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1

This research paper gives an overview of quantum computers - description of their operation, differences between quantum and silicon computers, major construction problems of a quantum computer and many other basic aspects. No special scientific knowledge is necessary for the reader.

???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna; Polevik, S. I.

2009-01-01

2

Quantum Chaos & Quantum Computers

The standard generic quantum computer model is studied analytically and numerically and the border for emergence of quantum chaos, induced by imperfections and residual inter-qubit couplings, is determined. This phenomenon appears in an isolated quantum computer without any external decoherence. The onset of quantum chaos leads to quantum computer hardware melting, strong quantum entropy growth and destruction of computer operability. The time scales for development of quant...

Shepelyansky, D. L.

2000-01-01

3

Quantum mechanics plays a crucial role in many day-to-day products, and has been successfully used to explain a wide variety of observations in Physics. While some quantum effects such as tunneling limit the degree to which modern CMOS devices can be scaled to ever reducing dimensions, others may potentially be exploited to build an entirely new computing architecture: The quantum computer. In this talk I will review several basic concepts of a quantum computer. Why quantum computing and how do we do it? What is the status of several (but not all) approaches towards building a quantum computer, including IBM's approach using superconducting qubits? And what will it take to build a functional machine? The promise is that a quantum computer could solve certain interesting computational problems such as factoring using exponentially fewer computational steps than classical systems. Although the most sophisticated modern quantum computing experiments to date do not outperform simple classical computations, it is increasingly becoming clear that small scale demonstrations with as many as 100 qubits are beginning to be within reach over the next several years. Such a demonstration would undoubtedly be a thrilling feat, and usher in a new era of controllably testing quantum mechanics or quantum computing aspects. At the minimum, future demonstrations will shed much light on what lies ahead.

Steffen, Matthias

2013-03-01

4

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are next outlined, including qubits and data compression, quantum gates, the 'no cloning' property and teleportation. Quantum cryptography is briefly sketched. The universal quantum computer (QC) is described, based on the Church-Turing principle and a network model of computation. Algorithms for such a computer are discussed, especially those for finding the period of a function, and searching a random list. Such algorithms prove that a QC of sufficiently precise construction is not only fundamentally different from any computer which can only manipulate classical information, but can compute a small class of functions with greater efficiency. This implies that some important computational tasks are impossible for any device apart from a QC. To build a universal QC is well beyond the abilities of current technology. However, the principles of quantum information physics can be tested on smaller devices. The current experimental situation is reviewed, with emphasis on the linear ion trap, high-Q optical cavities, and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. These allow coherent control in a Hilbert space of eight dimensions (three qubits) and should be extendable up to a thousand or more dimensions (10 qubits). Among other things, these systems will allow the feasibility of quantum computing to be assessed. In fact such experiments are so difficult that it seemed likely until recently that a practically useful QC (requiring, say, 1000 qubits) was actually ruled out by considerations of experimental imprecision and the unavoidable coupling between any system and its environment. However, a further fundamental part of quantum information physics provides a solution to this impasse. This is quantum error correction (QEC). An introduction to QEC is provided. The evolution of the QC is restricted to a carefully chosen subspace of its Hilbert space. Errors are almost certain to cause a departure from this subspace. QEC provi

5

Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in na...

Wang, Yazhen

2012-01-01

6

Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are "universal for quantum computation" relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer.

Kendon, Viv

2014-12-01

7

Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

Metodi, Tzvetan

2011-01-01

8

Physics of quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given

9

Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the construction of a hybrid quantum computer that operates on both continuous and discrete quantum variables. Such hybrid computers are shown to be more efficient than conventional quantum computers for performing a variety of quantum algorithms, such as computing eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

Lloyd, Seth

2000-01-01

10

We describe a quantum computer emulator for a generic, general purpose quantum computer. This emulator consists of a simulator of the physical realization of the quantum computer and a graphical user interface to program and control the simulator. We illustrate the use of the quantum computer emulator through various implementations of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's database search algorithm.

Raedt, Hans; Hams, Anthony; Michielsen, Kristel; Raedt, Koen

1999-01-01

11

Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

2010-01-01

12

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Science and Research. Large amount of data and information will be computed, processing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and displaying information in less time with that much of accuracy which is not provided by traditional computers.

Prashant Anil Patil

2012-04-01

13

Quantum Logic and Quantum Computation

We use classes of Hilbert lattice equations for an alternative representation of Hilbert lattices and Hilbert spaces of arbitrary quantum systems that might enable a direct introduction of the states of the systems into quantum computers. More specifically, we look for a way to feed a quantum computer with algebraic equations of n-th order underlying an infinite dimensional Hilbert space description of quantum systems. A number of new results on states defined on Hilbert lat...

Pavicic, Mladen; Megill, Norman D.

2008-01-01

14

Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusu...

Kiili, Markus

1998-01-01

15

Quantum computing and spintronics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tentative to build a computer, which can operate according to the quantum laws, has leaded to concept of quantum computing algorithms and hardware. In this review we highlight recent developments which point the way to quantum computing on the basis solid state nanostructures after some general considerations concerning quantum information science and introducing a set of basic requirements for any quantum computer proposal. One of the major direction of research on the way to quantum computing is to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. We address some semiconductor approach based on spin orbit coupling in semiconductor nanostructures. (authors)

16

Uncertainty In Quantum Computation

We examine the effect of previous history on starting a computation on a quantum computer. Specifically, we assume that the quantum register has some unknown state on it, and it is required that this state be cleared and replaced by a specific superposition state without any phase uncertainty, as needed by quantum algorithms. We show that, in general, this task is computationally impossible.

Kak, Subhash

2002-01-01

17

Computing quantum phase transitions

This article first gives a concise introduction to quantum phase transitions, emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal transitions. After pointing out the computational challenges posed by quantum phase transitions, a number of successful computational approaches is discussed. The focus is on classical and quantum Monte Carlo methods, with the former being based on the quantum-to classical mapping while the latter directly attack the quantum problem...

Vojta, Thomas

2007-01-01

18

Algorithms for Quantum Computers

This paper surveys the field of quantum computer algorithms. It gives a taste of both the breadth and the depth of the known algorithms for quantum computers, focusing on some of the more recent results. It begins with a brief review of quantum Fourier transform based algorithms, followed by quantum searching and some of its early generalizations. It continues with a more in-depth description of two more recent developments: algorithms developed in the quantum walk paradigm,...

Smith, Jamie; Mosca, Michele

2010-01-01

19

We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, t...

Sehrawat, Arun; Zemann, Daniel; Englert, Berthold-georg

2010-01-01

20

Quantum computation is a rapidly progressing field today. What are its principles? In what sense is it distinct from conventional computation? What are its advantages and disadvantages? What type of problems can it address? How practical is it to make a quantum computer? I summarise some of the important concepts of quantum computation, in an attempt to answer these questions. A deeper understanding of them would pave the way for future development.

Patel, Apoorva

1999-01-01

21

We propose a fluxon-controlled quantum computer incorporated with three-qubit quantum error correction using special gate operations, i.e., joint-phase and SWAP gate operations, inherent in capacitively coupled superconducting flux qubits. The proposed quantum computer acts exactly like a knitting machine at home.

Fujii, Toshiyuki; Matsuo, Shigemasa; Hatakenaka, Noriyuki

2009-01-01

22

Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper

The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.

Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

2010-07-01

23

In this article I will describe how NMR techniques may be used to build simple quantum information processing devices, such as small quantum computers, and show how these techniques are related to more conventional NMR experiments.

Jones, J. A.

2000-01-01

24

'Photosynthetic' Quantum Computers?

Do quantum computers already exist in Nature? It is proposed that they do. Photosynthesis is one example in which a 'quantum computer' component may play a role in the 'classical' world of complex biological systems. A 'translation' of the standard metabolic description of the 'front-end' light harvesting complex in photosynthesis into the language of quantum computers is presented. Biological systems represent an untapped resource for thinking about the design and operation...

Hitchcock, Scott M.

2001-01-01

25

Explorations in quantum computing

By the year 2020, the basic memory components of a computer will be the size of individual atoms. At such scales, the current theory of computation will become invalid. ""Quantum computing"" is reinventing the foundations of computer science and information theory in a way that is consistent with quantum physics - the most accurate model of reality currently known. Remarkably, this theory predicts that quantum computers can perform certain tasks breathtakingly faster than classical computers -- and, better yet, can accomplish mind-boggling feats such as teleporting information, breaking suppos

Williams, Colin P

2011-01-01

26

Scalable optical quantum computer

A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr3+, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications.

Manykin, E. A.; Mel'nichenko, E. V.

2014-12-01

27

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

28

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

Milburn, Gerard

2003-10-01

29

Computational quantum field theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computational quantum field theory (CQFT) is considered as a part of the computational physics. The main mathematical structures of the CQFT are described in the case of quantum chromodynamics. As examples of the application of the CQFT methods the calculation of the topological susceptibility and the gluon condensates are considered

30

In the paper is considered stairway-like design of quantum computer, i.e., array of double quantum dots or wells. The model is quite general to include wide variety of physical systems from coupled quantum dots in experiments with solid state qubits, to very complex one, like DNA molecule. At the same time it is concrete enough, to describe main physical principles for implementation of universal set of quantum gates, initialization, measurement, decoherence, etc.

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

2004-01-01

31

We propose an implementation of a quantum computer to solve Deutsch's problem, which requires exponential time on a classical computer but only linear time with quantum parallelism. By using a dual-rail qubit representation as a simple form of error correction, our machine can tolerate some amount of decoherence and still give the correct result with high probability. The design which we employ also demonstrates a signature for quantum parallelism which unambiguously delinea...

Chuang, I. L.; Yamamoto, Y.

1995-01-01

32

High Performance Quantum Computing

The architecture scalability afforded by recent proposals of a large scale photonic based quantum computer, utilizing the theoretical developments of topological cluster states and the photonic chip, allows us to move on to a discussion of massively scaled Quantum Information Processing (QIP). In this letter we introduce the model for a secure and unsecured topological cluster mainframe. We consider the quantum analogue of High Performance Computing, where a dedicated server...

Devitt, Simon J.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

2008-01-01

33

Scalable NMR Quantum Computation

Nuclear magnetic resonance offers an appealing prospect for implementation of quantum computers, because of the long coherence times associated with nuclear spins, and extensive laboratory experience in manipulating the spins with radio frequency pulses. Existing proposals, however, suffer from a signal-to-noise ratio that decays exponentially in the number of qubits in the quantum computer. This places a severe limit on the size of the computations that can be performed by ...

Schulman, Leonard J.; Vazirani, Umesh

1998-01-01

34

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ''universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics

35

Set theory reduces all processes to assembly and disassembly. A similar architecture is proposed for nature as quantum computer. It resolves the classical space-time underlying Feynman diagrams into a quantum network of creation and annihilation processes, reducing kinematics to quantum statistics, and regularizing the Lie algebra of the Einstein diffeomorphism group. The usually separate and singular Lie algebras of kinematics, statistics, and conserved currents merge into ...

Finkelstein, David Ritz

2012-01-01

36

Quantum Computation vs. Firewalls

In this paper we discuss quantum computational restrictions on the types of thought experiments recently used by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully to argue against the smoothness of black hole horizons. We argue that the quantum computations required to do these experiments take a time which is exponential in the entropy of the black hole under study, and we show that for a wide variety of black holes this prevents the experiments from being done. We interpret our resu...

Harlow, Daniel; Hayden, Patrick

2013-01-01

37

This article reviews recent work done by us an some initial steps towards the implementation of quantum computation using liquid state NMR. We describe how special kinds of states required for such computation (called pseudo-pure states) can be created from a thermal ensemble of spins. We demonstrate the implementation of several quantum logic gates through one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, using transition- and spin- selective pulses. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the Deutsch...

Dorai, Kavita; Mahesh, Ts; Arvind; Kumar, Anil

2000-01-01

38

Quantum Spin Dynamics and Quantum Computation

We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover's database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms are presented.

Raedt, H.; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.

1999-01-01

39

An Introduction to Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing is a new and exciting field at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics. It concerns a utilization of quantum mechanics to improve the efficiency of computation. Here we present a gentle introduction to some of the ideas in quantum computing. The paper begins by motivating the central ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum computation with simple toy models. From there we move on to a formal presentation of the small fraction of (finite...

Yanofsky, Noson S.

2007-01-01

40

Quantum Computation: A Computer Science Perspective

The theory of quantum computation is presented in a self contained way from a computer science perspective. The basics of classical computation and quantum mechanics is reviewed. The circuit model of quantum computation is presented in detail. Throughout there is an emphasis on the physical as well as the abstract aspects of computation and the interplay between them. This report is presented as a Master's thesis at the department of Computer Science and Engineering at G{\\...

Bengtsson, Anders K. H.

2005-01-01

41

Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

Blaha, Stephen

2002-01-01

42

Simulating quantum mechanics on a quantum computer

Algorithms are described for efficiently simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. A class of algorithms for simulating the Schrodinger equation for interacting many-body systems are presented in some detail. These algorithms would make it possible to simulate nonrelativistic quantum systems on a quantum computer with an exponential speedup compared to simulations on classical computers. Issues involved in simulating relativistic systems of Dirac and gauge ...

Boghosian, Bruce M.; Taylor, Washington

1997-01-01

43

Spintronics and Quantum Computing with Quantum Dots

The creation, coherent manipulation, and measurement of spins in nanostructures open up completely new possibilities for electronics and information processing, among them quantum computing and quantum communication. We review our theoretical proposal for using electron spins in quantum dots as quantum bits. We present single- and two qubit gate mechanisms in laterally as well as vertically coupled quantum dots and discuss the possibility to couple spins in quantum dots via ...

Recher, P.; Loss, D.; Levy, J.

2000-01-01

44

I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer

The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.

Zizzi, Paola

2008-01-01

45

Optical Holonomic Quantum Computer

In this paper the idea of holonomic quantum computation is realized within quantum optics. In a non-linear Kerr medium the degenerate states of laser beams are interpreted as qubits. Displacing devices, squeezing devices and interferometers provide the classical control parameter space where the adiabatic loops are performed. This results into logical gates acting on the states of the combined degenerate subspaces of the lasers, producing any one qubit rotations and interact...

Pachos, Jiannis; Chountasis, Spiros

1999-01-01

46

Quantum Information, Computation and Complexity * Programme at the Institut Henri Poincaré, January 4th – April 7th, 2006 * Organizers: Ph.Grangier, M.Santha and D.L.Shepelyansky * Lectures have been filmed by Peter Rapcan and Michal Sedlak from Bratislava with the support of the Marie Curie RTN "CONQUEST" A trimester at the Centre Emile Borel - Institut Henri Poincaré is devoted to modern developments in a rapidly growing field of quantum information a...

Laflamme, Raymond

2006-01-01

47

Quantum information and computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)

48

Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library

Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.

Gheorghiu, Vlad

2014-01-01

49

A Parallel Quantum Computer Simulator

A Quantum Computer is a new type of computer which can efficiently solve complex problems such as prime factorization. A quantum computer threatens the security of public key encryption systems because these systems rely on the fact that prime factorization is computationally difficult. Errors limit the effectiveness of quantum computers. Because of the exponential nature of quantum com puters, simulating the effect of errors on them requires a vast amount of processing and ...

Obenland, Kevin M.; Despain, Alvin M.

1998-01-01

50

Computational quantum chemistry website

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

51

Computational quantum chemistry website

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

none,

1997-08-22

52

Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with scanning-tunneling microscopy. I will review our experimental and theoretical progress in this plenary talk.[4pt] This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Landahl, Andrew

2012-10-01

53

An optically driven quantum dot quantum computer

We propose a quantum computer structure based on coupled asymmetric single-electron quantum dots. Adjacent dots are strongly coupled by means of electric dipole-dipole interactions enabling rapid computation rates. Further, the asymmetric structures can be tailored for a long coherence time. The result maximizes the number of computation cycles prior to loss of coherence.

Sanders, G. D.; Kim, K. W.; Holton, W. C.

1999-01-01

54

Quantum Computations: Fundamentals And Algorithms

Basic concepts of quantum theory of information, principles of quantum calculations and the possibility of creation on this basis unique on calculation power and functioning principle device, named quantum computer, are briefly reviewed. The main blocks of quantum logic, schemes of implementation of quantum calculations, as well as some known today effective quantum algorithms, called to realize advantages of quantum calculations upon classical, are concerned. Among them spe...

Duplij, Steven; Shapoval, Illia

2007-01-01

55

Quantum Computations: Fundamentals And Algorithms

Basic concepts of quantum theory of information, principles of quantum calculations and the possibility of creation on this basis unique on calculation power and functioning principle device, named quantum computer, are briefly reviewed. The main blocks of quantum logic, schemes of implementation of quantum calculations, as well as some known today effective quantum algorithms, called to realize advantages of quantum calculations upon classical, are concerned. Among them special place is taken by Shor's algorithm of number factorization, Grover's algorithm of unsorted database search and, finally, the most promising in application methods of quantum phenomena simulation, particularly quantum chaos. The most perspective methods of experimental realization of quantum computer, namely nuclear-magnetic resonance and trapped ions realizations, are discussed. Phenomena of decoherence, its influence on quantum computer stability and methods of quantum error correction are described.

Duplij, Steven

2007-01-01

56

Quantum buses and quantum computer architecture based on quantum dots

We propose a quantum computer architecture based on quantum dots both for short distance and for long distance communication/computation. Our scheme exploits the natural characteristics of self-assembled quantum dots and it is scalable. It is centered on the idea of a quantum bus based on semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots. This allows for transmission of qubits between the different quantum registers, and could be integrated in most of the present proposal for semico...

D Amico, Irene

2005-01-01

57

Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers

Last years witnessed a remarkable interest in application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, even first proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only the non-relativistic regime (i.e. Schroedinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. In this letter we present the first quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with 3 qubits and 9 or 10 CNOTs, which implement a proof-of-principle relativistic quantum chemical calculation for this molecule and might be suitable for an experimental realizatio...

Veis, Libor; Fleig, Timo; Knecht, Stefan; Saue, Trond; Visscher, Lucas; Pittner, Ji?í

2011-01-01

58

Embedding classical into quantum computation

We describe a simple formalism for generating classes of quantum circuits that are classically efficiently simulatable and show that the efficient simulation of Clifford circuits (Gottesman-Knill theorem) and of matchgate circuits (Valiant's theorem) appear as two special cases. Viewing these simulatable classes as subsets of the space of all quantum computations, we may consider minimal extensions that suffice to regain full quantum computational power, which provides an approach to exploring the efficacy of quantum over classical computation.

Jozsa, Richard

2008-01-01

59

Scalable Quantum Computing with "Enhancement" Quantum Dots

We propose a novel scheme of solid state realization of a quantum computer based on single spin "enhancement mode" quantum dots as building blocks. In the enhancement quantum dots, just one electron can be brought into initially empty dot, in contrast to depletion mode dots based on expelling of electrons from multi-electron dots by gates. The quantum computer architectures based on depletion dots are confronted by several challenges making scalability difficult. These challenges can be successfully met by the approach based on ehnancement mode, capable of producing square array of dots with versatile functionalities. These functionalities allow transportation of qubits, including teleportation, and error correction based on straightforward one- and two-qubit operations. We describe physical properties and demonstrate experimental characteristics of enhancement quantum dots and single-electron transistors based on InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells. We discuss the materials aspects of quantum dot quantum compu...

Lyanda-Geller, Y B; Yang, M J

2005-01-01

60

Genetic Algorithms and Quantum Computation

Recently, researchers have applied genetic algorithms (GAs) to address some problems in quantum computation. Also, there has been some works in the designing of genetic algorithms based on quantum theoretical concepts and techniques. The so called Quantum Evolutionary Programming has two major sub-areas: Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms (QIGAs) and Quantum Genetic Algorithms (QGAs). The former adopts qubit chromosomes as representations and employs quantum gates for the s...

Giraldi, Gilson A.; Portugal, Renato; Thess, Ricardo N.

2004-01-01

61

Quantum computer for dummies (in Russian)

An introduction (in Russian) to quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation for students who have no previous knowledge of these subjects, but know quantum mechanics. Several simple examples are considered in detail using the quantum computer emulator QCL.

Grozin, Andrey

2011-01-01

62

Quantum computing with mixed states

We discuss a model for quantum computing with initially mixed states. Although such a computer is known to be less powerful than a quantum computer operating with pure (entangled) states, it may efficiently solve some problems for which no efficient classical algorithms are known. We suggest a new implementation of quantum computation with initially mixed states in which an algorithm realization is achieved by means of optimal basis independent transformations of qubits.

Siomau, Michael; Fritzsche, Stephan

2011-01-01

63

Energy Dissipation in Quantum Computers

A method is described for calculating the heat generated in a quantum computer due to loss of quantum phase information. Amazingly enough, this heat generation can take place at zero temperature. and may explain why it is impossible to extract energy from vacuum fluctuations. Implications for optical computers and quantum cosmology are also briefly discussed.

Granik, A.; Chapline, G.

2003-01-01

64

THE APROACH OF CLASSICAL COMPUTER TO QUANTUM COMPUTER

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists through the barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe the diffrences between classical and quantum computers, bit and quantum bit and quantum key distribution.

SEYEDEH MOHADESEH ELTEJA

2013-09-01

65

THE APROACH OF CLASSICAL COMPUTER TO QUANTUM COMPUTER

The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists through the barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe the diffrences between classical and quantum computers, bit and quantum bit and quantum key distribution.

SEYEDEH MOHADESEH ELTEJA

2013-01-01

66

The universe as quantum computer

This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of phys...

Lloyd, Seth

2013-01-01

67

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

Breuer, Reinhard (comp.)

2010-07-01

68

Quantum computing with defects

Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally-coor...

Weber, J R; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

2010-01-01

69

The universe as quantum computer

This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of physics. In particular, the model shows that the the quantum computational universe automatically gives rise to a mix of randomness and order, and to both simple and complex systems.

Lloyd, Seth

2013-01-01

70

Interfacing External Quantum Devices to a Universal Quantum Computer

We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, na...

Lagana, Antonio A.; Lohe, Max A.; Von Smekal, Lorenz

2011-01-01

71

Quantum Computation in Quantum-Hall Systems

We describe a quantum information processor (quantum computer) based on the hyperfine interactions between the conduction electrons and nuclear spins embedded in a two-dimensional electron system in the quantum-Hall regime. Nuclear spins can be controlled individually by electromagnetic pulses. Their interactions, which are of the spin-exchange RKKY type, can be effectively switched on and off pair-wise dynamically, for nearest neighbors, by controlling impurities. We also propose the way to feed in the initial data and explore possibilities for reading off the final results. Owing to rapid advances in the experimental facilities, the proposed quantum-computer realization will likely be experimentally accessible in near future.

Privman, V; Kventsel, G

1998-01-01

72

Probabilistic Simulation of Quantum Computation

Special stochastic representation of the wave function in Quantum Mechanics (QM), based on soliton realization of extended particles, is suggested with the aim to model quantum states via classical computer. Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) spin correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the spin-1/2 particles in the singlet state. The concept of stochastic qubits is used for quantum computing modelling.

Kamalov, T F; Rybakov, Yu. P.

2006-01-01

73

Multi-party Quantum Computation

We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any ...

Smith, Adam

2001-01-01

74

Addition on a Quantum Computer

A new method for computing sums on a quantum computer is introduced. This technique uses the quantum Fourier transform and reduces the number of qubits necessary for addition by removing the need for temporary carry bits. This approach also allows the addition of a classical number to a quantum superposition without encoding the classical number in the quantum register. This method also allows for massive parallelization in its execution.

Draper, Thomas G.

2000-01-01

75

Experimental Aspects of Quantum Computing

Practical quantum computing still seems more than a decade away, and researchers have not even identified what the best physical implementation of a quantum bit will be. There is a real need in the scientific literature for a dialog on the topic of lessons learned and looming roadblocks. These papers, which appeared in the journal of "Quantum Information Processing" are dedicated to the experimental aspects of quantum computing These papers highlight the lessons learned over the last ten years, outline the challenges over the next ten years, and discuss the most promising physical implementations of quantum computing.

Everitt, Henry O

2005-01-01

76

Quantum Walks, Quantum Gates and Quantum Computers

The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both a single- and multi-excitation coding, and for more general mappings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic syst...

Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

2007-01-01

77

Quantum Principles and Mathematical Computability

Taking the view that computation is after all physical, we argue that physics, particularly quantum physics, could help extend the notion of computability. Here, we list the important and unique features of quantum mechanics and then outline a quantum mechanical "algorithm" for one of the insoluble problems of mathematics, the Hilbert's tenth and equivalently the Turing halting problem. The key element of this algorithm is the {\\em computability} and {\\em measurability} of b...

Kieu, Tien D.

2002-01-01

78

Quantum computers, factoring, and decoherence

In a quantum computer any superposition of inputs evolves unitarily into the corresponding superposition of outputs. It has been recently demonstrated that such computers can dramatically speed up the task of finding factors of large numbers -- a problem of great practical significance because of its cryptographic applications. Instead of the nearly exponential (\\sim \\exp L^{1/3}, for a number with L digits) time required by the fastest classical algorithm, the quantum algorithm gives factors in a time polynomial in L (\\sim L^2). This enormous speed-up is possible in principle because quantum computation can simultaneously follow all of the paths corresponding to the distinct classical inputs, obtaining the solution as a result of coherent quantum interference between the alternatives. Hence, a quantum computer is sophisticated interference device, and it is essential for its quantum state to remain coherent in the course of the operation. In this report we investigate the effect of decoherence on the quantum...

Chuang, I; Shor, P W; Zurek, W H; Chuang, I; Laflamme, Raymond; Shor, P; Zurek, W

1995-01-01

79

Robust Quantum Computation with Quantum Dots

Quantum computation in solid state quantum dots faces two significant challenges: Decoherence from interactions with the environment and the difficulty of generating local magnetic fields for the single qubit rotations. This paper presents a design of composite qubits to overcome both challenges. Each qubit is encoded in the degenerate ground-state of four (or six) electrons in a system of five quantum dots arranged in a two-dimensional pattern. This decoherence-free subspac...

Hellberg, C. Stephen

2003-01-01

80

Quantum Computation in Quantum-Hall Systems

We describe a quantum information processor (quantum computer) based on the hyperfine interactions between the conduction electrons and nuclear spins embedded in a two-dimensional electron system in the quantum-Hall regime. Nuclear spins can be controlled individually by electromagnetic pulses. Their interactions, which are of the spin-exchange type, can be possibly switched on and off pair-wise dynamically, for nearest neighbors, by controlling impurities. We also propose t...

Privman, V.; Vagner, I. D.; Kventsel, G.

1997-01-01

81

Spintronics and Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing and Quantum Communication

Control over electron-spin states, such as coherent manipulation, filtering and measurement promises access to new technologies in conventional as well as in quantum computation and quantum communication. We review our proposal of using electron spins in quantum confined structures as qubits and discuss the requirements for implementing a quantum computer. We describe several realizations of one- and two-qubit gates and of the read-in and read-out tasks. We discuss recently ...

Burkard, Guido; Engel, Hans-andreas; Loss, Daniel

2000-01-01

82

Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.

83

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)

2012-11-01

84

Quantum computing via measurements only

A quantum computer promises efficient processing of certain computational tasks that are intractable with classical computer technology. While basic principles of a quantum computer have been demonstrated in the laboratory, scalability of these systems to a large number of qubits, essential for practical applications such as the Shor algorithm, represents a formidable challenge. Most of the current experiments are designed to implement sequences of highly controlled interact...

Raussendorf, Robert; Briegel, Hans J.

2000-01-01

85

Hybrid Quantum Computation in Quantum Optics

We propose a hybrid quantum computing scheme where qubit degrees of freedom for computation are combined with quantum continuous variables for communication. In particular, universal two-qubit gates can be implemented deterministically through qubit-qubit communication, mediated by a continuous-variable bus mode ("qubus"), without direct interaction between the qubits and without any measurement of the qubus. The key ingredients are controlled rotations of the qubus and unconditional qubus displacements. The controlled rotations are realizable through typical atom-light interactions in quantum optics. For such interactions, our scheme is universal and works in any regime, including the limits of weak and strong nonlinearities.

Van Loock, P; Nemoto, Kae; Spiller, T P; Ladd, T D; Braunstein, Samuel L; Milburn, G J

2008-01-01

86

The Quantum Field as a Quantum Computer

It is supposed that at very small scales a quantum field is an infinite homogeneous quantum computer. On a quantum computer the information cannot propagate faster than $c=a/\\tau$, $a$ and $\\tau$ being the minimum space and time distances between gates, respectively. It is shown that the information flow satisfies a Dirac equation, with speed $v=\\zeta c$ and $\\zeta=\\zeta(m)$ mass-dependent. For $a/\\tau=c$ the speed of light $\\zeta^{-1}$ is a vacuum refraction index increasin...

