosphorus datasets also demonstrate the importance of each facial physical component for 3D face recognition. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  18. Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information $I(A;B|C)$ of a tripartite state $\\rho_{ABC}$ is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems $A$ and $B$, and that it obeys the duality relation $I(A;B|C)=I(A;B|D)$ for a four-party pure state on systems $ABCD$. It has been an open question to find Renyi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different $\\alpha$-Renyi generalizations $I_{\\alpha}(A;B|C)$ of the conditional mutual information that all converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit $\\alpha \\to 1$. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy the afo...

  19. A quantum theoretical approach to information processing in neural networks

    Barahona da Fonseca, José; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Suarez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Simões da Fonseca, José

    2000-05-01

    A reinterpretation of experimental data on learning was used to formulate a law on data acquisition similar to the Hamiltonian of a mechanical system. A matrix of costs in decision making specifies values attributable to a barrier that opposed to hypothesis formation about decision making. The interpretation of the encoding costs as frequencies of oscillatory phenomena leads to a quantum paradigm based in the models of photoelectric effect as well as of a particle against a potential barrier. Cognitive processes are envisaged as complex phenomena represented by structures linked by valence bounds. This metaphor is used to find some prerequisites to certain types of conscious experience as well as to find an explanation for some pathological distortions of cognitive operations as they are represented in the context of the isolobal model. Those quantum phenomena are understood as representing an analogue programming for specific special purpose computations. The formation of complex chemical structures within the context of isolobal theory is understood as an analog quantum paradigm for complex cognitive computations.

  20. The Data Compression Theorem for Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

    Bjelakovic, I; Bjelakovic, Igor; Szkola, Arleta

    2003-01-01

    We extend the data compression theorem to the case of ergodic quantum information sources. Moreover, we provide an asymptotically optimal compression scheme which is based on the concept of high probability subspaces. The rate of this compression scheme is equal to the von Neumann entropy rate.