D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

2010-01-01

87

Quantum Computing over Finite Fields

In recent work, Benjamin Schumacher and Michael~D. Westmoreland investigate a version of quantum mechanics which they call "modal quantum theory" but which we prefer to call "discrete quantum theory". This theory is obtained by instantiating the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces with a finite field instead of the field of complex numbers. This instantiation collapses much the structure of actual quantum mechanics but retains several of its distinguishing characteristics including the notions of superposition, interference, and entanglement. Furthermore, discrete quantum theory excludes local hidden variable models, has a no-cloning theorem, and can express natural counterparts of quantum information protocols such as superdense coding and teleportation. Our first result is to distill a model of discrete quantum computing from this quantum theory. The model is expressed using a monadic metalanguage built on top of a universal reversible language for finite computations, and hence is directly implementab...

James, Roshan P; Sabry, Amr

2011-01-01

88

Quantum Computation with Ballistic Electrons

We describe a solid state implementation of a quantum computer using ballistic single electrons as flying qubits in 1D nanowires. We show how to implement all the steps required for universal quantum computation: preparation of the initial state, measurement of the final state and a universal set of quantum gates. An important advantage of this model is the fact that we do not need ultrafast optoelectronics for gate operations. We use cold programming (or pre-programming), i...

Ionicioiu, Radu; Amaratunga, Gehan; Udrea, Florin

2000-01-01

89

Quantum Computing in Molecular Magnets

Shor and Grover demonstrated that a quantum computer can outperform any classical computer in factoring numbers and in searching a database by exploiting the parallelism of quantum mechanics. Whereas Shor's algorithm requires both superposition and entanglement of a many-particle system, the superposition of single-particle quantum states is sufficient for Grover's algorithm. Recently, the latter has been successfully implemented using Rydberg atoms. Here we propose an imple...

Leuenberger, Michael N.; Loss, Daniel

2000-01-01

90

The Physics of Quantum Computation

Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.

Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette

2015-10-01

91

Genetic Algorithms and Quantum Computation

Recently, researchers have applied genetic algorithms (GAs) to address some problems in quantum computation. Also, there has been some works in the designing of genetic algorithms based on quantum theoretical concepts and techniques. The so called Quantum Evolutionary Programming has two major sub-areas: Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms (QIGAs) and Quantum Genetic Algorithms (QGAs). The former adopts qubit chromosomes as representations and employs quantum gates for the search of the best solution. The later tries to solve a key question in this field: what GAs will look like as an implementation on quantum hardware? As we shall see, there is not a complete answer for this question. An important point for QGAs is to build a quantum algorithm that takes advantage of both the GA and quantum computing parallelism as well as true randomness provided by quantum computers. In the first part of this paper we present a survey of the main works in GAs plus quantum computing including also our works in this area. He...

Giraldi, G A; Thess, R N; Giraldi, Gilson A.; Portugal, Renato; Thess, Ricardo N.

2004-01-01

92

Toward a superconducting quantum computer

Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256

Tsai, Jaw-Shen

2010-01-01

93

Quantum Computer Using Coupled Quantum Dot Molecules

We propose a method for implementation of a quantum computer using artificial molecules. The artificial molecule consists of two coupled quantum dots stacked along z direction and one single electron. One-qubit and two-qubit gates are constructed by one molecule and two coupled molecules, respectively.The ground state and the first excited state of the molecule are used to encode the |0> and |1> states of a qubit. The qubit is manipulated by a resonant electromagnetic wave t...

Wu, Nan-jian; Kamada, M.; Natori, A.; Yasunaga, H.

1999-01-01

94

The problem of quantum test is formally addressed. The presented method attempts the quantum role of classical test generation and test set reduction methods known from standard binary and analog circuits. QuFault, the authors software package generates test plans for arbitrary quantum circuits using the very efficient simulator QuIDDPro[1]. The quantum fault table is introduced and mathematically formalized, and the test generation method explained.

Biamonte, Jacob D.; Perkowski, Marek A.

2004-01-01

95

Computing methods in quantum electrodynamics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algebraic and numerical computing methods used for calculations in quantum electrodynamics are reviewed. Computer algebra systems suitable for high energy physics computations are presented. The impact of these methods on the evaluation of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and of the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons is shown. (Auth.)

96

Quantum Computations and Images Recognition

The using of quantum parallelism is often connected with consideration of quantum system with huge dimension of space of states. The n-qubit register can be described by complex vector with 2^n components (it belongs to n'th tensor power of qubit spaces). For example, for algorithm of factorization of numbers by quantum computer n can be about a few hundreds for some realistic applications for cryptography. The applications described further are used some other properties of...

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

1997-01-01

97

Entanglement Echoes in Quantum Computation

We study the stability of entanglement in a quantum computer implementing an efficient quantum algorithm, which simulates a quantum chaotic dynamics. For this purpose, we perform a forward-backward evolution of an initial state in which two qubits are in a maximally entangled Bell state. If the dynamics is reversed after an evolution time $t_r$, there is an echo of the entanglement between these two qubits at time $t_e=2t_r$. Perturbations attenuate the pairwise entanglement...

Rossini, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

2003-01-01

98

Computer Simulations of Quantum Chains

We report recent progress in computer simulations of quantum systems described in the path-integral formulation. For the example of the $\\phi^4$ quantum chain we show that the accuracy of the simulation may greatly be enhanced by a combination of multigrid update techniques with a refined discretization scheme. This allows us to assess the accuracy of a variational approximation.

Janke, Wolfhard; Sauer, Tilman

1996-01-01

99

Quantum computation: Silicon comes back

The extraordinary long coherence times and high-fidelity manipulation of electron spins trapped in isotopically purified silicon could be an essential step towards the realization of a solid-state quantum computer.

Schreiber, Lars R.; Bluhm, Hendrik

2014-12-01

100

Quantum chromodynamics with advanced computing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We survey results in lattice quantum chromodynamics from groups in the USQCD Collaboration. The main focus is on physics, but many aspects of the discussion are aimed at an audience of computational physicists.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

101

Quantum chromodynamics with advanced computing

We survey results in lattice quantum chromodynamics from groups in the USQCD Collaboration. The main focus is on physics, but many aspects of the discussion are aimed at an audience of computational physicists.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2008-01-01

102

Spin networks and quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the q-deformed spin network approach to Topological Quantum Field Theory and apply these methods to produce unitary representations of the braid groups that are dense in the unitary groups. The simplest case of these models is the Fibonacci model, itself universal for quantum computation. We here formulate these braid group representations in a form suitable for computation and algebraic work. (authors)

103

Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network

This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolea...

Kobayashi, Hirotada; Tani, Seiichiro

2010-01-01

104

Lecture notes on Optical Quantum Computing

A quantum computer is a machine that can perform certain calculations much faster than a classical computer by using the laws of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers do not exist yet, because it is extremely difficult to control quantum mechanical systems to the necessary degree. What is more, we do at this moment not know which physical system is the best suited for making a quantum computer (although we have some ideas). It is likely that a mature quantum information proce...

Kok, Pieter

2007-01-01

105

Quantum Computing via The Bethe Ansatz

We recognize quantum circuit model of computation as factorisable scattering model and propose that a quantum computer is associated with a quantum many-body system solved by the Bethe ansatz. As an typical example to support our perspectives on quantum computation, we study quantum computing in one-dimensional nonrelativistic system with delta-function interaction, where the two-body scattering matrix satisfies the factorisation equation (the quantum Yang--Baxter equation) ...

Zhang, Yong

2011-01-01

106

Physical Realizations of Quantum Computing

The contributors of this volume are working at the forefront of various realizations of quantum computers. They survey the recent developments in each realization, in the context of the DiVincenzo criteria, including nuclear magnetic resonance, Josephson junctions, quantum dots, and trapped ions. There are also some theoretical contributions which have relevance in the physical realizations of a quantum computer. This book fills the gap between elementary introductions to the subject and highly specialized research papers to allow beginning graduate students to understand the cutting-edge of r

Kanemitsu, Shigeru; Salomaa, Martti; Takagi, Shin; Are the DiVincenzo Criteria Fulfilled in 2004 ?

2006-01-01

107

Quantum Computation with Ballistic Electrons

We describe a solid state implementation of a quantum computer using ballistic single electrons as flying qubits in 1D nanowires. We show how to implement all the steps required for universal quantum computation: preparation of the initial state, measurement of the final state and a universal set of quantum gates. An important advantage of this model is the fact that we do not need ultrafast optoelectronics for gate operations. We use cold programming (or pre-programming), i.e., the gates are set before launching the electrons; all programming can be done using static electric fields only.

Ionicioiu, R; Udrea, F; Ionicioiu, Radu; Amaratunga, Gehan; Udrea, Florin

2001-01-01

108

Wong's diffusion network is a stochastic, zero-input Hopfield network with a Gibbs stationary distribution over a bounded, connected continuum. Previously, logarithmic thermal annealing was demonstrated for the diffusion network and digital versions of it were studied and applied to imaging. Recently, "quantum" annealed Markov chains have garnered significant attention because of their improved performance over "pure" thermal annealing. In this note, a joint quantum and thermal version of Wong's diffusion network is described and its convergence properties are studied. Different choices for "auxiliary" functions are discussed, including those of the kinetic type previously associated with quantum annealing.

Kesidis, George

2009-01-01

109

On the Problem of Programming Quantum Computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyse the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical implementations of quantum computers. We discuss the origin of the instabilities of quantum algorithms and explore physical mechanisms to enlarge the region(s) of stable operation.

De Raedt, H A; Michielsen, K; Miyashita, S; Saitô, K; Raedt, Hans De; Hams, Anthony; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

2000-01-01

110

Reversible computing fundamentals, quantum computing, and applications

Written by one of the few top internationally recognized experts in the field, this book concentrates on those topics that will remain fundamental, such as low power computing, reversible programming languages, and applications in thermodynamics. It describes reversible computing from various points of view: Boolean algebra, group theory, logic circuits, low-power electronics, communication, software, quantum computing. It is this multidisciplinary approach that makes it unique.Backed by numerous examples, this is useful for all levels of the scientific and academic community, from undergr

De Vos, Alexis

2010-01-01

111

Shaped pulses for quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computers based on pulsed microwave operations are inherently sensitive to the pulse amplitude and detuning between the quantum bit and the microwave frequency. Designing techniques that can compensate both errors simultaneously have been challenging. Here we present a technique that achieves this goal by extending known numerical optimization schemes to obtain amplitude modulated microwave pulses robust against a large detuning range, and combining them with composite pulse techniques that are insensitive to amplitude errors

112

A Quantum Computational Learning Algorithm

An interesting classical result due to Jackson allows polynomial-time learning of the function class DNF using membership queries. Since in most practical learning situations access to a membership oracle is unrealistic, this paper explores the possibility that quantum computation might allow a learning algorithm for DNF that relies only on example queries. A natural extension of Fourier-based learning into the quantum domain is presented. The algorithm requires only an exam...

Ventura, Dan; Martinez, Tony

1998-01-01

113

Handbook of computational quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry forms the basis of molecular modeling, a tool widely used to obtain important chemical information and visual images of molecular systems. Recent advances in computing have resulted in considerable developments in molecular modeling, and these developments have led to significant achievements in the design and synthesis of drugs and catalysts. This comprehensive text provides upper-level undergraduates and graduate students with an introduction to the implementation of quantum ideas in molecular modeling, exploring practical applications alongside theoretical explanations.Wri

Cook, David B

2012-01-01

114

Experimental One-Way Quantum Computing

Standard quantum computation is based on sequences of unitary quantum logic gates which process qubits. The one-way quantum computer proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel is entirely different. It has changed our understanding of the requirements for quantum computation and more generally how we think about quantum physics. This new model requires qubits to be initialized in a highly-entangled cluster state. From this point, the quantum computation proceeds by a sequence of single-qubit measurements with classical feedforward of their outcomes. Because of the essential role of measurement a one-way quantum computer is irreversible. In the one-way quantum computer the order and choices of measurements determine the algorithm computed. We have experimentally realized four-qubit cluster states encoded into the polarization state of four photons. We fully characterize the quantum state by implementing the first experimental four-qubit quantum state tomography. Using this cluster state we demonstrate the feasibility...

Walther, P; Rudolph, T; Schenck, E; Weinfurter, H; Vedral, V; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, Anton

2005-01-01

115

Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyp...

Bao-Cang Ren; Fu-Guo Deng

2013-01-01

116

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respect to the physical realization of the quantum computer. We discuss the origin of these instabilities and discuss possibilities to overcome this, for practical purposes, fundamental limitation of quantum computers.

De Raedt, H A; Hams, A; Miyashita, S; Saitô, K; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

2001-01-01

117

Quantum computational gradient estimation

Classically, determining the gradient of a black-box function f:R^p->R requires p+1 evaluations. Using the quantum Fourier transform, two evaluations suffice. This is based on the approximate local periodicity of exp(2*pi*i*f(x)). It is shown that sufficiently precise machine arithmetic results in gradient estimates of any required accuracy.

Bulger, David

2005-01-01

118

Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing

Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclu...

Machta, J.

1998-01-01

119

Realizing the quantum baker's map on an NMR quantum computer

By numerically simulating an implementation of the quantum baker's map on a 3-qubit NMR quantum computer based on the molecule trichloroethylene, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantum chaos experiments on present-day quantum computers. We give detailed descriptions of proposed experiments that investigate (a) the rate of entropy increase due to decoherence and (b) the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to perturbation.

Brun, Todd A.; Schack, Ruediger

1998-01-01

120

Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists

Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir

Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

2008-01-01

121

Brokered Graph State Quantum Computing

We describe a procedure for graph state quantum computing that is tailored to fully exploit the physics of optically active multi-level systems. Leveraging ideas from the literature on distributed computation together with the recent work on probabilistic cluster state synthesis, our model assigns to each physical system two logical qubits: the broker and the client. Groups of brokers negotiate new graph state fragments via a probabilistic optical protocol. Completed fragmen...

Benjamin, Simon C.; Browne, Dan E.; Fitzsimons, Joe; Morton, John J. L.

2005-01-01

122

Quantum computation with ions in thermal motion

We propose an implementation of quantum logic gates via virtual vibrational excitations in an ion trap quantum computer. Transition paths involving unpopulated, vibrational states interfere destructively to eliminate the dependence of rates and revolution frequencies on vibrational quantum numbers. As a consequence quantum computation becomes feasible with ions whos vibrations are strongly coupled to a thermal reservoir.

Sorensen, Anders; Molmer, Klaus

1998-01-01

123

Quantum computation with ions in thermal motion

We propose an implementation of quantum logic gates via virtual vibrational excitations in an ion trap quantum computer. Transition paths involving unpopulated, vibrational states interfere destructively to eliminate the dependence of rates and revolution frequencies on vibrational quantum numbers, and quantum computation becomes feasible with ions in thermal motion.

Sørensen, A; Soerensen, Anders; Moelmer, Klaus

1999-01-01

124

Quantum computing and hidden variables

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper initiates the study of hidden variables from a quantum computing perspective. For us, a hidden-variable theory is simply a way to convert a unitary matrix that maps one quantum state to another into a stochastic matrix that maps the initial probability distribution to the final one in some fixed basis. We list five axioms that we might want such a theory to satisfy and then investigate which of the axioms can be satisfied simultaneously. Toward this end, we propose a new hidden-variable theory based on network flows. In a second part of the paper, we show that if we could examine the entire history of a hidden variable, then we could efficiently solve problems that are believed to be intractable even for quantum computers. In particular, under any hidden-variable theory satisfying a reasonable axiom, we could solve the graph isomorphism problem in polynomial time, and could search an N-item database using O(N1/3) queries, as opposed to O(N1/2) queries with Grover's search algorithm. On the other hand, the N1/3 bound is optimal, meaning that we could probably not solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time. We thus obtain the first good example of a model of computation that appears slightly more powerful than the quantum computing model

125

Distributed measurement-based quantum computation

We develop a formal model for distributed measurement-based quantum computations, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are described locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model it as a global structure, reminiscent of global memory in classical agent systems. Local quantum computations are described as measurement patterns. Since measurement-based quantum computation is inherently distributed, this allow...

Danos, Vincent; D Hondt, Ellie; Kashefi, Elham; Panangaden, Prakash

2005-01-01

126

Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots

We show a method for implementing universal quantum computing using of a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is attractive for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all required operations and emphasiz...

Xue, P.

2011-01-01

127

Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots

We show a method for implementing universal quantum computing using of a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is attractive for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all required operations and emphasize that all techniques are feasible with current experimental technology.

Xue, P

2011-01-01

128

Universal quantum computation using the discrete time quantum walk

A proof that continuous time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by Childs [PRL 102 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete time quantum walk. We show the discrete time quantum walk is also a computational primitive and is able to implement the same universal gate set. Additionally we give a set of components on which the discrete time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.

Lovett, Neil B; Everitt, Matthew; Trevers, Matthew; Kendon, Viv

2009-01-01

129

Experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing

Quantum computers are among the most promising applications of quantum-enhanced technologies. Quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement enable computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. The challenges in realising quantum computers suggest that in the near future, only a few facilities worldwide will be capable of operating such devices. In order to exploit these computers, users would seemingly have to give up their privacy. It was recently shown that this is not the case and that, via the universal blind quantum computation protocol, quantum mechanics provides a way to guarantee that the user's data remain private. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental version of this protocol using polarisation-entangled photonic qubits. We demonstrate various blind one- and two-qubit gate operations as well as blind versions of the Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms. When the technology to build quantum computers becomes available, this will become an important privacy-preserving feature of quantum information processing.

Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joe; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

2012-02-01

130

Computable measure of quantum correlation

A general state of an system is a classical-quantum state if and only if its associated -correlation matrix (a matrix constructed from the coherence vector of the party , the correlation matrix of the state, and a function of the local coherence vector of the subsystem ), has rank no larger than . Using the general Schatten -norms, we quantify quantum correlation by measuring any violation of this condition. The required minimization can be carried out for the general -norms and any function of the local coherence vector of the unmeasured subsystem, leading to a class of computable quantities which can be used to capture the quantumness of correlations due to the subsystem . We introduce two special members of these quantifiers: The first one coincides with the tight lower bound on the geometric measure of discord, so that such lower bound fully captures the quantum correlation of a bipartite system. Accordingly, a vanishing tight lower bound on the geometric discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for a state to be zero-discord. The second quantifier has the property that it is invariant under a local and reversible operation performed on the unmeasured subsystem, so that it can be regarded as a computable well-defined measure of the quantum correlations. The approach presented in this paper provides a way to circumvent the problem with the geometric discord. We provide some examples to exemplify this measure.

Akhtarshenas, S. Javad; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Karimi, Saman; Azmi, Zahra

2015-01-01

131

Simulating quantum dynamics on a quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explicitly show how to simulate time-dependent sparse Hamiltonian evolution on a quantum computer, with complexity that is close to linear in the evolution time. The complexity also depends on the magnitude of the derivatives of the Hamiltonian. We propose a range of techniques to simulate Hamiltonians with badly behaved derivatives. These include using adaptive time steps, adapting the order of the integrators, and omitting regions about discontinuities. The complexity of the algorithm is quantified by calls to an oracle, which yields information about the Hamiltonian, and accounts for all computational resources. We explicitly determine the number of bits of output that this oracle needs to provide, and show how to efficiently perform the required 1-sparse unitary operations using these bits. We also account for discretization error in the time, as well as accounting for Hamiltonians that are a sum of terms that are sparse in different bases. (paper)

132

Experimental realization of the quantum games on a quantum computer

Many previous works on quantum games are based on maximally entangled state. In this letter, we investigate the role of entanglement in quantum games. For the particular case of the quantum Prisoners' Dilemma, the property of the game changes fascinatingly with the variation of the measure of the game's entanglement. Furthermore this quantum game is experimental realized on our nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. Up to now, there is no quantum game in any form become pratical.

Du, J; Xu, X; Shi, M; Wu, J; Zhou, X; Han, R; Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Shi, Mingjun; Wu, Jihui; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian

2002-01-01

133

Interaction-free quantum computation

In this paper, we study the quantum computation realized by an interaction-free measurement (IFM). Using Kwiat et al.'s interferometer, we construct a two-qubit quantum gate that changes one particle's trajectory according to whether or not the other particle exists in the interferometer. We propose a method for distinguishing Bell-basis vectors, each of which consists of a pair of an electron and a positron, by this gate. (This is called the Bell-basis measurement.) This me...

Azuma, Hiroo

2004-01-01

134

RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers

Candidates for quantum computing which offer only restricted control, e.g., due to lack of access to individual qubits, are not useful for general purpose quantum computing. We present concrete proposals for the use of systems with such limitations as RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers and devices - for simulation of quantum dynamics, for multi-particle entanglement and squeezing of collective spin variables. These tasks are useful in their own right, and they also provide experimental probes for the functioning of quantum gates in pre-mature proto-types of quantum computers.

Mølmer, Klaus; Sørensen, Anders

2000-11-01

135

RISQ reduced instruction set quantum computers

Candidates for quantum computing which offer only restricted control, e.g., due to lack of access to individual qubits, are not useful for general purpose quantum computing. We present concrete proposals for the use of systems with such limitations as RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers and devices - for simulation of quantum dynamics, for multi-particle entanglement and squeezing of collective spin variables. These tasks are useful in their own right, and they also provide experimental probes for the functioning of quantum gates in pre-mature proto-types of quantum computers.

Mølmer, K; Molmer, Klaus; Sorensen, Anders

2000-01-01

136

Cove: A Practical Quantum Computer Programming Framework

While not yet in commercial existence, quantum computers have the ability to solve certain classes of problems that are not efficiently solvable on existing Turing Machine based (classical) computers. For quantum computers to be of use, methods of programming them must exist. Proposals exist for programming quantum computers, but all of the existing ones suffer from flaws that make them impractical in commercial software development environments. Cove is a framework for programming quantum computers that extends existing classical languages to allow for quantum computation, thus providing a quantum computing toolkit for commercial software developers. Since the target users of Cove are commercial developers, it is an object oriented framework that can be used by multiple languages and also places emphasis on complete documentation. The focus of Cove is not so much on the software product, but on the fundamental concepts that make quantum computing practical for common developers.

Purkeypile, Matt

2009-01-01

137

Quantum computation with programmable connections between gates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model of quantum computation is considered, in which the connections between gates are programmed by the state of a quantum register. This new model of computation is shown to be more powerful than the usual quantum computation, e.g. in achieving the programmability of permutations of N different unitary channels with 1 use instead of N uses per channel. For this task, a new elemental resource is needed, the quantum switch, which can be programmed to switch the order of two channels with a single use of each one. -- Highlights: ? New model of quantum computation performing tasks not allowed by quantum circuits. ? Task requiring a single oracle evaluation instead of N. ? Computation is based on a new gate called “quantum switch”. ? Quantum switch has been achieved in the quantum optical lab.

138

The Universe and The Quantum Computer

It is first pointed out that there is a common mathematical model for the universe and the quantum computer. The former is called the histories approach to quantum mechanics and the latter is called measurement based quantum computation. Although a rigorous concrete model for the universe has not been completed, a quantum measure and integration theory has been developed which may be useful for future progress. In this work we show that the quantum integral is the unique fun...

Gudder, Stan

2010-01-01

139

Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information

Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...

Steeb, Willi-Hans

2012-01-01

140

RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers

Candidates for quantum computing which offer only restricted control, e.g., due to lack of access to individual qubits, are not useful for general purpose quantum computing. We present concrete proposals for the use of systems with such limitations as RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers and devices - for simulation of quantum dynamics, for multi-particle entanglement and squeezing of collective spin variables. These tasks are useful in their own right, and they ...

Molmer, Klaus; Sorensen, Anders

2000-01-01

141

Quantum Computing and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Quantum information processing is the use of inherently quantum mechanical phenomena to perform information processing tasks that cannot be achieved using conventional classical information technologies. One famous example is quantum computing, which would permit calculations to be performed that are beyond the reach of any conceivable conventional computer. Initially it appeared that actually building a quantum computer would be extremely difficult, but in the last few years there has been an explosion of interest in the use of techniques adapted from conventional liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments to build small quantum computers. After a brief introduction to quantum computing I will review the current state of the art, describe some of the topics of current interest, and assess the long term contribution of NMR studies to the eventual implementation of practical quantum computers capable of solving real computational problems.

Jones, J A

2001-01-01

142

Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics

We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the course of the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Long, Gui-Lu

2008-01-01

143

Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the course of the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

144

The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2008-01-01

145

Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computation

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is arguably both the best and the worst technology we have for the implementation of small quantum computers. Its strengths lie in the ease with which arbitrary unitary transformations can be implemented, and the great experimental simplicity arising from the low energy scale and long time scale of radio frequency transitions; its weaknesses lie in the difficulty of implementing essential non-unitary operations, most notably initialisation and measurement. Thi...

Jones, Ja

2004-01-01

146

Quantum Darwinism and Computability Theory

This paper examines whether unitary evolution alone is sufficient to explain emergence of the classical world from the perspective of computability theory. Specifically, it looks at the problem of how the choice related to the measurement is made by the observer viewed as a quantum system. In interpretations where the system together with the observers is completely described by unitary transformations, the observer cannot make any choices and so measurement is impossible. F...

Kak, Subhash

2014-01-01

147

Exploiting locality in quantum computation for quantum chemistry

Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route towards highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost, however this solution still carries a large overhead. In this perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We show that the utilization of spatial locality combined with the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation offers an improvement in the scaling of known quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry and provide numerical examples to help illustrate this point. We combine these developments to improve the outlook for the future of quantum chemistry on quantum computers.

McClean, Jarrod R; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-01-01

148

Efficient one-way quantum computations for quantum error correction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how to explicitly construct an O(nd) size and constant quantum depth circuit which encodes any given n-qubit stabilizer code with d generators. Our construction is derived using the graphic description for stabilizer codes and the one-way quantum computation model. Our result demonstrates how to use cluster states as scalable resources for many multi-qubit entangled states and how to use the one-way quantum computation model to improve the design of quantum algorithms.

149

Efficient one-way quantum computations for quantum error correction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show how to explicitly construct an O(nd) size and constant quantum depth circuit which encodes any given n-qubit stabilizer code with d generators. Our construction is derived using the graphic description for stabilizer codes and the one-way quantum computation model. Our result demonstrates how to use cluster states as scalable resources for many multi-qubit entangled states and how to use the one-way quantum computation model to improve the design of quantum algorithms.

Huang Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wei Zhaohui [State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: weihuang@eecs.umich.edu

2009-07-24

150

Quantum Limit on Computational Time and Speed

We investigate if physical laws can impose limit on computational time and speed of a quantum computer built from elementary particles. We show that the product of the speed and the running time of a quantum computer is limited by the type of fundamental interactions present inside the system. This will help us to decide as to what type of interaction should be allowed in building quantum computers in achieving the desired speed.

Pati, A. K.; Jain, S. R.; Mitra, A.; Ramanna, R.

2002-01-01

151

Cove: A Practical Quantum Computer Programming Framework

While not yet in commercial existence, quantum computers have the ability to solve certain classes of problems that are not efficiently solvable on existing Turing Machine based (classical) computers. For quantum computers to be of use, methods of programming them must exist. Proposals exist for programming quantum computers, but all of the existing ones suffer from flaws that make them impractical in commercial software development environments. Cove is a framework for prog...

Purkeypile, Matt

2009-01-01

152

Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed compute...

Moiseev, S. A.; Gubaidullin, F. F.; Andrianov, S. N.

2010-01-01

153

Composite pulses in NMR quantum computation

I describe the use of techniques based on composite rotations to combat systematic errors in quantum logic gates. Although developed and described within the context of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) quantum computing these sequences should be applicable to other implementations of quantum computation.

Jones, Jonathan A

2009-01-01

154

Computation in Finitary Stochastic and Quantum Processes

We introduce stochastic and quantum finite-state transducers as computation-theoretic models of classical stochastic and quantum finitary processes. Formal process languages, representing the distribution over a process's behaviors, are recognized and generated by suitable specializations. We characterize and compare deterministic and nondeterministic versions, summarizing their relative computational power in a hierarchy of finitary process languages. Quantum finite-state t...

Wiesner, Karoline; Crutchfield, James P.

2006-01-01

155

Universal quantum computation using the discrete-time quantum walk

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proof that continuous-time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by A. M. Childs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete-time quantum walk. We show that the discrete-time quantum walk is able to implement the same universal gate set and thus both discrete and continuous-time quantum walks are computational primitives. Additionally, we give a set of components on which the discrete-time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.

156

Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov

McGeoch, Catherine C

2014-01-01

157

Quantum machine learning what quantum computing means to data mining

Quantum Machine Learning bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing and the applied research on machine learning. Paring down the complexity of the disciplines involved, it focuses on providing a synthesis that explains the most important machine learning algorithms in a quantum framework. Theoretical advances in quantum computing are hard to follow for computer scientists, and sometimes even for researchers involved in the field. The lack of a step-by-step guide hampers the broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research. Quantum Machine L

Wittek, Peter

2014-01-01

158

Parallel computing and quantum chromodynamics

The study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remains one of the most challenging topics in elementary particle physics. The lattice formulation of QCD, in which space-time is treated as a four- dimensional hypercubic grid of points, provides the means for a numerical solution from first principles but makes extreme demands upon computational performance. High Performance Computing (HPC) offers us the tantalising prospect of a verification of QCD through the precise reproduction of the known masses of the strongly interacting particles. It is also leading to the development of a phenomenological tool capable of disentangling strong interaction effects from weak interaction effects in the decays of one kind of quark into another, crucial for determining parameters of the standard model of particle physics. The 1980s saw the first attempts to apply parallel architecture computers to lattice QCD. The SIMD and MIMD machines used in these pioneering efforts were the ICL DAP and the Cosmic Cube, respectively. These wer...

Bowler, K C

1999-01-01

159

Quantum Computations and Images Recognition

The using of quantum parallelism is often connected with consideration of quantum system with huge dimension of space of states. The n-qubit register can be described by complex vector with 2^n components (it belongs to n'th tensor power of qubit spaces). For example, for algorithm of factorization of numbers by quantum computer n can be about a few hundreds for some realistic applications for cryptography. The applications described further are used some other properties of quantum systems and they do not demand such huge number of states. The term "images recognition" is used here for some broad class of problems. For example, we have a set of some objects V_i and function of "likelihood": F(V,W) < F(V,V) = 1 If we have some "noisy" or "distorted" image W, we can say that recognition of W is V_i, if F(W,V_i) is near 1 for some V_i.

Vlasov, A Yu

1997-01-01

160

Probability Analysis of a Quantum Computer

The quantum computer algorithm by Peter Shor for factorization of integers is studied. The quantum nature of a QC makes its outcome random. The output probability distribution is investigated and the chances of a successful operation is determined

Einarsson, Go?ran

2003-01-01

161

Physics and computer science: quantum computation and other approaches

This is a position paper written as an introduction to the special volume on quantum algorithms I edited for the journal Mathematical Structures in Computer Science (Volume 20 - Special Issue 06 (Quantum Algorithms), 2010).

Venegas-andraca, Salvador E.

2011-01-01

162

Quantum Computing with Quantum Dots on Linear Supports

Motivated by the recently demonstrated ability to attach quantum dots to polymers at well defined locations, we propose a condensed phase analog of the ion trap quantum computer: a scheme for quantum computation using chemically assembled semiconductor nanocrystals attached to a linear support. The linear support is either a molecular string (e.g., DNA) or a nanoscale rod. The phonon modes of the linear support are used as a quantum information bus between the dots. Our scheme offers greater flexibiliy in optimizing material parameters than the ion trap method but has additional complications. We discuss the relevant physical parameters, provide a detailed feasibility study, and suggest materials for which quantum computation may be possible with this approach. We find that Si is a potentially promising quantum dot material, already allowing 5-10 qubits quantum computer to operate with an error threshold of 10^-3.

Brown, K R; Whaley, K B

2002-01-01

163

Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation

Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3×10-3, which is comparable to that (7.5×10-3) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10-3 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

2012-09-01

164

Quantum Computations with Optical Waveguide Modes

A fully optical method to perform any quantum computation with optical waveguide modes is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed universal set of gates has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than other optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technolog...

Fu, Jian

2002-01-01

165

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

166

Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.

Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990. PMID:25571750

Lenhard, Johannes

2014-12-01

167

Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

2006-01-01

168

Molecular Realizations of Quantum Computing 2007

Liquid-state NMR quantum computer: working principle and some examples / Y. Kondo -- Flux qubits, tunable coupling and beyond / A. O. Niskanen -- Josephson phase qubits, and quantum communication via a resonant cavity / M. A. Sillanpää -- Quantum computing using pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR): molecular spin-qubits / K. Sato ... [et al.] -- Fullerene C[symbol]: a possible molecular quantum computer / T. Wakabayashi -- Molecular magnets for quantum computation / T. Kuroda -- Errors in a plausible scheme of quantum gates in Kane's model / Y. Ota -- Yet another formulation for quantum simultaneous noncooperative bimatrix games / A. SaiToh, R. Rahimi, M. Nakahara -- Continuous-variable teleportation of single-photon states and an accidental cloning of a photonic qubit in two-channel teleportation / T. Ide.

Nakahara, Mikio; Ota, Yukihiro; Rahimi, Robabeh; Kondo, Yasushi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito

2009-06-01

169

Brokered Graph State Quantum Computing

We describe a procedure for graph state quantum computing that is tailored to fully exploit the physics of optically active multi-level systems. Leveraging ideas from the literature on distributed computation together with the recent work on probabilistic cluster state synthesis, our model assigns to each physical system two logical qubits: the broker and the client. Groups of brokers negotiate new graph state fragments via a probabilistic optical protocol. Completed fragments are mapped from broker to clients via a simple state transition and measurement. The clients, whose role is to store the nascent graph state long term, remain entirely insulated from failures during the brokerage. We describe an implementation in terms of NV-centres in diamond, where brokers and clients are very naturally embodied as electron and nuclear spins.

Benjamin, S C; Fitzsimons, J; Morton, J J L; Benjamin, Simon C.; Browne, Dan E.; Fitzsimons, Joe; Morton, John J. L.

2005-01-01

170

Elementary gates for quantum computation

We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x \\oplus y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2^n)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two-and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary n-bit unitary operations.

Barenco, A; Cleve, R; Di Vincenzo, D P; Margolus, N H; Shor, P W; Sleator, T; Smolin, J A; Weinfurter, H; Barenco, A; Bennett, C H; Cleve, R; DiVincenzo, D P; Margolus, N; Shor, P; Sleator, T; Smolin, J; Weinfurter, H

1995-01-01

171

Computing quantum discord is NP-complete

We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-products, some entanglement measures (namely entanglement cost, entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, squashed entanglement, classical squashed entanglement, conditional entanglement of mutual information, and broadcast regularization of mutual information) and constrained Holevo capacity are NP-hard/NP-complete to compute. These complexity-theoretic results are directly applicable in common randomness distillation, quantum state merging, entanglement distillation, superdense coding, and quantum teleportation; they may offer significant insights into quantum information processing. Moreover, we prove the NP-completeness of two typical problems: linear optimization over classical states and detecting classical states in a convex set, providing evidence that working with classical states is generically computationally intractable.

Huang, Yichen

2014-03-01

172

The Heisenberg representation of quantum computers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Shor`s discovery of an algorithm to factor numbers on a quantum computer in polynomial time, quantum computation has become a subject of immense interest. Unfortunately, one of the key features of quantum computers--the difficulty of describing them on classical computers--also makes it difficult to describe and understand precisely what can be done with them. A formalism describing the evolution of operators rather than states has proven extremely fruitful in understanding an important class of quantum operations. States used in error correction and certain communication protocols can be described by their stabilizer, a group of tensor products of Pauli matrices. Even this simple group structure is sufficient to allow a rich range of quantum effects, although it falls short of the full power of quantum computation.

Gottesman, D.

1998-06-24

173

Photon echo quantum RAM integration in quantum computer

We have analyzed an efficient integration of the multi-qubit echo quantum memory into the quantum computer scheme on the atomic resonant ensembles in quantum electrodynamics cavity. Here, one atomic ensemble with controllable inhomogeneous broadening is used for the quantum memory node and other atomic ensembles characterized by the homogeneous broadening of the resonant line are used as processing nodes. We have found optimal conditions for efficient integration of multi-qu...

Moiseev, Sergey A.; Andrianov, Sergey N.

2012-01-01

174

Experimental realization of quantum games on a quantum computer

We generalize the quantum Prisoner's Dilemma to the case where the players share a non maximally entangled states. We show that the game exhibits an intriguing structure as a function of the amount of entanglement with two thresholds which separate a classical region, an intermediate region and a fully quantum region. Furthermore this quantum game is experimentally realized on our nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer.

Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Shi, Mingjun; Wu, Jihui; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian

2001-01-01

175

Mathematical Foundations of Holonomic Quantum Computer

We make a brief review of (optical) Holonomic Quantum Computer (or Computation) proposed by Zanardi and Rasetti (quant-ph/9904011) and Pachos and Chountasis (quant-ph/9912093), and give a mathematical reinforcement to their works.

Fujii, Kazuyuki

2000-01-01

176

Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

2012-01-01

177

How to test the ``quantumness'' of a quantum computer?

Recent devices, using hundreds of superconducting quantum bits, claim to perform quantum computing. However, it is not an easy task to determine and quantify the degree of quantum coherence and control used by these devices. Namely, it is a difficult task to know with certainty whether or not a given device (e.g., the D-Wave One or D-Wave Two) is a quantum computer. Such a verification of quantum computing would be more accessible if we already had some kind of working quantum computer, to be able to compare the outputs of these various computing devices. Moreover, the verification process itself could strongly depend on whether the tested device is a standard (gate-based) or, e.g., an adiabatic quantum computer. Here we do not propose a technical solution to this quantum-computing “verification problem”, but rather outline the problem in a way which would help both specialists and non-experts to see the scale of this difficult task, and indicate some possible paths towards its solution.

Zagoskin, Alexandre; Il'ichev, Evgeni; Grajcar, Miroslav; Betouras, Joseph; Nori, Franco

2014-05-01

178

Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation. PMID:23432228

Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

2013-02-01

179

Universality and programmability of quantum computers

Manin, Feynman, and Deutsch have viewed quantum computing as a kind of universal physical simulation procedure. Much of the writing about quantum logic circuits and quantum Turing machines has shown how these machines can simulate an arbitrary unitary transformation on a finite number of qubits. The problem of universality has been addressed most famously in a paper by Deutsch, and later by Bernstein and Vazirani as well as Kitaev and Solovay. The quantum logic circuit model, developed by Feynman and Deutsch, has been more prominent in the research literature than Deutsch's quantum Turing machines. Quantum Turing machines form a class closely related to deterministic and probabilistic Turing machines and one might hope to find a universal machine in this class. A universal machine is the basis of a notion of programmability. The extent to which universality has in fact been established by the pioneers in the field is examined and this key notion in theoretical computer science is scrutinised in quantum comput...

Fouche', Willem; Jones, Glyn; Potgieter, Petrus H

2007-01-01

180

Mathematical Aspects of Quantum Computing 2007

Quantum computing: an overview / M. Nakahara -- Braid group and topological quantum computing / T. Ootsuka, K. Sakuma -- An introduction to entanglement theory / D. J. H. Markham -- Holonomic quantum computing and its optimization / S. Tanimura -- Playing games in quantum mechanical settings: features of quantum games / S. K. Özdemir, J. Shimamura, N. Imoto -- Quantum error-correcting codes / M. Hagiwara -- Poster summaries. Controled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit entangled state / V. Ebrahimi, R. Rahimi, M. Nakahara. Notes on the Dür-Cirac classification / Y. Ota, M. Yoshida, I. Ohba. Bang-bang control of entanglement in Spin-Bus-Boson model / R. Rahimi, A. SaiToh, M. Nakahara. Numerical computation of time-dependent multipartite nonclassical correlation / A. SaiToh ... [et al.]. On classical no-cloning theorem under Liouville dynamics and distances / T. Yamano, O. Iguchi.

Nakahara, Mikio; Rahimi, Robabeh; SaiToh, Akira

2008-04-01

181

Fault-tolerant holonomic quantum computation

We explain how to combine holonomic quantum computation (HQC) with fault tolerant quantum error correction. This establishes the scalability of HQC, putting it on equal footing with other models of computation, while retaining the inherent robustness the method derives from its geometric nature.

Oreshkov, Ognyan; Lidar, Daniel A

2008-01-01

182

Wavelets and Wavelet Packets on Quantum Computers

We show how periodized wavelet packet transforms and periodized wavelet transforms can be implemented on a quantum computer. Surprisingly, we find that the implementation of wavelet packet transforms is less costly than the implementation of wavelet transforms on a quantum computer.

Klappenecker, Andreas

1999-01-01

183

Computing a Turing-Incomputable Problem from Quantum Computing

A hypercomputation model named Infinite Square Well Hypercomputation Model (ISWHM) is built from quantum computation. This model is inspired by the model proposed by Tien D. Kieu quant-ph/0203034 and solves an Turing-incomputable problem. For the proposed model and problem, a simulation of its behavior is made. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that ISWHM is a universal quantum computation model.

Sicard, A; Ospina, J; Sicard, Andr\\'es; V\\'elez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

2003-01-01

184

Quantum Computing and the Jones Polynomial

This paper is an exploration of relationships between the Jones polynomial and quantum computing. We discuss the structure of the Jones polynomial in relation to representations of the Temperley Lieb algebra, and give an example of a unitary representation of the braid group. We discuss the evaluation of the polynomial as a generalized quantum amplitude and show how the braiding part of the evaluation can be construed as a quantum computation when the braiding representation...

Kauffman, Louis H.

2001-01-01

185

QCWAVE, a Mathematica quantum computer simulation update

This Mathematica 7.0/8.0 package upgrades and extends the quantum computer simulation code called QDENSITY. Use of the density matrix was emphasized in QDENSITY, although that code was also applicable to a quantum state description. In the present version, the quantum state version is stressed and made amenable to future extensions to parallel computer simulations. The add-on QCWAVE extends QDENSITY in several ways. The first way is to describe the action of one, two and thr...

Tabakin, Frank; Julia-diaz, Bruno

2011-01-01

186

Presheaf models of quantum computation: an outline

This paper outlines the construction of categorical models of higher-order quantum computation. We construct a concrete denotational semantics of Selinger and Valiron's quantum lambda calculus, which was previously an open problem. We do this by considering presheaves over appropriate base categories arising from first-order quantum computation. The main technical ingredients are Day's convolution theory and Kelly and Freyd's notion of continuity of functors. We first give a...

Malherbe, Octavio; Scott, Philip; Selinger, Peter

2013-01-01

187

Quantum Computing and the Limits of the Efficiently Computable

I'll discuss how computational complexity---the study of what can and can't be feasibly computed---has been interacting with physics in interesting and unexpected ways. I'll first give a crash course about computer science's P vs. NP problem, as well as about the capabilities and limits of quantum computers. I'll then touch on speculative models of computation that would go even beyond quantum computers, using (for example) hypothetical nonlinearities in the Schrodinger equation. Finally, I'll discuss BosonSampling ---a proposal for a simple form of quantum computing, which nevertheless seems intractable to simulate using a classical computer---as well as the role of computational complexity in the black hole information puzzle.

CERN. Geneva

2015-01-01

188

Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256

Tsai, Jaw-Shen

2010-01-01

189

Simulated Quantum Computation of Molecular Energies

The calculation time for the energy of atoms and molecules scales exponentially with system size on a classical computer but polynomially using quantum algorithms. We demonstrate that such algorithms can be applied to problems of chemical interest using modest numbers of quantum bits. Calculations of the water and lithium hydride molecular ground-state energies have been carried out on a quantum computer simulator using a recursive phase-estimation algorithm. The recursive algorithm reduces the number of quantum bits required for the readout register from about 20 to 4. Mappings of the molecular wave function to the quantum bits are described. An adiabatic method for the preparation of a good approximate ground-state wave function is described and demonstrated for a stretched hydrogen molecule. The number of quantum bits required scales linearly with the number of basis functions, and the number of gates required grows polynomially with the number of quantum bits.

Aspuru-Guzik, A; Love, P J; Head-Gordon, M; Aspuru-Guzik, Al\\'an; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Love, Peter J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

2005-01-01

190

Non-Mechanism in Quantum Oracle Computing

A typical oracle problem is finding which software program is installed on a computer, by running the computer and testing its input-output behaviour. The program is randomly chosen from a set of programs known to the problem solver. As well known, some oracle problems are solved more efficiently by using quantum algorithms; this naturally implies changing the computer to quantum, while the choice of the software program remains sharp. In order to highlight the non-mechanist...

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

1999-01-01

191

NMR Quantum Computation: a Critical Evaluation

Liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have produced some spectacular successes in the construction of small quantum computers, and NMR is currently by far the leading technology for quantum computation. There are, however, a number of significant problems with any attempt to scale up the technology to produce computers of any useful size. While it is probable that some of these will be successfully sidestepped during the next few years, it is unlikely that...

Jones, Ja

2000-01-01

192

Thermal Noise on Adiabatic Quantum Computation

The success of adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) depends crucially on the ability to maintain the quantum computer in the ground state of the evolution Hamiltonian. The computation process has to be sufficiently slow as restricted by the minimal energy gap. However, at finite temperatures, it might need to be fast enough to avoid thermal excitations. The question is, how fast does it need to be? The structure of evolution Hamiltonians for AQC is generally too complicated f...

Yung, Man-hong

2008-01-01

193

Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G ?G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap ? (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ?1. Calculating ? (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.

Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

2014-02-01

194

Resilient Quantum Computation Error Models and Thresholds

Recent research has demonstrated that quantum computers can solve certain types of problems substantially faster than the known classical algorithms. These problems include factoring integers and certain physics simulations. Practical quantum computation requires overcoming the problems of environmental noise and operational errors, problems which appear to be much more severe than in classical computation due to the inherent fragility of quantum superpositions involving many degrees of freedom. Here we show that arbitrarily accurate quantum computations are possible provided that the error per operation is below a threshold value. The result is obtained by combining quantum error-correction, fault tolerant state recovery, fault tolerant encoding of operations and concatenation. It holds under physically realistic assumptions on the errors.

Knill, E H; Zurek, W H; Knill, Emanuel; Laflamme, Raymond; Zurek, Wojciech H.

1997-01-01

195

Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation

In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.

Knill, E H; Laflamme, R; Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond

1998-01-01

196

Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.

Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.

1997-11-01

197

Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

198

Measurement Based Quantum Computation on Fractal Lattices

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.

Michal Hajdušek

2010-06-01

199

Principles of quantum computation and information

Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.

Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano

2004-01-01

200

Quantum computing and the chaotic amplifier

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model for computations is considered which combines the quantum computer with the chaotic dynamics amplifier, based on the logistic map. We discuss the satisfiability problem and argue that the problem can, in principle, be solved in polynomial time if one uses the new model for computations

201

Quantum computing and the chaotic amplifier

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new model for computations is considered which combines the quantum computer with the chaotic dynamics amplifier, based on the logistic map. We discuss the satisfiability problem and argue that the problem can, in principle, be solved in polynomial time if one uses the new model for computations.

Ohya, Masanori [Department of Information Sciences, Science University of Tokyo, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Volovich, Igor V [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkin Street 8, GSP-1, 117966, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-12-01

202

Efficiency of Ground State Quantum Computer

The energy gap is calculated for the ground state quantum computer circuit, which was recently proposed by Mizel et.al. When implementing a quantum algorithm by Hamiltonians containing only pairwise interaction, the inverse of energy gap $1/\\Delta$ is proportional to $N^{4k}$, where $N$ is the number of bits involved in the problem, and $N^k$ is the number of control operations performed in a standard quantum paradigm. Besides suppressing decoherence due to the energy gap, i...

Mao, Wenjin

2004-01-01

203

Space-Efficient Simulation of Quantum Computers

Traditional algorithms for simulating quantum computers on classical ones require an exponentially large amount of memory, and so typically cannot simulate general quantum circuits with more than about 30 or so qubits on a typical PC-scale platform with only a few gigabytes of main memory. However, more memory-efficient simulations are possible, requiring only polynomial or even linear space in the size of the quantum circuit being simulated. In this paper, we describe one s...

Frank, Michael P.; Meyer-baese, Uwe H.; Chiorescu, Irinel; Oniciuc, Liviu; Engelen, Robert A.

2008-01-01

204

Why now is the right time to study quantum computing

Quantum computing is a good way to justify difficult physics experiments. But until quantum computers are built, do computer scientists need to know anything about quantum information? In fact, quantum computing is not merely a recipe for new computing devices, but a new way of looking at the world that has been astonishingly intellectually productive. In this article, I'll talk about where quantum computing came from, what it is, and what we can learn from it.

Harrow, Aram W.

2014-01-01

205

Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF. PMID:24721781

Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

2014-01-01

206

Elements of quantum computing history, theories and engineering applications

A quantum computer is a computer based on a computational model which uses quantum mechanics, which is a subfield of physics to study phenomena at the micro level. There has been a growing interest on quantum computing in the 1990's, and some quantum computers at the experimental level were recently implemented. Quantum computers enable super-speed computation, and can solve some important problems whose solutions were regarded impossible or intractable with traditional computers. This book provides a quick introduction to quantum computing for readers who have no backgrounds of both theory of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” presents the history, theories, and engineering applications of quantum computing. The book is suitable to computer scientists, physicist, and software engineers.

Akama, Seiki

2015-01-01

207

Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?

We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…

Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul

2006-01-01

208

Quantum Computational Representation of the Bosonic Oscillator

By the early eighties, Fredkin, Feynman, Minsky and others were exploring the notion that the laws of physics could be simulated with computers. Feynman's particular contribution was to bring quantum mechanics into the discussion and his ideas played a key role in the development of quantum computation. It was shown in 1995 by Barenco et al that all quantum computation processes could be written in terms of local operations and CNOT gates. We show how one of the most important of all physical systems, the quantized bosonic oscillator, can be rewritten in precisely those terms and therefore described as a quantum computational process, exactly in line with Feynman's ideas. We discuss single particle excitations and coherent states.

Jaroszkiewicz, G

2005-01-01

209

Quantum vs. Classical Communication and Computation

We present a simple and general simulation technique that transforms any black-box quantum algorithm (a la Grover's database search algorithm) to a quantum communication protocol for a related problem, in a way that fully exploits the quantum parallelism. This allows us to obtain new positive and negative results. The positive results are novel quantum communication protocols that are built from nontrivial quantum algorithms via this simulation. These protocols, combined with (old and new) classical lower bounds, are shown to provide the first asymptotic separation results between the quantum and classical (probabilistic) two-party communication complexity models. In particular, we obtain a quadratic separation for the bounded-error model, and an exponential separation for the zero-error model. The negative results transform known quantum communication lower bounds to computational lower bounds in the black-box model. In particular, we show that the quadratic speed-up achieved by Grover for the OR function is...

Buhrman, H; Wigderson, A; Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Wigderson, Avi

1998-01-01

210

Classical signal-flow in cluster-state quantum computation

We study concretely how classical signals should be processed in quantum cluster-state computation. Deforming corresponding quantum teleportation circuit, we find a simple rule of a classical signal-flow to obtain correct quantum computation results.

Oshima, Kazuto

2009-01-01

211

Adiabatic Quantum Computing for Random Satisfiability Problems

The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to 1 for problem sizes feasible to evaluate via simulation on current computers. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps of most instances are fairly large, so the good perform...

Hogg, Tad

2002-01-01

212

Quantum computation based on particle statistics

In spite of their evident logical character, particle statistics symmetries are not among the inherently quantum features exploited in quantum computation. A difficulty may be that, being a constant of motion of a unitary evolution, a particle statistics symmetry cannot affect the course of such an evolution. We try to avoid this possible deadlock by introducing a generalized (counterfactual, blunt) formulation where this type of symmetry becomes a watchdog effect shaping the evolution of a unitary computation process. The work is an exploration.

Castagnoli, G C; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Monti, Dalida

1998-01-01

213

Geometries for universal quantum computation with matchgates

Matchgates are a group of two-qubit gates associated with free fermions. They are classically simulatable if restricted to act between nearest neighbors on a one-dimensional chain, but become universal for quantum computation with longer-range interactions. We describe various alternative geometries with nearest-neighbor interactions that result in universal quantum computation with matchgates only, including subtle departures from the chain. Our results pave the way for new...

Brod, Daniel J.; Galva?o, Ernesto F.

2012-01-01

214

Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors, but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use SWAP gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computati...

Brod, Daniel J.; Galva?o, Ernesto F.

2011-01-01

215

Waveguide-QED-Based Photonic Quantum Computation

We propose a new scheme for quantum computation using flying qubits--propagating photons in a one-dimensional waveguide--interacting with matter qubits. Photon-photon interactions are mediated by the coupling to a three- or four-level system, based on which photon-photon \\pi-phase gates (Controlled-NOT) can be implemented for universal quantum computation. We show that high gate fidelity is possible given recent dramatic experimental progress in superconducting circuits and ...

Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Baranger, Harold U.

2012-01-01

216

Valence Bond Solids for Quantum Computation

Cluster states are entangled multipartite states which enable to do universal quantum computation with local measurements only. We show that these states have a very simple interpretation in terms of valence bond solids, which allows to understand their entanglement properties in a transparent way. This allows to bridge the gap between the differences of the measurement-based proposals for quantum computing, and we will discuss several features and possible extensions.

Verstraete, F

2003-01-01

217

Quantum computer architecture for fast entropy extraction

If a quantum computer is stabilized by fault-tolerant quantum error correction (QEC), then most of its resources (qubits and operations) are dedicated to the extraction of error information. Analysis of this process leads to a set of central requirements for candidate computing devices, in addition to the basic ones of stable qubits and controllable gates and measurements. The logical structure of the extraction process has a natural geometry and hierarchy of communication n...

Steane, Am

2002-01-01

218

Quantum Computing: Theoretical versus Practical Possibility

An intense effort is being made today to build a quantum computer. Instead of presenting what has been achieved, I invoke here analogies from the history of science in an attempt to glimpse what the future might hold. Quantum computing is possible in principle - there are no known laws of Nature that prevent it - yet scaling up the few qubits demonstrated so far has proven to be exceedingly difficult. While this could be regarded merely as a technological or practical impedi...

Paraoanu, G. S.

2011-01-01

219

Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems

These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer impl...

Sandvik, Anders W.

2011-01-01

220

Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.

221

Discrete Cosine Transforms on Quantum Computers

A classical computer does not allow to calculate a discrete cosine transform on N points in less than linear time. This trivial lower bound is no longer valid for a computer that takes advantage of quantum mechanical superposition, entanglement, and interference principles. In fact, we show that it is possible to realize the discrete cosine transforms and the discrete sine transforms of size NxN and types I,II,III, and IV with as little as O(log^2 N) operations on a quantum computer, whereas the known fast algorithms on a classical computer need O(N log N) operations.

Klappenecker, A; Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin

2001-01-01

222

Technologies for photonic quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The photon is a near ideal carrier of quantum information showing little or no decoherence. The main sources of error become losses and small technical errors due to imperfect components. In the absence of single photon non-linearity we can use linear optics interference to make quantum gates albeit with limited efficiency. These optical quantum logic schemes require high efficiency sources of single and pair photons. These components in the quantum logic toolbox could be realised by exploiting wavelength scale engineering of optical structures. We discuss progress in developing high efficiency single photon sources based on periodic dielectric structures and generation of photon pairs in microstructured fibres. (author)

223

Decoherence Free Subspaces for Quantum Computation

Decoherence in quantum computers is formulated within the Semigroup approach. The error generators are identified with the generators of a Lie algebra. This allows for a comprehensive description which includes as a special case the frequently assumed spin-boson model. A general condition is presented for error-less quantum computation: decoherence-free subspaces are spanned by those states which are annihilated by all the generators. It is shown that these subspaces are stable to perturbations and moreover, that universal quantum oomputation is possible within them.

Lidar, D A; Whaley, K B

1998-01-01

224

Quantum computing without qubit-qubit interactions

Quantum computing tries to exploit entanglement and interference to process information more efficiently than the best known classical solutions. Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this approach have already been performed. However, finding a really scalable and robust quantum computing architecture remains a challenge for both, experimentalists and theoreticians. In most setups decoherence becomes non-negligible when one tries to perform entangling gate operations using the coherent control of qubit-qubit interactions. However, in this proceedings we show that two-qubit gate operations can be implemented even without qubit-qubit interactions and review a recent quantum computing scheme by Lim et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 030505 (2005)] using only single photon sources (e.g. atom-cavity systems, NV colour centres or quantum dots) and photon pair measurements.

Beige, A

2006-01-01

225

Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation

We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation paradigm. The NMR experiment consists of encoding a mass density onto an array of 16 two-qubit quantum information processors and then following the computation through 7 time steps of the algorithm. The results show good agreement with the analytic solution for diffusive dynamics. We also describe numerical simulations of the NMR implementation. The simulations aid in determining sources of experimental errors, and they help define the limits of the implementation.

Pravia, M A; Yepez, J; Cory, D G; Pravia, Marco A.; Chen, Zhiying; Yepez, Jeffrey; Cory, David G.

2003-01-01

226

Prospects for quantum computing: Extremely doubtful

The quantum computer is supposed to process information by applying unitary transformations to 2N complex amplitudes defining the state of N qubits. A useful machine needing N 103 or more, the number of continuous parameters describing the state of a quantum computer at any given moment is at least 21000 10300 which is much greater than the number of protons in the Universe. However, the theorists believe that the feasibility of large-scale quantum computing has been proved via the “threshold theorem”. Like for any theorem, the proof is based on a number of assumptions considered as axioms. However, in the physical world none of these assumptions can be fulfilled exactly. Any assumption can be only approached with some limited precision. So, the rather meaningless “error per qubit per gate” threshold must be supplemented by a list of the precisions with which all assumptions behind the threshold theorem should hold. Such a list still does not exist. The theory also seems to ignore the undesired free evolution of the quantum computer caused by the energy differences of quantum states entering any given superposition. Another important point is that the hypothetical quantum computer will be a system of 103 -106 qubits PLUS an extremely complex and monstrously sophisticated classical apparatus. This huge and strongly nonlinear system will generally exhibit instabilities and chaotic behavior.

Dyakonov, M. I.

2014-09-01

227

Computer science approach to quantum control

This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. It shows that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer.

Janzing, Dominik

2006-01-01

228

Charge based quantum computer without charge transfer

A novel implementation of a charge based quantum computer is proposed. There is no charge transfer during calculation, therefore, uncontrollable entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb forces is suppressed. High-speed computation with 1ps per an operation looks as feasible.

V Yurkov, V.; Gorelik, L. Y.

2000-01-01

229

Stability of quantum Fourier transformation on Ising quantum computer

We analyze the influence of errors on the implementation of the quantum Fourier transformation (QFT) on the Ising quantum computer (IQC). Two kinds of errors are studied: (i) due to spurious transitions caused by pulses and (ii) due to external perturbation. The scaling of errors with system parameters and number of qubits is explained. We use two different procedures to fight each of them. To suppress spurious transitions we use correcting pulses (generalized $2\\pi k$ metho...

Celardo, Giuseppe Luca; Pineda, Carlos; Z?nidaric?, Marko

2003-01-01

230

Quantum computation and quantum optics with circuit QED

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The idea of harnessing superconducting circuits to act as artificial atoms, and coupling them to microwave transmission line resonators has come a long way since its first realization in 2004. This architecture, termed circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED), has been successfully employed in a number of experiments probing fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, and has enabled impressive progress towards quantum computing. At the same time, circuit QED constitutes an appealing testbed for the theoretical understanding and modeling of driven open quantum systems. This talk gives an introduction to the basics of circuit QED, and a discussion of recent results obtained with the new transmon qubit, an improved Cooper pair box immune to 1/f charge noise

231

Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors, but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use SWAP gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computation. We identify the single local invariant of parity-preserving unitaries responsible for this, and discuss related results in the context of fermionic systems.

Brod, Daniel J

2011-01-01

232

Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use swap gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computation. We identify the single local invariant of parity-preserving unitaries responsible for this, and discuss related results in the context of fermionic systems.

233

Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use swap gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computation. We identify the single local invariant of parity-preserving unitaries responsible for this, and discuss related results in the context of fermionic systems.

Brod, Daniel J.; Galvao, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, 24210-340 (Brazil)

2011-08-15

234

Quantum Computing with Electron Spins in Quantum Dots

We present a set of concrete and realistic ideas for the implementation of a small-scale quantum computer using electron spins in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Initialization is based on leads in the quantum Hall regime with tunable spin-polarization. Read-out hinges on spin-to-charge conversion via spin-selective tunneling to or from the leads, followed by measurement of the number of electron charges on the dot via a charge detector. Single-qubit manipulation relies on...

Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Hanson, R.; Beveren, L. H. Willems; Elzerman, J. M.; Greidanus, J. S.; Franceschi, S.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

2002-01-01

235

Simulating Grover's Quantum Search in a Classical Computer

The rapid progress of computer science has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of computation, from classical computation to quantum computation. As quantum computing is on its way to becoming an established discipline of computing science, much effort is being put into the development of new quantum algorithms. One of quantum algorithms is Grover algorithm, which is used for searching an element in an unstructured list of N elements with quadratic speed-up over cl...

Ningtyas, D. K.; Mutiara, A. B.

2010-01-01

236

Biologically inspired path to quantum computer

We describe an approach to quantum computer inspired by the information processing at the molecular level in living cells. It is based on the separation of a small ensemble of qubits inside the living system (e.g., a bacterial cell), such that coherent quantum states of this ensemble remain practically unchanged for a long time. We use the notion of a quantum kernel to describe such an ensemble. Quantum kernel is not strictly connected with certain particles; it permanently exchanges atoms and molecules with the environment, which makes quantum kernel a virtual notion. There are many reasons to expect that the state of quantum kernel of a living system can be treated as the stationary state of some Hamiltonian. While the quantum kernel is responsible for the stability of dynamics at the time scale of cellular life, at the longer inter-generation time scale it can change, varying smoothly in the course of biological evolution. To the first level of approximation, quantum kernel can be described in the framework of qubit modification of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model, in which the relaxation corresponds to the exchange of matter between quantum kernel and the rest of the cell and is represented as Lindblad super-operators.

Ogryzko, Vasily; Ozhigov, Yuri

2014-12-01

237

Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems

These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.

Sandvik, Anders W

2011-01-01

238

Local Search Methods for Quantum Computers

Local search algorithms use the neighborhood relations among search states and often perform well for a variety of NP-hard combinatorial search problems. This paper shows how quantum computers can also use these neighborhood relations. An example of such a local quantum search is evaluated empirically for the satisfiability (SAT) problem and shown to be particularly effective for highly constrained instances. For problems with an intermediate number of constraints, it is som...

Hogg, Tad; Yanik, Mehmet

1998-01-01

239

Qdensity - a Mathematica Quantum Computer Simulation

This Mathematica 5.2 package~\\footnote{QDENSITY is available at http://www.pitt.edu/~tabakin/QDENSITY} is a simulation of a Quantum Computer. The program provides a modular, instructive approach for generating the basic elements that make up a quantum circuit. The main emphasis is on using the density matrix, although an approach using state vectors is also implemented in the package. The package commands are defined in {\\it Qdensity.m} which contains the tools needed in qua...

Julia?-di?az, B.; Burdis, J. M.; Tabakin, F.

2005-01-01

240

Towards Large-Scale Quantum Computation

This thesis deals with a series of quantum computer implementation issues from the Kane 31P in 28Si architecture to Shor's integer factoring algorithm and beyond. The discussion begins with simulations of the adiabatic Kane CNOT and readout gates, followed by linear nearest neighbor implementations of 5-qubit quantum error correction with and without fast measurement. A linear nearest neighbor circuit implementing Shor's algorithm is presented, then modified to remove the ne...

Fowler, Austin G.

2005-01-01

241

Simulated Quantum Computation of Global Minima

Finding the optimal solution to a complex optimization problem is of great importance in practically all fields of science, technology, technical design and econometrics. We demonstrate that a modified Grover's quantum algorithm can be applied to real problems of finding a global minimum using modest numbers of quantum bits. Calculations of the global minimum of simple test functions and Lennard-Jones clusters have been carried out on a quantum computer simulator using a modified Grover's algorithm. The number of function evaluations $N$ reduced from O(N) in classical simulation to $O(\\sqrt{N})$ in quantum simulation. We also show how the Grover's quantum algorithm can be combined with the classical Pivot method for global optimization to treat larger systems.

Zhu, Jing; Kais, Sabre

2009-01-01

242

Free spin quantum computation with semiconductor nanostructures

Taking the excess electron spin in a unit cell of semiconductor multiple quantum-dot structure as a qubit, we can implement scalable quantum computation without resorting to spin-spin interactions. The technique of single electron tunnelings and the structure of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are used to create a charge entangled state of two electrons which is then converted into spin entanglement states by using single spin rotations. Deterministic two-qubit quantum gates can also be manipulated using only single spin rotations with help of QCA. A single-short read-out of spin states can be realized by coupling the unit cell to a quantum point contact.

Zhang, W M; Soo, C; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wu, Yin-Zhong; Soo, Chopin

2005-01-01

243

Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation

Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n -queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems.

Kinjo, Mitsunaga; Sato, Shigeo; Nakamiya, Yuuki; Nakajima, Koji

2005-11-01

244

Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n-queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems

245

Universal Dephasing Control During Quantum Computation

Dephasing is a ubiquitous phenomenon that leads to the loss of coherence in quantum systems and the corruption of quantum information. We present a universal dynamical control approach to combat dephasing during all stages of quantum computation, namely, storage, single- and two-qubit operators. We show that (a) tailoring multi-frequency gate pulses to the dephasing dynamics can increase fidelity; (b) cross-dephasing, introduced by entanglement, can be eliminated by appropriate control fields; (c) counter-intuitively and contrary to previous schemes, one can increase the gate duration, while simultaneously increasing the total gate fidelity.

Gordon, Goren

2007-01-01

246

Universal dephasing control during quantum computation

Dephasing is a ubiquitous phenomenon that leads to the loss of coherence in quantum systems and the corruption of quantum information. We present a universal dynamical control approach to combat dephasing during all stages of quantum computation, namely, storage and single- and two-qubit operators. We show that (a) tailoring multifrequency gate pulses to the dephasing dynamics can increase fidelity; (b) cross-dephasing, introduced by entanglement, can be eliminated by appropriate control fields; (c) counterintuitively and contrary to previous schemes, one can increase the gate duration, while simultaneously increasing the total gate fidelity.

Gordon, Goren; Kurizki, Gershon

2007-10-01

247

Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.

Meyer, Steven [Tachyon Design Automation, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2013-07-01

248

Silicon enhancement mode nanostructures for quantum computing.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of silicon, enhancement mode nanostructures for solid-state quantum computing will be described. A primary motivation of this research is the recent unprecedented manipulation of single electron spins in GaAs quantum dots, which has been used to demonstrate a quantum bit. Long spin decoherence times are predicted possible in silicon qubits. This talk will focus on silicon enhancement mode quantum dot structures that emulate the GaAs lateral quantum dot qubit but use an enhancement mode field effect transistor (FET) structure. One critical concern for silicon quantum dots that use oxides as insulators in the FET structure is that defects in the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) stack can produce both detrimental electrostatic and paramagnetic effects on the qubit. Understanding the implications of defects in the Si MOS system is also relevant for other qubit architectures that have nearby dielectric passivated surfaces. Stable, lithographically defined, single-period Coulomb-blockade and single-electron charge sensing in a quantum dot nanostructure using a MOS stack will be presented. A combination of characterization of defects, modeling and consideration of modified approaches that incorporate SiGe or donors provides guidance about the enhancement mode MOS approach for future qubits and quantum circuit micro-architecture.

Carroll, Malcolm S.

2010-03-01

249

Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

2002-01-01

250

Remarks on Universal Quantum Computer

According to Deutsch, a universal quantum Turing machine (UQTM) is able to perform, in repeating a fixed unitary transformation on the total system, an arbitrary unitary transformation on an arbitrary data state, by including a program as another part of the input state. We note that if such a UQTM really exists, with the program state dependent on the data state, and if the prescribed halting scheme is indeed valid, then there would be no entanglement between the halt qubit...

Shi, Yu

1998-01-01

251

Modeling full adder in Ising spin quantum computer with 1000 qubits using quantum maps

The quantum adder is an essential attribute of a quantum computer, just as classical adder is needed for operation of a digital computer. We model the quantum full adder as a realistic complex algorithm on a large number of qubits in an Ising-spin quantum computer. Our results are an important step toward effective modeling of the quantum modular adder which is needed for Shor's and other quantum algorithms. Our full adder has the following features: (i) The near-resonant tr...

Kamenev, D. I.; Berman, G. P.; Kassman, R. B.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

2004-01-01

252

Computing with spins: From classical to quantum computing

This article traces a brief history of the use of single electron spins to compute. In classical computing schemes, a binary bit is represented by the spin polarization of a single electron confined in a quantum dot. If a weak magnetic field is present, the spin orientation becomes a binary variable which can encode logic 0 and logic 1. Coherent superposition of these two polarizations represent a qubit. By engineering the exchange interaction between closely spaced spins in...

Bandyopadhyay, S.

2004-01-01

253

Simulation of chemical reaction dynamics on an NMR quantum computer

Quantum simulation can beat current classical computers with minimally a few tens of qubits and will likely become the first practical use of a quantum computer. One promising application of quantum simulation is to attack challenging quantum chemistry problems. Here we report an experimental demonstration that a small nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) quantum computer is already able to simulate the dynamics of a prototype chemical reaction. The experimental results agree well with classical simulations. We conclude that the quantum simulation of chemical reaction dynamics not computable on current classical computers is feasible in the near future.

Lu, Dawei; Xu, Ruixue; Chen, Hongwei; Gong, Jiangbin; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

2011-01-01

254

Scalable quantum computing with atomic ensembles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atomic ensembles, comprising clouds of atoms addressed by laser fields, provide an attractive system for both the storage of quantum information and the coherent conversion of quantum information between atomic and optical degrees of freedom. We describe a scheme for full-scale quantum computing with atomic ensembles, in which qubits are encoded in symmetric collective excitations of many atoms. We consider the most important sources of error-imperfect exciton-photon coupling and photon losses-and demonstrate that the scheme is extremely robust against these processes: the required photon emission and collection efficiency threshold is {approx}>86%. Our scheme uses similar methods to those already demonstrated experimentally in the context of quantum repeater schemes and yet has information processing capabilities far beyond those proposals.

Barrett, Sean D [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rohde, Peter P [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Stace, Thomas M, E-mail: stace@physics.uq.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

2010-09-15

255

Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.

Negretti, Antonio; Treutlein, Philipp

2011-01-01

256

Scalable quantum computing with atomic ensembles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic ensembles, comprising clouds of atoms addressed by laser fields, provide an attractive system for both the storage of quantum information and the coherent conversion of quantum information between atomic and optical degrees of freedom. We describe a scheme for full-scale quantum computing with atomic ensembles, in which qubits are encoded in symmetric collective excitations of many atoms. We consider the most important sources of error-imperfect exciton-photon coupling and photon losses-and demonstrate that the scheme is extremely robust against these processes: the required photon emission and collection efficiency threshold is ?>86%. Our scheme uses similar methods to those already demonstrated experimentally in the context of quantum repeater schemes and yet has information processing capabilities far beyond those proposals.

257

Adiabatic quantum computing for random satisfiability problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to 1 for problem sizes feasible to evaluate via simulation on current computers. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps of most instances are fairly large, so the good performance scaling seen for small problems may not reflect asymptotic behavior where costs are dominated by tiny gaps. Moreover, the resulting search costs are much higher than for other methods. Variants of the quantum algorithm that do not match the adiabatic limit give lower costs, on average, and slower growth than the conventional GSAT heuristic method

258

Towards Fault Tolerant Adiabatic Quantum Computation

I show how to protect adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) against decoherence and certain control errors, using a hybrid methodology involving dynamical decoupling, subsystem and stabilizer codes, and energy gaps. Corresponding error bounds are derived. As an example I show how to perform decoherence-protected AQC against local noise using at most two-body interactions.

Lidar, Daniel A.

2007-01-01

259

Towards fault tolerant adiabatic quantum computation.

I show how to protect adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) against decoherence and certain control errors, using a hybrid methodology involving dynamical decoupling, subsystem and stabilizer codes, and energy gaps. Corresponding error bounds are derived. As an example, I show how to perform decoherence-protected AQC against local noise using at most two-body interactions. PMID:18518178

Lidar, Daniel A

2008-04-25

260

Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.

261

Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ? blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ? security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ?-blind UBQC for any ?>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

2012-05-01

262

First-order quantum phase transition in adiabatic quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the connection between local minima in the problem Hamiltonian and first-order quantum phase transitions during adiabatic quantum computation. We demonstrate how some properties of the local minima can lead to an extremely small gap that is exponentially sensitive to the Hamiltonian parameters. Using perturbation expansion, we derive an analytical formula that cannot only predict the behavior of the gap, but also provide insight on how to controllably vary the gap size by changing the parameters. We show agreement with numerical calculations for a weighted maximum independent set problem instance.

263

Elementary gates for quantum computation

We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values $(x,y)$ to $(x,x \\oplus y)$) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits $n$ (U($2^n$)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to o...

Barenco, A.; Bennett, C. H.; Cleve, R.; Divincenzo, D. P.; Margolus, N.; Shor, P.; Sleator, T.; Smolin, J.; Weinfurter, H.

1995-01-01

264

A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

2007-06-15

265

Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.

Mahesh S. Raisinghani

2001-01-01

266

Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment

Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.

Imai, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

267

Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer

Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: • harmonic waves and wave packets, • free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), • two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, • distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, • coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, • quantized angular momentum, • spin and magnetic resonance, • hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...

Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D

2011-01-01

268

Design constraints for nanometer scale quantum computers

Nanometer scale electronics present a challenge for the computer architect. These quantum devices have small gain and are difficult to interconnect. I have analyzed current device capabilities and explored two general design requirements for the design of computers: error correction and long range connections. These two principles follow when Turing machines are implemented as integrated circuits. I consider the roles of electromigration through thin wires, circuit layout, and error rates for devices with small gain. The analysis brings into sharp focus the future of nanocomputers and suggests solutions to some of its difficulties. It gives a theoretical model for a nanocomputer, separating the roles of devices and algorithms. Within the model one can implement a stochastic computer, which operates despite quantum device limitations.

Mainieri, R

1994-01-01

269

Ensemble Quantum Computing by NMR Spectroscopy

A quantum computer (QC) can operate in parallel on all its possible inputs at once, but the amount of information that can be extracted from the result is limited by the phenomenon of wave function collapse. We present a new computational model, which differs from a QC only in that the result of a measurement is the expectation value of the observable, rather than a random eigenvalue thereof. Such an expectation value QC can solve nondeterministic polynomial-time complete problems in polynomial time. This observation is significant precisely because the computational model can be realized, to a certain extent, by NMR spectroscopy on macroscopic ensembles of quantum spins, namely molecules in a test tube. This is made possible by identifying a manifold of statistical spin states, called pseudo-pure states, the mathematical description of which is isomorphic to that of an isolated spin system. The result is a novel NMR computer that can be programmed much like a QC, but in other respects more closely resembles a DNA computer. Most notably, when applied to intractable combinatorial problems, an NMR computer can use an amount of sample, rather than time, which grows exponentially with the size of the problem. Although NMR computers will be limited by current technology to exhaustive searches over only 15 to 20 bits, searches over as much as 50 bits are in principle possible, and more advanced algorithms could greatly extend the range of applicability of such machines.

Cory, David G.; Fahmy, Amr F.; Havel, Timothy F.

1997-03-01

270

QCWAVE, a Mathematica quantum computer simulation update

This Mathematica 7.0/8.0 package upgrades and extends the quantum computer simulation code called QDENSITY. Use of the density matrix was emphasized in QDENSITY, although that code was also applicable to a quantum state description. In the present version, the quantum state version is stressed and made amenable to future extensions to parallel computer simulations. The add-on QCWAVE extends QDENSITY in several ways. The first way is to describe the action of one, two and three- qubit quantum gates as a set of small ($2 \\times 2, 4\\times 4$ or $8\\times 8$) matrices acting on the $2^{n_q}$ amplitudes for a system of $n_q$ qubits. This procedure was described in our parallel computer simulation QCMPI and is reviewed here. The advantage is that smaller storage demands are made, without loss of speed, and that the procedure can take advantage of message passing interface (MPI) techniques, which will hopefully be generally available in future Mathematica versions. Another extension of QDENSITY provided here is a mu...

Tabakin, Frank

2011-01-01

271

Qutrit quantum computer with trapped ions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the physical implementation of a qutrit quantum computer in the context of trapped ions. Qutrits are defined in terms of electronic levels of trapped ions. We concentrate our attention on a universal two-qutrit gate, which corresponds to a controlled-NOT gate between qutrits. Using this gate and a general gate of an individual qutrit, any gate can be decomposed into a sequence of these gates. In particular, we show how this works for performing the quantum Fourier transform for n qutrits

272

Generalized quantum field theory: perturbative computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review some results obtained in the context of a deformed quantum field theory which is interpreted as a phenomenological quantum theory describing the scattering of spin-0 composite particles. We present the computation of the scattering 1+2 ->1'+2' up to second order in the coupling constant. The result we obtained shows that the structure of a composite particle, described here phenomenologically by the deformed algebraic structure, modify in a simple but non-trivial way the perturbation expansion for the process under consideration. (author)

273

Optical quantum computer based on RDS crystal

We have proposed the construction of optical quantum computer (OQC) on regular domain structure (RDS) crystal. By using RDS crystal, we can perform all the logical operations on one RDS crystal. Moreover, RDS crystals are parctically independent to the heating effects i.e., can perform logic operations constantly without cooling the RDS crystal. Also, we have proposed the quantum parallelsim i.e., parallel coherent laser beams are injected at the input of the RDS crystals. By using the RDS crystal we can perform the reduce the requirements of the linear and nonlinear optical components.

Sazonova, Z S; Singh, Ranjit

2001-01-01

274

Mathematical optics classical, quantum, and computational methods

Going beyond standard introductory texts, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods brings together many new mathematical techniques from optical science and engineering research. Profusely illustrated, the book makes the material accessible to students and newcomers to the field. Divided into six parts, the text presents state-of-the-art mathematical methods and applications in classical optics, quantum optics, and image processing. Part I describes the use of phase space concepts to characterize optical beams and the application of dynamic programming in optical wave

Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

2012-01-01

275

We briefly summarize here the history, conceptual base, as well as challenges and implications of quantum computing. Then, we present the theoretical requirements for viable quantum computation, as well as thestate-of-the-art experimental approach and a project of solid 129Xe NMR-based quantum computer.

Belaga, Edward G.; Grucker, Daniel

2003-01-01

276

Nonlinear Optics Quantum Computing with Circuit-QED

One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducti...

Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J. M.

2012-01-01

277

Quantum Computing in the Presence of Detected Spontaneous Emission

A new method for quantum computation in the presence of detected spontaneous emission is proposed. The method combines strong and fast (dynamical decoupling) pulses and a quantum error correcting code that encodes $n$ logical qubits into only $n+1$ physical qubits. Universal, fault-tolerant, quantum computation is shown to be possible in this scheme using Hamiltonians relevant to a range of promising proposals for the physical implementation of quantum computers.

Khodjasteh, K

2003-01-01

278

An Introduction to Quantum Computing for Non-Physicists

Richard Feynman's observation that quantum mechanical effects could not be simulated efficiently on a computer led to speculation that computation in general could be done more efficiently if it used quantum effects. This speculation appeared justified when Peter Shor described a polynomial time quantum algorithm for factoring integers. In quantum systems, the computational space increases exponentially with the size of the system which enables exponential parallelism. Thi...

Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Polak, Wolfgang

1998-01-01

279

Artificial Decoherence and its Suppression in NMR Quantum Computer

Liquid-state NMR quantum computer has demonstrated the possibility of quantum computation and supported its development. Using NMR quantum computer techniques, we observed phase decoherence under two kinds of artificial noise fields; one a noise with a long period, and the other with shorter random period. The first one models decoherence in a quantum channel while the second one models transverse relaxation. We demonstrated that the bang-bang control suppresses decoherence ...

Kondo, Yasushi; Nakahara, Mikio; Tanimura, Shogo

2006-01-01

280

Solid State Quantum Computing Using Spectral Holes

A quantum computer that stores information on two-state systems called quantum bits or qubits must be able to address and manipulate individual qubits, to effect coherent interactions between pairs of qubits, and to read out the value of qubits.1,2 Current methods for addressing qubits are divided up into spatial methods, as when a laser beam is focused on an individual qubit3,4,5 or spectral methods, as when a nuclear spin in a molecule is addressed using NMR.6,7 The density of qubits addressable spatially is limited by the wavelength of light, and the number of qubits addressable spectrally is limited by spin linewidths. Here, we propose a method for addressing qubits using a method that combines spatial and spectral selectivity. The result is a design for quantum computation that provides the potential for a density of quantum information storage and processing many orders of magnitude greater than that afforded by ion traps or NMR. Specifically, this method uses an ensemble of spectrally resolved atoms in...

Shahriar, M S; Lloyd, S; Bowers, J A; Craig, A E

2002-01-01

281

Photonic Quantum Computation with Waveguide-Linked Optical Cavities and Quantum Dots

We propose a new scheme for solid-state photonic quantum computation in which trapped photons in optical cavities are taken as a quantum bit. Quantum gates can be realized by coupling the cavities with quantum dots through waveguides. The proposed scheme allows programmable and deterministic gate operations and the system can be scaled up to many quantum bits.

Yamaguchi, Makoto; Asano, Takashi; Sato, Yoshiya; Noda, Susumu

2011-01-01

282

A Rosetta Stone for Quantum Mechanics with an Introduction to Quantum Computation

The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading the research literature in quantum computation and quantum information theory. This paper is a written version of the first of eight one hour lectures given in the American Mathematical Society (AMS) Short Course on Quantum Computation held in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the AMS in Washington, DC, USA in January 2000, and will appear in the AMS PSAPM volume entitled "Quantum Computation." Part 1 of the paper is an introduction the to the concept of the qubit. Part 2 gives an introduction to quantum mechanics covering such topics as Dirac notation, quantum measurement, Heisenberg uncertainty, Schrodinger's equation, density operators, partial trace, multipartite quantum systems, the Heisenberg versus the Schrodinger picture, quantum entanglement, EPR paradox, quantum entropy. Part 3 gives a brief ...

Lomonaco, S J

2000-01-01

283

Quantum computation with coupled-quantum-dots embedded in optical microcavities

Based on an idea that spatial separation of charge states can enhance quantum coherence, we propose a scheme for quantum computation with quantum bit (qubit) constructed from two coupled quantum dots. Quantum information is stored in electron-hole pair state with the electron and hole locating in different dots, which enables the qubit state being very long-lived. Universal quantum gates involving any pair of qubits are realized by coupling the quantum dots through cavity ph...

Li, Xin-qi; Yan, Yijing

2002-01-01

284

Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers

Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Ba...

Hogg, Tad

2001-01-01

285

Quantum problem solving as simultaneous computation

I provide an alternative way of seeing quantum computation. First, I describe an idealized classical problem solving machine that, thanks to a many body interaction, reversibly and nondeterministically produces the solution of the problem under the simultaneous influence of all the problem constraints. This requires a perfectly accurate, rigid, and reversible relation between the coordinates of the machine parts - the machine can be considered the many body generalization of...

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

286

Quantum Computer as a Probabilistic Inference Engine

We propose a new class of quantum computing algorithms which generalize many standard ones. The goal of our algorithms is to estimate probability distributions. Such estimates are useful in, for example, applications of Decision Theory and Artificial Intelligence, where inferences are made based on uncertain knowledge. The class of algorithms that we propose is based on a construction method that generalizes a Fredkin-Toffoli (F-T) construction method used in the field of cl...

Tucci, Robert R.

2000-01-01

287

Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices

In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques, while using a fraction of the computational resources and providing considerably more physical insight. Using this technique, we demonstrate that large dipole moments can exist between valley states in disordered systems, and calculate corrections to intervalley tunnel rates..

Gamble, John King

288

Chow's theorem and universal holonomic quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theorem from control theory relating the Lie algebra generated by vector fields on a manifold to the controllability of the dynamical system is shown to apply to holonomic quantum computation. Conditions for deriving the holonomy algebra are presented by taking covariant derivatives of the curvature associated with a non-Abelian gauge connection. When applied to the optical holonomic computer, these conditions determine that the holonomy group of the two-qubit interaction model contains SU(2)xSU(2). In particular, a universal two-qubit logic gate is attainable for this model. (author)

289

A New Way to Implement Quantum Computation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I shall sketch a new way to consider a Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra as a 3D logical space in which any one (of the 256 statements occupies a well-defined position and it is identified by a numerical ID. This allows pure mechanical computation both for generating rules and inferences. It is shown that this abstract formalism can be geometrically represented with logical spaces and subspaces allowing a vectorial representation. Finally, it shows the application to quantum computing through the example of three coupled harmonic oscillators.

Gennaro Auletta

2013-11-01

290

Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

2014-08-26

291

Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed

292

Quantum Cellular Automata: Computing with Quantum Dot Molecules

A new quantum computing architecture, quantum cellular automata, is studied. Quantum cellular automata (QCA's) are composed of interacting quantum dot molecules, each of which contains two electrons. Repulsion between these two electrons causes these molecules to exhibit bistable behavior, which allows the encoding of binary information directly in the quantum state of each cell. QCA's take advantage of "computing with the ground state", in which dissipation acts to drive the system to the ground state corresponding to the applied boundary conditions. By carefully designing the geometric layout of arrays of these quantum dot molecules, it is possible to perform useful calculations with these ground state alignments. The logic primitive of such a system is a majority logic gate, which can be reduced to act as either an AND gate or an OR gate. Due to the local nature of the Coulombic interaction between cells, it is possible to use hierarchical design rules to combine these elements into more complicated logic devices. Since the interactions between cells are purely Coulombic, no direct interconnections are necessary between QCA cells. In addition, energy is only supplied at the edge of the system when an input cell is switched, so QCA's can be said to be truly edge-driven. Such an edge-driven system will eliminate many of the fabrication challenges present in systems with complicated interconnection requirements. Although the results of a ground-state calculation do not rely on the exact nature of the system dynamics, these dynamics do provide an estimate of the switching speed of QCA devices. We have developed several approximate techniques for the modeling of this very complicated system and have obtained estimates on the intrinsic switching speed of both semiconductor-based cells and macro-molecular cells. As expected, the macro-molecular cells exhibit greatly improved performance over the larger semiconductor cells. An alternative to abrupt switching of QCA arrays takes advantage of the adiabatic theorem to guarantee that the system will always remain in its instantaneous ground state. Such adiabatic switching has several advantages over abrupt switching, the most important of which is avoidance of metastable states.

Tougaw, Paul Douglas

293

Computing the Exit Complexity of Knowledge in Distributed Quantum Computers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed Quantum computers abide from the exit complexity of the knowledge. The exit complexity is the accrue of the nodal information needed to clarify the total egress system with deference to a distinguished exit node. The core objective of this paper is to compile an arrogant methodology for assessing the exit complexity of the knowledge in distributed quantum computers. The proposed methodology is based on contouring the knowledge using the unlabeled binary trees, hence building an benchmarked and a computer based model. The proposed methodology dramatizes knowledge autocratically calculates the exit complexity. The methodology consists of several amphitheaters, starting with detecting the baron aspect of the tree of others entitled express knowledge and then measure the volume of information and the complexity of behavior destining from the bargain of information. Then calculate egress resulting from episodes that do not lead to the withdrawal of the information. In the end is calculated total egress complexity and then appraised total exit complexity of the system. Given the complexity of the operations within the Distributed Computing Quantity, this research addresses effective transactions that could affect the three-dimensional behavior of knowledge. The results materialized that the best affair where total exit complexity as minimal as possible is a picture of a binary tree is entitled at the rate of positive and negative cardinal points medium value. It could be argued that these cardinal points should not amass the upper bound apex or minimum.

M.A.Abbas

2013-01-01

294

Quantum computation over the butterfly network

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

295

Macroscopic models for quantum systems and computers

We present examples of macroscopic systems entailing a quantum mechanical structure. One of our examples has a structure which is isomorphic to the spin structure for a spin 1/2 and another system entails a structure isomorphic to the structure of two spin 1/2 in the entangled singlet state. We elaborate this system by showing that an arbitrary tensor product state representing two entangled qubits can be described in a complete way by a specific internal constraint between the ray or density states of the two qubits, which describes the behavior of the state of one of the spins if measurements are executed on the other spin. Since any n-qubit unitary operation can be decomposed into 2-qubit gates and unary operations, we argue that our representation of 2-qubit entanglement contributes to a better understanding of the role of n-qubit entanglement in quantum computation. We illustrate our approach on two 2-qubit algorithms proposed by Deutsch, respectively Arvind et al. One of the advantages of the 2-qubit case besides its relative simplicity is that it allows for a nice geometrical representation of entanglement, which contributes to a more intuitive grasp of what is going on in a 2-qubit quantum computation.

Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Dehaene, Jeroen; DeMoor, Bart; D'Hooghe, Bart

2007-05-01

296

Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.

297

Computational Advantage from Quantum-Controlled Ordering of Gates

It is usually assumed that a quantum computation is performed by applying gates in a specific order. One can relax this assumption by allowing a control quantum system to switch the order in which the gates are applied. This provides a more general kind of quantum computing that allows transformations on blackbox quantum gates that are impossible in a circuit with fixed order. Here we show that this model of quantum computing is physically realizable, by proposing an interferometric setup that can implement such a quantum control of the order between the gates. We show that this new resource provides a reduction in computational complexity: we propose a problem that can be solved by using O (n ) blackbox queries, whereas the best known quantum algorithm with fixed order between the gates requires O (n2) queries. Furthermore, we conjecture that solving this problem in a classical computer takes exponential time, which may be of independent interest.

Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, ?aslav

2014-12-01

298

Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

299

Experimental realization of order-finding with a quantum computer

Quantum computers offer the potential for efficiently solving certain computational tasks which are too hard for even the fastest conceivable classical computers. However, difficulties in maintaining coherent control over quantum systems have limited experimental quantum computations to demonstrations of Grover's search algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. Shor's remarkable quantum factoring algorithm has remained beyond the reach of these small-scale realizations. Here we report the experimental implementation of a quantum algorithm which generalizes Shor's algorithm to find the order of a permutation in fewer steps than is possible using a deterministic or probabilistic classical computer. The heart of the speed-up lies in the use of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) which allows one to efficiently determine the unknown periodicity of a function which is given as a black box. In this experiment, the spins of five $^{19}$F nuclei in a molecule subject to a static magnetic field acted as the quantum b...

Vandersypen, L M K; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Cleve, R; Chuang, I L; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.; Steffen, Matthias; Breyta, Gregory; Yannoni, Costantino S.; Cleve, Richard; Chuang, Isaac L.

2000-01-01

300

Logic Synthesis for Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computers

Efficient constructions for quantum logic are essential since quantum computation is experimentally challenging. This thesis develops quantum logic synthesis as a paradigm for reducing the resource overhead in fault-tolerant quantum computing. The model for error correction considered here is the surface code. After developing the theory behind general logic synthesis, the resource costs of magic-state distillation for the $T = \\exp(i \\pi (I-Z)/8)$ gate are quantitatively an...

Jones, N. Cody

2013-01-01

301

Quantum computational tensor network on string-net condensate

The string-net condensate is a new class of materials which exhibits the quantum topological order. In order to answer the important question, "how useful is the string-net condensate in quantum information processing?", we consider the most basic example of the string-net condensate, namely the $Z_2$ gauge string-net condensate on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and show that the universal measurement-based quantum computation (in the sense of the quantum computation...

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2010-01-01

302

Eigenstates of Operating Quantum Computer: Hypersensitivity to Static Imperfections

We study the properties of eigenstates of an operating quantum computer which simulates the dynamical evolution in the regime of quantum chaos. Even if the quantum algorithm is polynomial in number of qubits $n_q$, it is shown that the ideal eigenstates become mixed and strongly modified by static imperfections above a certain threshold which drops exponentially with $n_q$. Above this threshold the quantum eigenstate entropy grows linearly with $n_q$ but the computation rema...

Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Montangero, Simone; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

2001-01-01

303

Measurement-Only Topological Quantum Computation via Anyonic Interferometry

We describe measurement-only topological quantum computation using both projective and interferometrical measurement of topological charge. We demonstrate how anyonic teleportation can be achieved using "forced measurement" protocols for both types of measurement. Using this, it is shown how topological charge measurements can be used to generate the braiding transformations used in topological quantum computation, and hence that the physical transportation of computational ...

Bonderson, Parsa; Freedman, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

2008-01-01

304

Spintronics and Quantum Computing: Switching Mechanisms for Qubits

Quantum computing and quantum communication are remarkable examples of new information processing technologies that arise from the coherent manipulation of spins in nanostructures. We review our theoretical proposal for using electron spins in quantum-confined nanostructures as qubits. We present single- and two-qubit gate mechanisms in laterally as well as vertically coupled quantum dots and discuss the possibility to couple spins in quantum dots via exchange or superexchan...

Leuenberger, Michael N.; Loss, Daniel

2000-01-01

305

The Universe as a Quantum Computer

This article presents a sequential growth model for the universe that acts like a quantum computer. The basic constituents of the model are a special type of causal set (causet) called a $c$-causet. A $c$-causet is defined to be a causet that is independent of its labeling. We characterize $c$-causets as those causets that form a multipartite graph or equivalently those causets whose elements are comparable whenever their heights are different. We show that a $c$-causet has ...

Gudder, Stan

2014-01-01

306

A Macroscopic Device for Quantum Computation

We show how a compound system of two entangled qubits in a non-product state can be described in a complete way by extracting entanglement into an internal constraint between the two qubits. By making use of a sphere model representation for the spin 1/2, we derive a geometric model for entanglement. We illustrate our approach on 2-qubit algorithms proposed by Deutsch, respectively Arvind. One of the advantages of the 2-qubit case is that it allows for a nice geometrical representation of entanglement, which contributes to a more intuitive grasp of what is going on in a 2-qubit quantum computation.

Aerts, Diederik; D'Hondt, Ellie; D'Hooghe, Bart; Czachor, Marek; Dehaene, Jeroen; de Moor, Bart

2008-01-01

307

Gate sequence for continuous variable one-way quantum computation

Measurement-based one-way quantum computation using cluster states as resources provides an efficient model to perform computation and information processing of quantum codes. Arbitrary Gaussian quantum computation can be implemented sufficiently by long single-mode and two-mode gate sequences. However, continuous variable gate sequences have not been realized so far due to an absence of cluster states larger than four submodes. Here we present the first continuous variable gate sequence cons...

Su, Xiaolong; Hao, Shuhong; Deng, Xiaowei; Ma, Lingyu; Wang, Meihong; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

2013-01-01

308

A silicon-based cluster state quantum computer

It has been over ten years since Kane's influential proposal for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer using phosphorous donors. Since then, silicon-based architectures have been refined as the experimental challenges associated with the original proposal have become better understood, while simultaneously a number of powerful and generic models for quantum computation have emerged. Here, I discuss how the cluster state or "one-way" model for quantum computing might ...

Morton, John J. L.

2009-01-01

309

Spacetime Foam, Holographic Principle, and Black Hole Quantum Computers

Spacetime foam, also known as quantum foam, has its origin in quantum fluctuations of spacetime. Arguably it is the source of the holographic principle, which severely limits how densely information can be packed in space. Its physics is also intimately linked to that of black holes and computation. In particular, the same underlying physics is shown to govern the computational power of black hole quantum computers.

Ng, Y. Jack; van Dam, H.

310

Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabricaconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be proposed as a result of this work

311

Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be proposed as a result of this work.

Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Modine, Normand Arthur; Ganti, Anand; Pierson, Lyndon George; Tigges, Christopher P.

2003-12-01

312

Statistical mechanics of classical and quantum computational complexity

The quest for quantum computers is motivated by their potential for solving problems that defy existing, classical, computers. The theory of computational complexity, one of the crown jewels of computer science, provides a rigorous framework for classifying the hardness of problems according to the computational resources, most notably time, needed to solve them. Its extension to quantum computers allows the relative power of quantum computers to be analyzed. This framework identifies families of problems which are likely hard for classical computers (``NP-complete'') and those which are likely hard for quantum computers (``QMA-complete'') by indirect methods. That is, they identify problems of comparable worst-case difficulty without directly determining the individual hardness of any given instance. Statistical mechanical methods can be used to complement this classification by directly extracting information about particular families of instances---typically those that involve optimization---by studying ra...

Laumann, C R; Scardicchio, A; Sondhi, S L

2010-01-01

313

Lecture Script: Introduction to Computational Quantum Mechanics

This document is the lecture script of a one-semester course taught at the University of Basel in the Fall semesters of 2012 and 2013. It is aimed at advanced students of physics who are familiar with the concepts and notations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics lectures can often be separated into two classes. In the first class you get to know Schroedinger's equation and find the form and dynamics of simple physical systems (square well, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom); most calculations are analytic and inspired by calculations originally done in the 1920s and 1930s. In the second class you learn about large systems such as molecular structures, crystalline solids, or lattice models; these calculations are usually so complicated that it is difficult for the student to understand them in all detail. This lecture tries to bridge the gap between simple analytic calculations and complicated large-scale computations. We will revisit most of the problems encountered in introductory quantum mechanics, fo...

Schmied, Roman

2014-01-01

314

QDENSITY—A Mathematica Quantum Computer simulation

This Mathematica 5.2 package is a simulation of a Quantum Computer. The program provides a modular, instructive approach for generating the basic elements that make up a quantum circuit. The main emphasis is on using the density matrix, although an approach using state vectors is also implemented in the package. The package commands are defined in Qdensity.m which contains the tools needed in quantum circuits, e.g., multiqubit kets, projectors, gates, etc. Selected examples of the basic commands are presented here and a tutorial notebook, Tutorial.nb is provided with the package (available on our website) that serves as a full guide to the package. Finally, application is made to a variety of relevant cases, including Teleportation, Quantum Fourier transform, Grover's search and Shor's algorithm, in separate notebooks: QFT.nb, Teleportation.nb, Grover.nb and Shor.nb where each algorithm is explained in detail. Finally, two examples of the construction and manipulation of cluster states, which are part of "one way computing" ideas, are included as an additional tool in the notebook Cluster.nb. A Mathematica palette containing most commands in QDENSITY is also included: QDENSpalette.nb. Program summaryTitle of program: QDENSITY Catalogue identifier: ADXH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXH_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems: Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux FC4 Programming language used: Mathematica 5.2 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 180 581 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 382 Distribution format: tar.gz Method of solution: A Mathematica package is provided which contains commands to create and analyze quantum circuits. Several Mathematica notebooks containing relevant examples: Teleportation, Shor's Algorithm and Grover's search are explained in detail. A tutorial, Tutorial.nb is also enclosed. QDENSITY is available at http://www.pitt.edu/~tabakin/QDENSITY.

Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Burdis, Joseph M.; Tabakin, Frank

2006-06-01

315

Computer science approach to quantum control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerfes with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable definitions of complexity in computer science must be based upon a notion of elementary computation steps that correspond to not too complex real physical processes. This book tries to shed light on both aspects of this unification. (orig.)

316

Computer science approach to quantum control

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable definitions of complexity in computer science must be based upon a notion of elementary computation steps that correspond to not too complex real physical processes. This book tries to shed light on both aspects of this unification. (orig.)

Janzing, D.

2006-07-01

317

Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

2014-12-01

318

Quantum tunneling, quantum computing, and high temperature superconductivity

In this dissertation, I have studied four theoretical problems in quantum tunneling, quantum computing, and high-temperature superconductivity. (1) I have developed a generally-useful numerical tool for analyzing impurity-induced resonant-state images observed with scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in high-Tc superconductors. The integrated tunneling intensities on all predominant sites have been estimated. The results can be used to test the predictions of any tight-binding model calculation. (2) I have numerically simulated two-dimensional time-dependent tunneling of a Gaussian wave packet through a barrier, which contains charged ions. We have found that a negative ion in the barrier directly below the tunneling tip can deflect the tunneling electrons and drastically reduce the probability for them to reach the point in the target plane directly below the tunneling tip. (3) I have studied an infinite family of sure-success quantum algorithms, which are introduced by C.-R. Hu [Phys. Rev. A 66, 042301 (2002)], for solving a generalized Grover search problem. Rigorous proofs are found for several conjectures made by Hu and explicit equations are obtained for finding the values of two phase parameters which make the algorithms sure success. (4) Using self-consistent Hartree-Fock theory, I have studied an extended Hubbard model which includes quasi-long-range Coulomb interaction between the holes (characterized by parameter V). I have found that for sufficiently large V/t, doubly-charged-antiphase-island do become energetically favored localized objects in this system for moderate values of U/t, thus supporting a recent conjecture by C.-R. Hu [Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 17, 3284 (2003)].

Wang, Qian

2003-10-01

319

Preparing projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer

We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective PEPS on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run-time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS' parent Hamiltonian.

Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank

2011-01-01

320

Surface code quantum computing by lattice surgery

In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error correction in theoretical large-scale computational and communications architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and their natural two-dimensional nearest-neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an obvious choice for large scale designs in experimentally realistic systems. While fundamentally based on the toric code of Kitaev, there are many variants, two of which are the planar- and defect-based codes. Planar codes require fewer qubits to implement (for the same strength of error correction), but are restricted to encoding a single qubit of information. Interactions between encoded qubits are achieved via transversal operations, thus destroying the inherent 2DNN nature of the code. In this paper we introduce a new technique enabling the coupling of two planar codes without transversal operations, maintaining the 2DNN of the encoded computer. Our lattice surgery technique comprises splitting and merging planar code surfaces, and enables us to perform universal quantum computation (including magic state injection) while removing the need for braided logic in a strictly 2DNN design, and hence reduces the overall qubit resources for logic operations. Those resources are further reduced by the use of a rotated lattice for the planar encoding. We show how lattice surgery allows us to distribute encoded GHZ states in a more direct (and overhead friendly) manner, and how a demonstration of an encoded CNOT between two distance-3 logical states is possible with 53 physical qubits, half of that required in any other known construction in 2D.

Horsman, Clare; Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon; Van Meter, Rodney

2012-12-01

321

A scalable solid-state quantum computer based on quantum dot pillar structures

We investigate an optically driven quantum computer based on electric dipole transitions within coupled single-electron quantum dots. Our quantum register consists of a freestanding n-type pillar containing a series of pair wise coupled asymmetric quantum dots, each with a slightly different energy structure, and with grounding leads at the top and bottom of the pillar. Asymmetric quantum wells confine electrons along the pillar axis and a negatively biased gate wrapped arou...

Sanders, G. D.; Kim, K. W.; Holton, W. C.

2000-01-01

322

Practical experimental certification of computational quantum gates via twirling

Due to the technical difficulty of building large quantum computers, it is important to be able to estimate how faithful a given implementation is to an ideal quantum computer. The common approach of completely characterizing the computation process via quantum process tomography requires an exponential amount of resources, and thus is not practical even for relatively small devices. We solve this problem by demonstrating that twirling experiments previously used to characterize the average fidelity of quantum memories efficiently can be easily adapted to estimate the average fidelity of the experimental implementation of important quantum computation processes, such as unitaries in the Clifford group, in a practical and efficient manner with applicability in current quantum devices. Using this procedure, we demonstrate state-of-the-art coherent control of an ensemble of magnetic moments of nuclear spins in a single crystal solid by implementing the encoding operation for a 3 qubit code with only a 1% degrada...

Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

2011-01-01

323

CNOT operator and its similar matrices in quantum computation

We present a theoretical result, which is based on the linear algebra theory (similar operators). The obtained theoretical results optimize the experimental technique to construct quantum computer e.g., reduces the number of steps to perform the logical CNOT (XOR) operation. The present theoretical technique can also be generalized to the other operators in in quantum computation and information theory.

Sazonova, Z S; Singh, Ranjit

2001-01-01

324

Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

We propose a solid-state nuclear spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ($\\sim 10$T) and at low temperature $\\sim 1$K.

Berman, G P; Hawley, M E; Tsifrinovich, V I

2001-01-01

325

Refocusing schemes for holonomic quantum computation in presence of dissipation

The effects of dissipation on a holonomic quantum computation scheme are analyzed within the quantum-jump approach. We extend to the non-Abelian case the refocusing strategies formerly introduced for (Abelian) geometric computation. We show how double loop symmetrization schemes allow one to get rid of the unwanted influence of dissipation in the no-jump trajectory.

Cen, L X; Cen, Li-Xiang; Zanardi, Paolo

2004-01-01

326

The Brain Is both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer

In their article, "Is the Brain a Quantum Computer,?" Litt, Eliasmith, Kroon, Weinstein, and Thagard (2006) criticize the Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" quantum computational model of consciousness, arguing instead for neurocomputation as an explanation for mental phenomena. Here I clarify and defend Orch OR, show how Orch OR and neurocomputation are…

Hameroff, Stuart R.

2007-01-01

327

Computational quantum magnetism: Role of noncollinear magnetism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are witnessing today a golden age of innovation with novel magnetic materials and with discoveries important for both basic science and device applications. Computation and simulation have played a key role in the dramatic advances of the past and those we are witnessing today. A goal-driving computational science-simulations of every-increasing complexity of more and more realistic models has been brought into greater focus with greater computing power to run sophisticated and powerful software codes like our highly precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Indeed, significant progress has been achieved from advanced first-principles FLAPW calculations for the predictions of surface/interface magnetism. One recently resolved challenging issue is the role of noncollinear magnetism (NCM) that arises not only through the SOC, but also from the breaking of symmetry at surfaces and interfaces. For this, we will further review some specific advances we are witnessing today, including complex magnetic phenomena from noncollinear magnetism with no shape approximation for the magnetization (perpendicular MCA in transition-metal overlayers and superlattices; unidirectional anisotropy and exchange bias in FM and AFM bilayers; constricted domain walls important in quantum spin interfaces; and curling magnetic nano-scale dots as new candidates for non-volatile memory applications) and most recently providing new predictions and understanding of magg new predictions and understanding of magnetism in novel materials such as magnetic semiconductors and multi-ferroic systems

328

A Quantum Computer Foundation for the Standard Model and SuperString Theories

We show the Standard Model and SuperString Theories can be naturally based on a Quantum Computer foundation. The Standard Model of elementary particles can be viewed as defining a Quantum Computer Grammar and language. A Quantum Computer in a certain limit naturally forms a Superspace upon which Supersymmetry rotations can be defined - a Continuum Quantum Computer. Quantum high-level computer languages such as Quantum C and Quantum Assembly language are also discussed. In th...

Blaha, Stephen

2002-01-01

329

Parameter Estimation with Mixed-State Quantum Computation

We present a quantum algorithm to estimate parameters at the quantum metrology limit using deterministic quantum computation with one bit. When the interactions occurring in a quantum system are described by a Hamiltonian $H= \\theta H_0$, we estimate $\\theta$ by zooming in on previous estimations and by implementing an adaptive Bayesian procedure. The final result of the algorithm is an updated estimation of $\\theta$ whose variance has been decreased in proportion to the tim...

Somma, Rolando D.; Boixo, Sergio

2007-01-01

330

Toward measurement-based quantum computing using solid state spins

Recent developments in the theory of measurement-based quantum computing reduce the problem of building a quantum computer to that of achieving high quality rotation and measurement of single qubits. The first generation of such machines may well therefore consist of individual modules each containing a single quantum system that embodies the qubit. The first demonstrations of entanglement of electronic qubits by measurement have been performed recently in ion traps. The leading contenders fo...

Smith, Jm; Patton, B.; Grazioso, F.

2008-01-01

331

Quantum computing: a view from the enemy camp

Quantum computing relies on processing information within a quantum system with many continuous degrees of freedom. The practical implementation of this idea requires complete control over all of the 2^n independent amplitudes of a many-particle wavefunction, where n>1000. The principles of quantum computing are discussed from the practical point of view with the conclusion that no working device will be built in the forseeable future.

Dyakonov, M. I.

2001-01-01

332

Quantum computation in continuous time using dynamic invariants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce an approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants. This approach allows, under certain conditions, for the design of quantum algorithms running on a nonadiabatic regime. We show that the relaxation of adiabaticity can be achieved by processing information in the eigenlevels of a time dependent observable, namely, the dynamic invariant operator. Moreover, we derive the conditions for which the computation can be implemented by time independent as well as by adiabatically varying Hamiltonians. We illustrate our results by providing the implementation of both Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms via dynamic invariants. -- Highlights: ? An approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants is introduced. ? Nonadiabatic quantum computation is performed in the eigenlevels of the dynamic invariant operator. ? Condition of equivalence with adiabatic quantum computation is analyzed. ? Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms is provided.

333

Quantum computation in continuous time using dynamic invariants

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce an approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants. This approach allows, under certain conditions, for the design of quantum algorithms running on a nonadiabatic regime. We show that the relaxation of adiabaticity can be achieved by processing information in the eigenlevels of a time dependent observable, namely, the dynamic invariant operator. Moreover, we derive the conditions for which the computation can be implemented by time independent as well as by adiabatically varying Hamiltonians. We illustrate our results by providing the implementation of both Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms via dynamic invariants. -- Highlights: ? An approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants is introduced. ? Nonadiabatic quantum computation is performed in the eigenlevels of the dynamic invariant operator. ? Condition of equivalence with adiabatic quantum computation is analyzed. ? Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms is provided.

Sarandy, M.S., E-mail: msarandy@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Duzzioni, E.I., E-mail: duzzioni@infis.ufu.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Serra, R.M., E-mail: serra@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, Santo Andre, 09210-170, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2011-09-05

334

Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size

335

Simulating Quantum Computation on a Macroscopic Model

We present examples of macroscopic systems entailing a quantum mechanical structure. One of our examples has a structure which is isomorphic to the spin structure for a spin 1/2 and another system entails a structure isomorphic to the structure of two spin 1/2 in the entangled singlet state. We elaborate this system by showing that an arbitrary tensor product state representing two entangled qubits can be described in a complete way by a specific internal constraint between the ray or density states of the two qubits, which describes the behavior of the state of one of the spins if measurements are executed on the other spin. Since any n-qubit unitary operation can be decomposed into 2-qubit gates and unary operations, we argue that our representation of 2-qubit entanglement contributes to a better understanding of the role of n-qubit entanglement in quantum computation. We illustrate our approach on two 2-qubit algorithms proposed by Deutsch, respectively Arvind et al.

D'Hooghe, Bart

2007-12-01

336

Parallel computing and quantum simulations/011

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our goal was to investigate the suitability of parallel supercomputer architectures for Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Because QMC allows one to study the properties of ions and electrons in a solid, it has important applications to condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science. research plan was to Our specific 1. Adapt quantum simulation codes which were highly optimized for vector supercomputers to run on the Intel Hypercube and Thinking Machines CM--5. 2. Identify architectural bottlenecks in communication, floating point computation, and node memory. Determine scalability with number of nodes. 3. Identify algorithmic changes required to take advantage of current and prospective architectures. We have made significant progress towards these goals. We explored implementations of the p4 parallel programming system and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries to run ``world-line`` and ``determinant`` QMC and Molecular Dynamics simulations on both workstation clusters (HP, Spare, AIX, Linux) and massively parallel supercomputers (Intel iPSC1860, Meiko CS-2, BM SP-X, Intel Paragon). We addressed issues of the efficiency of parallelization as a function of distribution of the problem over the nodes and the length scale of the interactions between particles. Both choices influence he frequency of inter-node communication and the size of messages passed. We found that using the message-passing paradigm on an appropriate machine (e.g., the ntel iPSC/860) an essentially linear speedup could be obtained.

Alder, B., LLNL

1998-03-01

337

Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states Sz = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state Sz = ± S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, ?, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap ? in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

338

Quantum computing with magnetically interacting atoms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a scalable quantum-computing architecture based on cold atoms confined to sites of a tight optical lattice. The lattice is placed in a nonuniform magnetic field and the resulting Zeeman sublevels define qubit states. Microwave pulses tuned to space-dependent resonant frequencies are used for individual addressing. The atoms interact via magnetic-dipole interactions allowing implementation of a universal controlled-NOT gate. The resulting gate operation times for alkalis-metals are on the order of milliseconds, much faster then the anticipated decoherence times. Single qubit operations take about 10 ?s. Analysis of motional decoherence due to NOT operations is given. We also comment on the improved feasibility of the proposed architecture with complex open-shell atoms, such as Cr, Eu, and metastable alkaline-earth atoms with larger magnetic moments

339

Parallel Photonic Quantum Computation Assisted by Quantum Dots in One-Side Optical Microcavities

Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we investigate the possibility of parallel quantum computations dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gates operating on the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of two-photon or one-photon systems by exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. These hyper-CNOT gates show that the quantum states of two DOFs can be viewed as independent qubits without requiring auxiliary DOFs in theory. This result can reduce the quantum resources by half for quantum applications with large qubit systems, such as the quantum Shor algorithm. PMID:25030424

Luo, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xiaojun

2014-01-01

340

Elementary Particles as Gates for Universal Quantum Computation

It is shown that there exists a mapping between the fermions of the Standard Model (SM) represented as braids in the Bilson-Thompson model, and a set of gates which can perform Universal Quantum Computation (UQC). This leads us to conjecture that the "Computational Universe Hypothesis" (CUH) can be given a concrete implementation in a new physical framework where elementary particles and the gauge bosons (which intermediate interactions between fermions) are interpreted as the components of a quantum computational network, with the particles serving as quantum computational gates and the gauge fields as the information carrying entities.

Vaid, Deepak

2013-01-01

341

Quantum gravity computers: On the theory of computation with indefinite causal structure

A quantum gravity computer is one for which the particular effects of quantum gravity are relevant. In general relativity, causal structure is non-fixed. In quantum theory non-fixed quantities are subject to quantum uncertainty. It is therefore likely that, in a theory of quantum gravity, we will have indefinite causal structure. This means that there will be no matter of fact as to whether a particular interval is timelike or not. We study the implications of this for the t...

Hardy, Lucien

2007-01-01

342

Computation in Sofic Quantum Dynamical Systems

We analyze how measured quantum dynamical systems store and process information, introducing sofic quantum dynamical systems. Using recently introduced information-theoretic measures for quantum processes, we quantify their information storage and processing in terms of entropy rate and excess entropy, giving closed-form expressions where possible. To illustrate the impact of measurement on information storage in quantum processes, we analyze two spin-1 sofic quantum systems that differ only in how they are measured.

Wiesner, Karoline

2007-01-01

343

Quantum vs. Classical Communication and Computation

We present a simple and general simulation technique that transforms any black-box quantum algorithm (a la Grover's database search algorithm) to a quantum communication protocol for a related problem, in a way that fully exploits the quantum parallelism. This allows us to obtain new positive and negative results. The positive results are novel quantum communication protocols that are built from nontrivial quantum algorithms via this simulation. These protocols, combined wit...

Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Wigderson, Avi

1998-01-01

344

Quantum Computing Using an Open System and Projected Subspace

Using the subdynamical kinetic equation for an open quantum system, a formulation is presented for performing decoherence-free (DF) quantum computing in Rigged Liouville Space (RLS). Three types of interactions were considered, and in each case, stationary and evolutionary states were evaluated for DF behavior in both the total space and the projected subspace. Projected subspaces were found using the subdynamics kinetic equation. It was shown that although the total space may be decoherent, the subspace can be DF. In the projected subspace, the evolution of the density operator may be time asymmetric. Hence, a formulation for performing quantum computing in RLS or rigged Hilbert space (RHS) was proposed, and a quantum Controlled-Not Logical gate with corresponding operations in RLS (RHS) was constructed. A generalized quantum Turing machine in RHS was also discussed. Key Words: Quantum Computing, Subdynamics, Rigged Liouvile Space, Decoherence, Open System PACS: 05.30.-d+85.30+82.20.Db+84.35.+i

Qiao, B; Zhen, X H; Qiao, Bi; Ruda, Harry. E.

2001-01-01

345

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental...

2004-01-01

346

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental ...

2004-01-01

347

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental c...

2004-01-01

348

Secure multiparty quantum computation based on bit commitment

This paper studies secure multiparty quantum computation (SMQC) without nonlocal measurements. Firstly, this task is reduced to secure two-party quantum computation of nonlocal controlled-NOT (NL-CNOT) gate. Then, in the passive adversaries model, the secure computation of NL-CNOT is reduced to bit commitment. Thus, a SMQC scheme can be constructed based on bit commitment. This scheme does not depend on trusted third party, and is secure in the passive adversaries model. It ...

Liang, Min

2013-01-01

349

The Signals and Systems Approach to Quantum Computation

In this note we point out the fact that the proper conceptual setting of quantum computation is the theory of Linear Time Invariant systems. To convince readers of the utility of the approach, we introduce a new model of computation based on the orthogonal group. This makes the link to traditional electronics engineering clear. We conjecture that the speed up achieved in quantum computation is at the cost of increased circuit complexity.

Gadiyar, H G; Padma, R; Sharatchandra, H S

2003-01-01

350

From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry

Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for ...

-h Yung, M.; Casanova, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Mcclean, J.; Lamata, L.; Aspuru-guzik, A.; Solano, E.

2014-01-01

351

Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13 published papers, 15 invited talks and lectures nationally and internationally. My former graduate student and postdoc Dr. Michal Bajdich, who was supported byt this grant, is currently a postdoc with ORNL in the group of Dr. F. Reboredo and Dr. P. Kent and is using the developed tools in a number of DOE projects. The QWalk package has become a truly important research tool used by the electronic structure community and has attracted several new developers in other research groups. Our tools use several types of correlated wavefunction approaches, variational, diffusion and reptation methods, large-scale optimization methods for wavefunctions and enables to calculate energy differences such as cohesion, electronic gaps, but also densities and other properties, using multiple runs one can obtain equations of state for given structures and beyond. Our codes use efficient numerical and Monte Carlo strategies (high accuracy numerical orbitals, multi-reference wave functions, highly accurate correlation factors, pairing orbitals, force biased and correlated sampling Monte Carlo), are robustly parallelized and enable to run on tens of thousands cores very efficiently. Our demonstration applications were focused on the challenging research problems in several fields of materials science such as transition metal solids. We note that our study of FeO solid was the first QMC calculation of transition metal oxides at high pressures.

Lubos Mitas

2011-01-26

352

Mesoporous matrices for quantum computation with improved response through redundance

We present a solid state implementation of quantum computation, which improves previously proposed optically driven schemes. Our proposal is based on vertical arrays of quantum dots embedded in a mesoporous material which can be fabricated with present technology. The redundant encoding typical of the chosen hardware protects the computation against gate errors and the effects of measurement induced noise. The system parameters required for quantum computation applications are calculated for II-VI and III-V materials and found to be within the experimental range. The proposed hardware may help minimize errors due to polydispersity of dot sizes, which is at present one of the main problems in relation to quantum dot-based quantum computation.

Hodgson, T; Leventis, N; D'Amico, I; 10.1063/1.2745438

2009-01-01

353

A Quantum Full Adder for a Scalable Nuclear Spin Quantum Computer

We demonstrate a strategy for implementation a quantum full adder in a spin chain quantum computer. As an example, we simulate a quantum full adder in a chain containing 201 spins. Our simulations also demonstrate how one can minimize errors generated by non-resonant effects.

Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Lopez, G. V.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

2001-01-01

354

High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation

We study a hybrid quantum computing system using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble (NVE) as quantum memory, current-biased Josephson junction (CBJJ) superconducting qubit fabricated in a transmission line resonator (TLR) as quantum computing processor and the microwave photons in TLR as quantum data bus. The storage process is seriously treated by considering all kinds of decoherence mechanisms. Such a hybrid quantum device can also be used to create multi-qubit W states of NVEs through a common CBJJ. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology.

Yang, W L; Hu, Y; Feng, M; Du, J F

2011-01-01

355

Continuous-Variable Quantum Computing in Optical Time-Frequency Modes Using Quantum Memories

We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

Humphreys, Peter C.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

2014-09-01

356

On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

Farid Ablayev

2011-03-01

357

We present a model for quantum computation using n steady 3-level atoms or 3-level quantum dots, kept inside a quantum electro-dynamics (QED) cavity. Our model allows one-qubit operations and the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate as required for universal quantum computation. The n quantum bits are described by two energy levels of each atom/dot. An external laser and n separate pairs of electrodes are used to address a single atom/dot independent of the others, via Stark effect...

Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, Kang L.

2000-01-01

358

Experimental realization of a quantum game on a one-way quantum computer

We report the first demonstration of a quantum game on an all-optical one-way quantum computer. Following a recent theoretical proposal we implement a quantum version of Prisoner's Dilemma, where the quantum circuit is realized by a 4-qubit box-cluster configuration and the player's local strategies by measurements performed on the physical qubits of the cluster. This demonstration underlines the strength and versatility of the one-way model and we expect that this will trig...

Prevedel, Robert; Stefanov, Andre; Walther, Philip; Zeilinger, Anton

2007-01-01

359

Cavity-assisted quantum computing in a silicon nanostructure

We present a scheme of quantum computing with charge qubits corresponding to one excess electron shared between dangling-bond pairs of surface silicon atoms that couple to a microwave stripline resonator on a chip. By choosing a certain evolution time, we propose the realization of a set of universal single- and two-qubit logical gates. Due to its intrinsic stability and scalability, the silicon dangling-bond charge qubit can be regarded as one of the most promising candidates for quantum computation. Compared to the previous schemes on quantum computing with silicon bulk systems, our scheme shows such advantages as a long coherent time and direct control and readout.

Tang, Bao; Qin, Hao; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Xue, Peng

2014-05-01

360

Computational Nuclear Quantum Many-Body Problem: The UNEDF Project

The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.

Bogner, Scott; Carlson, Joseph A; Engel, Jonathan; Fann, George; Furnstahl, Richard J; Gandolfi, Stefano; Hagen, Gaute; Horoi, Mihai; Johnson, Calvin W; Kortelainen, Markus; Lusk, Ewing; Maris, Pieter; Nam, Hai Ah; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ng, Esmond G; Nobre, Gustavo P A; Ormand, Erich; Papenbrock, Thomas; Pei, Junchen; Pieper, Steven C; Quaglioni, Sofia; Roche, Kenneth J; Sarich, Jason; Schunck, Nicolas; Sosonkina, Masha; Terasaki, Jun; Thompson, Ian J; Vary, James P; Wild, Stefan M

2013-01-01

361

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whereas quantum computing circuits follow the symmetries of the unitary Lie group, classical reversible computation circuits follow the symmetries of a finite group, i.e., the symmetric group. We confront the decomposition of an arbitrary classical reversible circuit with w bits and the decomposition of an arbitrary quantum circuit with w qubits. Both decompositions use the control gate as building block, i.e., a circuit transforming only one (qubit, the transformation being controlled by the other w?1 (qubits. We explain why the former circuit can be decomposed into 2w ? 1 control gates, whereas the latter circuit needs 2w ? 1 control gates. We investigate whether computer circuits, not based on the full unitary group but instead on a subgroup of the unitary group, may be decomposable either into 2w ? 1 or into 2w ? 1 control gates.

Alexis De Vos

2011-06-01

362

Symmetry-protected phases for measurement-based quantum computation

Ground states of spin lattices can serve as a resource for measurement-based quantum computation. Ideally, the ability to perform quantum gates via measurements on such states would be insensitive to small variations in the Hamiltonian. Here, we describe a class of symmetry-protected topological orders in one-dimensional systems, any one of which ensures the perfect operation of the identity gate. As a result, measurement-based quantum gates can be a robust property of an en...

Else, Dominic V.; Schwarz, Ilai; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Doherty, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

363

Quantum computing with trapped ions, atoms and light

We consider experimental issues relevant to quantum computing, and discuss the best way to achieve the essential requirements of reliable quantum memory and gate operations. Nuclear spins in trapped ions or atoms are a very promising candidate for the qubits. We estimate the parameters required to couple atoms using light via cavity QED in order to achieve quantum gates. We briefly comment on recent improvements to the Cirac-Zoller method for coupling trapped ions via their vibrational degree...

Steane, Am; Lucas, Dm

2000-01-01

364

Phonon-mediated entanglement for trapped ion quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trapped ions are a near ideal system to study quantum information processing due to the high degree of control over the ion's external confinement and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the key steps necessary for trapped ion quantum computing and focus on phonon-mediated entangling gates. We highlight several key algorithms implemented over the last decade with these gates and give a detailed description of Grover's quantum database search implemented with two trapped ion qubits.

365

Boolean Functions, Quantum Gates, Hamilton Operators and Computer Algebra

We describe the construction of quantum gates (unitary operators) from boolean functions and give a number of applications. Both non-reversible and reversible boolean functions are considered. The construction of the Hamilton operator for a quantum gate is also described. Computer algebra implementations are provided.

Hardy, Yorick; Steeb, Willi-hans

2014-01-01

366

Experimental Realization of Discrete Fourier Transformation on NMR Quantum Computer

We report experimental implementation of discrete Fourier transformation(DFT) on a nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) quantum computer. Experimental results agree with theoretical results. Using the pulse sequences we introduced, DFT can be realized on any L-bit quantum number in principle.

Fu, Liping; Luo, Jun; Xiao, Li; Zeng, Xizhi

1999-01-01

367

Optical Schemes for Quantum Computation in Quantum Dot Molecules

We give three methods for entangling quantum states in quantum dots. We do this by showing how to tailor the resonant energy (F"orster-Dexter) transfer mechanisms and the biexciton binding energy in a quantum dot molecule. We calculate the magnitude of these two electrostatic interactions as a function of dot size, interdot separation, material composition, confinement potential and applied electric field by using an envelope function approximation in a two-cuboid dot molecule. In the first implementation, we show that it is desirable to suppress the F"orster coupling and to create entanglement by using the biexciton energy alone. We show how to perform universal quantum logic in a second implementation which uses the biexciton energy together with appropriately tuned laser pulses: by selecting appropriate materials parameters high fidelity logic can be achieved. The third implementation proposes generating quantum entanglement by switching the F"orster interaction itself. We show that the energy transfer can...

Lovett, B; Nazir, A; Briggs, A; Lovett, Brendon; Reina, John Henry; Nazir, Ahsan; Briggs, Andrew

2003-01-01

368

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to picture the main approaches of increasing the effectiveness of teaching the waves and quantum qualities of the light with application of computer technologies.?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????’??????? ??????????.

?.?. ?????????

2010-09-01

369

A silicon-based cluster state quantum computer

It has been over ten years since Kane's influential proposal for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer using phosphorous donors. Since then, silicon-based architectures have been refined as the experimental challenges associated with the original proposal have become better understood, while simultaneously a number of powerful and generic models for quantum computation have emerged. Here, I discuss how the cluster state or "one-way" model for quantum computing might be advantageously applied to donors in silicon, with the potential to substantially reduce the practical requirements of a successful implementation. The essence of the scheme is to use the electron spin associated with a donor to weave an entangled network between 31P donor nuclear spins. This resource has been shown to have exceptional coherence times and supports universal quantum computation through local measurements on the nuclear spins. Some of the key ingredients, such as global spin manipulation, have been robustly established, wh...

Morton, John J L

2009-01-01

370

A scalable solid-state quantum computer based on quantum dot pillar structures

We investigate an optically driven quantum computer based on electric dipole transitions within coupled single-electron quantum dots. Our quantum register consists of a freestanding n-type pillar containing a series of pair wise coupled asymmetric quantum dots, each with a slightly different energy structure, and with grounding leads at the top and bottom of the pillar. Asymmetric quantum wells confine electrons along the pillar axis and a negatively biased gate wrapped around the center of the pillar allows for electrostatic confinement in the radial direction. We self-consistently solve coupled Schrodinger and Poisson equations and develop a design for a three-qubit quantum register. Our results indicate that a single gate electrode can be used to localize a single electron in each of the quantum dots. Adjacent dots are strongly coupled by electric dipole-dipole interactions arising from the dot asymmetry, thus enabling rapid computation rates. The dots are tailored to minimize dephasing due to spontaneous ...

Sanders, G D; Holton, W C

2000-01-01

371

Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation

Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

2013-07-01

372

Solid-state quantum computer based on scanning tunneling microscopy.

We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (approximately 10 T) and at low temperature approximately 1 K. PMID:11531599

Berman, G P; Brown, G W; Hawley, M E; Tsifrinovich, V I

2001-08-27

373

Surface codes: Towards practical large-scale quantum computation

This article provides an introduction to surface code quantum computing. We first estimate the size and speed of a surface code quantum computer. We then introduce the concept of the stabilizer, using two qubits, and extend this concept to stabilizers acting on a two-dimensional array of physical qubits, on which we implement the surface code. We next describe how logical qubits are formed in the surface code array and give numerical estimates of their fault-tolerance. We ou...

Fowler, Austin G.; Mariantoni, Matteo; Martinis, John M.; Cleland, Andrew N.

2012-01-01

374

Reversible CAM Processor Modeled After Quantum Computer Behavior

Proposed below is a reversible digital computer modeled after the natural behavior of a quantum system. Using approaches usually reserved for idealized quantum computers, the Reversible CAM, or State Vector Parallel (RSVP) processor can easily find keywords in an unstructured database (that is, it can solve a needle in a haystack problem). The RSVP processor efficiently solves a SAT (Satisfiability of Boolean Formulae) problem; also it can aid in the solution of a GP (Global...

Burger, John Robert

2005-01-01

375

A Magnetic Resonance Realization of Decoherence-Free Quantum Computation

We report the realization, using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, of the first quantum computer that reliably executes an algorithm in the presence of strong decoherence. The computer is based on a quantum error avoidance code that protects against a class of multiple-qubit errors. The code stores two decoherence-free logical qubits in four noisy physical qubits. The computer successfully executes Grover's search algorithm in the presence of arbitrarily strong engineered decoherence. A control computer with no decoherence protection consistently fails under the same conditions.

Ollerenshaw, J E; Kay, L E; Ollerenshaw, Jason E.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Kay, Lewis E.

2003-01-01

376

Preserving coherence in quantum computation by pairing the quantum bits

A scheme is proposed for protecting quantum states from both independent decoherence and cooperative decoherence. The scheme operates by pairing each qubit (two-state quantum system) with an ancilla qubit and by encoding the states of the qubits into the corresponding coherence-preserving states of the qubit-pairs. In this scheme, the amplitude damping (loss of energy) is prevented as well as the phase damping (dephasing) by a strategy called the free-Hamiltonian-elimination We further extend the scheme to include quantum gate operations and show that loss and decoherence during the gate operations can also be prevented.

Duan, L M; Duan, Lu-Ming; Guo, Guang-Can

1997-01-01

377

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most f...

Bendersky, Ariel; La Torre, Gonzalo; Senno, Gabriel; Figueira, Santiago; Acin, Antonio

2014-01-01

378

Experimental all-optical one-way quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the relatively new field of quantum information processing (QIP) has attracted the attention of many scientists around the world due to its promise of increased computational speed, absolute secure communication and the potential to simulate complex quantum mechanical systems. The very essence of this new quantum information technology are two concepts at the very heart of quantum mechanics, namely superposition and entanglement. The present Thesis contains the results of four different experiments that were all aimed at the demonstration of an entirely new model for quantum computing with linear optics, the 'one-way' quantum computer. For this purpose a multi-photon entangled state of four photons has been generated via the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion and by using an interferometric setup. This entangled state acts as a resource that allowed for novel demonstrations of quantum algorithms and relevant experimental techniques. By exploiting the advances developed in both theory and experiment, in this Thesis we report the implementation of fast, active feed-forward that allowed, for the first time, the realization of deterministic linear optics quantum computing at an unprecedented speed. Further we were able to demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm on our one-way quantum computer, an important quantum algorithm that is capable of distinguishing whether a function is constant or balanced. Classically one needs to query the algorithm asically one needs to query the algorithm at least 2N/2 + 1 times for an N-bit binary input string, however, in the quantum regime, this can be done with one evaluation of the algorithm, independent of the size of the input. In another experiment we succeeded in playing an instance of a quantum game - the so-called Prisoner's dilemma - on our one-way quantum computer. Playing such a game is essentially the execution of a quantum algorithm made up of a distinct set of one- and two-qubit gates. This allows the individual players to increase their strategy space, as they can also choose between superposition of classical input states while their choices get entangled. Evaluating the payoff function of this game for different strategy sets, we were able to experimentally show that the so-called 'dilemma', that occurs in the classical version of this game, can be resolved in the quantum domain. unfortunately, one of the main obstacles on the road towards the realization of large-scale quantum computers is decoherence, the ubiquitous loss of information encoded in a quantum system due to its uncontrollable interaction with an environment. One possible approach to overcome this challenge is to perform the computation in a so-called decoherence-free subspace (DFS). Building up on previous work on concepts of DFS we have been able to theoretically adapt these concepts to the model of one-way quantum computing. This allowed us to demonstrate for the first time the decoherence-free execution of a one-way quantum computing protocol while the photons were exposed to severe phase-damping noise. Remarkable protection of information was accomplished, delivering nearly ideal outcomes. Although the experiments presented in this thesis are proof-of-principle they are of great significance in the field of QIP and will hopefully pave the way for ever more exciting inventions and experimental demonstrations in the future. (author)

379

New Approaches to Quantum Computing using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power of a quantum computer (QC) relies on the fundamental concept of the superposition in quantum mechanics and thus allowing an inherent large-scale parallelization of computation. In a QC, binary information embodied in a quantum system, such as spin degrees of freedom of a spin-1/2 particle forms the qubits (quantum mechanical bits), over which appropriate logical gates perform the computation. In classical computers, the basic unit of information is the bit, which can take a value of either 0 or 1. Bits are connected together by logic gates to form logic circuits to implement complex logical operations. The expansion of modern computers has been driven by the developments of faster, smaller and cheaper logic gates. As the size of the logic gates become smaller toward the level of atomic dimensions, the performance of such a system is no longer considered classical but is rather governed by quantum mechanics. Quantum computers offer the potentially superior prospect of solving computational problems that are intractable to classical computers such as efficient database searches and cryptography. A variety of algorithms have been developed recently, most notably Shor's algorithm for factorizing long numbers into prime factors in polynomial time and Grover's quantum search algorithm. The algorithms that were of only theoretical interest as recently, until several methods were proposed to build an experimental QC. These methods include, trapped ions, cavity-QED, ethods include, trapped ions, cavity-QED, coupled quantum dots, Josephson junctions, spin resonance transistors, linear optics and nuclear magnetic resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely capable of constructing small QCs and several algorithms have been implemented successfully. NMR-QC differs from other implementations in one important way that it is not a single QC, but a statistical ensemble of them. Thus, quantum computing based on NMR is considered as ensemble quantum computing. In NMR quantum computing, the spins with non-zero nuclear moments (spin 1/2 nuclei such as 1H or 13C) in an organic molecule dissolved in a solvent constitute the required qubits. The logic gates and algorithms correspond to set of instructions containing radio frequency (r.f) pulses and delays that manipulate the qubits and the final spectrum reflects the outcome of the algorithm. Three years ago, when we initiated proposal on NMR-QC, the foremost of the aim is to develop quantum computing as part of LLNL research programs and hence cultivate an interdisciplinary working group in the area of quantum computing. Our success in the proposal is in part responsible for the formation of the laboratory-wide exploratory group on ''quantum computing and information''. The PI's play an integral role in promoting the work performed using the LDRD funded project and hence acquire the attention within the lab as well outside. In specific goals of the project were to (a) develop experimental and sample based methods to improve the performance of NMR-QC, (b) define and estimate actual time cost or efficiency of a QCs, and (c) construct a comprehensive simulator of QC based on the principles of ensemble quantum computing. We were able to accomplish these goals and in particular we have reached some significant milestones in defining the QC efficiency and development of the QC-simulator. These developments have resulted to three publications

380

We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read-out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects, and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity.

Calarco, T; Fedichev, P; Pazy, E; Zoller, P

2003-01-01

381

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity

382

Experimental realization of a quantum game on a one-way quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the first demonstration of a quantum game on an all-optical one-way quantum computer. Following a recent theoretical proposal we implement a quantum version of Prisoner's Dilemma, where the quantum circuit is realized by a four-qubit box-cluster configuration and the player's local strategies by measurements performed on the physical qubits of the cluster. This demonstration underlines the strength and versatility of the one-way model and we expect that this will trigger further interest in designing quantum protocols and algorithms to be tested in state-of-the-art cluster resources

383

Quantum computation with devices whose contents are never read

In classical computation, a "write-only memory" (WOM) is little more than an oxymoron, and the addition of WOM to a (deterministic or probabilistic) classical computer brings no advantage. We prove that quantum computers that are augmented with WOM can solve problems that neither a classical computer with WOM nor a quantum computer without WOM can solve, when all other resource bounds are equal. We focus on realtime quantum finite automata, and examine the increase in their power effected by the addition of WOMs with different access modes and capacities. Some problems that are unsolvable by two-way probabilistic Turing machines using sublogarithmic amounts of read/write memory are shown to be solvable by these enhanced automata.

Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer; Say, A C Cem; Agadzanyan, Ruben

2010-01-01

384

Diamond for quantum communications, spintronics and quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Optically emitting defect centres in diamond display a range of unique quantum properties that offer exciting possibilities for the construction of quantum devices which employ optical read-out In this talk I will review these remarkable properties and explain why diamond is an ideal material for use in the fabrication of (i) single photon sources for quantum communications, (i i) optical fibre-based single spin read out systems and (iii) platforms for the investigation of quantum entanglement in solid state systems. The toolkit of available fabrication strategies will be presented Our most recent results on the fabrication of fibre based single photon sources and all-diamond waveguides and cavities will be reviewed. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

385

Quantum Computers and Decoherence Exorcising the Demon from the Machine

Decoherence is the main obstacle to the realization of quantum computers. Until recently it was thought that quantum error correcting codes are the only complete solution to the decoherence problem. Here we present an alternative that is based on a combination of a decoherence-free subspace encoding and the application of strong and fast pulses: ``encoded recoupling and decoupling'' (ERD). This alternative has the advantage of lower encoding overhead (as few as two physical qubits per logical qubit suffice), and direct application to a number of promising proposals for the experimental realization of quantum computers.

Lidar, D A; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, Lian-Ao

2003-01-01

386

Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation via Exchange interactions

Quantum computation can be performed by encoding logical qubits into the states of two or more physical qubits, and controlling a single effective exchange interaction and possibly a global magnetic field. This "encoded universality" paradigm offers potential simplifications in quantum computer design since it does away with the need to perform single-qubit rotations. Here we show that encoded universality schemes can be combined with quantum error correction. In particular, we show explicitly how to perform fault-tolerant leakage correction, thus overcoming the main obstacle to fault-tolerant encoded universality.

Mohseni, M

2005-01-01

387

Compiling gate networks on an Ising quantum computer

Here we describe a simple mechanical procedure for compiling a quantum gate network into the natural gates (pulses and delays) for an Ising quantum computer. The aim is not necessarily to generate the most efficient pulse sequence, but rather to develop an efficient compilation algorithm that can be easily implemented in large spin systems. The key observation is that it is not always necessary to refocus all the undesired couplings in a spin system. Instead the coupling evolution can simply be tracked and then corrected at some later time. Although described within the language of NMR the algorithm is applicable to any design of quantum computer based on Ising couplings.

Bowdrey, M D; Knill, E; Laflamme, R

2005-01-01

388

Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation

The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l

Cruz-Santos, William

2014-01-01

389

Effects of loss and decoherence on a simple quantum computer

We investigate the impact of loss (amplitude damping) and decoherence (phase damping) on the performance of a simple quantum computer which solves the one-bit Deutsch problem. The components of this machine are beamsplitters and nonlinear optical Kerr cells, but errors primarily originate from the latter. We develop models to describe the effect of these errors on a quantum optical Fredkin gate. The results are used to analyze possible error correction strategies in a complete quantum computer. We find that errors due to loss can be avoided perfectly by appropriate design techniques, while decoherence can be partially dealt with using projective error correction.

Chuang, I L; Paz, J P; Chuang, Isaac L; Laflamme, Raymond; Paz, Juan Pablo

1996-01-01

390

New Limits on Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation

We show that quantum circuits cannot be made fault-tolerant against a depolarizing noise level of approximately 45%, thereby improving on a previous bound of 50% (due to Razborov). Our precise quantum circuit model enables perfect gates from the Clifford group (CNOT, Hadamard, S, X, Y, Z) and arbitrary additional one-qubit gates that are subject to that much depolarizing noise. We prove that this set of gates cannot be universal for arbitrary (even classical) computation, from which the upper bound on the noise threshold for fault-tolerant quantum computation follows.

Buhrman, H; Laurent, M; Linden, N; Schrijver, A; Unger, F; Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Laurent, Monique; Linden, Noah; Schrijver, Alexander; Unger, Falk

2006-01-01

391

Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections

The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once ‘observed’ as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be ‘purified’ into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics.

Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya

2014-10-01

392

Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation of Oracle Decision Problems

Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. In the infinite-dimensional case, we study continuous-variable quantum algorithms for the solution of the Deutsch--Jozsa oracle decision problem implemented within a single harmonic-oscillator. Orthogonal states are used as the computational bases, and we show that, contrary to a previous claim in the literature, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform. We further demonstrate that orthogonal encoding bases are not unique, and using the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator as the computational bases, our formalism enables quantifying the relative performances of different choices of the encoding bases. We extend our formalism to include quantum algorithms in the continuously parameterized yet finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a coherent spin system. We show that the highest-squeezed spin state possible can be approximated by a superposition of two states thus transcending the usual model of using a single basis state as algorithm input. As a particular example, we show that the close Hadamard oracle-decision problem, which is related to the Hadamard codewords of digital communications theory, can be solved quantitatively more efficiently using this computational model than by any known classical algorithm.

Adcock, Mark R. A.

393

Are materials good enough for a superconducting quantum computer?

Recent developments of surface codes now place superconducting quantum computing at an important crossroad, where ``proof of concept'' experiments involving small numbers of qubits can be transitioned to more challenging and systematic approaches that could actually lead to building a quantum computer. Although the integrated circuit nature of these qubits helps with the design of a complex architecture and control system, it also presents a serious challenge for coherence since the quantum wavefunctions are in contact with a variety of materials defects. I will review both logic gate design and recent developments in coherence in superconducting qubits, and argue that state-of-the-art devices are now near the fault tolerant threshold. Future progress looks promising for fidelity ten times better than threshold, as needed for scalable quantum error correction and computation.

Martinis, John

2013-03-01

394

Combined Error Correction Techniques for Quantum Computing Architectures

Proposals for quantum computing devices are many and varied. They each have unique noise processes that make none of them fully reliable at this time. There are several error correction/avoidance techniques which are valuable for reducing or eliminating errors, but not one, alone, will serve as a panacea. One must therefore take advantage of the strength of each of these techniques so that we may extend the coherence times of the quantum systems and create more reliable computing devices. To this end we give a general strategy for using dynamical decoupling operations on encoded subspaces. These encodings may be of any form; of particular importance are decoherence-free subspaces and quantum error correction codes. We then give means for empirically determining an appropriate set of dynamical decoupling operations for a given experiment. Using these techniques, we then propose a comprehensive encoding solution to many of the problems of quantum computing proposals which use exchange-type interactions. This us...

Byrd, M S; Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

2003-01-01

395

Analyzing Many-Body Localization with a Quantum Computer

Many-body localization, the persistence against electron-electron interactions of the localization of states with nonzero excitation energy density, poses a challenge to current methods of theoretical and numerical analyses. Numerical simulations have so far been limited to a small number of sites, making it difficult to obtain reliable statements about the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, we explore the ways in which a relatively small quantum computer could be leveraged to study many-body localization. We show that, in addition to studying time evolution, a quantum computer can, in polynomial time, obtain eigenstates at arbitrary energies to sufficient accuracy that localization can be observed. The limitations of quantum measurement, which preclude the possibility of directly obtaining the entanglement entropy, make it difficult to apply some of the definitions of many-body localization used in the recent literature. We discuss alternative tests of localization that can be implemented on a quantum computer.

Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan

2014-10-01

396

Neuromorphic, Digital and Quantum Computation with Memory Circuit Elements

Memory effects are ubiquitous in nature and the class of memory circuit elements - which includes memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors - shows great potential to understand and simulate the associated fundamental physical processes. Here, we show that such elements can also be used in electronic schemes mimicking biologically-inspired computer architectures, performing digital logic and arithmetic operations, and can expand the capabilities of certain quantum computation schemes. In particular, we will discuss few examples where the concept of memory elements is relevant to the realization of associative memory in neuronal circuits, spike-timing-dependent plasticity of synapses, digital and field-programmable quantum computing.

Pershin, Yuriy V

2010-01-01

397

Quantum Adiabatic Computation and the Travelling Salesman Problem

The NP-complete problem of the travelling salesman (TSP) is considered in the framework of quantum adiabatic computation (QAC). We first derive a remarkable lower bound for the computation time for adiabatic algorithms in general as a function of the energy involved in the computation. Energy, and not just time and space, must thus be considered in the evaluation of algorithm complexity, in perfect accordance with the understanding that all computation is physical. We then propose, with oracular Hamiltonians, new quantum adiabatic algorithms of which not only the lower bound in time but also the energy requirement do not increase exponentially in the size of the input. Such an improvement in both time and energy complexity, as compared to all other existing algorithms for TSP, is apparently due to quantum entanglement. We also appeal to the general theory of Diophantine equations in a speculation on physical implementation of those oracular Hamiltonians.

Kieu, T D

2006-01-01

398

Quantum computations without definite causal structure

We show that quantum theory allows for transformations of black boxes that cannot be realized by inserting the input black boxes within a circuit in a predefined causal order. The simplest example of such a transformation is the classical switch of black boxes, where two input black boxes are arranged in two different orders conditionally on the value of a classical bit. The quantum version of this transformation—the quantum switch—produces an output circuit where the order of the connections is controlled by a quantum bit, which becomes entangled with the circuit structure. Simulating these transformations in a circuit with fixed causal structure requires either postselection or an extra query to the input black boxes.

Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Valiron, Benoit

2013-08-01

399

Cloning of Qubits of a Quantum Computer

A system of unitary transformations providing two optimal copies of an arbitrary input cubit is obtained. An algorithm based on classical Boolean algebra and allowing one to find any unitary transformation realized by the quantum CNOT operators is proposed.

Dumachev, V. N.; Orlov, S. V.

2002-01-01

400

Computer stochastics in scalar quantum field theory

This is a series of lectures on Monte Carlo results on the non-perturbative, lattice formulation approach to quantum field theory. Emphasis is put on 4D scalar quantum field theory. I discuss real space renormalization group, fixed point properties and logarithmic corrections, partition function zeroes, the triviality bound on the Higgs mass, finite size effects, Goldstone bosons and chiral perturbation theory, and the determination of scattering phase shifts for some scalar models.

Lang, C B

1993-01-01

401

Emergence of Quantum Chaos in Quantum Computer Core and How to Manage It

We study the standard generic quantum computer model, which describes a realistic isolated quantum computer with fluctuations in individual qubit energies and residual short-range inter-qubit couplings. It is shown that in the limit where the fluctuations and couplings are small compared to one-qubit energy spacing the spectrum has a band structure and a renormalized Hamiltonian is obtained which describes the eigenstate properties inside one band. The studies are concentrat...

Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2000-01-01

402

Slow phase relaxation as a route to quantum computing beyond the quantum chaos border

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reveal that phase memory can be much longer than energy relaxation in systems with exponentially large dimensions of Hilbert space; this finding is documented by 50 years of nuclear experiments, though the information is somewhat hidden. For quantum computers Hilbert spaces of dimension 2100 or larger will be typical and therefore this effect may contribute significantly to reduce the problems of scaling of quantum computers to a useful number of qubits

403

Quantum Computing in the de Broglie-Bohm Pilot-Wave Picture

Much attention has been drawn to quantum computing and the exponential speed-up in computation the technology would be able to provide. Various claims have been made about what aspect of quantum mechanics causes this speed-up. Formulations of quantum computing have traditionally been made in orthodox (Copenhagen) and sometimes many-worlds quantum mechanics. We will aim to understand quantum computing in terms of de Broglie-Bohm Pilot-Wave Theory by considering different simp...

Roser, Philipp

2010-01-01

404

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magi...

Jones, Cody

2012-01-01

405

Adiabatic Quantum Computation with a 1D projector Hamiltonian

Adiabatic quantum computation is based on the adiabatic evolution of quantum systems. We analyse a particular class of qauntum adiabatic evolutions where either the initial or final Hamiltonian is a one-dimensional projector Hamiltonian on the corresponding ground state. The minimum energy gap which governs the time required for a successful evolution is shown to be proportional to the overlap of the ground states of the initial and final Hamiltonians. We show that such evol...

Tulsi, Avatar

2008-01-01

406

Cavity QED and Quantum Computation in the Strong Coupling Regime

In this paper we propose a Hamiltonian generalizing the interaction of the two--level atom and both the single radiation mode and external field $...$ a kind of cavity QED. We solve the Schrodinger equation in the strong coupling regime by making use of rotating wave approximation under new resonance conditions containing the Bessel functions and etc, and obtain unitary transformations of four types corresponding to Rabi oscillations which perform quantum logic gates in Quantum Computation.

Fujii, K

2003-01-01

407

A term-rewriting system for computer quantum algebra

Existing computer algebra packages do not fully support quantum mechanics calculations in Dirac's notation. I present the foundation for building such support: a mathematical system for the symbolic manipulation of expressions used in the invariant formalism of quantum mechanics. I first describe the essential mathematical features of the Hilbert-space invariant formalism. This is followed by a formal characterisation of all possible algebraic expressions in this formalism. ...

Hudson, J. J.

2008-01-01

408

Simple computer model for the quantum Zeno effect

This paper presents a simple model for repeated measurement of a quantum system: the evolution of a free particle, simulated by discretizing the particle's position. This model is easily simulated by computer and provides a useful arena to investigate the effects of measurement upon dynamics, in particular the slowing of evolution due to measurement (the quantum Zeno effect). The results of this simulation are discussed for two rather different sorts of measurement process, both of which are ...

Wallace, D.

2000-01-01

409

Robust Quantum Computation with Superconducting Charge Qubits via Coherent Pulses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve robust gate operations on superconducting charge qubits, we theoretically propose a feasible scheme to realize geometric quantum computation via coherent pulses. Only by adiabatically tuning the microwave pulses applied to the gate capacitance can the Berry phases associated with the system be acquired, from which we construct a universal set of geometric gates. Combining the geometric approach with the coherent pulse technique, robust quantum operations aimed at combating noise errors may be implemented experimentally. (general)

410

New Limits on Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation

We show that quantum circuits cannot be made fault-tolerant against a depolarizing noise level of approximately 45%, thereby improving on a previous bound of 50% (due to Razborov). Our precise quantum circuit model enables perfect gates from the Clifford group (CNOT, Hadamard, S, X, Y, Z) and arbitrary additional one-qubit gates that are subject to that much depolarizing noise. We prove that this set of gates cannot be universal for arbitrary (even classical) computation, fr...

Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Laurent, Monique; Linden, Noah; Schrijver, Alexander; Unger, Falk

2006-01-01

411

Quantum Computers, Discrete Space, and Entanglement

We consider algebras underlying Hilbert spaces used by quantum information algorithms. We show how one can arrive at equations on such algebras which define n-dimensional Hilbert space subspaces which in turn can simulate quantum systems on a quantum system. In doing so we use MMP diagrams and linear algorithms. MMP diagrams are tractable since an n-block of an MMP diagram has n elements while an n-block of a standard lattice diagram has 2^n elements. An immediate test for such an approach is a generation of minimal and arbitrary Kochen-Specker vectors and we present a minimal state-independent Kochen-Specker set of seven vectors from a Hilbert space with more than four dimensions.

Pavicic, M

2002-01-01

412

Towards a fullerene-based quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular structures appear to be natural candidates for a quantum technology: individual atoms can support quantum superpositions for long periods, and such atoms can in principle be embedded in a permanent molecular scaffolding to form an array. This would be true nanotechnology, with dimensions of order of a nanometre. However, the challenges of realizing such a vision are immense. One must identify a suitable elementary unit and demonstrate its merits for qubit storage and manipulation, including input/output. These units must then be formed into large arrays corresponding to an functional quantum architecture, including a mechanism for gate operations. Here we report our efforts, both experimental and theoretical, to create such a technology based on endohedral fullerenes or 'buckyballs'. We describe our successes with respect to these criteria, along with the obstacles we are currently facing and the questions that remain to be addressed

413

Making and manipulating Majorana fermions for topological quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Known theoretically for decades, Majorana fermions have never been observed as fundamental particles. But there is growing excitement among condensed matter physicists that Majorana fermions could be observed as quasiparticles in the solid state. This excitement is fueled by their remarkable properties: They are their own antiparticle and obey an exotic (and yet unobserved) form of quantum statistics called non-Abelian statistics. These properties make Majorana fermions the simplest candidate for realizing topological quantum information processing which could go a long way towards alleviating the problem of decoherence in conventional quantum computation. Among the systems predicted to support Majorana fermions are exotic fractional quantum Hall states as well as hybrid structures of topological insulators, semimetals, or semiconductors with conventional superconductors. Realizations based on semiconductor quantum wires in proximity to conventional superconductors are perhaps particularly promising since they allow for relatively detailed scenarios of how to manipulate the Majorana fermions. In this talk, I discuss this proposal to realize Majorana fermions.

414

Schumacher's quantum data compression as a quantum computation

An explicit algorithm for performing Schumacher's noiseless compression of quantum bits is given. This algorithm is based on a combinatorial expression for a particular bijection among binary strings. The algorithm, which adheres to the rules of reversible programming, is expressed in a high-level pseudocode language. It is implemented using $O(n^3)$ two- and three-bit primitive reversible operations, where $n$ is the length of the qubit strings to be compressed. Also, the a...

Cleve, Richard; Divincenzo, David P.

1996-01-01

415

Quantum computation and analysis of Wigner and Husimi functions: toward a quantum image treatment

We study the efficiency of quantum algorithms which aim at obtaining phase space distribution functions of quantum systems. Wigner and Husimi functions are considered. Different quantum algorithms are envisioned to build these functions, and compared with the classical computation. Different procedures to extract more efficiently information from the final wave function of these algorithms are studied, including coarse-grained measurements, amplitude amplification and measure of wavelet-transformed wave function. The algorithms are analyzed and numerically tested on a complex quantum system showing different behavior depending on parameters, namely the kicked rotator. The results for the Wigner function show in particular that the use of the quantum wavelet transform gives a polynomial gain over classical computation. For the Husimi distribution, the gain is much larger than for the Wigner function, and is bigger with the help of amplitude amplification and wavelet transforms. We also apply the same set of te...

Terraneo, M; Shepelyansky, D L

2004-01-01

416

Photon echo quantum random access memory integration in a quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have analysed an efficient integration of multi-qubit echo quantum memory (QM) into the quantum computer scheme based on squids, quantum dots or atomic resonant ensembles in a quantum electrodynamics cavity. Here, one atomic ensemble with controllable inhomogeneous broadening is used for the QM node and other nodes characterized by the homogeneously broadened resonant line are used for processing. We have found the optimal conditions for the efficient integration of the multi-qubit QM modified for the analysed scheme, and we have determined the self-temporal modes providing a perfect reversible transfer of the photon qubits between the QM node and arbitrary processing nodes. The obtained results open the way for realization of a full-scale solid state quantum computing based on the efficient multi-qubit QM. (paper)

417

Quantum picturalism for topological cluster-state computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topological quantum computing (QC) is a way of allowing precise quantum computations to run on noisy and imperfect hardware. One implementation uses surface codes created by forming defects in a highly-entangled cluster state. Such a method of computing is a leading candidate for large-scale QC. However, there has been a lack of sufficiently powerful high-level languages to describe computing in this form without resorting to single-qubit operations, which quickly become prohibitively complex as the system size increases. In this paper, we apply the category-theoretic work of Abramsky and Coecke to the topological cluster-state model of QC to give a high-level graphical language that enables direct translation between quantum processes and physical patterns of measurement in a computer-a 'compiler language'. We give the equivalence between the graphical and topological information flows, and show the applicable rewrite algebra for this computing model. We show that this gives us a native graphical language for the design and analysis of topological quantum algorithms, and finish by discussing the possibilities for automating this process on a large scale.

418

Quantum information and computation for chemistry

Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science

Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A

2014-01-01

419

Optimal control, geometry, and quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We prove upper and lower bounds relating the quantum gate complexity of a unitary operation, U, to the optimal control cost associated to the synthesis of U. These bounds apply for any optimal control problem, and can be used to show that the quantum gate complexity is essentially equivalent to the optimal control cost for a wide range of problems, including time-optimal control and finding minimal distances on certain Riemannian, sub-Riemannian, and Finslerian manifolds. These results generalize the results of [Nielsen, Dowling, Gu, and Doherty, Science 311, 1133 (2006)], which showed that the gate complexity can be related to distances on a Riemannian manifold

420

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for quantum computation in the presence of spontaneous emission is proposed. The method combines strong and fast (dynamical decoupling) pulses and a quantum error correcting code that encodes n logical qubits into only n+1 physical qubits. Universal, fault-tolerant, quantum computation is shown to be possible in this scheme using Hamiltonians relevant to a range of promising proposals for the physical implementation of quantum computers

421

On the Physical Explanation for Quantum Computational Speedup

The aim of this dissertation is to clarify the debate over the explanation of quantum speedup and to submit a tentative resolution to it. In particular, I argue that the physical explanation for quantum speedup is precisely the fact that the phenomenon of quantum entanglement enables a quantum computer to fully exploit the representational capacity of Hilbert space. This is impossible for classical systems, joint states of which must always be representable as product states. Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of the most popular of the candidate physical explanations for quantum speedup: the many worlds explanation. I argue that unlike the neo-Everettian interpretation of quantum mechanics it does not have the conceptual resources required to overcome the `preferred basis objection'. I further argue that the many worlds explanation, at best, can serve as a good description of the physical process which takes place in so-called network-based computation, but that it is incompatible with other models of comput...

Cuffaro, Michael E

2013-01-01

422

An Analog Analogue of a Digital Quantum Computation

We solve a problem, which while not fitting into the usual paradigm, can be viewed as a quantum computation. Suppose we are given a quantum system described by an N dimensional Hilbert space with a Hamiltonian of the form $E |w >$ is an unknown (normalized) state. We show how to discover $| w >$ by adding a Hamiltonian (independent of $| w >$) and evolving for a time proportional to $N^{1/2}/E$. We show that this time is optimally short. This process is an analog analogue to Grover's algorithm, a computation on a conventional (!) quantum computer which locates a marked item from an unsorted list of N items in a number of steps proportional to $N^{1/2}$.

Farhi, E; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam

1998-01-01

423

Towards molecular energy calculations on a quantum computer

The fundamental problem faced in quantum chemistry is the calculation of molecular properties, which are of practical importance in fields ranging from materials science to biochemistry. In principle, the total energy of a molecule, as well as most other properties, can be calculated by solving the Schr\\"odinger equation. However, the computational resources required to obtain exact solutions on a conventional computer generally increase exponentially with the number of atoms involved. Recently, an algorithm has been proposed that enables a quantum computer to calculate molecular energies in a time that increases only polynomially in the molecular size. Here we present a quantum optical implementation for the smallest problem: obtaining the energies of the hydrogen molecule, H2, in a minimal basis. We perform a key algorithmic step - the iterative phase estimation algorithm - in full, achieving a high level of precision and robustness to error. We perform other algorithmic steps with assistance from a classic...

Lanyon, Benjamin P; Gillet, Geoff G; Goggin, Michael E; Almeida, Marcelo P; Kassal, Ivan; Biamonte, Jacob D; Mohseni, Masoud; Powell, Ben J; Barbieri, Marco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; White, Andrew G

2009-01-01

424

Cluster-state quantum computation: the role of entanglement

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cluster-state quantum computation is computationally equivalent to the traditional circuit model, but the pictures of computational processes outlined by the two are radically different. Here are investigated some of the consequences of this situation for the explanation of the quantum speed-up, whit particular regard to the role played by entanglement. At first sight, the evolution of a cluster-state computer seems to be disentangling (at each step one qubit is measured and discarded), but in a fully-unitary dynamical account it appears to be entangling (at each step a correlation is established between one qubit and its respective recorder). It is thus suggested that the different uses made of the features of quantum systems by the two frameworks, do not rule out the thesis that the speed-up is achieved by means of an entangling transformation. However, in this last case entanglement is created step by step, and thus the main difference between the two frameworks seems to remain the absence of ''quantum parallelism''. The only entangling-generating unitary transformations acting at the same time on all the qubits are the controlled-phase operation involved in the preparation of the cluster. Thus, the explanation of the quantum speed-up should be looked for just in these type of transformations.

Annovi, Filippo [Department of Philosophy, University of Bologna (Italy)

2013-07-01

425

Nested composite NOT gates for quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composite pulses provide a simple means for constructing quantum logic gates which are robust to small errors in the control fields used to implement them. Here I describe how antisymmetric composite NOT gates can be nested to produce gates with arbitrary tolerance of errors.

426

A computable framework for Loop Quantum Gravity

We present a non-perturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The methods of loop quantum gravity applied to this model lead to a physical Hilbert space and Hamiltonian. This provides a framework for physical calculations in the theory.

Husain, Viqar

2013-01-01

427

Computational Physics Simulation of Classical and Quantum Systems

This book encapsulates the coverage for a two-semester course in computational physics. The first part introduces the basic numerical methods while omitting mathematical proofs but demonstrating the algorithms by way of numerous computer experiments. The second part specializes in simulation of classical and quantum systems with instructive examples spanning many fields in physics, from a classical rotor to a quantum bit. All program examples are realized as Java applets ready to run in your browser and do not require any programming skills.

Scherer, Philipp O. J

2010-01-01

428

Computational physics. Simulation of classical and quantum systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book encapsulates the coverage for a two-semester course in computational physics. The first part introduces the basic numerical methods while omitting mathematical proofs but demonstrating the algorithms by way of numerous computer experiments. The second part specializes in simulation of classical and quantum systems with instructive examples spanning many fields in physics, from a classical rotor to a quantum bit. All program examples are realized as Java applets ready to run in your browser and do not require any programming skills. (orig.)

Scherer, Philipp O.J. [TU Muenchen (Germany). Physikdepartment T38

2010-07-01

429

Preserving universal resources for one-way quantum computing

The common spin Hamiltonians such as the Ising, XY, or Heisenberg model do not have ground states that are the graph states needed in measurement-based quantum computation. Various highly-entangled many-body states have been suggested as a universal resource for this type of computation, however, it is not easy to preserve these states in solid-state systems due to their short coherence times. Here we propose a scheme for generating a Hamiltonian that has a cluster state as ground state. Our approach employs a series of pulse sequences inspired by established NMR techniques and holds promise for applications in many areas of quantum information processing.

Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Stojanovi?, Vladimir M; Bruder, Christoph

2012-01-01

430

An Algorithm of a Virtual Quantum Computer Model on a Classical Computer

Construction of virtual quantum states became possible due to the hypothesis on the nature of quantum states quant-ph/0212139. This study considers a stochastic geometrical background (stochastic gravitational background) generating correlation (or, coherency) of various quantum non-interacting objects. In the quantum state virtual model, a simple method of generating of two (or more) dichotomic signals with controlled mutual correlation factor from a single continuous stochastic process is implemented. Basing on the system random number generator of the computer, a model of the stationary random phase (with the nature of random geometrical background).

Kamalov, T F; Rybakov, Yu.P.

2003-01-01

431

Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.

A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology. PMID:25501117

Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji

2015-01-28

432

Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.

Pelekhov, D. V. (Denis V.); Martin, I. (Ivar); Suter, A. (Andreas); Reagor, D. W. (David W.); Hammel, P. C. (P. Chris)

2001-01-01

433

Resonant Transfer of Excitons and Quantum Computation

The excitation-energy transfer--the so-called Forster resonant energy transfer--plays a key role in light harvesting processes in photosynthetic organisms in nature. Here we give two methods for performing quantum logic operations by tailoring this interaction. The first implementation uses a coupled quantum dot molecule where the exciton-exciton interaction and the Forster coupling are controlled by means of the dot size, interdot separation, material composition, confinement potential and applied electric field to obtain high fidelity logic. The second proposes the use of biological systems for embodying qubits where, as a result of a stronger Forster interaction, extended exciton states are expected. These states are likely to be more immune to decoherence.

Lovett, B; Nazir, A; Kothari, B; Briggs, A; Lovett, Brendon; Reina, John H.; Nazir, Ahsan; Kothari, Beeneet; Briggs, Andrew

2003-01-01

434

On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei 23Na in C10H21NaO4S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)

435

Towards quantum computation with trapped ions

Single ^40Ca^+ ions in Paul traps are investigated for quantum information processing. The S_1/2 - D_5/2 quadrupole transition at 729 nm is excited for sideband cooling and quantum state manipulation. Superpositions of the S_1/2 and the D_5/2 states are used to implement a qubit. Fluorescence light on the S_1/2 - P_1/2 transition at 397 nm is monitored for state measurement. In a spherical Paul trap a single ion is cooled to the motional ground state with up to 99.9% probability. In a linear trap, individual ions of a string are addressed by a tightly focused 729 nm laser beam, and ground state cooling of two ions is achieved with all modes cooled to more than 96% ground state population. Starting from motional Fock states |n=0> and |n=1>, about 30 coherent Rabi oscillations within 1.4 ms are observed on the blue motional sideband of the S_1/2 - D_5/2 transition. The data show that decoherence is negligible during the time required for a quantum gate operation. Heating of the motional degrees of freedom appears at a rate of 1 phonon in 190 ms (70 ms) at the trap frequencies ?_axial (?_radial). A novel method for ground state laser cooling is demonstrated which exploits electromagnetically induced transparency in the Zeeman structure of the S_1/2 - P_1/2 dipole transition. The method is robust, easy to implement and proves particularly useful for cooling several motional degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is of great practical importance for the implementation of quantum logic schemes with trapped ions.

Blatt, Rainer

2001-05-01

436

Quantum Computation Based Probability Density Function Estimation

Signal processing techniques will lean on blind methods in the near future, where no redundant, resource allocating information will be transmitted through the channel. To achieve a proper decision, however, it is essential to know at least the probability density function (pdf), which to estimate is classically a time consumption and/or less accurate hard task, that may make decisions to fail. This paper describes the design of a quantum assisted pdf estimation method also ...

Bala?zs, Ferenc; Imre, Sa?ndor

2004-01-01

437

Quantum features of consciousness, computers and brain

Many people believe that mysterious phenomenon of consciousness may be connected with quantum features of our world. The present author proposed so-called Extended Everett's Concept (EEC) that allowed to explain consciousness and super-consciousness (intuitive knowledge). Brain, according to EEC, is an interface between consciousness and super-consciousness on the one part and body on the other part. Relations between all these components of the human cognitive system are an...

Mensky, Michael B.

2009-01-01

438

Elementary Particles as Gates for Universal Quantum Computation

It is shown that there exists a mapping between the fermions of the Standard Model (SM) represented as braids in the Bilson-Thompson model, and a set of gates which can perform Universal Quantum Computation (UQC). This leads us to conjecture that the "Computational Universe Hypothesis" (CUH) can be given a concrete implementation in a new physical framework where elementary particles and the gauge bosons (which intermediate interactions between fermions) are interpreted as t...

Vaid, Deepak

2013-01-01

439

Holonomic Quantum Computing Based on the Stark Effect

We propose a spin manipulation technique based entirely on electric fields applied to acceptor states in $p$-type semiconductors with spin-orbit coupling. While interesting in its own right, the technique can also be used to implement fault-resilient holonomic quantum computing. We explicitly compute adiabatic transformation matrix (holonomy) of the degenerate states and comment on the feasibility of the scheme as an experimental technique.

Bernevig, B A

2004-01-01

440

Resource optimization for fault-tolerant quantum computing

In this thesis we examine a variety of techniques for reducing the resources required for fault-tolerant quantum computation. First, we show how to simplify universal encoded computation by using only transversal gates and standard error correction procedures, circumventing existing no-go theorems. We then show how to simplify ancilla preparation, reducing the cost of error correction by more than a factor of four. Using this optimized ancilla preparation, we develop improve...

Paetznick, Adam

2014-01-01

441

Schumacher's quantum data compression as a quantum computation

An explicit algorithm for performing Schumacher's noiseless compression of quantum bits is given. This algorithm is based on a combinatorial expression for a particular bijection among binary strings. The algorithm, which adheres to the rules of reversible programming, is expressed in a high-level pseudocode language. It is implemented using O(n^3) two- and three-bit primitive reversible operations, where n is the length of the qubit strings to be compressed. Also, the algorithm makes use of O(n) auxiliary qubits; however, space-saving techniques based on those proposed by Bennett are developed which reduce this workspace to O(\\sqrt{n}) while increasing the running time by less than a factor of two.

Cleve, R; Cleve, Richard; DiVincenzo, David P

1996-01-01

442

Bound on quantum computation time: Quantum error correction in a critical environment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain an upper bound on the time available for quantum computation for a given quantum computer and decohering environment with quantum error correction implemented. First, we derive an explicit quantum evolution operator for the logical qubits and show that it has the same form as that for the physical qubits but with a reduced coupling strength to the environment. Using this evolution operator, we find the trace distance between the real and ideal states of the logical qubits in two cases. For a super-Ohmic bath, the trace distance saturates, while for Ohmic or sub-Ohmic baths, there is a finite time before the trace distance exceeds a value set by the user.

443

An Extension of Gleason's Theorem for Quantum Computation

We develop a synthesis of Turing's paradigm of computation and von Neumann's quantum logic to serve as a model for quantum computation with recursion, such that potentially non-terminating computation can take place, as in a quantum Turing machine. This model is based on the extension of von Neumann's quantum logic to partial states, defined here as sub-probability measures on the Hilbert space, equipped with the natural pointwise partial ordering. The sub-probability measures allow a certain probability for the non-termination of the computation. We then derive an extension of Gleason's theorem and show that, for Hilbert spaces of dimension greater than two, the partial order of sub-probability measures is order isomorphic with the collection of partial density operators, i.e., trace class positive operators with trace between zero and one, equipped with the usual partial ordering induced from positive operators. We show that the expected value of a bounded observable with respect to a partial state can be d...

Edalat, A

2003-01-01

444

Adapting the traveling salesman problem to an adiabatic quantum computer

We show how to guide a quantum computer to select an optimal tour for the traveling salesman. This is significant because it opens a rapid solution method for the wide range of applications of the traveling salesman problem, which include vehicle routing, job sequencing and data clustering.

Warren, Richard H.

2013-04-01

445

Efficient Computations of Encodings for Quantum Error Correction

We show how, given any set of generators of the stabilizer of a quantum code, an efficient gate array that computes the codewords can be constructed. For an n-qubit code whose stabilizer has d generators, the resulting gate array consists of O(n d) operations, and converts k-qubit data (where k = n - d) into n-qubit codewords.

Cleve, R; Cleve, Richard; Gottesman, Daniel

1997-01-01

446

Efficient Computations of Encodings for Quantum Error Correction

We show how, given any set of generators of the stabilizer of a quantum code, an efficient gate array that computes the codewords can be constructed. For an n-qubit code whose stabilizer has d generators, the resulting gate array consists of O(n d) operations, and converts k-qubit data (where k = n - d) into n-qubit codewords.

Cleve, Richard; Gottesman, Daniel

1996-01-01

447

Quantum computing by optical control of electron spins

We review the progress and main challenges in implementing large-scale quantum computing by optical control of electron spins in quantum dots (QDs). Relevant systems include self-assembled QDs of III-V or II-VI compound semiconductors (such as InGaAs and CdSe), monolayer fluctuation QDs in compound semiconductor quantum wells, and impurity centers in solids such as P-donors in silicon and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The decoherence of the electron spin qubits is discussed and various schemes for countering the decoherence problem are reviewed. We put forward designs of local nodes consisting of a few qubits which can be individually addressed and controlled. Remotely separated local nodes are connected by photonic structures (microcavities and waveguides) to form a large-scale distributed quantum system or a quantum network. The operation of the quantum network consists of optical control of a single electron spin, coupling of two spins in a local nodes, optically controlled quantum interfacing betwe...

Liu, Ren-Bao; Sham, L J

2010-01-01

448

Numerical and analytical solutions for problems relevant for quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computers are one of the next technological steps in modern computer science. Some of the relevant questions that arise when it comes to the implementation of quantum operations (as building blocks in a quantum algorithm) or the simulation of quantum systems are studied. Numerical results are gathered for variety of systems, e.g. NMR systems, Josephson junctions and others. To study quantum operations (e.g. the quantum fourier transform, swap operations or multiply-controlled NOT operations) on systems containing many qubits, a parallel C++ code was developed and optimised. In addition to performing high quality operations, a closer look was given to the minimal times required to implement certain quantum operations. These times represent an interesting quantity for the experimenter as well as for the mathematician. The former tries to fight dissipative effects with fast implementations, while the latter draws conclusions in the form of analytical solutions. Dissipative effects can even be included in the optimisation. The resulting solutions are relaxation and time optimised. For systems containing 3 linearly coupled spin (1)/(2) qubits, analytical solutions are known for several problems, e.g. indirect Ising couplings and trilinear operations. A further study was made to investigate whether there exists a sufficient set of criteria to identify systems with dynamics which are invertible under local operations. Finally, a full quantum algorithm to distinguish between two knots was implemented on a spin(1)/(2) system. All operations for this experiment were calculated analytically. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical expectations. (orig.)

449

Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose to encode a register of quantum bits in different collective electron spin wave excitations in a solid medium. Coupling to spins is enabled by locating them in the vicinity of a superconducting transmission line cavity, and making use of their strong collective coupling to the quantized radiation field. The transformation between different spin waves is achieved by applying gradient magnetic fields across the sample, while a Cooper pair box, resonant with the cavity field, may be used to carry out one- and two-qubit gate operations.

Wesenberg, Janus; Ardavan, A.

2009-01-01

450

Implementing Grover's Quantum Search on a Para-Hydrogen based Pure State NMR Quantum Computer

We demonstrate the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm on a liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer using essentially pure states. This was achieved using a two qubit device where the initial state is an essentially pure ($\\epsilon=1.06\\pm0.04$) singlet nuclear spin state of a pair of 1H nuclei arising from a chemical reaction involving para-hydrogen. We have implemented Grover's search to find one of four inputs which satisfies a funct...

Anwar, Ms; Blazina, D.; Carteret, Ha; Duckett, Sb; Jones, Ja

2004-01-01

451

Decoherence in quantum computer memory due to the inevitable coupling to the external environment is examined. We take the assumption that all quantum bits (qubits) interact with the same environment rather than the assumption of separate environments for different qubits. It is found that the qubits are decohered collectively. For some kinds of entangled input states, no decoherence occurs at all in the memory even if the qubits are interacting with the environment. Based o...

Duan, Lu-ming; Guo, Guang-can

1996-01-01

452

Proposal of Quantum Simulation of Pairing Model on an NMR Quantum Computer

We give out a proposal of quantum simulation of pairing model on an NMR quantum computer. In our proposal, we choose an appropriate initial state which can be easily prepared in experiment. Making use of feature of NMR measure and the technology of the second (discrete) Fourier transformation, our theoretical scheme can obtain the spectrum of paring model in principle. We concretely discuss the case in the concerned subspaces of pairing model and then, as an example, give ou...

Wang, An Min; Yang, Xiaodong

2004-01-01

453

Efficient quantum algorithm for preparing molecular-system-like states on a quantum computer

We present an efficient quantum algorithm for preparing a pure state on a quantum computer, where the quantum state corresponds to that of a molecular system with a given number $m$ of electrons occupying a given number $n$ of spin orbitals. Each spin orbital is mapped to a qubit: the states $| 1 >$ and $| 0>$ of the qubit represent, respectively, whether the spin orbital is occupied by an electron or not. To prepare a general state in the full Hilbert space of $n$ qubits, w...

Wang, Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

2009-01-01

454

The operation principle of a quantum computer is proposed based on a system of dielectric nanoparticles activated with two-level atoms — cubits, in which electric dipole transitions are excited by short intense optical pulses. It is proved that the logical operation (logical operator) CNOT (controlled NOT) is performed by means of time-dependent transfer of quantum information over `long' (of the order of 104 nm) distances between spherical nanoparticles owing to the delayed interaction between them in the optical radiation field. It is shown that one-cubit and two-cubit logical operators required for quantum calculations can be realised by selectively exciting dielectric particles with short optical pulses.

Gadomskii, Oleg N.; Kharitonov, Yu Ya

2004-03-01

455

We study theoretically a double quantum dot hydrogen molecule in the GaAs conduction band as the basic elementary gate for a quantum computer with the electron spins in the dots serving as qubits. Such a two-dot system provides the necessary two-qubit entanglement required for quantum computation. We determine the excitation spectrum of two horizontally coupled quantum dots with two confined electrons, and study its dependence on an external magnetic field. In particular, we...

Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das

1999-01-01

456

Quantum computation mediated by ancillary qudits and spin coherent states

Models of universal quantum computation in which the required interactions between register (computational) qubits are mediated by some ancillary system are highly relevant to experimental realizations of a quantum computer. We introduce such a universal model that employs a d -dimensional ancillary qudit. The ancilla-register interactions take the form of controlled displacements operators, with a displacement operator defined on the periodic and discrete lattice phase space of a qudit. We show that these interactions can implement controlled phase gates on the register by utilizing geometric phases that are created when closed loops are traversed in this phase space. The extra degrees of freedom of the ancilla can be harnessed to reduce the number of operations required for certain gate sequences. In particular, we see that the computational advantages of the quantum bus (qubus) architecture, which employs a field-mode ancilla, are also applicable to this model. We then explore an alternative ancilla-mediated model which employs a spin ensemble as the ancillary system and again the interactions with the register qubits are via controlled displacement operators, with a displacement operator defined on the Bloch sphere phase space of the spin coherent states of the ensemble. We discuss the computational advantages of this model and its relationship with the qubus architecture.

Proctor, Timothy J.; Dooley, Shane; Kendon, Viv

2015-01-01

457

Deterministic Computational Complexity of the Quantum Separability Problem

Ever since entanglement was identified as a computational and cryptographic resource, effort has been made to find an efficient way to tell whether a given density matrix represents an unentangled, or separable, state. Essentially, this is the quantum separability problem. In Section 1, I begin with a brief introduction to bipartite separability and entanglement, and a basic formal definition of the quantum separability problem. I conclude with a summary of one-sided tests for separability, including those involving semidefinite programming. In Section 2, I treat the separability problem as a computational decision problem and motivate its approximate formulations. After a review of basic complexity-theoretic notions, I discuss the computational complexity of the separability problem (including a Turing-NP-complete formulation of the problem and a proof of "strong NP-hardness" (based on a new NP-hardness proof by Gurvits)). In Section 3, I give a comprehensive survey and complexity analysis of deterministic a...

Ioannou, L M

2006-01-01

458

Pulse sequences for exchange-based quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CNOT-gate is one of the possible fundamental two-qubit gates for universal quantum computation. We consider a system where two qubits are encoded in any three spins of value 1/2 (arranged in a row), where each pair of neighboring spins can interact via the Heisenberg interaction. This could be realized by six quantum dots, each occupied by one excess electron. Electrons can virtually tunnel from one quantum dot to a neighboring dot, which switches on the interaction. Numerically a composition of 19 spin-interactions has been found leading to a quantum gate locally equivalent to a CNOT. This has shown that universal quantum computation in such an exchange-only scheme is feasible if the experimental requirements can be met. Here we present a different sequence that consists of a larger number of pulses, but is less restrictive on the preparation of the qubits. One assumption of the former sequence is that the total spin of the system was set to be 1, for which reason one can turn on a magnetic field aligning certain spins during initialization. The new solution works for a total spin of 0 and 1 thus making the magnetic field unnecessary. The new sequence consists of approximately 40 pulses. It was found analytically, which will be the main focus of the talk.

459

Efficient free energy calculations of quantum systems through computer simulations

In general, the classical limit is assumed in computer simulation calculations of free energy. This approximation, however, is not justifiable for a class of systems in which quantum contributions for the free energy cannot be neglected. The inclusion of quantum effects is important for the determination of reliable phase diagrams of these systems. In this work, we present a new methodology to compute the free energy of many-body quantum systems [1]. This methodology results from the combination of the path integral formulation of statistical mechanics and efficient non-equilibrium methods to estimate free energy, namely, the adiabatic switching and reversible scaling methods. A quantum Einstein crystal is used as a model to show the accuracy and reliability the methodology. This new method is applied to the calculation of solid-liquid coexistence properties of neon. Our findings indicate that quantum contributions to properties such as, melting point, latent heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, and slope of melting line can be up to 10% of the calculated values using the classical approximation. [1] R. M. Ramirez, C. P. Herrero, A. Antonelli, and E. R. Hernández, Journal of Chemical Physics 129, 064110 (2008)

Antonelli, Alex; Ramirez, Rafael; Herrero, Carlos; Hernandez, Eduardo

2009-03-01

460

Quantum-Computation for Perceptual Control Architecture

In this Chapter, we propose a quantum-dynamical modeling approach to Perceptual Control Architecture, using large networks of Josephson Junctions and their category-theoretic generalizations with fuzzy associative functors Our approach provides the basis for composing modular multi-layered perceptual control architectures using Josephson Junction Networks, employing intuitively appealing category-theoretic abstractions to hide the algebraic details from the designer while nonetheless being able to rigorously ensure functional composition correctness. That is, our approach ensures that Josephson Junction Networks, as a modeling primitive, can be composed into formally correct multi-layered perceptual control architectures, while hiding the underlying algebraic systems of equations from the designer under a blanket of category-theoretic abstraction.

Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

2015-11-01

461

An endohedral fullerene-based nuclear spin quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new scalable quantum computer architecture based on endohedral fullerene molecules. Qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the endohedral atoms, which posses even longer coherence times than the electron spins which are used as the qubits in previous proposals. To address the individual qubits, we use the hyperfine interaction, which distinguishes two modes (active and passive) of the nuclear spin. Two-qubit quantum gates are effectively implemented by employing the electronic dipolar interaction between adjacent molecules. The electron spins also assist in the qubit initialization and readout. Our architecture should be significantly easier to implement than earlier proposals for spin-based quantum computers, such as the concept of Kane [B.E. Kane, Nature 393 (1998) 133]. - Research highlights: ? We propose an endohedral fullerene-based scalable quantum computer architecture. ? Qubits are encoded on nuclear spins, while electron spins serve as auxiliaries. ? Nuclear spins are individually addressed using the hyperfine interaction. ? Two-qubit gates are implemented through the medium of electron spins.

462

NMR Quantum Computation with a hyperpolarized nuclear spin bulk

We consider two new quantum gate mechanisms based on nuclear spins in hyperp olarized solid $^{129}Xe$ and HCl mixtures and inorganic semiconductors. We propose two schemes for implementing a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from hyperpolarized solid $^{129}Xe$ and HCl mixtures and optically pumped NMR in semiconductors. Such gates might be built up with particular spins addres sable based on MRI techniques and optical pumping and optical detection techniques. The schemes could be useful for implementing actual quantum computers in terms of a cellular automata architecture.

Luo, J; Luo, Jun; Zeng, Xizhi

1998-01-01

463

Novel photonic bandgap based architectures for quantum computers and networks

All of the approaches for quantum information processing have their own advantages, but unfortunately also their own drawbacks. Ideally, one would merge the most attractive features of those different approaches in a single technology. We envision that large-scale photonic crystal (PC) integrated circuits and fibers could be the basis for robust and compact quantum circuits and processors of the next generation quantum computers and networking devices. Cavity QED, solid-state, and (non)linear optical models for computing, and optical fiber approach for communications are the most promising candidates to be improved through this novel technology. In our work, we consider both digital and analog quantum computing. In the digital domain, we first perform gate-level analysis. To achieve this task, we solve the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with time-dependent coupling parameters under the dipole and rotating-wave approximations for a 3D PC single-mode cavity with a sufficiently high Q-factor. We then exploit the results to show how to create a maximally entangled state of two atoms and how to implement several quantum logic gates: a dual-rail Hadamard gate, a dual-rail NOT gate, and a SWAP gate. In all of these operations, we synchronize atoms, as opposed to previous studies with PCs. The method has the potential for extension to N-atom entanglement, universal quantum logic operations, and the implementation of other useful, cavity QED-based quantum information processing tasks. In the next part of the digital domain, we study circuit-level implementations. We design and simulate an integrated teleportation and readout circuit on a single PC chip. The readout part of our device can not only be used on its own but can also be integrated with other compatible optical circuits to achieve atomic state detection. Further improvement of the device in terms of compactness and robustness is possible by integrating with sources and detectors in the optical regime. In the analog domain, we consider a quantum simulation problem. We show that the Klein paradox for the Klein-Gordon equation of a spin-zero particle manifests exactly the same kind of wave propagation and negative refraction phenomenon as the scattering of a transverse-electric-polarized electromagnetic wave incident on a negative index medium. Using this peculiar feature of negative index materials, we show that real time control and processing of some quantum experiments related with Klein paradox can be achieved by an optoelectronic simulator designed according to certain transformations and approximations.

Guney, Durdu

464

Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topological quantum computation (TQC) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. Under this approach, the topological properties of a non-Abelian quantum system, which are insensitive to local perturbations, are utilized to process and transport quantum information. The encoded information can be protected and rendered immune from nearly all environmental decoherence processes without additional error-correction. It is believed that the low energy excitations of the so-called __=5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state may obey non-Abelian statistics. Our goal is to explore this novel FQH state and to understand and create a scientific foundation of this quantum matter state for the emerging TQC technology. We present in this report the results from a coherent study that focused on obtaining a knowledge base of the physics that underpins TQC. We first present the results of bulk transport properties, including the nature of disorder on the 5/2 state and spin transitions in the second Landau level. We then describe the development and application of edge tunneling techniques to quantify and understand the quasiparticle physics of the 5/2 state.__

Pan, Wei; Thalakulam, Madhu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Crawford, Matthew; Nielsen, Erik; Cederberg, Jeffrey George

2013-10-01

465

Quantum and classical parallelism in parity algorithms for ensemble quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of the parity of a string of N binary digits is a well-known problem in classical as well as quantum information processing, which can be formulated as an oracle problem. It has been established that quantum algorithms require at least N/2 oracle calls. We present an algorithm that reaches this lower bound and is also optimal in terms of additional gate operations required. We discuss its application to pure and mixed states. Since it can be applied directly to thermal states, it does not suffer from signal loss associated with pseudo-pure-state preparation. For ensemble quantum computers, the number of oracle calls can be further reduced by a factor 2k, with k is a member of {{1,2,...,log2(N/2}}, provided the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. This additional speed-up is linked to (classical) parallelism of the ensemble quantum computer. Experimental realizations are demonstrated on a liquid-state NMR quantum computer

466

Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing qubit systems against spontaneous decay processes arising from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. These embedded quantum codes exploit classical information about which qubit has emitted spontaneously and correspond to an active error-correcting code embedded in a passive error-correcting code. The construction of a family of one-detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes is shown and the optimal redundancy, encoding, and recovery as well as general properties of detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. By the use of design theory, multiple-jump-error-correcting quantum codes can be constructed. The performance of one-jump-error-correcting quantum codes under nonideal conditions is studied numerically by simulating a quantum memory and Grover's algorithm

467

Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility

The Penrose-Hameroff (`Orch OR') model of quantum computation in brain microtubules has been criticized as regards the issue of environmental decoherence. A recent report by Tegmark finds that microtubules can maintain quantum coherence for only $10^{-13}$ s, far too short to be neurophysiologically relevant. Here, we critically examine the assumptions behind Tegmark's calculation and find that: 1) Tegmark's commentary is not aimed at an existing model in the literature but rather at a hybrid that replaces the superposed protein conformations of the `Orch OR' theory with a soliton in superposition along the microtubule, 2) Tegmark predicts decreasing decoherence times at lower temperature, in direct contradiction of the observed behavior of quantum states, 3) recalculation after correcting Tegmark's equation for differences between his model and the `Orch OR' model (superposition separation, charge vs. dipole, dielectric constant) lengthens the decoherence time to $10^{-5} - 10^{-4}$ s and invalidates a criti...

Hagan, S; Tuszynski, J A

2000-01-01

468

We propose a realizable architecture using one-dimensional transmission line resonators to reach the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics in superconducting electrical circuits. The vacuum Rabi frequency for the coupling of cavity photons to quantized excitations of an adjacent electrical circuit (qubit) can easily exceed the damping rates of both the cavity and the qubit. This architecture is attractive both as a macroscopic analog of atomic physics experiments and for quantum computing and control, since it provides strong inhibition of spontaneous emission, potentially leading to greatly enhanced qubit lifetimes, allows high-fidelity quantum non-demolition measurements of the state of multiple qubits, and has a natural mechanism for entanglement of qubits separated by centimeter distances. In addition it would allow production of microwave photon states of fundamental importance for quantum communication.

Blais, A; Wallraff, A; Girvin, S M; Schölkopf, R J; Blais, Alexandre; Huang, Ren-Shou; Wallraff, Andreas

2004-01-01

469

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The later have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd{sub 0.57}Mn{sub 0.43}Te), the relative contribution of this components is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in non magnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum and the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Hichri, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia); Jaziri, S. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia)

2004-05-01

470

We investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing by the giant optical circular birefringence induced by a quantum-dot spin in a double-sided optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We construct a deterministic controlled-not gate on two photonic qubits by two single-photon input-output processes and the readout on an electron-medium spin confined in an optical resonant microcavity. This idea could be applied to multi-qubit gates on photonic qubits and we give the quantum circuit for a three-photon Toffoli gate. High fidelities and high efficiencies could be achieved when the side leakage to the cavity loss rate is low. It is worth pointing out that our devices work in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes. PMID:23938640

Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

2013-07-29

471

Scheduling error correction operations for a quantum computer.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a (future) quantum computer a single logical quantum bit (qubit) will be made of multiple physical qubits. These extra physical qubits implement mandatory extensive error checking. The efficiency of error correction will fundamentally influence the performance of a future quantum computer, both in latency/speed and in error threshold (the worst error tolerated for an individual gate). Executing this quantum error correction requires scheduling the individual operations subject to architectural constraints. Since our last talk on this subject, a team of researchers at Sandia National Labortories has designed a logical qubit architecture that considers all relevant architectural issues including layout, the effects of supporting classical electronics, and the types of gates that the underlying physical qubit implementation supports most naturally. This is a two-dimensional system where 2-qubit operations occur locally, so there is no need to calculate more complex qubit/information transportation. Using integer programming, we found a schedule of qubit operations that obeys the hardware constraints, implements the local-check code in the native gate set, and minimizes qubit idle periods. Even with an optimal schedule, however, parallel Monte Carlo simulation shows that there is no finite error probability for the native gates such that the error-correction system would be benecial. However, by adding dynamic decoupling, a series of timed pulses that can reverse some errors, we found that there may be a threshold. Thus finding optimal schedules for increasingly-refined scheduling problems has proven critical for the overall design of the logical qubit system. We describe the evolving scheduling problems and the ideas behind the integer programming-based solution methods. This talk assumes no prior knowledge of quantum computing.

Landahl, Andrew J.; Carr, Robert D.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Ganti, Anand

2010-09-01

472

Fast read-out for semiconductor based quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Quantum Computers promise unprecedented computational power for certain tasks if they can be scaled to large numbers of quantum bits (qubits). Systems with small numbers of qubits have already been demonstrated using ions in atom traps and small molecules in liquid NMR. However there is intense interest in quantum computer architectures, which can be scaled up to include many quantum bits. In an architecture proposed by Kane, the nuclear spin of 31P atoms embedded in silicon form the qubits, with operations on the qubits performed using gates located on the surface of the silicon. Along with the formidable technical challenge of creating a precise array of phosphorus atoms in silicon, one of the most significant difficulties is to read the spin state of the individual qubits. The difficulty is that the qubits must be well isolated from the external environment for the quantum computer to operate, yet it must also be possible to couple an external measurement system to read out each qubit at the end of the calculation. This talk will focus on the practical difficulties of reading out these spin-based qubits. We start by mapping the difficult problem of measuring a single nuclear spin on to the more tractable problem of measuring the movement of a single electron. This is achieved by transferring the nuclear spin state to the donor electron's spin state, and then detecting a spin-dependent tunnelling process between two closely spaced phosphorus dos between two closely spaced phosphorus donors. This single electron tunnelling event can then be detected with a nearby highly sensitive electrometer, such as a single electron transistor (SET). We have built a novel device to demonstrate this detection technique, and shown that single electron tunnelling in a coupled metal dot system can be observed non-invasively by correlating the output of two SETs. However, to be used in a spin-based quantum computer, readout must be performed on timescales shorter than the electron spin relaxation time, and I will discuss an extension of this scheme that allows detection of single charge transfers on microsecond timescales

473

Completeness of classical spin models and universal quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study mappings between different classical spin systems that leave the partition function invariant. As recently shown in Van den Nest et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 110501), the partition function of the 2D square lattice Ising model in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field can specialize to the partition function of any Ising system on an arbitrary graph. In this sense the 2D Ising model is said to be 'complete'. However, in order to obtain the above result, the coupling strengths on the 2D lattice must assume complex values, and thus do not allow for a physical interpretation. Here we show how a complete model with real—and, hence, 'physical'—couplings can be obtained if the 3D Ising model is considered. We furthermore show how to map general q-state systems with possibly many-body interactions to the 2D Ising model with complex parameters, and give completeness results for these models with real parameters. We also demonstrate that the computational overhead in these constructions is in all relevant cases polynomial. These results are proved by invoking a recently found cross-connection between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, where partition functions are expressed as quantum mechanical amplitudes. Within this framework, there exists a natural correspondence between many-body quantum states that allow for universal quantum computation via local measurements only, and complete classical spin systems

474

Quantum Computation-Based Image Representation, Processing Operations and Their Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flexible representation of quantum images (FRQI was proposed to facilitate the extension of classical (non-quantum-like image processing applications to the quantum computing domain. The representation encodes a quantum image in the form of a normalized state, which captures information about colors and their corresponding positions in the images. Since its conception, a handful of processing transformations have been formulated, among which are the geometric transformations on quantum images (GTQI and the CTQI that are focused on the color information of the images. In addition, extensions and applications of FRQI representation, such as multi-channel representation for quantum images (MCQI, quantum image data searching, watermarking strategies for quantum images, a framework to produce movies on quantum computers and a blueprint for quantum video encryption and decryption have also been suggested. These proposals extend classical-like image and video processing applications to the quantum computing domain and offer a significant speed-up with low computational resources in comparison to performing the same tasks on traditional computing devices. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical computing resources, and their results were analyzed alongside other classical computing equivalents. The work presented in this review is intended to serve as the epitome of advances made in FRQI quantum image processing over the past five years and to simulate further interest geared towards the realization of some secure and efficient image and video processing applications on quantum computers.

Fei Yan

2014-10-01

475

Qudit quantum computation in the Jaynes-Cummings model

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have developed methods for performing qudit quantum computation in the Jaynes-Cummings model with the qudits residing in a finite subspace of individual harmonic oscillator modes, resonantly coupled to a spin-1/2 system. The first method determines analytical control sequences for the one- and two-qudit gates necessary for universal quantum computation by breaking down the desired unitary transformations into a series of state preparations implemented with the Law-Eberly scheme [ Law and Eberly Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1055 (1996)]. The second method replaces some of the analytical pulse sequences with more rapid numerically optimized sequences. In our third approach, we directly optimize the evolution of the system, without making use of any analytic techniques. While limited to smaller dimensional qudits, the third approach finds pulse sequences which carry out the desired gates in a time which is much shorter than either of the other two approaches.

Mischuck, Brian; MØlmer, Klaus

2013-01-01

476

Adiabatic Quantum Computation using One dimensional Projector Hamiltonian

The adiabatic quantum computation is based upon the adiabatic evolution of quantum systems. It starts with the ground state of an initial Hamiltonian and evolves it slowly to the ground state of a final Hamiltonian. The initial Hamiltonian is chosen such that its ground state is easy to prepare while the final Hamiltonian is chosen such that its ground state encodes the solution of a computational problem. Here, we analyse a particular class of adiabatic evolutions where either the initial or final Hamiltonian (or both) is a one-dimensional projector Hamiltonian on the corresponding ground state. We show that such evolutions exhibit a rapid crossover as the ground state changes abruptly near the transition point, where the energy gap is minimum. The minimum energy gap, which governs the time required for a successful evolution, is shown to be proportional to the overlap of the ground states of the initial and final Hamiltonians. These results generalise and quantify earlier works.

Tulsi, Avatar

2008-01-01

477

Computational approach to quantum encoder design for purity optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we address the problem of designing a quantum encoder that maximizes the minimum output purity of a given decohering channel, where the minimum is taken over all possible pure inputs. This problem is cast as a max-min optimization problem with a rank constraint on an appropriately defined matrix variable. The problem is computationally very hard because it is nonconvex with respect to both the objective function (output purity) and the rank constraint. Despite this difficulty, we provide a tractable computational algorithm that produces the exact optimal solution for codespace of dimension 2. Moreover, this algorithm is easily extended to cover the general class of codespaces, in which case the solution is suboptimal in the sense that the suboptimized output purity serves as a lower bound of the exact optimal purity. The algorithm consists of a sequence of semidefinite programmings and can be performed easily. Two typical quantum error channels are investigated to illustrate the effectiveness of our method

478

Silicon-based spin and charge quantum computation

Silicon-based quantum-computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing Si technology infrastructure. Electronic and nuclear spins of shallow donors (e.g. phosphorus) in Si are ideal candidates for qubits in such proposals due to the relatively long spin coherence times. For these spin qubits, donor electron charge manipulation by external gates is a key ingredient for control and read-out of single-qubit operations, while shallow donor exchange gates are frequently invoked to perform two-qubit operations. More recently, charge qubit